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Vietnam National University – HCMC

International University

Lecturer: Assoc. Prof. Tran Van Minh

Student: Le The Kha Hoa Student’s ID: BTBTIU16039

HCM city, March 20, 2018

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Table of Contents
I. Introduction ................................................................................................... 3
1. Introduce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) .................................... 3
2. Introduce effect of salinity on rice plant in Vietnam ..................................... 4
II. Contents ......................................................................................................... 6
1. Nomal phenotype of rice.............................................................................. 6
1.1. Morphological characteristics of rice plant ....................................................... 6
1.2. Genome characteristics of rice plant ................................................................. 9
2. Genome characteristics of halophytes rice plants........................................... 10
2.1. Roles of Polyamines in Salinity Tolerance ....................................................... 12
2.2. Transcriptional Regulation and Gene Expression of Salinity Tolerance......... 12
2.3. Hormone Regulation of Salinity Tolerance ...................................................... 13
3. Morphological characteristics of halophytes rice plants ................................. 13
3.1. Shoot ................................................................................................................. 14
3.2. Leaf ................................................................................................................... 15
3.3. Root ................................................................................................................... 16
III. Summary ............................................................................................................... 18
Reference ........................................................................................................................ 19

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I. Introduction
1. Introduce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
- Plants with favourable characteristics have been produced for thousands of
years by conventional breeding methods. Desirable traits are selected, combined and
propagated by repeated sexual crossings over numerous generations. This is a long
process, taking up to 15 years to produce new varieties.1 Genetic engineering not only
allows this process to be dramatically accelerated in a highly targeted manner by
introducing a small number of genes, it can also overcome the barrier of sexual
incompatibility between plant species and vastly increase the size of the available
gene pool
- Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) refer to plants and animals with an
altered genetic make-up that's been "edited" in the laboratory in order to incorporate
genes from another organism.
- Transgenic (GM) plants are those that have been genetically modified using
recombinant DNA technology. This may be to express a gene that is not native to the
plant or to modify endogenous genes. The protein encoded by the gene will confer a
particular trait or characteristic to that plant. The technology can be utilized in a
number of ways, for example to engineer resistance to abiotic stresses, such as
drought, extreme temperature or salinity, and biotic stresses, such as insects and
pathogens, that would normally prove detrimental to plant growth or survival. Some
benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture are increased crop yields, reduced costs
for food or drug production, reduced need for pesticides, enhanced nutrient
composition and food quality, resistance to pests and disease, greater food security,
and medical benefits to the world's growing population. Advances have also been
made in developing crops that mature faster and tolerate aluminum, boron, salt,
drought, frost, and other environmental stressors, allowing plants to grow in conditions
where they might not otherwise flourish New-generation GM crops are now also being
developed for the production of recombinant medicines and industrial products, such
as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, plastics and biofuels.
- Examples:
Figure
1: GM
tomato

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Figure 2: GM corn

2. Introduce effect of salinity on rice plant in Vietnam


- Rice production in Vietnam in the Mekong and Red River deltas is important to
the food supply in the country and national economy. Vietnam is one of world's richest
agricultural regions and is the second-largest (after Thailand) exporter worldwide and
the world's seventh-largest consumer of rice. The Mekong Delta is the heart of the rice
producing region of the country where water, boats, houses and markets coexist to
produce a generous harvest of rice. Vietnam's land area of 33 million ha has three
ecosystems that dictate rice culture. These are the southern delta (with its Mekong
Delta dominating rice coverage), the northern delta (the tropical monsoon area with
cold winters) and the highlands of the north (with upland rice varieties). The most
prominent irrigated rice system is the Mekong Delta. Rice is a staple of the national
diet and is seen as a "gift from God". The Mekong River and its tributaries are crucial
to rice production in Vietnam. A total of 12 provinces constitute the Mekong Delta,
popularly known as the "Rice Bowl" of Vietnam, which contain some 17 million people
and 80% of them are engaged in rice cultivation. The delta produced bountiful harvest
of about 20 million tons in 2008, about a half of the country's total production. The rice
bowl has assured food security to its population whose 75% of daily calories are met
by rice, which is also the staple diet of nearly 50% of world's population of 7.4-billion
people.
- Vietnam has been identified as one of the countries most affected by climate
change and, as a consequence, rice production is particularly vulnerable (IPCC,
2014). Although the alluvial soil in the Red River Delta and Mekong Delta can
contribute to high rice yields, the frequent occurrence of floods, salinity and drought
continues to threaten rice production in these regions (MONRE, 2009). As a
consequence, smallholder rice farmers in Vietnam face considerable risk, and require
cropping systems that are more resilient to the negative impacts of drought and
salinity.

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Figure 3: Salinity modeling for the Mekong delta in Vietnam
- Salinity intrusion is associated with low water discharge from upstream of the
Mekong River. This is caused by the below average rainfall in the Mekong basin due
to the El Niño. With insufficient upstream water flow to push back seawater, salinity
intrusion increased in concentration and duration this year. It was also aggravated by
the drought and high temperature in the region
- Normally, the salinity level in the Mekong river system will start to rise by the
end of December, reach its peak in March or April and decline afterwards. However
this year, salinity increase peaked two months earlier, intruded further inland and
remained longer during the dry season.
- In February 2016, the salinity intrusion reached beyond the dykes for the first
time. Despite warnings, both local officials and farmers underestimated the risks. This
is because the profit to be obtained encouraged farmers to keep planting even in high
risk areas with increased threats of drought and salinity-related problems.
- Vast tracks of land planted with rice were affected by salinity intrusion and
drought at the reproductive stage. Yields were reduced by 50-100%, or total loss.
- Many of the farmers noted that they have seen a decrease in rice yield and in the
size of coconuts due to saline intrusion. Rice production is not possible during the
period of saltwater intrusion. Since saltwater has started to intrude earlier than before,
one consequence of saline intrusion is that many farmers have had to change their
rice crops from longterm rice to mid-term and short-term rice crops. By changing the
length of the rice growth the farmers are able to harvest before the saltwater period
starts. If saltwater intrudes earlier than expected, the risk of yield losses is high.

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Figure 4: Causal diagram of serious damages of affected rice areas by salinity related problems in the
2011 dry season in Tra Vinh province (Nguyen Thanh Binh, 2015)

II. Contents
1. Nomal phenotype of rice
1.1. Morphological characteristics of rice plant
- Root system:
Rice is a monocarpic annual plant, growing to 1–1.8
m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety
and soil fertility. The plant has a fibrous root
system. Finely-branched adventitious roots arise
from the lower nodes of the stem (culm). The size
and length of the roots vary. Drained conditions are
best for good root development. Maximum root
development is reached at the peak of the tillering
stage, then begins to decrease, and toward the
fruiting stage, almost ceases.

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- Stem:

The culm is the jointed rice stem that develops


from the plumule (primary bud of the seed
embryo) and is composed of solid centers and
hollow internodes. Culm height varies according
to management practices and varieties. The
length of the growing season determines how
many nodes the culm will develop (usually 13-16).
Usually the top internode is the longest and bears
the head.

- Leaves:

The mature leaf has four main parts: the sheath,


blade, ligule, and auricles. The leaf varies in
length, form, and tightness, and covers the stem.
These mature leaves are flat and vary in length
and width according to variety and production
practices. The collar is the junction of sheath and
blade. The swollen zone at the sheath base
where it joins the culm is the pulvinus.
Just before or at about the same time the
reproductive stage begins, jointing may begin. At
this time, the stem elongates, and nodes,
internodes, and panicles develop and are
differentiated.

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- Flowers:
The flower includes all the components
and parts enclosed by the lemma and
palea (hulls). Flowering starts the first day
the panicle emerges (usually 25-33 days
from inter-node elongation). Flowering
begins at the tip of the panicle and moves
progressively downward to the panicle
base. Depending on weather and variety,
flowering normally lasts from 6 to 10 days.
Flowering usually occurs from mid-
morning to shortly after noon. Rice is
normally self-pollinated, with pollen being
shed just before or at the time flowers
open. Flowering is delayed or stopped
during cloudy, rainy, or cool weather.
The period from first heading when 10 to
20 percent of the panicles have emerged
from the boot until maturity is usually 30 to
40 days.

- Panicle:

Panicle formation starts when all nodes


have been formed and internodes
begin to elongate. Usually panicles
form 3 to 4 weeks before they are
noticeable in the field. It takes about 25
to 33 days from internode elongation
until the panicle emerges from the
plant. The panicle is fairly dense and
drooping in most varieties.

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1.2. Genome characteristics of rice plant

- The rice genome was one of the few truly multinational plant genome projects,
one with flags planted in chromosomes (Eckardt 2000)—Japan, chromosomes 1, 6, 7
& 8; US, chromosomes 3 & 10; China, chromosome 4; France, chromosome 12;
Taiwan, chromosome 5; etc.—like early explorers claiming new territories. Arabidopsis
had been sequenced and published in 2000 (Arabidopsis Genome I 2000) and rice,
nearly four times the size, was next. These were heady days for plant genome
researchers, a discipline still in its infancy. Researchers jockeyed to be part of the
project and, like every good collaborative project, multitudinous meetings were held to
plan, to execute and, finally, to celebrate the rice genome project. These meetings
were often tense—deciding how chromosomes were distributed, discussing progress,
or lack thereof—and the omnipresent funding agency representatives hovered about
ensuring that their agencies funds were well spent, the most diminutive of whom could
elicit fear in the most seasoned genome researcher.
- Rice was one of the last clone-by-clone, Sanger-sequenced genomes. That is,
BAC/PAC clones were sequentially selected for sequencing, independently
assembled and then stitched together to form pseudo-chromosomes. One impact that
the rice genome had, even in the midst of sequencing, was the first completely
sequenced, complex eukaryotic centromere on chromosome 8 (Nagaki et al. 2004),
which are usually gaps in genome sequences as they are highly repetitive regions of
the genome. This was possible due to its diminutive size, ~64 kbp of satellite repeats,
even compared to even Arabidopsis centromeres. Thus, rice has been a model for
studies of centromere structure and function. This was possible due to cytogenetic
analysis of rice showing the diminutive centromere 8. Interestingly, if the US had
heeded cytogenetic descriptions they may not have chosen chromosome 9 as a
sequencing target as one arm is highly heterochromatic, full of repetitive DNA
sequences, which complicated physical mapping and sequencing of that chromosome
arm.
- Sequencing of the rice genome is a monumental task. To date, ∼3.5% of
the genome has been completed (15 of 430 Mb) and another 3 to 5% is in production.
Nonetheless, the data that have been released have already provided valuable
information on genome structure and organization (see, e.g., Mao et al., 2000), much
of which will apply to other cereal crops and to monocots in general. A major part of
the nuclear genomes of most plants, and indeed many eukaryotes, is composed of
repetitive DNA elements. Repetitive DNA is estimated to constitute at least 50% of the
rice genome and as much as 70% of the maize genome (Nagano et al., 1999).
Complete sequencing of the rice genome will provide valuable information on the
effect of repetitive elements on genome organization and evolution in plants. The
IRGSP also constitutes a proving ground for sequencing and finishing methods for
complex genomes, which will provide excellent resources for other eukaryotic genome
sequencing projects in the future.

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Figure 5: A rapid identification of plant QTL by whole genome resequencing of DNAs from two
populations each composed of 20-50 individuals showing extreme opposite trait values for a
given phenotype in a segregating progeny.

2. Genome characteristics of halophytes rice plants


- Plants can be primarily divided into two groups based on the effect of salt on
plant growth: Crop species sensitive to soil salinity are known as glycophytes,
whereas plants grown in water of high salinity or which can generally tolerate high salt
concentrations are known as halophytes (Tuteja et al., 2011). Plants can respond to
various stress as individual cells and synergistically as a whole organism. Growth
reduced by salinity can be distinguished by measuring effects immediately upon
addition of salt or after several days to weeks (Roy et al., 2014). Salinity
affects stomatal closure which in turn causes increase in leaf temperature and
inhibition of shoot elongation (Rajendran et al., 2009; Sirault et al., 2009), and these
effects are clearly independent of the accumulation of salts in the shoot. This was
termed as ‘osmotic phase’ by Munns and Tester (2008), and as a ‘shoot salt
accumulation independent effect’ by Roy et al (2014). In response to extended salinity
phase, we can observe the inhibition of growth over a period of time and premature
senescence of those older leaves, which was termed as the ‘ionic phase’ by Munns
and Tester (2008). Genotypic differences in the growth of upland rice under stress
have been linked with the osmotic adjustment. Maintenance of whole plant and shoot
water status, as well as mechanisms like Na+ exclusion or maintenance of potassium
in developing tissues and rapidly growing leaves, contribute to salt tolerance in rice
varieties (Yeo et al., 1990).

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- Rice plants generally tolerate salt by mainly two mechanisms, ion exclusion and
osmotic tolerance (Munns and Tester, 2008). These mechanisms can also be further
classified into ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance (Roy et al., 2014).
Ion exclusion mainly involves Na+ and Cl– transport processes in roots, which prevent
the excess accumulation of Na+ and Cl– in leaves. Ion exclusion includes retrieval of
Na+ from the xylem, and efflux of ions back to the soil. Osmotic tolerance is regulated
by long distance signals that reduce shoot growth and is triggered before shoot
Na+accumulation. Osmotic tolerance involves the plant's ability to tolerate the drought
aspect of salinity stress and to maintain leaf expansion and stomatal
conductance(Rajendran et al., 2009). Tissue tolerance involves sequestration of
Na+ in the vacuole, synthesis of compatible solutes and production of enzymes
catalyzing detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Behind picture gives the outline of
possible mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance. Some of the important
class of genes are OsSOS1, OsNHX1 (Na+/H+ antiporters) (Kumar et al., 2013; Amin
et al., 2016), OsHKT2;1 (Na+/K+ symporter) (Mishra et al.,
2016), OsCAX1 (H+/Ca+antiporter) (Kumar et al., 2013), OsAKT1 (K+ inward- rectifying
channel) (Yang et al., 2014), OsKCO1 (K+ outward-rectifying channel) (Kumar et al.,
2013), OsTPC1 (Ca2+permeable channel) (Kurusu et al., 2012), OsCLC1 (Cl– channel)
(Diedhiou and Golldack, 2006) and OsNRT1;2 (nitrate transporter) (Wang et al.,
2012). The salt tolerance and avoidance mechanisms can be divided into following
categories.
Figure 6:
Rice salt
tolerance
mechanis
m-
overview
of
important
genes
involved
at root,
shoot and
leaf levels.

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2.1. Roles of Polyamines in Salinity Tolerance

- Polyamines (PA) are small, low molecular weight, ubiquitous, polycationic


aliphatic molecules widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Polyamines play
a variety of roles in normal growth and development such as regulation of cell
proliferation, somatic embryogenesis, differentiation and morphogenesis, dormancy
breaking of tubers and seed germination, development of flowers and fruit, and
senescence. It also plays a crucial role in abiotic stress tolerance including salinity and
increases in the level of polyamines are correlated with stress tolerance in plants
- All the genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis pathways have been identified
from different plant species including Arabidopsis. Polyamine biosynthesis pathway
in Arabidopsis involves six major enzymes: ADC encoding genes (ADC1and ADC2);
SPDS (SPDS1 and SPDS2) and SAMDC (SAMDC1, SAMDC2, SAMDC3, SAMDC4).
On the contrary, SPM synthase, thermospermine synthase, agmatine iminohydrolase
and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase are represented by single genes only
- They observed that increased salt tolerance by exogenous SPD would contribute
to higher expressions of proteins involved in the SAMs metabolism, protein
biosynthesis, and defense mechanisms on antioxidant and detoxification. Li et al.
[138] also argued that the regulation of Calvin cycle, protein folding assembly, and the
inhibition of protein proteolysis by SPD might play important roles in salt tolerance.

2.2. Transcriptional Regulation and Gene Expression of Salinity Tolerance

- Regulation of gene expression in salinity stress includes a wide array of


mechanisms that are used by plants to upregulate or downregulate (increase or
decrease) the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA). Various
mechanisms of gene regulation have been identified during the central dogma, from
transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the posttranslational modification
of a protein.
- Transcription factors are considered as most important regulators that control
gene expressions. Among them, bZIP, WRKY, AP2, NAC, C2H2 zinc finger gene, and
DREB families comprise a large number of stress-responsive members. These
transcription factor genes are capable of controlling the expression of a broad range of
target genes by binding to the specific cis-acting element in the promoters of these
genes. Johnson et al. observed that the expression of bZIP genes were upregulated in
salt-sensitive wheat cultivar, when exposed to long-term salinity, but decreased in salt-
tolerant variety. Overexpression of a NAC transcription factor in both rice and wheat
confers salt tolerance, thereby predicting their role in stress mitigation. In rice
transcriptional regulators that have been demonstrated to play a significant role in

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abiotic stress responses involve DREB1/CBF, DREB2, and AREB/ABF. Transcriptions
factors such as OsNAC5 and ZFP179 show an upregulation under salinity stress,
which may regulate the synthesis and accumulation of proline, sugar, and LEA
proteins that in turn play an integral role in stress tolerance. In Arabidopsis, salt stress
results in the upregulation of AtWRKY8 which directly binds with the promoter
of RD29A, suggesting it to be as one of the target genes of AtWRKY8.
- In addition to protein coding genes, recently discovered microRNAs (miRNAs)
and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important players
in plant stress responses. Initial clues suggesting that small RNAs are involved in
plant stress responses stem from studies showing stress regulation of miRNAs and
endogenous siRNAs, as well as from target predictions for some miRNAs

2.3. Hormone Regulation of Salinity Tolerance


- ABA is an important phytohormone whose application to plant ameliorates the
effect of stress condition(s). It has long been recognized as a hormone which is
upregulated due to soil water deficit around the root. Salinity stress causes osmotic
stress and water deficit, increasing the production of ABA in shoots and roots. The
accumulation of ABA can mitigate the inhibitory effect of salinity on photosynthesis,
growth, and translocation of assimilates. The positive relationship between ABA
accumulation and salinity tolerance has been at least partially attributed to the
accumulation of K+, Ca2+ and compatible solutes, such as proline and sugars, in
vacuoles of roots, which counteract with the uptake of Na+ and Cl− . ABA is a vital
cellular signal that modulates the expression of a number of salt and water deficit-
responsive genes. Fukuda and Tanaka demonstrated the effects of ABA on the
expression of two genes, HVP1 and HVP10, for vacuolar H+-inorganic
pyrophosphatase, and of HvVHA-A, for the catalytic subunit (subunit A) of vacuolar
H+-ATPase in Hordeum vulgare under salinity stress. ABA treatment in wheat induced
the expression of MAPK4-like, TIP 1, and GLP 1 genes under salinity stress

3. Morphological characteristics of halophytes rice plants


Figure 7:
Schematic flow of
plant physiological
studies to link
between gene and
phenotype.

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Figure 8: On the left are listed the
cellular functions that would apply to all
cells within the plant. On the right are
the functions of specific tissues or
organs. Exclusion of at least 95%
(19/20) of salt in the soil solution is
needed as plants transpire 20 times
more water than they retain (Munns,
2005). Most of these functions are
explained in the text. Omitted for
space, and lack of recent advances, is
the limitation that Cl− can impose on
growth through its antagonistic
accumulation against the nitrogen form
NO3− (NO3− homeostasis)
(Henderson et al., 2014) and the
differential capacity and sensitivity of
different cell types and tissues to
accumulate Na+ and Cl−; for example,
NaCl accumulation within
photosynthetic cells incurs a larger cost
than accumulation in root cortical cells
(Conn & Gilliham, 2010). ROS, reactive
oxygen species; PGPR, plant growth-
promoting rhizobacteria.

We will see clearly some morphological characteristics of GM rice plants by going


through especially GM rice plant OsOTS1

3.1. Shoot

The salt tolerance of the different transgenics was compared using the salt-induced
(150 mM NaCl) growth inhibition assay of fast-growing young seedlings as a parameter
At the 10-d-old seedling stage, no significant morphological differences were observed
between the OsOTS1-OX and OsOTS-RNAi lines and control empty vector only under
unstressed conditions . However, the same lines grown in 150 m M NaCl showed
significant differences in sensitivity to salt in terms of seedling growth. In particular,
shoot growth of OsOTS-RNAi lines was significantly inhibited as measured by seedling
height (64%) and fresh weight (45%) compared to control, wild-type Nipponbare
transformed with empty vector (vector only). However, even though there was no clear
difference in shoot lengths between OsOTS1-OX and empty vector only transgenics,

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OsOTS1-OX lines had significantly greater fresh weight compared to vector-only (16%)
or OsOTS-RNAi lines (56%). These results indicate that OsOTS1 has a critical role in
ameliorating rice seedling growth inhibition in high salinity. Significantly, overexpression
of OsOTS1 confers salt tolerance by attenuating the shoot growth inhibition during salt
stress in rice.

Figure 9: Phenotypic analysis of OsOTS-RNAi and OsOTS1-overexpressing lines under salt stress. Images of
10-d-old rice seedlings of various genotype in MS medium without salt (−NaCl; A) and MS medium with 150
mM NaCl (+NaCl; B). Shoot length (C) and shoot fresh weight (D) of 10-d-old plants grown in liquid MS
medium (with or without 150 mMNaCl). Each column represents an average of three individual biological
replicates with 20 seedlings in each experiment. Error bars indicate SD. P values for differences between
empty vector only and the transgenic lines: *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA test).

3.2. Leaf:
Another clear indicator of sensitivity in high salinity conditions in rice is the
inactivation of photosynthesis, and this is correlated with the ability to retain leaf
chlorophyll. We examined the chlorophyll content of floating leaf discs of the
transgenic lines exposed for 72 h to varying concentrations of NaCl. When leaf
discs were floated separately on different concentrations of NaCl for 72 h, the
damage caused by salt stress was evident from the degree of bleaching

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observed in the leaf tissue. Chlorophyll content estimation was performed to
confirm the leaf disc assay results. Only OsOTS1-OX transgenic leaf segments
retained higher levels of chlorophyll (∼32–40%) compared to the vector-only
plants in salt. OsOTS-RNAi lines showed the greatest loss of chlorophyll content,
indicating rapid inhibition of photosynthesis.

Figure 10: Increased chlorophyll retention and up-


regulation of genes encoding antioxidants
in OsOTS1-OX rice. A, Representative images
indicate chlorophyll retention in leaf discs from
unstressed and salt (NaCl)-stressed empty
vector, OsOTS1-OX, and OsOTS-RNAi transgenic
plants. B, Quantification of chlorophyll content at
different concentrations of salt. Relative expression
of LOC_Os04g59160 (C), LOC_Os07g47990 (D),
LOC_Os03g22810 (E), and LOC_Os04g48410 (F).
Total RNA was prepared from the 10-d-old seedlings
of the vector-only and transgenic lines and then
reverse transcribed. Transcript levels were
measured by qPCR with cDNA. Actin was used as
an internal control. Data represent the mean values
of three independent biological replicates. Error bars
indicate SD. Pvalues for differences between empty
vector only and the transgenic lines: *P < 0.05 and
**P < 0.001 (two-way ANOVA test).

3.3. Root:
- We wanted to determine whether this phenotype was also reflected in the roots
of OsOTS1 transgenics. Interestingly, under salt stress, both root length and fresh weight
were significantly higher in OsOTS1-OX lines compared to controls. However, OsOTS-RNAi
lines showed the greatest decrease in both root length (58%) and root fresh weight (58%),
indicating significant seedling root growth inhibition in salt. This is in contrast to what was
observed in shoots. These data suggested that OsOTS1 had a greater role in root growth
and development during high salinity.

- To obtain further insight into the function of OsOTS1 in adult rice plants, we grew the
different transgenics in soil for 45 d without salt treatment. The robustness of the effects
of OsOTS1-OX was confirmed by the increase in root length and fresh weight of these soil-
grown rice plants. These data suggest that deSUMOylation controlled by OsOTS1 may
preferentially target the factors that affect root development in rice.

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Figure 11: OsOTS-RNAi roots
are highly sensitive to salt. Root
images of vector-only
control, OsOTS1-OX,
and OsOTS-RNAi seedlings
grown in liquid MS medium (in
absence of NaCl; A–C) or in
presence of 150 mM NaCl (D–
F). OsOTS-RNAi showed
dramatically reduced root
growth. G, Quantification of root
length and root fresh weight of
10-d-old plants in MS and MS
with 150 mM NaCl. Each column
represents an average of five
independent biological
replicates with 20 seeds in each
experiment. Error bars
indicate SD. P values for
differences between empty
vector only and the transgenic
lines: *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.001
(two-way ANOVA test).

Figure 12: Enhanced root


growth of soil grown
adult OsOTS1-OX rice plants.
A, Rice grown in sandy soil for
45 d and uprooted for root
development analysis. Root
images are representative from
five independent plants of each
genotype. Quantification of root
length (B) and root fresh weight
(C) in sandy soil-grown empty
vector, OsOTS1-OX, and RNAi
lines at 45 d. Error bars
indicate SD values for
differences between the
different transgenic lines
compared to empty vector only.
*P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.0001
(two-way ANOVA test).

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III. Summary
- Improved seed production and distribution strategies will also need to be
considered in Vietnam. Private-public partnerships may play an important
role in this area. It is also unlikely that water-saving strategies such as AWD
will be adopted without concurrent policy changes that address the timely
release of water at the commune level.
- Salinity is one of the major factors which reduces crop production
worldwide. Plant responses to salinity are highly complex and involve a
plethora of genes. Through genomics, we have been able to identify and
characterize the genes involved in salinity stress response, map out
signaling pathways and ultimately utilize this information for improving the
salinity tolerance of existing crops. The use of new tools, such as gene
pyramiding, in genetic engineering and marker assisted breeding has
tremendously enhanced our ability to generate stress tolerant crops.

- The recent developments in genomics have certainly revolutionized our


approach towards not only understanding salinity tolerance in plants but
also paved the way for faster and more efficient ways to develop salinity
tolerant crops which has been summarized in Fig. 33. The traditional
breeding methods however still find a place, especially when it comes to
breeding with exotic wild species. It should be noted that genomics as a tool
serves mainly to improve existing technologies and not replace them. The
data acquired is very extensive and has yet to be used to its full potential.
We are only at the initial stages of the genomics era for crop improvement
and the future looks promising. Of course, with new technologies, there is a
need for precaution. Regulatory measures need to be established and crops
need to be thoroughly tested before they are distributed. The main objective
is to be able to maintain a continuous increase in agricultural production
which could lead to global food security. This increase, however, should not
be at the expense of existing natural ecosystems.

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9. Documents that receive from Assoc. Prof. Tran Van Minh

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