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This paper was made in order to fulfill the task of Indonesian. The author
chose the title of this paper is because obesity has become a serious problem in
Indonesia and not the least of dying from obesity.
Obesity is a physiological state in which the excess fat stored in the body's
tissues. A person is said to be obese when body weight exceeds 20% of ideal body
weight. Obesity is defined as an excess of body fat. Obesity is caused by an
imbalance between consumption and energy needs, where energy is too much
compared to the requirement or energy consumption.
In the process of this paper we have difficulties or constraints to obtain data.
The authors thank the Almighty God for His mercy and grace, and on the
parties who have helped so that I can finish with a good preparation of this paper.
In preparing this paper, the authors hope that this paper can be useful for
writers and readers. Not forgetting the authors expect criticism and suggestions
from readers.

Malang, November 2010

Drafting team


1.1 Background

Obesity is a physiological state in which the excess fat stored in the body's
tissues. A person is said to be obese when body weight exceeds 10% of ideal body
weight. Obesity is a problem since time immemorial. This situation is one of the
metabolic abnormalities of the longest recorded in a history as seen on a clay
statue dating back to approximately 22,000 BC. The statue depicts a middle-aged
obese women. Obesity then still always recorded throughout history, from the
days of ancient Egypt and Greece, even even today remains a problem, especially
in terms of treatment.

Obesity cause various effects, in terms of both psychosocial and medical

problems. People who are obese have much difficulty in performing daily
physical activity and obese people who took out the daily fee for clothes and food
are bigger and can also have problems in the relationship of husband and wife and
a small child often found the issue of self-identification. From the medical angle
more often for pain sufferers. Patients obesitaspun a life expectancy lower than
the normal weight population. Data New York Metropolitan Life Insurance shows
that in the age group 40-69 years were obese was found the death rate 42% higher
than the average in males and 36% greater than the average woman. For the obese
individuals themselves can also occur inferiority,

1.2 Formulation of the problem

The formulation of the problem in our daily papers are:
1. What are the factors that lead to obesity someone?
2. What is the danger arising from obesity?
3. What solutions of obesity?

1.3 Writing purpose

This paper aims to:

1. Knowing the causes and factors of obesity.
2. Knowing the danger, caused by obesity.
3. Knowing the solution so as not to be obese.

1.4 Benefits of Writing Results

The results of this study would be useful to the reader so that the reader can
find out about the causes and factors that lead to obesity. Besides this paper also
describes the danger posed by obesity on one's health. And provide solutions that
obesity can be tackled.


Kata obesitas berasal dari bahasa latin yang berarti makan berlebihan.
Obesitas adalah kelebihan berat badan sebagai akibat dari penimbunan lemak
tubuh yang berlebihan. Seseorang yang memiliki berat badan 20% lebih tinggi

dari nilai tengah kisaran berat badannya yang normal dianggap mengalami
obesitas. Obesitas digolongkan menjadi 3 kelompok:

 Obesitas ringan : kelebihan berat badan 20-40%

 Obesitas sedang : kelebihan berat badan 41-100%
 Obesitas berat : kelebihan berat badan >100% (Obesitas berat ditemukan
sebanyak 5% dari antara orang-orang yang gemuk).

Obesitas (kegemukan) adalah suatu keadaan dimana terjadi penumpukan

lemak tubuh yang berlebih, sehingga berat badan seseorang jauh di atas normal
dan dapat membahayakan kesehatan. Definisi obesitas menurut para dokter adalah
suatu kondisi dimana lemak tubuh berada dalam jumlah yang berlebihan dan
suatu kondisi yang berhubungan dengan penyakit-penyakit lain serta dapat
menurunkan kualitas hidup. Obesitas terjadi karena ketidakseimbangan antara
energi yang masuk dengan energi yang keluar.

Obesity is defined as an excess of body fat. Obesity is caused by an

imbalance between consumption and energy needs, where energy is too much
compared to the requirement or energy consumption. Excess energy in the body is
stored in the form of fat tissue in normal circumstances, the fat tissue stockpiled
some certain places, such as in the subcutaneous tissue and tissue in the intestine
curtain (omentum).


3.1 Causes of Obesity

Overweight and obesity occur due to many factors. The main factor is an
imbalance of energy intake with energy output. High energy intake if excessive
food intake, while the energy output so low when the body's metabolism and
lower levels of physical activity. Progress in science, technology and economy has
created an environment with lifestyle tends to sedentary or sedentary and eating
the yummy food is high in calories and fat. Excess intake of energy saved in fat
tissue. There are several aspects that influence the occurrence of overweight
(obesity) against somebody, namely:

1. Nutritional aspects

Ditinjau dari segi seseorang yang menderita obesitas mengalami kelebihan energi,
zat gizi yang diperlukan oleh tubuh sudah terpengaruh seperti karbohidrat, protein
dan lemak. Kelebihan energi didalam tubuh diatas menjadi lemak dan ditimbun
pada tempat-tempat tertentu. Jaringan lemak ini merupakan jaringan yang relatif

2. Aspek Ekonomi

Obesitas tidak hanya terjadi akibat kelebihan karbohidrat tetapi juga lemak. Akhir-
akhir ini banyak makanan siap saji (fast food). Makanan siap saji itu relatif mahal
dan kebanyakan yang mengkonsumsi adalah masyarakat golongan ekonomi

3. Aspek Sosial dan Budaya

In the Indonesian people have different food patterns with the west. Where our
society were more likely to consume foods that contain lots of carbohydrates and
fats. Other habits linger from Indonesian society is the habit of snacking, it is not
ugly, but it will affect their weight.

4. genetic

Obesity tends lowered, so it is thought to have a genetic cause. But family
members share not only genes but also diet and lifestyle habits, which can
promote obesity. Often it is difficult to separate the lifestyle factors with genetic
factors. Recent research shows that the average genetic factors influence 33% of a
person's weight. If the parents are obese are likely descendants are also obese.

Besides diet can also trigger obesity. There are two diet abnormalis eating
in a number of very much (binge) and eat at night (syndrome eating at night).
Both diets are usually triggered by stress and disappointment. Binge similar to
bulimia nervosa, in which a person eats in a number of very much, the difference
in binge this is not followed by regurgitating what has been eaten. As a result of
calories consumed very much. On the night eating syndrome, is the reduction of
appetite in the morning and followed by overeating, agitation and insomnia at

3.2 Impact of Obesity

The influence of obesity on the body, can be several complications of

common diseases, such as high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol
(dyslipidemia), diabetes (diabetes mellitus). Bad fats contained in every human
being, will have a tendency to settle in the blood vessels. This causes the blood
vessels become narrowed so will result in the narrowing of blood pressure greater
than normal. If this continues over time, it will lead to hypertension. Furthermore,
high blood pressure can damage blood vessels so that in case of the blood vessels
(especially the small and fragile), will result in rupture of blood vessels. When
going on in the brain, will lead to stroke and when the heart will cause a
myocardial infarction (heart does not get a blood supply), as well as in other
organs. Moreover, if the fat deposition occurs (called a thrombus) and there is
strong pressure from the blood vessels, it can cause erosion of deposition and drift
(embolus) that will clog the blood vessels are smaller. This raises their coronary
heart disease.

The relationship between obesity and psychopathological symptoms of an
unbroken circle. A person who is obese will easily feel left out or offended. It
would be worse if he fails in the association. A person who is obese is likely to be
dubbed as hard to get along and irritability. People who are obese will assess some
of his friends as ridicule. Research Pesa, et al in Germany (2000) in 47 obese
adolescents showed that psychological problems are very common. The most
common problems found psychopathology is anxious, ganggguan eating, and
somatoform. Depression in obesity can arise due to inner conflict between the
desire to obtain the ideal body shape and reality. Depression occurs as a result of
body image disturbance.

Dampak ekonomi yang ditimbulkan oleh obesitas juga sangat

berpengaruh. Beban ekonomi yang muncul akibat obesitas merupakan
penjumlahan biaya langsung (direct cost), biaya tidak langsung (indirect cost), dan
biaya akibat hilangnya kesempatan (oppourtunity cost). Penelitian di Amerika
Serikat menunjukkan bahwa ada 39,3 hari kerja yang hilang pertahunnya akibat
penyakit terkait dengan kegemukan. Sebanyak 16% dari perusahaan di Amerika
Serikat menolak untuk mempekerjakan orang dengan obesitas. Di Indonesia, total
pembiayaan langsung untuk penyakit obesitas adalah 278 miliar rupiah atau
sebesar 2% dari total pengeluaran kesehatan nasional.

3.3 Solusi Obesitas

Obesity treatment aims to lose weight or maintain a normal weight.

Generally, the target weight loss is recommended in the first stage is 10 percent of
your body weight within six months. The recommended weight loss of 0.5 kg -1
every week. In general the treatment of obesity can be done through:

1. A special diet is a low calorie diet, where there are the foods that are rich
in fiber and low in fat, where the fiber-rich foods will cause gastric
emptlyng high (durable in the stomach), bind fat or cholesterol, transit
time (residence time in the intestine) Low and resulted in a long satiety.

The recommended dietary therapy is a low-calorie diet. The amount of
energy supplied 500-1,000 fewer calories than the average energy intake
per day. The decline in energy intake of 500-1000 calories per day will
reduce the weight of 0.5-1 kg per week.
2. Latihan fisik, dimana sangat efektif untuk menurunkan berat badan,
apabila didampingi dengan pembatasan masukan kalori. Latihan fisik pada
penderita obesitas harus dilakukan bersama dengan diet rendah kalori
untuk meningkatkan pembakaran lemak. Latihan fisik sangat membantu
mempertahankan berat badan agar tidak mudah naik kembali. Yang
dianjurkan adalah olahraga dengan intensitas sedang selama minimal 30
menit dengan frekuensi 3-5 kali per minggu. Sebaiknya juga
memperbanyak aktivitas fisik seperti jalan, membersihkan rumah, serta
mengurangi pola hidup sedentary seperti menonton televisi dan bermain
video games.

3. Changes in family behavior is the most important component in the effort

to penanggulanagan obesity. Families should have the courage to choose a
lifestyle and determine what kind of healthy food. One healthy lifestyle is
the determination to lose weight up to the ideal weight to further maintain
in order to provide optimal quality of life for those who are overweight.
For those of normal weight is to keep from being overweight.
4. Pharmacotherapy is coping with drugs. This is done if the waistline rises
and various diseases. The use of pharmacotherapy should not be done if
the weight is still ideal. Meanwhile, the operation is performed by
shrinking stomach is usually the last alternative if there is no way out
5. Recognizing also the body's metabolism is very necessary in an effort to
overcome obesity. Everyone's body metabolism is not the same. There are
people whose metabolism is high, but there is also low. A person with a
high metabolism may feel relieved to still be protected from obesity even
though he consumes more food than the portion. In contrast, those with
low metabolism should be more careful in choosing the food, because the
body requires little energy to carry out daily activities.


4.1 Conclusions

Obesity is defined as an excess of fat in the body, so the weight is far

above normal person and can be harmful to health. Obesity is caused by an
imbalance between consumption and energy needs. Factors that influence obesity
is a nutritional factors, economic, genetic, social, cultural, and diet. Obesity also
cause a variety of diseases, psychopathological symptoms and the economic
impact. Obesity can be overcome by means of a low-calorie diet, exercise,
pharmacotherapy, lifestyle changes and the introduction of the body's metabolism.


This paper



Budiyanto.MAK. 2002. Nutrition and Kesehatan.UMM Press: Malang.

Budiyanto. MAK. 2002. The basis - the basis of Nutritional Sciences. UMM
Press: Malang.