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De Castro, Hans Gabriel H.

STEM 12 – 1
Francisco, Jalen Robert H. HRE 121
Magalong, Maria Angeline Y.
Primero, Karisma M.
Torres, John Rhomel A.

A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness between Polyethylene

Waste and Pulverized Oyster Shells as Additive in Cement

Background of the Research

1. Present the field you will be researching.

Cement making generally falls under several fields of engineering. According

to the Middle East Technical University’s Cement Engineering, manufacturing of
cement is an interdisciplinary activity that does not only encompass the fields of
chemical and mechanical engineering, but also to mining, geological, electrical,
industrial, environmental, and civil engineering.

2. Tell us why this field is important.

The numerous fields that encompass cement manufacturing have different

significances that contribute to the advancement of science and technology, but
most importantly, it has built a strong foundation of what comprises the places that
we live upon today. Continuously, these foundations are being strengthened through
more breakthroughs showcased by researchers with conducting their researches.

Without civil engineering, the world will lack the skills and experiences in
planning, utilizing, and constructing different materials and equipments that improves
the environment and provide efficient facilities, industries, transportation,
infrastructures, and more.

Meanwhile, chemical engineering also presents contributions to cement

making, where products are made by designing and troubleshooting processes that
can turn raw materials into chemical production. In this study, this field is important
as knowing and applying the knowledge of what the cement, polyethylene waste,
and oyster shells compose of.
3. Describe the current (and relevant) hot topics in the field.

One of the most relevant topics related to our study is the production of fiber
reinforced concrete (FBC), a concrete containing fibrous material which increases its
structural integrity. FBCs are being developed through the years due to its amazing
performance as compared to ordinary concrete, where it possesses an excellent
flexural, tensile, and compressive strength, resistance to splitting, impact resistance,
permeability, and frost resistance.

Another topic is about the Behavior of Composite Beams of Steel-Reinforced

Recycled Concrete, where recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is investigated
through several characteristics namely structural behavior, durability, fire resistance,
and seismic performance. The results of the study showed that RAC composite
members with different replacement ratios of recycled coarse aggregate have
slightly lower or similar structural behavior compared to that of normal concrete
composite members.

4. Describe the specific area you will be researching in the field.

The researchers are conducting a comparative study between two variables

with shared commonalities and identifying which one is more effective than the
other. These variables are sharing one characteristic – they are being incorporated
into cement. Thus, the specific area of the study is about cement engineering, which
revolves around the production of cement, one of the most important constructional
materials that serve as a binding agent in building larger units of structures.

5. How your research will add to the field.

As years pass by, different alternatives and additives are found to be

integrated into cement – fibers from coconut, seashell waste, non-biodegradable
plastics, name it. As a result, engineers today aren’t able to identify which materials
would be the most cost-efficient and presents the best performance. With the help of
our study, a better additive component will be identified between the cement with
polyethylene waste and pulverized oyster shell by assessing its mechanical
properties. Additionally, the most appropriate ratio of the material to cement will be
determined to make the work more manageable.

6. Describe your research as answers to research questions you have been assigned
to research.

This study will assess the effectiveness between polyethylene waste and
pulverized oyster shell as an additive component in cement by obtaining the said
variables through integrating the additives into the cement with different ratios and
assessing the performance of each specimen through five mechanical properties:
density, workability, compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength.

7. Explain what you will do in your research to test your hypothesis or demonstrate
your model.

The research entitled “A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness between

Polyethylene Waste and Pulverized Oyster Shell as Additive in Cement” mainly aims
to identify if there is a significant difference on the effectiveness between the two
variables and which will yield a higher data with the same ratios when used as a
structural material added to cement. To be able to determine this difference, the two
additive components will be crushed into small particles of the same size and added
into ordinary Portland cement of different amounts depending on the set ratio by the
researchers. Then, a series of tests will be conducted to each specimen to assess
their characteristics as a structural material. The values that will be obtained from
the tests will present the researchers on what variable is more effective than the
other, which additive component is better to be integrated into cement following the
objectives of the study, and which ratio of additive component to cement is the most
appropriate and effective to utilize.

8. Summarize the current research based on your specific area or highlight any gaps.

Polyethylene waste and pulverized oyster shells will be assessed based on

their effectiveness as an additive in cement. The aggregate with a better
replacement level and higher data with respect to the same ratios of additive to
cement will also be determined. According to Ishaiba (2018), more types and sizes
of recycled plastics are needed to be further studied same as the effects of other
polyethylene (PET) percentage on the mechanical properties of concrete. Therefore,
the researchers aim to create a more in-depth research regarding the field of cement
engineering which is highly relevant to the field of science and technology. Through
this study, the gaps of other previous researches can be filled with more concrete
answers as it is based from our research.