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A look at applications, technologies,
and equipment showing how inspection
data is revolutionizing manufacturing.
For all your aero scanning...

Regardless of your industrial, commercial, civil or even

artistic needs for quality metrology, look to Exact for the
answers. Our 3D and industrial-grade CT scanning
equipment technologies are available to you on a sale,
lease or contract service basis to suit your company
requirements, data stream needs and budget.

Here’s an example…
The data scan can be compared to a CAD file in your
metrology lab or put into the point cloud for production
analysis or done inline for instant validation. Or, we can
perform the analysis for you in our labs. However you
use us, your production and quality will improve…and
we can prove it!
See all we can do for you, as we’ve done for so many
CINCINNATI 513.831.6620
others in myriad applications, nationwide.
MILWAUKEE 262.533.0800 Toll Free: 866.722.2600

An ISO 9001:2008 and AS9100 Certified Company

"If you're not part of the solution, you're part of Aerospace

Exact AD5244 the problem."


Exact Metrology brings creative solutions to all types of
scanning scenarios. Micro, macro or bulky workpieces,
one-off testing, inline scans with instant cloud data access
for part production verification, field scanning including
drone, even equipment sales, when 3D laser and CT
scanning need to be done in-house by your team.
Even then, you have access to our team of dedicated,
experienced technicians who've likely encountered your
"exact" challenge or something similar in the past.
Use our know-how to get to first article faster and with
more precision. Inline, we can help prevent wasted
material and time, when machined, cast or molded
parts aren't hitting the spec. We solve problems...
and keep them solved.
Our name says it all...EXACT Metrology!
We welcome your challenges! CALL 855-533-0800

We're heading your way, Texas! Exact opening there soon. Stay tuned!"

3 D S c a n n i n g - C T S c a n n i n g - 3 D P r i n t i n g - E q u i p m e n t S a l e s - S o f t w a r e S o l u t i o n s - Tr a i n i n g a n d F i e l d S u p p o r t

Robotic leak testing in the automotive
industry is growing with increases
expected throughout the next 5 years.

Exact Metrology experts use quality
control equipment to develop better
components for aerospace, medical,
and motor vehicle applications.

22 8 16 
For medical parts manufacturers
quality inspection, compliance to FDA
current good manufacturing practice
is critical.

HAMR-E robots could enable
inspection of complex machines

18 16
without dismantling them.

Complex castings made from
more-expensive materials in electric
vehicles will generate more demand
for non-destructive testing that can
measure interior structures.

Automated software packages
26 create an interface linking hardware
and software to improve processes
for testing critical components.

Marposs ensures quality WITH AN EXPERT 5 Questions with Dan Skulan Creating better scans
on the shop floor

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | 3

Industrial inspection:
Mike DiFranco, Group Publisher • ph: 216.393.0235
Joseph M. DiFranco, Associate Publisher • ph: 216.393.0234

Elizabeth Engler Modic, Editor • ph: 216.393.0264
more than just quality

Robert Schoenberger, Editor • ph: 216.393.0271 UALITY IS JOB 1 – Ford Motor Co.
Eric Brothers, Senior Editor Quality goes in before the • ph: 216.393.0228 name goes on – Zenith Electronics
Michelle Jacobson, Assistant Editor Quality never goes out of style – • ph: 216.393.0323
Levi Strauss & Co.
When you talk to most people about
Stephanie Antal, Art Director quality, they’re generally thinking of something subjec- • ph: 216.393.0218 tive. Quality means well made, sturdy, durable – a Elizabeth
Tiana Kropko, Graphic Designer vague feeling that one product is better than another. Editor • ph: 216.393.0295
In the manufacturing world, feelings aren’t involved.
Lori Skala, Advertising Production Coordinator • ph: 216.393.0276
Quality is a measure of how closely parts fit their
specifications. The question isn’t, “Does this feel
COORDINATOR/SUBSCRIPTIONS strong?” It’s “Does this 2.900mm component fit into
Janet Marioneaux, Market Coordinator a 2.905mm slot?” • ph: 216.393.0258
It’s a tough field, demanding high accuracy to keep
Eric Oster, Audience Development Associate manufacturers compliant with ever-tightening specifica-
tions, forcing technology providers to develop new tools
SALES/ADVERTISING and systems. The advent of Big Data/the Industrial
Rachel Dennis, Regional Sales Manager Internet of Things (IIoT)/Industry 4.0 initiatives have Schoenberger, • ph: 216.393.0326 made inspection even more critical. Editor
Gina Garred, Regional Sales Manager Instead of recording whether systems are producing rschoenberger • ph: 216.393.0337
in-spec parts, modern inspection equipment collects
Bonnie Velikonya, Classified Ad Manager • ph: 216.393.0291
the data needed to identify manufacturing problems,
spots machine failure when it’s still cost-effective to
Paul Barrett, Europe Regional Sales Manager • ph: 44.0.1268.711560 repair, and informs managers on why some plants are
Mike Hay, Hong Kong Regional Sales Manager performing better than others. • ph: ext. 11 Instead of simple go/no-go gaging, technology pro-
Sydney Lai, Taiwan Regional Sales Manager viders must now offer connectivity to various enterprise • ph: 886.4.2329.7318 resources planning (ERP) and manufacturing execution
Maggie Liu, China Regional Sales Manager system (MES) software packages. That creates chal- • ph: 86.136.0278.5446 Eric Brothers,
lenges, but it’s a huge opportunity as well. Senior Editor
CORPORATE Quality has traditionally been a cost center for
Richard Foster, Chairman manufacturers – a prerequisite for getting work,
Chris Foster, President and CEO but not something that aids productivity or profit-
Dan Mooreland, Executive Vice President
James R. Keefe, Executive Vice President ability. The digitization of manufacturing changes
Christina Warner, Audience Development that cost equation as the information generated from
Maria Miller, Director Conferences and Events
inspection equipment serves as the basis for future
Kelly Antal, Accounting Director
Jim Blayney, Creative Director improvements.
Irene Sweeney, Marketing Director To take advantage of this massive shift, the Inspec-
Michelle Wisniewski, Production Manager
Kevin Gilbride, GIE Ventures Business Manager
tion Target Guide 2019 offers a look at applications, Michelle Jacobson
technologies, and equipment reshaping manufacturing. Assistant Editor
5811 Canal Road • Valley View, OH 44125
ph: 800.456.0707 • fax: 216.525.0515 — Elizabeth, Robert, Eric, & Michelle

4 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9

 Andrew Makeev, right, professor in the
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Department and director of the University of
Texas at Arlington Advanced Materials and
Structures Lab, looks over research results
with Erian Armanios, chair of the Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering Department.

The effort will focus on developing effec-

tive tools for high-resolution, one-sided CT-
based non-destructive inspection (NDI).
Currently, composite aircraft structures
are susceptible to damage precursors such
as porosity, voids, and sustaining fiber-wav-
iness. Those discontinuities may evolve into
structural damage in the form of cracks and
delamination or composite layer splitting.
X-ray CT provides reliable micro-
resolution NDI data that allow automated
interpretation of the inspection results in-
cluding the listed flaws. However, current
micro-focus CT technology is based on
scanning 360° around the object, limiting
the technology to small cross sections, pre-
venting accommodation of large structures.
Even small objects that can be scanned

Creating better scans

in existing micro-CT facilities don’t always
allow for sufficient magnification of the
micro-structure during full scanning, and
available limited-angle reconstructions lose
University of Texas at Arlington aerospace engineer receives definition and often become erroneous
during one-sided inspections.
U.S. Army grant to advance limitations of computed tomography. “We believe that to advance compos-
Edited By Elizabeth Engler Modic ite aircraft structural certification, the

analysis must capture manufacturing
MPROVED COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY (CT) complexity and variability of flight-critical

techniques could better recognize manufacturing components and structure,” Makeev

flaws and structural damage to aerospace composites, DURABILITY, says. “Recent improvement in comput-
improving future aircraft. DAMAGE ing power and advances in X-ray CT
Andrew Makeev, professor in the University of Texas Earlier this year, reconstruction make it possible to develop
at Arlington’s (UTA) Department of Mechanical and Makeev received a high-resolution, one-sided CT inspection
Aerospace Engineering, received a $900,000 grant from separate $600,000 technology breaking through the object
the Army Research Lab to advance structural diagnostics grant from Boeing to size limits of X-ray CT. It also offers the
assess durability and
and life assessment in composite aircraft parts. long-sought automation for composite
damage tolerance of
Makeev, who also directs UTA’s Advanced Materials composite structures aircraft structures.”
and Structures Lab, will lead the project to improve recon- for composite air-
struction algorithms and software techniques to produce frame life extension. University of Texas at Arlington
breakthroughs in computed tomography (CT) scanning.

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | 5


Marposs ensures quality

on the shop floor
Metrology technology company works with aerospace, motor vehicle, medical manufacturers.


supplier of precision metrology equipment
for shop-floor inspection, measurement,
and process control solutions, which help
to improve quality and reduce costs in
Marposs can supply products ranging
from an individual gaging component
to turnkey machines or fully automated
lines to address customer needs world-
wide, supplying the metrology equipment
associated with non-destructive testing,
leak testing, and a wide variety of sensors
and machine tool controls. Automotive tubes, orthopedic joints, medical sets, and
The company makes equipment ca- For the automotive and transportation more, as well as equipment used for dialy-
pable of measuring to the thousandth of a industries, Marposs provides a full depth sis or assisted breathing.
millimeter and more. Plus, these tasks can of gaging and measurement solutions We offer several types of leak testing
be performed in a workshop environment for components that are used in engines technologies for applications such as bags
along the production line, and on any ma- (combustion and battery-powered), trans- for liquids (blood, feeding, pharma solu-
chine tool instead of in a metrology lab. missions, car body and chassis, automotive tions) and bottles. In addition to typical
Marposs serves a wide variety of indus- glass, lighting, and more. leak or flow tests, volume and resistance
tries including machine tool, automotive, Solutions can vary from standardized (burst tests) are checked with functional
aerospace, medical, and others, where the components to tailor-made systems built and destructive tests. Sealed products
company has a hand in supplying gaging to fulfill customer specifications. Standard such as single dose, are commonly tested
and testing equipment for many types of solutions encompass in-process and post- by interception, in bell or in vacuum.
applications. process applications for machine tools, In all we do, Marposs adheres to qual-
hand-held gages to check diameters and ity principles and is committed to the
Aerospace simple geometries, or gaging components continuous improvement of procedures
Marposs has many years of experience in to build gaging stations. and methods, as well as the adoption of
the design and manufacture of tooling, Our dedicated solutions include new methods most suitable for the analy-
fixtures, machine monitoring systems, benches and machines for manual, semi- sis, engineering, production, control, and
and automatic inspection machines that automatic, or fully automatic inspection assistance of all our products and services.
perform checks on specific parts used in of multiple parameters; equipment for Marposs’ expertise enables our cus-
aeronautics and space sectors. Marposs non-destructive testing based on eddy tomers to reach their goals of product
systems are used for assembly, final inspec- current technology; and equipment for quality, efficiency, flexibility, productiv-
tion, and MRO of almost every modern leak testing, such as battery components. ity, reliability, and maintainability of the
aircraft engine manufactured. Throughout manufacturing process, regardless of their
the last few decades, we have supplied Medical company size.
thousands of gaging/tools systems to cus- Within this industry, it is typical to require
tomers worldwide; the most of any gage inspection of 100% of component produc- FOR MORE INFORMATION:
manufacturer in the world. tion. Marposs has solutions for measuring

6 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9

A robotic leak-detection system
checks an automotive engine in
line at a manufacturing facility.
Automating quality checks is
possible with careful preparation.

obotic leak testing in the automotive industry

is growing with increases expected throughout
the next 5 years, thanks to increased produc-
tion throughput and inspection reliability, and
improved product quality. Only 5% of automotive
plants currently have robotic leak-detection sys-
tems, but that number will climb to 20% or more by 2024.
for automotive How companies leak test is as important as the equip-
ment used. A properly installed robotic station can make the
robotic leak testing difference between stellar product quality and an expensive
exercise in futility. To set up robotic testing that eliminates
By Thomas Parker costly human error for repetitive tests, attention to detail is

critical. Five tips could help companies avoid pitfalls.

| Meet requirements |
When leak testing, have the equipment, including a
high-flow leak detector and a robotic arm (properly
programmed with the right instructions) working at an ap-

8 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
propriate scanning speed. Determining whether |W  atch your back(ground)|
a process will be static or dynamic dictates the The most common cause of false posi-
exact equipment needed. tive test readings for leak testing is high
Static testing is suitable if you know where background concentrations of test gas. Avoid
leaks typically occur on a part or assembly, for false positives by reducing background sources:
example, at certain joints. In this case, the robot • Evacuate test parts before, after each test
arm may move at high speed before and after the • Monitor tracer-gas fill processes White paper,
measuring process but stay static during mea- to ensure correct part connection video
surement. A dynamic robotic sniffer test operating • Locate test gas supply cylinders away For more information
at an appropriate speed is best when checking a from test station, avoiding cylinder-change on the 5 tips for robotic
larger surface of a component for leaks. Dynam- mishaps that could affect the entire station leak testing, download
ic sniffing saves time when physically handling • Thoroughly inspect gas supply lines the “Robotic Leak
the part rather than during sniffing. for leaks, an obvious source of excessive Testing” white paper
With dynamic robotic sniffer leak detection, underground concentration (
the sniffer probe should move over the test piece • Prevent test-gas accumulation to ensure y56vo8ta).
as slowly as the cycle time of the production gradual, even test enclosure air exchange; It discusses differences
line will allow to provide the best test reliability, consider replacing enclosed volume with between static and
since reliability of tests increase as the probe’s fresh air once a minute dynamic sniffer leak
speed falls. More important than speed is the • Locate enclosure fresh air supply testing, why the gas
distance between the probe and the surface of away from test gas exhaust flow capacity of the
the part being inspected. Shorter test distances leak detector is impor-

produce more accurate results. |A  void forming gas tant, and which test
cross contamination | configuration is most

| Avoid crosswinds | Forming gas (95% nitrogen/5% hydro- suitable for specific
This warning applies to robotic leak test- gen) often is used as an inexpensive test gas. applications.
ing or driving a panel truck. Poorly timed Industrial environments often contain other Or, watch a video
crosswinds can make driving erratic, and simi- sources of hydrogen not always obvious to discussing leak-
larly, a draft of air during sniffer leak detection, testers – lead-acid battery charging stations detection strategies
even from a distance, can mar results. where hydrogen is a byproduct and forklift at https://youtu.
For best results, enclose the test area. Typi- truck exhaust gases. be/1T1wJ142pJg.
cally, robotic stations are enclosed in cages to
ensure worker safety, so substituting acrylic About Inficon
glass for mesh cages would protect employees Inficon develops,
and shield the test area from air movement produces, and sup-
caused by heating, ventilation, and air condi- plies instruments and
About the author: Thomas Parker is North
tioning (HVAC) systems or passing forklifts. In devices for leak detec-
American automotive sales manager for Inficon.
static testing, working with clam shells at the tion in air condition-
He can be reached at
tip of the robotic arm can protect joints being ing, refrigeration, and
tested from drafts. automotive manufac-
turing. The company

|C  alibrate carefully, has manufacturing
regularly| facilities in Europe,
Calibrate systems and check frequently China, and the United
– typically once per shift. Guide the sniffer States, as well as sales
tip to a reference leak of a defined size, which and service offices
will always cause the same leakage rate. If the throughout the world.
system fails to determine the exact reference
leakage rate, its calibration is no longer precise,
and a new calibration factor must be used. The
external calibration function of the sniffer leak
detector can automatically determine this using
the reference leak. The new calibration factor Inserting the sniffer tip of a leak tester into
usually will differ from the old one only by a its calibration outlet sets the machine’s
few percentage points. parameters and ensures accurate testing.

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | 9


10 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | | 11

etrology solutions typically

support industrial quality
control (QC), verifying
build processes and assuring
customers that manufactured

products meet specifications.
However, scanning and imaging tech-
nologies used to inspect parts can play
a major role in design and engineering.
Exact Metrology, an inspection

for design, reverse engineering

services company, discusses how various
scanning technologies – white-light
systems, laser scanners, structured-light
scanners – allow users to gather critical
Exact Metrology experts use quality control equipment to information needed for complex design
develop better components for aerospace, medical, and
motor vehicle applications. Edited by Robert Schoenberger Exact Metrology Inc.

Airfoil scan procedures 3D image of an

airfoil using complex
scan technologies.
CROSS-SECTION PORTIONS of airplane wings or turbine
blades are critical aerospace structures with stringent quality
requirements. Generating usable data from high-accuracy scans
is critical in part design and manufacturing.
Scans can occur at the manufacturer’s facility with a mobile unit
or at an Exact Metrology office. Airfoils typically require full docu-
mentation with photos, measurements, and all surface markings
or serial numbers recorded prior to high-definition scanning. notes, computer logging, and digital photos accompanying the
Setup – A thin SKD-S2 Magnaflux coating is applied to the blade’s recorded scan setup within the software.
reflective surface for the second phase of a crack-checking process Modeling – With data gathered, point cloud or data sets can
(Phase 1 dye penetration is not typically used). be worked. The first step is to triangulate or mesh points together.
A fixture and targets (placed using magnets on either side of the Algorithms intelligently remove points from the network, decimating
airfoil) constrain data during scanning. The fixture holds the airfoil overlapping or redundant data points. This mesh is further ma-
in place for hands-free part-data capture. A manual or automatic nipulated by reducing triangles and points along flatter areas and
turntable can also enhance part scanning and registration access. retaining more triangles in curved and complex areas. This poly
Scanning – The part is positioned on the rotating table or mesh can now be exported as a complete STL file or similar format.
stationary marble top and repeatedly scanned from multiple Surfacing – Fitting non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS)
perspectives. Known geometric objects are often placed nearby imaging models to the point cloud can be time-consuming. A

for quality assurance and validation. The Breuckmann Stereo 3D surface is draped over the mesh and smoothed to reflect the
scanning system uses a halogen, structured white-light projection actual part. The model is then ready for various formats, depend-
system with dual 6.6-megapixel (MP) cameras. ing on client needs and limitations of existing conversion tools.
Registration – Targeting uses an automated fitting of point A final 3D solid model can be provided as a dumb solid without
clouds, based upon three common positions on the part or scene. parametry or history tree as an imported object.
Software simplifies registration and analyzes every point with over- Parametric modeling – A parametric model has all dimen-
laps and runs a best-fit algorithm to find the best alignment. sional relationships within the CAD, allowing manipulation and fine-
Validation – Verify automated methods with targeting and tuning without altering part geometry. The adjustable Pro/Engineer
adding known geometric shapes. All scans are documented with CAD model with known geometry possesses a design history.

12 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
Automotive on Wall Street in New York, and was
delivered in November 1951. In 1953, the

car was sold to Martin Block, a radio
host, living in New Jersey, who passed
Artec LEO 3D handheld, lightweight scanner
away in 1967. The car was then driven

JOHAN KARS, inventor of a catalytic on occasion by Block’s mistress, until
abatement system for organic solvent her son locked the car in a garage in
1969, following the parking attempt
emissions, is also an accomplished
pilot and overall helpful guy: having that created a repair opportunity for
reengineered and improved the waffle Exact Metrology. A rudimentary repair
irons for his friend’s restaurant. was done to the rear fenders, but EXACT METROLOGY'S most reward-
And it’s only natural, with a name some damage remained. ing project was to help a 9-year-old
like Kars, that he’d become a collector Seeking to restore his precious Tieshawn, a boy born with spina
of classic automobiles. purchase, Kars contacted Exact bifida, a spinal cord birth defect.
After acquiring a 1951 Bentley MK VI Metrology. Technicians arrived on-site Tieshawn loves to move, typically by
H.J. Mulliner Lightweight Saloon Coupe with the portable NDI Scan System, a walking on his kneecaps, which can
(, handheld laser scanner ideal for fast, cause painful callouses. Traditional
Kars sought to restore the bumper of non-contact digitization of physical kneepads weren’t designed for Ties-
the vehicle, which had been dam- components. The scanning technician hawn’s needs and slipped off quickly.
aged in 1969 during a bad parking quickly and accurately collected 3D Cincinnati, Ohio-area based May
attempt. Only seven of these vehicles data about the Bentley’s rear end and We Help (,
were made, so bumpers for the car existing fenders. betters the lives of people with special
are scarce. NDI Scan System technicians needs by partnering with skilled
Exact Metrology non-contact oriented the ScanTRAK in 6 degrees of partners. It began working with Tie-
scanners were able to capture precise freedom (6DOF) without concerns of shawn’s family and therapists to find
data about the existing bumper and beam breakage and no mechanical a better solution. It partnered with
vehicle rear-end, allowing the Bentley’s restrictions. The system’s large mea- rapid-prototyping company Bastech
bumper to be re-manufactured to surement volume eliminates the need (, which
exact 1951 specifications. for time-consuming data capture. had created similar kneepads for spe-
The car was originally exhibited With data collected, Exact profes- lunkers (cave explorers). First, Bastech
on the H.J. Mulliner stand at the Earl’s sionals began modeling the parts needed a very accurate understand-
Court Motor Show in October 1951. at their offices. Geomagic Studio 3D ing of how Tieshawn’s knees moved
Being a MD series, it is one of the Reverse Engineering Software con- and were shaped.
first of the 4.5L versions of the car, verts 3D scan data into CAD models, Exact Metrology joined the effort,
which were introduced that year. The allowing Exact to create a 3D model using Artec 3D Scanners to measure
coachwork is a rare 2-door aluminum of the Bentley’s fender. Kars can use Tieshawn’s knees in his own bedroom
body with a hood that stretched an the model to recreate the damaged in less than 30 minutes. The Artec
extra 3", an enhancement to the clas- fender, a part out of production since scanner captures up to 2 million
sic, flowing lines. 1951, restoring the rare Bentley to its points of data a second with 3D point
These Bentleys were in high as-built form. accuracy up to 0.1mm, using a hand-
demand and went all over the held device that weighs less than 2 lb.
world. Original owners of the Popular for plastic surgery, ortho-
seven cars included: Princess pedics, post-trauma care, and dietol-
Faiza Rauf of Egypt, French ogy, the light scanners can generate
diplomat Baron Jules de Koe- 3D images of a single appendage or
nigswarter (while stationed in the entire human body.
Mexico), and automotive scion With a better understanding of
Henry Ford II (https://tinyurl. Tieshawn’s biomechanics, Bastech
com/y4ktzueu). designers customized kneepads
Kars’ vehicle was commissioned NDI Scan System ScanTRAK data of blade to provide more comfortable,
by Magnus S. Swenson, who resided systems can be compiled into 3D images. safer movement.

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | 13



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The Starrett L1 Line joins the full Starrett line of force testing solutions, setting a new
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8 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
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I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | | 9

R e p e ata b i l i t y,
r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y,
must establish and maintain procedures
for identifying parts during all stages of


For medical parts manufacturers quality inspection, receiving, production, distribution, and
compliance to FDA current good manufacturing installation.
practice is critical. Edited by Elizabeth Engler Modic Each manufacturer of a device in-
tended to be life-sustaining, life-support-

ing, or implanted into the human body
iability for defects, inconsistent With so much riding on achieving must establish and maintain procedures
quality, fluctuating supplier costs, perfection, every step of the development for traceability. This follows a part’s origin
increased globalization, and device process must be optimized for quality backward in the supply chain and for-
regulations all pose challenges for through repeatability, reproducibility, ward along the distribution chain, using
the medical device industry. The and traceability. Zeiss Industrial Quality identifying characteristics and records on
margin of error approaches zero for medi- Solutions provides medical device and each unit, lot, or batch of finished medical
cal devices being brought to market. If medical component manufacturers with devices and the appropriate components.
defects are not discovered and corrected high-performance equipment necessary
during development, patient injury or for quality assurance (QA). Gaining certainty
death can result, and disastrous legal Reporting requirements for collecting
ramifications could face the company. Concept to market quality and metrology data under FDA
This means medical manufacturers CGMP requirements govern the methods oversight are even higher for medical device
must comply with the U.S. Food and used in – and the facilities and controls manufacturers than aerospace and automo-
Drug Administration’s (FDA) current used for – the design, manufacture, tive parts manufacturers. Zeiss equipment
good manufacturing practice (CGMP) packaging, labeling, storage, installa- that can be calibrated to ISO 10360 stan-
requirements that assure proper design, tion, and servicing of all finished medical dards for coordinate measuring machines
monitoring, and control of manufacturing devices intended for human use. That (CMMs) can assist companies in comply-
processes and facilities. means manufacturers of medical parts ing with these stringent requirements.

16 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
This international standard of measurement Options to meet ISO requirements
verification specifies acceptance tests for the per- As production capacity grows and efficiencies
formance of a CMM used for measuring linear increase, manufacturers must adhere to product
dimensions as stated by the manufacturer. compliance standards with proof, such as Zeiss me-
Zeiss chooses to work by this – the strictest trology solutions that use ISO-compliant validation
standard – because it ensures comparability methodology and documentation.
worldwide. While a CMM may be compliant to ISO 10360-
The ISO 10360 performance evaluation 7, Zeiss offers additional technologies for meeting
includes testing repeatability and reproduc- ISO standards, such as the Zeiss O-Select optical
ibility. Repeatability of measurements refers Documenting measuring system that satisfies three requirements:
to the variation in repeat measurements taken Equipment: Artifacts used to calibrate, qualify O-
by a single person or instrument made on the
device history Select measuring machines use DKD-certified scales
same subject under identical conditions. This is Any medical device’s Analysis: ISO 10360-7 methodology to calibrate,
vital when it comes to gaining certainty in your traceability must qualify O-Select machines
standardization processes and relies on defining be documented Documentation: Records provided on each calibra-
measurement conditions and then replicating in a device his- tion to prove when, how calibrations, qualifications
the process. tory record (DHR), were completed
The goal must be to maintain the same con- which serves as a The O-Select’s maximum permissible error is 4.5
ditions with the measurement process and then production record + L/100µm and repeatability is 0.9µm.
repeat it until the desired number of samples is for manufactured “Quickly and reliably obtaining ISO-compliant,
recorded. medical devices and traceable, and reproducible measured values was a
When performing a repeatability test, collect includes entries for key aspect for us in development” of the O-Select,
data using the same: acceptance records says Andrzej Grzesiak, Zeiss’ senior director of
• Method of individual units or metrology systems.
• Operator batches of product,
• Equipment product counts, la- Conclusion
• Environmental conditions bels, and any other By complying with FDA and ISO 10360 standard-

• Location applicable unique ization processes for medical parts, manufacturers

• Item or unit under test product identifiers. can improve productivity and cost savings, deliver-
The aim is to collect repeatable results through- Like a design his- ing a competitive edge in the medical component
out a short period of time without changing tory file (DHF), the manufacturing supply chain. Solutions, such as
anything (if possible). DHR demonstrates O-Select, offer an alternative to CMMs and provide
Whereas repeatability is the random un- manufacturing value to customers through repeatability, reproduc-
certainty of results under the same conditions, according to FDA ibility, and traceability with comprehensive histori-
reproducibility is random uncertainty under requirements. cal data and reports.
changed conditions. Reproducible conditions,
for instance, include the change of operator and Zeiss Industrial Quality Solutions
subsequent changes in time and environment.

SAS uses Zeiss solutions

Drive system producer SAS GmbH co-devel- ability. It was also important to find a mea-
oped medical and rehabilitation technol- suring projector that was easy to use and
ogy needed to ensure medical device gear readily accepted by the production staff.
mechanisms always function perfectly. To The decision to choose O-Select was
achieve this, the manufacturer chose the prompted by the value for the investment
Zeiss O-Select digital measuring projector as well as the user-friendly system.
for its reproducible quality measurements. “Anyone who can use a computer
SAS had clearlydefined requirements: will also be able to operate this optical
the optical measuring machine should be measuring system,” says Wolfgang Benne,
precise to 0.001mm and deliver reproducible member of SAS quality insurance and gear-
results to increase production process reli- ing department.

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | 17


HAMR-E robots could enable inspection of HAMR-E, small but mighty, could
one day carry instruments and
complex machines without dismantling them. cameras to inspect small spaces.

Edited by Elizabeth Engler Modic

OBOTS THAT CAN CLIMB ON John A. Paulson School of Engineering climbing robots can tackle vertical surfaces
VERTICAL OR UPSIDE-DOWN and Applied Sciences (SEAS). but experience problems when trying to
conductive surfaces, such as the “They could one day enable non- climb upside-down, as they require a large
inside walls of commercial jet invasive inspection of hard-to-reach areas amount of adhesive force to prevent them
engines, could explore complex spaces in of large machines, saving companies time from falling.
three dimensions instead of moving back and money and making those machines The team based HAMR-E on one of
and forth on a flat surface. The Harvard safer,” notes Sébastien de Rivaz, a former its existing micro-robots, HAMR, whose
Ambulatory Micro-Robot with Electroad- Research Fellow at the Wyss Institute and four legs enable it to walk on flat surfaces
hesion (HAMR-E) is such a micro-robot SEAS who now works at Apple. and swim through water. While the basic
with electroadhesive foot pads, origami HAMR-E was developed in response design of HAMR-E is similar to HAMR,
ankle joints, and a specially engineered to a challenge issued to the Harvard Mi- scientists had to solve a series of challenges
walking gait. crorobotics Lab by Rolls-Royce to design to get HAMR-E to successfully stick to and
It was developed by researchers at and build an army of micro-robots capable traverse the vertical, inverted, and curved
Harvard University’s Wyss Institute for of climbing inside parts of its jet engines surfaces it would encounter in a jet engine.
Biologically Inspired Engineering and that are inaccessible to workers. Existing First, they needed to create adhesive
foot pads that would keep the robot at-
tached to the surface even when upside-
down, but also release to allow the robot
to walk by lifting and placing its feet.
The pads consist of a polyimide-insulated


copper electrode, enabling generation of
electrostatic forces between the pads and
the underlying conductive surface. The
foot pads are released and re-engaged by
switching the electric field on and off, op-
erating at a voltage similar to that required
to move the robot’s legs. The electroadhe-
sive foot pads can generate shear forces of
5.56g and normal forces of 6.20g – more
than enough to keep the 1.48g robot from
sliding down or falling off surfaces. In
addition to providing high adhesive forces,
the pads were designed to flex, allowing
HAMR-E, created in collaboration with Rolls-Royce, is a micro-robot that uses electroadhesion to climbing on curved or uneven surfaces.
scale vertical, inverted, and curved surfaces, allowing it to explore spaces that are too small for
humans. HAMR-E could one day be used to inspect jet engines and other complicated machines The scientists also created new ankle
without requiring them to be taken apart. joints for HAMR-E that can rotate in

18 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
three dimensions to compensate for rotations of its
HAMR-E uses electroadhesive pads legs as it walks, so it can maintain orientation on
on its feet and a special gait pattern
to climb on vertical, inverted, and its climbing surface. The joints were manufactured
curved surfaces, like the inside of out of layered fiberglass and polyimide and folded
this jet engine.
into an origami-like structure allowing the ankles
of all the legs to rotate freely and passively align
with the terrain as HAMR-E climbs.
Finally, researchers created a special walking
pattern for HAMR-E, as it needs to have three foot
pads touching a vertical or inverted surface at all
times to prevent a fall or slide. One foot releases
from the surface, swings forward, and reattaches
while the remaining three stay attached to the sur-
face. At the same time, a small amount of torque is
applied by the foot diagonally across from the lifted
foot to keep the robot from moving away from the
climbing surface during the leg-swinging phase.
This process is repeated for the other three legs to
create a full walking cycle, synchronized with the
pattern of electric field switching on each foot.
When testing HAMR-E on vertical and
inverted surfaces, it was able to achieve more than
100 steps in a row without detaching. It walked
at speeds comparable to other small climbing
robots on inverted surfaces, slightly slower than
other climbing robots on vertical surfaces, and was
significantly faster than other robots on horizontal
surfaces. It is also able to perform 180° turns on
horizontal surfaces.
HAMR-E also successfully maneuvered around
a curved, inverted section of a jet engine while
staying attached, and its passive ankle joints and
adhesive foot pads were able to accommodate the
rough, uneven features of the engine surface sim-
ply by increasing the electroadhesion voltage.
The team is continuing to refine HAMR-E,
planning to incorporate sensors into its legs to
detect and compensate for detached foot pads,
which will help prevent it from falling. HAMR-
E’s payload capacity is also greater than its own
weight, opening the possibility of carrying a power
Watch HAMR-E supply, other electronics, and sensors to inspect
walk on inverted and various environments. Researchers are also explor-
vertical surfaces: ing options for using HAMR-E on non-conduc- tive surfaces.
 yss Institute for Biologically
Inspired Engineering

John A. Paulson School of Engineering

and Applied Sciences (SEAS)

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | 19


Renishaw’s general manager of Industrial Metrology discusses
manufacturing efficiencies and process control.

machines at our customer’s

factories. Dual probing pack-
ages such as the OMP/OTS

How do metrology or RMP/RTS systems provide
solutions add dimen- wireless operation of both
sional control when part and tool setting probes
machining precision from a single interface. These
parts? systems support fully auto-
All machining operations have matic operation that greatly
inherent variation caused by reduces setup time while
machine positioning errors, increasing overall precision.
material variances, fixturing, In-Process Control – Use
tooling load, and thermal metrology to make automated

changes. Many companies What types machines with the highest level adjustments while the machine
employ metrology at the end of solutions can of capability. These products is in cycle to control variation
of machining to ensure that be applied? provide direct traceability to that is inherent in all processes.
good parts go out the door, Renishaw applies solutions national and international For low-volume/high-value
but it does little to improve using our Productive Process standards such as ANSI B5 operations a cut-measure-cut
manufacturing efficiency. Pyramid which provides a sys- and ISO 230. strategy – where a cut is made
As a high-precision manu- tematic approach to deploying Process Setting – Estab- then the result is measured and
facturer, Renishaw has learned effective process control. lish the location of fixturing, an offset is applied to a final
that applying metrology before The process has 4 steps: workpiece, and tooling within cut – brings the feature directly
and during machining pro- Process Foundation – machine travels, just prior into nominal dimension, all
cesses keeps operations in tight Machine calibration tools to cutting. Renishaw makes automatically. Using our new
control, significantly improv- determine a machine’s an assortment of probing Supatouch or Supascan pack-
ing process yield and final part capability and compensate to systems and software that are
quality at a much lower cost of improve a machine’s accuracy. available, factory installed,
production. This is especially Our QC20W Ballbar, XL80 on most major brands of
important as companies move Laser, XM60 Volumetric Laser, metal cutting machines and
to automated manufacturing and XR20W Rotary Calibra- can also be retrofit to existing
where process control is im- tor can calibrate virtually
perative to prevent producing any metal cutting machine.
scrap at unprecedented rates. Most major machine tool
Renishaw views our custom- builders use these devices to
ers as partners, openly sharing ensure accuracy during build
our expertise to help them and installation, but they are
make the best decisions when more frequently used
implementing process control directly by companies XM60 Volumetric Laser
and final part validation. that want to maintain

20 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
A Equator Gaging System

ages and accompanying prob-

ing systems enables companies
to employ this type of in-
process measurement at speeds
previously unobtainable. For
finish, vision, and ultrasonic
thickness. The combination
of 5-axis positioning and
automatic sensor changing
allows companies to signifi-
of critical components can be
more than the actual machin-
ing time. Renishaw Revo
5-Axis CMM systems have
effectively reduced inspection
time by up to 90% in aero en-
gine components, significantly
reducing backlog.

In the medical
field, what ad-
vances in metrol-
ogy systems support the
smaller, more intricate
workpieces needed for
modern surgical proce-
dures and implants?
Because each device is im-
planted in a human, quality is
the highest concern for medi-
In the motor
vehicle space,
what systems can
manufacturers use to
support higher-strength
materials needed to
support high-torque
motors in electric-drive
The automotive industry
is going through a rapid
change from internal combus-
tion engines to hybrid and
full electric powertrains. To
remain competitive, automo-
tive machining lines must be
flexible to support a shifting
product mix. Moves toward
programmable Equator gaging
are allowing manufacturers to
higher volume/short cycle time cantly reduce the floor space cal manufacturers. Advances quickly adapt production to
operations, our Equator Gag- and manpower required for in machine tool calibration, new products.
ing System can measure select inspection. such as our XM60 laser that For high-torque drives to
features and provide direct can measure all 6 degrees of be efficient, the dimensional

work and tool offsetting using How can aero- freedom (6DOF) in each axis, tolerances of fixed and rotating
our Integrated Process Control space manufac- can provide a comprehensive elements must be held very
(IPC) software. turers use metrol- picture of machine capabil- tightly. Form and surface finish
Post Process Monitoring – ogy systems and data to ity – before any of features are also more criti-
Final part inspection provides increase production and machining
full understanding of process reduce the industry’s begins.
results. The goal here is to backlog of unbuilt planes? Many of
measure all critical features The aerospace industry has an the smaller
with high accuracy, as quickly enviable problem – more or- implantable
as possible, with minimal floor ders than capacity to produce devices are
space and operator interaction. products. made on Swiss-
To achieve this, Renishaw has To increase production and type turning
developed our Revo 5-Axis reduce backlog, aerospace machines
Multi-sensor system for Co- manufacturers should focus which ben-
Revo 5-Axis CMM
ordinate Measuring Machines first on reducing or eliminat- efit from our
(CMMs). The Revo system ing non-conformance during Equator gaging system. The cal as the mating tolerances
can measure complicated parts operations by ensuring process Equator gage can quickly scan are reduced. Renishaw’s Sprint
at speeds up to 20x faster than control using the Productive components for dimensional high-speed scanning probe can
those currently employed by Process Pyramid as a guide. accuracy and provide feed- be employed directly on cut-
most companies. It employs an Dimensional problems that back to the process to ensure ting machines to measure form
infinitely positioning head that are caught after machin- effective process control. Styli of features before and during
has 0.08arc/second resolution ing are very costly in scrap, can be fit down to 0.3mm production. Revo high-speed
encoders and an integral laser rework, and delayed ship- (0.012") to provide access to scanning can be used after
positioning system that sup- ments. By ensuring a stable small intricate features. Ad- machining for final validation
ports surface scanning speeds process, scrap and rework can vances in non-contact sensors of size, location, form, and
up to 500mm/sec. The Revo be significantly reduced or such as our RVP vision sensor surface finish.
system is the heart of a grow- eliminated. Then, work on on our Revo system can per-
ing family of complementary increasing throughput on final form final inspection without For more information:
sensors to measure surface certification. Inspection time touching the part.

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | 21

Complex castings made from more-expensive materials
in electric vehicles will generate more demand for non-
destructive testing that can measure interior structures.
By Dirk Steiner

ORE STRINGENT policies • Lower emissions
on emissions are rapidly • Lower vehicle maintenance costs
being adopted by many First, however, automakers must reduce
countries with projec- weight. All vehicles lose efficiency as
tions of a complete ban on automotive weight increases, but it’s especially true
internal combustion engines (ICEs) in the for EVs because the battery is very heavy.
Netherlands by 2025 and India by 2030. That’s one of the reasons EVs are designed
Automotive manufacturers are accelerating with far fewer parts than traditional ICEs,
production of electric vehicles (EVs) and and those remaining components will magnesium, and carbon fiber. World-
plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to feature more complex designs. wide, aluminum foundries will benefit
keep up with this demand. Secondly, R&D must continually greatly from the trend toward lightweight
Market forecasts for EVs and PHEVs improve operations to drive down manu- construction. Global aluminum foundry
point toward a promisingly high annual facturing costs and ensure safety as next- production is estimated to reach 17 mil-
growth rate. The global EV market is generation vehicles take the road. lion tons by 2020. The use of aluminum
estimated to reach almost $46 billion by Lightweighting is important for other in automobiles will double from around
2025, a good indication that automakers industries as well, such as aerospace and 12% to 25% of global consumption with
and suppliers will need to remain in high medical. A small savings in weight on an 30 million tons used by 2025.
gear to keep up with technology. aircraft can mean big fuel savings. And, EVs are relatively simpler to build, with
Global automakers will spend $255 bil- since medical implants and devices are only 20 moving parts versus the 2,000 parts
lion on research and development (R&D) integrated into the human body, accuracy it takes to currently produce a traditional

for EVs through 2023, according to Alix and lighter-weight materials must be made ICE, so there will be an expected decrease
Partners' Global Automotive Outlook to stringent standards. The need for accu- in engine and transmission components
study on the future of the auto industry. rate testing in all three industries is crucial. and an increase in structural components
Several factors are steering the upswing in made of light alloys with EVs. Structural
R&D by automakers, such as the ability to: Casting industry applications are being used increasingly in
• Lower manufacturing costs The need to reduce weight in EVs and the premium segments for applications such
• Maintain safety levels PHEVs will naturally lend itself to as suspension domes; longitudinal carriers;
• Improve fuel economy lighter weight materials such aluminum, cross-members; doors; gages; and A-, B-,

22 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
discontinuities within the part design and
quantify findings such as porosity. It can
also help qualify molds by confirming the
actual parts being produced are in dimen-
sional compliance with specifications.
can detect potential part Quality Inspection – Typical casting
failures, even on larger parts, flaws can include porosities (pores and
because CT scanning techniques blisters), thermal cracking, dimensional
produce clear images. The images as- changes, and inclusions. NDT testing
sist manufacturers in fatigue analysis and with industrial CT can detect blowholes
identify finite cracks and inconsistencies and pores, provide geometric measure-
from part to part. Substrate bonding issues, ment of inner structures, and analyze wall
uneven material flow, density, and porosity thickness. For safety-relevant components
and C-pillars. In problems can also be detected through the in the automotive industry, determining
Europe, demand for accuracy of CT images. In post-produc- wall thicknesses following casting process
structural cast aluminum ap- tion, CT screening can improve produc- and finish machining provides critical
plications increased 65% in 2017. tivity by eliminating issues likely to cause information about the material’s stability
New components will be made possible problems in post-production. and thermal conductivity.
from lightweight, more expensive, harder- Cast parts that don’t meet specification
to-cast materials, and they will be more CT from design to production can be sorted out early. Engineers can use
geometrically complex, two trends that Though seen primarily as a quality as- the data to draw conclusions regarding cast-
introduce more opportunity for casting surance (QA) or non-destructive testing ing quality from the types of flaws found,
errors. When producing aluminum cast- (NDT) technique used to monitor build thereby increasing productivity by initiating
ings, manufacturers must inspect them for quality, CT can support several phases of appropriate improvement measures.
internal defects. the automotive design and build process.
This is where Industrial CT can Design – When creating a compo- Conclusion
become a great benefit. nent, 90% of the work is spent in the With so much riding on the reliability and
design phase. CT can streamline R&D safety of next-generation vehicles, quality
Industrial computed by identifying key information about part control is extremely important. Industrial
tomography (CT) designs and how well they match intended CT can go a long way in streamlining the
A leading technology in the medical geometries – avoiding issues later in the process from research and development
field since the 1970s, CT has become a production process. Data can verify flow through final production. Trust the power
powerful observation tool in the industrial and strength simulations, reducing time of CT to provide a roadmap for success
realm. A CT scan produces a two-dimen- from prototype to finished product. that leads to a bright future for automotive
sional density map of a cross-sectional And, if the new product uses design fea- manufacturers and other highly regulated
slice of an object’s interior. Many 2D slices tures from an older part, CT can reverse-en- industries such as aerospace
can be combined to produce a 3D image gineer components that don’t have updated and medical.
of practically any part, object, or product CAD files. Reverse engineering a part using
of nearly any material. This is critical for industrial CT scanning can be faster and Yxlon Int’l.
any application for which a manufacturer more accurate than rebuilding a component
wishes to see inside an object without from scratch. Scanning legacy parts can gen-
destroying it. erate new, highly accurate CAD models. About the author: Yxlon Business Develop-
Today’s industrial CT scanners provide Pre-production – Once the design has ment Manager for CT Dirk Steiner began his
valuable data for initial prototyping and been completed, tools and molds must career with Yxlon, after graduating from Fach-
optimizing production processes. They be qualified. Industrial CT can detect hochschule Hamburg.

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | | 23
All-Around Protected
Touch Probe

The TS 460 touch probe from HEIDENHAIN helps you in workpiece setup and measurement in the machine tool’s
working space. One innovation is the mechanical collision protection between the touch probe and taper shank: in
the event of a light collision of the TS with the workpiece, the adapter allows the touch probe to yield. At the same
time, the control stops the probing process. Neither the probe nor the machine suffers damage. At the same time,
the collision protection adapter also functions as a thermal decoupler, protecting the touch probe from excessive
heating through the spindle during very long or intensive probing processes.

HEIDENHAIN CORPORATION, 333 East State Parkway, Schaumburg, IL 60173 847-490-1191
Angle Encoders Linear Encoders Contouring Controls Position Displays Length Gauges Rotary Encoders
The QUADRA-CHEK Generation –
When Quality and Convenience Count

Every user has their own measurement needs and unique measuring machine infrastructure requiring the seam-
less integration of evaluation electronics. The QUADRA-CHEK 2000 and 3000 perform measuring tasks with
precision and dependable quality on all of your measuring machines. Both units feature the same convenient
touchscreen-based user operating approach with a high degree of integration into your network for smooth
processes—all in a secure embedded design. Measuring point acquisition using crosshairs or an optical edge
detector ensures reliable measurement results, and intelligent video tools on the QUADRA-CHEK 3000 provide
fast support for complex measuring tasks. Two solutions from a single source—it’s as if they were tailor-made for
you, and their rugged construction means they’ll feel right at home in your shop.

HEIDENHAIN CORPORATION, 333 East State Parkway, Schaumburg, IL 60173 847-490-1191
Angle Encoders Linear Encoders Contouring Controls Position Displays Length Gauges Rotary Encoders

by force measure-
ment and material testing
is a necessary requirement
in every industry. Consider
the force required to tap a
smartphone screen or push
buttons on a remote control; most of us do these things without thinking,
but even for everyday devices, force measurement must be considered.
Historically, force measurement tests were calculated by using a series of
mathematical equations – Newton’s first, second, and third law. In recent
years, it has been limited to handheld metrology devices. While faster than
lengthy calculations and more accurate than guesswork, these do not provide
the levels of precision needed for sophisticated applications.
Designing parts and components for industries such as aerospace,
medical, and motor vehicles requires extremely high levels of accuracy, and
production errors can be costly. Stringent regulatory requirements – and
high costs for failing to meet standards – ensure that components are safe,
Automated fully functional, and reliable.
The AS9100 group of standards, for example, ensure that manufactur-
software ers produce components within a strict quality-controlled environment, to
packages create guarantee reliability and safety of an aircraft. This is particularly important
for mass manufacturing environments where busy production lines are ex-
an interface pected to produce a high volume of precise, identical parts and components.
linking hardware Similarly, the 21 CFR Part 11 Electronic Signatures requirement is very
and software important for life science applications. Following this standard, software
solutions that enable measurement data traceability and documentation are
to improve critical for the operators and supervisors responsible for the applications.
processes for Meeting these standards is not a simple task, but to simplify quality
management and improve accuracy, manufacturers are choosing sophisti-
testing critical cated force measurement and metrology systems to test the components
components. they make. Starrett’s force measurement software, L2 Plus, for example, can
provide a comprehensive analysis of a measurement test – providing exact
force measurement results ranging from simple peak load measurement to
By James M. Clinton
more complex break determination.
By exporting measurement data, manufacturers can gain insight
beyond the basic figures provided by other force measurement


approaches. Inputting the requirements of a part,
material, or component allows the software
to generate high-resolution graphs based on
load, distance, height, and time of measure-
ment. With the Starrett L2 plus system,
historical test data are archived for analysis
later, helping speed future tests and navigate
potential problems or errors.
Intelligent software increases force measure-
ment accuracy, while improving precision for
engineers designing and creating components.
As design engineers gain this insight, they are
less restricted and can be more innovative.
Meanwhile, quality control managers can be
assured parts will meet industry standards and
are less likely to have manufacturing errors.

26 | | I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9
Material testing
Material testing is another type of force measurement. The
only difference is that the sample’s dimension is used to deter-
mine results.
For example, a load result is called stress in material testing;
stress is the load result divided by the sample’s cross-sectional
area. This is why stress has the unit pounds-per-square-inch
using imperial measurement. Using SI units, the common
unit for stress is Newton-per-mm-squared (N/mm2). N/mm2
is a Mega-Pascal (MPa). Stress = force/area. Strain, distance
from force measurement, is a unitless value but often shown The modulus of elasticity represents the stiffness of the material under test.
as a percentage. Strain is also called % elongation. Again, like In tensile applications, this modulus is often called Young’s Modulus and is
the relationship between stress and strain within the proportional limit.
stress, strain uses the sample’s length; strain is the change from
its original length. If the sample had an original length of 1"
(25mm) and was pulled to 2" (50mm), the strain is 100%.
Strain equals ultimate gage length minus the original gage
length divided by the original gage length.
For components produced with composites, material test-
ing is often necessary since composites are made by combining
two or more materials, frequently with very different proper-
ties. Advancements in polymer composites that are chang-
ing the way composites are used, and composites based on
polymer, continue to evolve and find their way into aerospace,
medical, and motor vehicle applications. Polymer composites
have a high strength-to-weight ratio and are relatively easy and
inexpensive to manufacture.
Product designers and original equipment manufacturers
(OEMs) want to ensure their polymer composite can with- The maximum stress observed from the strain-strain curve.
stand the force placed on it. They also need to know if the
material will stretch or elongate and pinpoint its exact breaking tolerances. Tests can use tension, compression, flexural, cyclic,
point. The major objective of any test and measurement process sheer, and frictional forces.
is to build a coherent set of materials data, but in the case of The relative unfamiliarity of composite materials requires me-
composite materials, one size rarely fits all. chanical testing throughout the entire design and production pro-
cess. Consequently, automation is becoming increasingly attractive
Software solutions to manufacturers eager to reap the rewards of composite materials,
The diversity of composites presents difficulties when establishing without wasting time on endless manual testing and measurement.
a coherent data set. The data are likely to be completely unique Automated software packages should be capable of creating an
to each sector, product, application, and area. The most common interface that links hardware and software to improve processes
tests for tensile strength (MPa or psi) are tensile chord modulus from the lab, right to the plant floor. For force measurement soft-
of elasticity (MPa or psi), tensile strain (%), Poisson’s ratio, and ware applications, programming experience should be optional,
transition strain (%). However, when testing composite materials, not essential.
the application should not pre-suppose any prior knowledge of
which measurements are required. The L.S. Starrett Co.
Using Starrett L3 software, rather than providing pre-set data,
the user creates a test method for the specific material. Using this
technique, a product designer or OEM can analyze the stress, About the author: James M. Clinton is product manager for force
strain, load, distance, and time for each material, with measure- and material test products at The L.S. Starrett Co. He can be
ments displayed on graphs and data tables with statistics and reached at 978.249.3551 or

Exact Metrology 2, 28 Heidenhain Corp. 24, 25 Renishaw Inc. 20, 21
Fagor Automation USA 10, 11 Marposs Corp. 6, 7 The L.S. Starrett Co. 14, 15

I N S P E C T I O N TA R G E T G U I D E 2 0 1 9 | | 27
Exact Metrology:
The One Stop Solution
for Your Metrology Needs

Whether in the automotive, aerospace or medical industry,

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