Anda di halaman 1dari 14

Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

journal homepage:

Review article

Potential of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) as a biofuel T

a a a a,⁎ b,⁎
Yuqiang Li , Wei Tang , Yong Chen , Jiangwei Liu , Chia-fon F. Lee
School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083, China
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA


Keywords: Biobutanol has demonstrated to be a superior alternative biofuel in internal combustion engine (ICEs). Acetone-
Biofuel butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation engineering is a typical technique for biobutanol production. However, the
Acetone-butanol-ethanol high costs and extra energy consumption in recovery process of biobutanol from intermediate fermentation
Production solvent (i.e. ABE mixture) has obstructed its large-scale application. It is gaining increasing attention to in-
vestigate ABE as a potential alternative biofuel. ABE production and ABE combustion in ICEs have been widely
Internal combustion engines
studied, but these studies are rarely reviewed to favor understanding and popularization for ABE so far. In this
work, the updated progress of ABE fermentation techniques is first summarized from the aspects: (i) selection of
suitable strain; (ii) availability of cheaper substrates; (iii) development of fermentation engineering. Then, the
research on ABE combustion in ICEs are concluded from the aspects: (i) physicochemical properties and tests in
ICEs of ABE components; (ii) substitute for diesel in compression ignition engines; (iii) substitute for gasoline in
spark ignition engines. These studies demonstrate that ABE is a better alternative for gasoline or diesel fuel due
to the environmentally benign manufacturing process and the potential to improve energy efficiency and reduce
pollutant emissions. However, ABE has not been intensively studied when compared to conventional alternative
fuels (e.g. ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, etc.), for which considerable numbers of reports are available. Therefore,
some challenges and future research directions are outlined in the end. This review is helpful for finding op-
portunities to make ABE as a feasible alternative biofuel in near future.

1. Introduction received more attention due to its renewability, less toxic, higher en-
ergy density, etc., therefore, ethanol is the most common alternative
Due to the continuous worldwide energy consumption with tech- fuel for internal combustion engines (ICEs) in United States, Brazil and
nology development and human progress, the extensive use of fossil South Africa [18–20]. Recently, much attention has been paid on bu-
fuels has led to numerous social, economic and environmental issues, tanol belonged to higher alcohol due to its several advantages over
such as energy security, climate change and human diseases [1–5]. lower alcohols [21–23]. For instance, butanol has a lower auto-ignition
Hence, the search for renewable energy sources has grown con- temperature and thus it can be burned easier. Butanol can be blended
siderably. Biofuel, produced through biological process, has drawn with base fuel without phase separation, allowing it to be transported
great attentions from the world due to its environment-friendly feature and distributed using the existing fuel supply infrastructure. Besides,
[6–10]. For instance, the Biofuels Research Advisory Council of Eur- butanol is less corrosive and evaporative and can releases more energy
opean Union proposed that the fraction of biofuels usage in transpor- per unit mass.
tation fuel consumption has to increase to 25% in 2030 [11]. The En- One major drawback of biobutanol is its high price caused by the
ergy Independence and Security Act of USA mandated the renewable low production efficiency [23–25]. The production rate of bioethanol
fuel used in transportation need to grow to 36 billion gallons in 2022 from biological process is 10–30 times higher than biobutanol yielded
[12]. The National Energy Administration of China announced the from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. The pro-
production of ethanol and biodiesel should reach 4.0 and 2.0 million duction economics of ethanol and butanol was compared by Tao et al.
tons by 2020, respectively [13]. [26] in detail. The production costs of ethanol and n-butanol from corn
Currently, primary alcohols including methanol, ethanol and bu- was estimated to be $1.53 and $1.96 per gallon, respectively. Pfromm
tanol, are common biofuels [14–16]. Methanol is generally made from et al. [27] predicted the prices of ethanol and butanol from 2007 to
coal or methane [17]. In comparison with methanol, ethanol has 2027 based on historical data and certain assumptions, as shown in

Corresponding authors.
E-mail addresses: (J. Liu), (C.-f.F. Lee).
Received 11 October 2018; Received in revised form 4 January 2019; Accepted 9 January 2019
Available online 18 January 2019
0016-2361/ © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

2. Production of ABE

In order to make ABE fermentation engineering sustainably and

economically feasible, research points are mainly focused on strains
screen, substrates selection and fermentation techniques innovation,
which are introduced in this section.

2.1. Selection of suitable strain

The screen of strain is crucial to produce ABE since it determines

fermentation performance and influences methods for feedstock pre-
treatment/hydrolysis and solvent recovery. Many strains being capable
of ABE fermentation are currently recognized and can mainly be cate-
gorized as genus Clostridium strains (e.g. Clostridium Acetobutylicum (C.
Acetobutylicum), C. beijerinckii, C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum, C. sac-
charobutylicum) and non-Clostridium strains (e.g. Escherichia coli,
Fig. 1. Predicted price of ethanol and butanol based on historical data and
Lactobacillus brevis, Pseudomonas putida, Lactobacillus buchneri,
expected future market trends [27].
Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as listed in Table 1. Fig. 2 shows the scheme
of ABE fermentation pathway employed by C. acetobutylicum. The
Fig. 1. It is seen that butanol has a much higher price than ethanol. products during fermentation engineering can be categorized into three
Therefore, ethanol still being the most widely used alternative fuel in types: (i) solvents (acetone, ethanol and butanol); (ii) organic acids
ICEs. (acetate and butyrate); (iii) gases (CO2 and H2) [30]. Compared to
Besides the low production rate, the separation of butanol from ABE genus Clostridium strains, non-Clostridium strains can reduce or elim-
mixture requires extra money and energy. Based on traditional direct inate the major byproducts of acetone and ethanol from synthetic
distillation method, the process requires 18.4 MJ/kg accounting for biology [31].
54% combustion heat value of butanol [28]. These issues could be It is known that genus Clostridium strains are capable of utilizing
eliminated if the intermediate fermentation solvent (i.e. ABE) could simple and complex carbohydrates, such as glucose, sucrose, cellulose
become a fuel for clean combustion. It motivates many researchers to [32]. Among vast variety of genus Clostridium strains, C. acetobutylicum
consider ABE as an alternative biofuel in ICEs and investigate com- [33], C. beijerinckii [34], C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum [35] and C.
bustion and emissions characteristics of ICEs fueled with ABE-fossil fuel saccharobutylicum [36] can produce solvent with relatively high yields
blends. Qureshi and Blaschek [29] performed an economic assessment during fermentation under appropriate conditions. The performance of
of ABE fermentation, and forecasted price of ABE (0.27 $/kg) was close ABE fermentation using wild-type Clostridium strains is severely limited
to the price of gasoline (0.22 $/kg). by weak solvent tolerance, sluggish growth and low cell density during
As fermentation engineering develops, ABE could become an eco- the solventogenic phase of Clostridium growth. Mutagenesis, evolu-
nomically feasible potential biofuel. Therefore, progress in the pro- tionary engineering and molecular engineering have been considered to
duction and application of ABE in ICEs was reviewed in this study. The address these problems [37]. In the mutagenesis engineering, mutagens
recent advances in ABE fermentation and the improved methods of ABE (e.g. N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), hydrogen peroxide
fermentation are first described. Then, the fundamental combustion and nalidixic acid) is used to activate the mutation of genus Clostridium
experiments in some burning reactors and the investigations of com- strains, among which direct acting MNNG seems to work best. The
bustion, performance and emissions characteristics of spark ignition mutant C. beijerinckii BA101 was generated from C. beijerinckii NCIMB
engine or compression ignition engine fueled with ABE are summarized 8052 through the treatment with MNNG [38]. Evolutionary en-
to discuss the applications of ABE as a biofuel in ICEs. It is expected that gineering, following a principle “Mutagenesis followed-by Selection”,
this review is helpful: (i) for researchers and engine manufacturers to can also be employed to further improve solventogenic performance. C.
develop the further researches related to optimize and readjust ICEs acetobutylicum T64 was obtained from C. acetobutylicum D64 through
fueled with ABE and its relevant systems; (ii) for governments to design artificial simulation of bio-evolution [39]. As a more rational strategy,
new energy policies to impel the use of ABE in the light of environ- molecular engineering modifying strains through inactivated and/or
mental costs; (iii) for private users to understand profits for using ABE, overexpressed genes, was expected to be able to solve the issues of te-
and enhance consciousness of environmental protection. dious and instability related to mutagenesis and evolution engineering.
Moreover, several genes encoding metabolic enzymes were knocked
out/down (e.g. buk, ptb and ack) and/or overexpressed (e.g. aad, adhE

Table 1
Strains utilized in ABE fermentation engineering.
Type Strain Substrate Main solvent product Production titer (g/l) Refs

Clostridium C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Macroalgae Acetone, butanol, ethanol 6.1 [33]
C. beijerinckii P260 Switchgrass Acetone, butanol, ethanol 14.6 [34]
C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 Potato Acetone, butanol, ethanol 16.0 [35]
C. saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 Sago Starch Acetone, butanol, ethanol 9.1 [36]
C. beijerinckii BA101 Synthetic medium Acetone, butanol, ethanol 8.8 [38]
C. acetobutylicum T64 cornmeal Acetone, butanol, ethanol 15.3 [39]

Non-Clostridium E. coli Glucose Butanol, propanol 2.0 [41]

L. brevis Glucose Butanol, ethanol 0.303 [42]
P. putida Glucose Butanol, ethanol 0.12 [43]
L. buchneri Glucose Butanol 0.066 [44]
S. cerevisiae Glucose Butanol 0.0025 [45]

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

Fig. 2. Metabolic pathway of ABE fermentation employed by C. acetobutylicum [30,31].

and thiL) in genus Clostridium strains to alter the concentration, yield, fermentation using low-cost soy molasses through C. beijerinckii BA101.
and ratios of solvents [40]. Solventogenic genes (e.g. adhE1, adhE2 and Huang et al. [47] successfully used corn in ABE fermentation by C.
bdhB) of clostridia were extracted for heterologous expression of non- acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor.
Clostridium strains. Escherichia coli (E. coli) [41] is well-established non- Corn and cornstarch (after removal of corn oil and protein) are the
Clostridium strains although other organisms such as Lactobacillus brevis major substrates used in Chinese ABE fermentation plants [48]. Because
(L. brevis) [42], Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) [43], Lactobacillus cassava is able to grow in poor soils and is not the staple food in some
buchneri (L. buchneri) [44] and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) countries, Tang et al. investigated ABE batch fermentation of cassava
[45] are also under development. The progress in heterologous ex- using C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 [49]. Jerusalem artichoke
pression of butanol pathway in non-Clostridium strains is exciting, containing oligomeric fructans gives an excellent solvent yields after
however, butanol concentrations for the non-Clostridium strains were being hydrolyzed with a chemical or enzyme process [50]. Among the
much lower than those for genus Clostridium strains. More compre- traditional substrates, the use of corn and Jerusalem artichokes conflict
hensive and deep studies on how to control the expressions of genes and with its nutritional purpose, especially in areas concerned with poten-
enzymes are still needed. tial food shortages. Moreover, the prices of cassava and molasses, have
also been pushed up because they do not suffice to fulfill the growing
demand for biofuels intended. The exploration of inexpensive and
2.2. Availability of cheaper substrates
nonfood substrates for ABE fermentation have been driven by these
As listed in Table 2, traditional substrates such as: sucrose and
Considerable efforts in recent years have been made to utilize cost-
starch-based carbohydrates have been utilized in ABE fermentation at
effectively sustainable substrates for ABE fermentation. As one of most
industrial scale production. Qureshi et al [46] evaluated ABE

Table 2
Substrates utilized in ABE fermentation engineering.
Type Substrate Strain Production titer of ABE (g/l) Refs

Traditional substrates: Soy molasses C. beijerinckii BA101 10.7 [46]

Sucrose and starch Corn C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 12.5 [47]
Cassava C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 21.0 [49]
Jerusalem artichoke C. acetobutylicum IFP904 9.1 [50]
Cost-effectively sustainable substrates: Corn stove C. beijerinckii P260 16.0 [53]
Lignocellulosic biomass Corn fiber C. beijerinckii BA101 9.0 [54]
Wheat straw C. beijerinckii P260 22.2 [55]
Rice bran C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 12.1 [56]
Micro-algae Wastewater algae C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 5.2 [58]
Arthrospira platensis C. acetobutylicum 8.2 [59]
Dunaliella tertiolecta C. acetobutylicum 12.7 [59]
Nannochloropsis C. acetobutylicum 15.4 [59]
Glycerol Glycerol C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013 18.3 [60]
Syngas Syngas C. carboxidivorans P7T 0.009 [61]

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

abundant renewable resource on the earth, lignocellulosic biomass properties of enzyme have encountered impressive developments in the
considered as a potential renewable substrate for ABE fermentation has last years including microbiology, protein engineering, chemistry of
been a key research topic since the late 20th century [51]. In China, proteins, etc. [76–79]. The formed or released inhibitors during pre-
nearly 830 million tonnes of lignocellulosic biomass per year are pro- treatment and hydrolysis steps can cause the decrease of fermentation
duced directly from straw, wood residues, rice busk and bagasse [52]. yields and productivity, thereby the detoxification operation is needed
Using C. beijerinckii P260, hydrolyzed corn stover can produce 16.0 g/l [80]. Palmqvist and Hahnhägerdal reviewed various detoxification
solvents after removing inhibitors [53]. Similarly, after removal of the methods involving biological, physical and chemical detoxifications
inhibitors of corn fiber hydrolysate with XAD-4 resin through the [81]. Among them, ion exchange resins are considered to be relatively
treatment of sulfuric acid, 9.3 g/l solvents were produced in ABE fer- effective one and are simple to operate [82].
mentation by C. beijerinckii BA101 [54]. Wheat straw was hydrolyzed The midstream of ABE fermentation engineering can be performed
by alkaline peroxide and hydrolytic enzymes and then employed in ABE under batch, fed-batch or continuous modes. In general, batch mode is
fermentation by C. beijerinckii P260 [55]. Al-Shorgani et al. [56] ex- more suitable for small scale production, while fed-batch or continuous
amined the ABE fermentation of de-oiled rice bran by C. sacchar- modes are good selections at large scale [83]. In order to make fer-
operbutylacetonicum N1-4. Micro-algae have recently got much attention mentation process to be more productive and cost-competitive, much
as an attractive renewable substrate for ABE fermentation. Compared to efforts have been placed on the development of advanced fed-batch and
terrestrial biomass, the usage of micro-algae does not only saves culti- continuous fermentation strategies. PH-stat fed-batch fermentation and
vation land to grow food crops to feed the world’s increasing popula- pH-controlled fed-batch fermentation techniques were examined by
tion, but also saves fresh water due to the high growth rate of algae in Tashiro et al. [35] and Wu et al. [84], respectively. It has been proved
seawater and wastewater [57]. Ellis et al. completed the ABE fermen- that the pH-controlled fed-batch fermentation lead to lactic acid con-
tation using acid/base pretreated wastewater algae biomass as the sumption acceleration and productivity increase. In comparison with
substrate by C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 [58]. Efremenko et al. typical fed-batch fermentation, continuous fermentation can reduce
demonstrated the highly efficient conversion of various preheated mi- reactor volume and operational period. Cell immobilization or cell re-
croalgae, including arthrospira platensis, dunaliella tertiolecta and cycling technique are used in continuous fermentation to solve the
nannochloropsis for ABE fermentation by C. acetobutylicum cells im- problem of cell wash-out [85]. Under cell immobilization continuous
mobilized into poly cryogel [59]. Glycerol and syngas were also used as fermentation, cells were mainly immobilized by adsorption [86], en-
substrates in the ABE fermentation by C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013 and trapment [87] and covalent bond formation [88]. Among the reports
C. carboxidivorans P7T, respectively [60,61]. related to cell recycling continuous fermentation, Jang et al. presented
a high solvent production of 32.5 g/l using C. acetobutylicum BKM1
[89]. Membrane fouling is a major obstacle in cell recycling continuous
2.3. Development of fermentation engineering
fermentation, and thus more superior membranes need to be developed
[90]. Another effective technique for improving continuous fermenta-
A typical ABE fermentation engineering contains the following main
tion productivity is to use multi-stage continuous fermentation system.
units: upstream, midstream and downstream, as shown in Fig. 3. Se-
An overall 25.32 g/l ABE solvent was produced from a two-stage con-
lected substrates determine the type and number of required steps in
tinuous fermentation with integrated solvent removal using C. acet-
upstream progress. Generally, noncellulosic substrates need hydrolysis
obutylicum B5313, which is higher than that from the single stage fer-
and detoxification steps, while lignocellulosic substrates need an extra
mentation (15.98 g/l) [91].
pretreatment step to remove structural and compositional barriers to
In situ product recovery (ISPR) technique is employed in the
hydrolysis [62]. Physical, physic-chemical, chemical and biological
downstream of ABE fermentation to alleviate solvent toxicity for the
pretreatment techniques have been introduced in Refs. [63–67]. Steam
microorganisms [92]. Liquid-liquid, perstraction, pervaporation, ex-
explosion [68], liquid hot water [69], dilute acid [70], lime [71], am-
traction, and gas stripping are most important ISPR techniques. Usage
monia [72] and ionic liquid [73] pretreatments have been potentially
of liquid-liquid, perstraction and pervaporation based ISPR in ABE
considered cost-effective methods. Both acid and enzymatic treatments
fermentation was reviewed in Refs. [93–95], respectively. Although the
are mainly used to carry out the hydrolysis step. Compared to the en-
encouraging results can be obtained by pervaporation and liquid-liquid
zymatic hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis can penetrate lignin without pre-
based ISPR, the issues of membrane fouling, extractant formation and
treatment, and thereby the hydrolysis is faster, but some generated by-
extractant loss are still common and the process is relatively costly to
products (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) are toxic to strains
operate. Literatures suggested gas stripping based ISPR was simple,
[74]. Because enzymes are highly specific in the catalytic reactions, by-
cost-effective and advantageous over others because it has no negative
products formation in acid hydrolysis is avoided and waste treatment
effect on fermentation, expensive or harmful membrane and extractants
costs are reduced [75]. Several available techniques improving critical

Fig. 3. Processes of ABE fermentation engineering.

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

are not required, and there is no loss of nutrients and intermediates butanol and acetone is lower than that of gasoline and diesel, and thus
[96]. Integration of gas stripping based ISPR with batch, fed-batch, and more fuel required for the same power output; (4) Ethanol and acetone
continuous fermentation processes has resulted in a highly improved have higher octane number than gasoline and are able to withstand
productivity and yields, which was reviewed by Qureshi et al. [97]. A more compression before detonation; (5) The lower cetane number of
novel two-stage gas stripping ISPR was used for solvent recovery from ethanol and n-butanol than diesel could cause a longer ignition delay
ABE fermentation using C. acetobutylicum JB200 immobilized in a fi- and an increase of premixed-phase of combustion and result in a higher
brous bed bioreactor [98]. The fermentation got a highly concentrated combustion efficiency due to more fuel burned under constant volume
product containing 195.9 g/l ABE. ABE fermentation integrated with conditions; (6) Ethanol, n-butanol and acetone have higher latent heat
gas stripping ISPR has caught the attentions to scale up ABE fermen- than gasoline and diesel and need to absorb more heat from in-cylinder
tation. environment to evaporate; (7) Ethanol, n-butanol and acetone do not
contain mono-aromatic and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons which are
2.4. Summary and perspectives harmful to environment and health; (8) Ethanol, n-butanol and acetone
have a higher flashing point and auto-ignition temperature than gaso-
In this section, the update progress in ABE fermentation was re- line and diesel, and thus their usage at high temperatures are more
viewed from three aspects, including selection of suitable strain, safer; (9) The lower saturation pressure of ethanol and n-butanol
availability of cheaper substrates, and development of fermentation compared to that of gasoline decreases the chance of cavitation and
engineering. Recent advances in Clostridium and non-Clostridium strains vapor lock problem and eliminates the usage of very special blends
indicates that, in addition to the use of conventional mutagens and during hot day in summer and cool day in winter; (10) Although the
evolution, molecularly modified strains through inactivated and/or miscibility of ethanol in diesel at low temperatures may cause phase
overexpressed genes are employed to improve the performance of separation and then leads to serious consequences on engine operation,
strains based on the principles of efficient use of alternative substrates, n-butanol and acetone can be as a co-solvent additive of ethanol to
improvement of solvent yields, alteration of solvent ratios, enhance- ensure solubility of the blend in diesel; (11) The higher laminar flame
ment of end product tolerance and solvents concentrations, and su- propagation of ethanol, n-butanol and acetone than gasoline makes
perior performance and productivity in advanced fermentation process. combustion process finish earlier being beneficial of improvement of
Problems associated with cost-effectiveness and non-availability of thermal efficiency.
conventional substrates are one of the challenges of ABE fermentation The potential of improving combustion efficiency and reducing
in current age. The research should focus on looking for the least ex- pollutant emissions has driven researchers to consider ethanol, n-bu-
pensive and most abundant materials, reducing the risk of food scarcity tanol and acetone as alternative fuels in ICEs. The usage of ethanol in SI
and drought and soil infertility, and addressing the problems of inter- and CI engines has gained great interests since the 1970s energy crisis,
mediate compounds inhibiting strain growth and ABE production. since then, a comprehensive research has been performed as shown in
Recently, the successful utilization of cheap and renewable cellulosic Fig. 4. Due to the addition of ethanol to gasoline and diesel, the change
materials as substrates has opened new possibilities to achieve eco- of some key properties associated with the proper operation of ICEs,
nomical ABE production. including blend stability [105], materials compatibility [106], viscosity
Developments in the field of process technology are also able to [107], lubricity [108], flammability [109], biodegradability [110],
result in improvements in numbers of aspects of ABE fermentation et al., were examined. Through the investigation of combustion char-
engineering, including improvement in the processing of lignocellulose acteristics [111–116], engine performances and emissions [117–122],
and other feedstocks to yield fermentable sugars, optimization of pro- the political, economic and environmental problems of blending
cess control through the application of on-line monitoring and using ethanol have been clarified, such as: Will ethanol addition reduce air
microprocessors, development of cheap and efficient systems for the pollutant emissions and greenhouse gas emissions? What is the energy
continuous production of solvents, and improvement of by-product efficiency of ethanol? What is the impact of ethanol added into gasoline
utilization. and diesel on soil and groundwater contamination? Is ethanol addition
Given that academic and industrial research work towards eco- sustainable? The studies related to ICEs fueled with ethanol-fossil fuels
nomically bio-based solvent production will continue, ABE fermenta- blends were summarized and discussed by Masum et al. [123] and
tion industries would have a bright future. Ribeiro et al. [124]. The advances of high energy content, cetane
number and viscosity, etc., make butanol preferable than ethanol to be
3. Application of ABE as a biofuel in ICEs alternative fuel of ICEs. With the improvement of butanol productivity,
increasing studies on the usage of butanol on ICEs have been carried out
ABE has attracted attention as a biofuel due to its various ad- in recent years, including fundamental combustion [125–128] and
vantages. Investigations of ICEs fueled ABE-fossil fuel blends have re- chemical kinetics [129–132] in some burning reactors, performance
cently been carried out from the following three aspects: (1) ABE and emissions of butanol-fossil fuels blends in SI engines [133–136] and
components’ physicochemical properties and tests in ICEs; (2) substitute CI engines [137–140]. The evolutions of production technology and
for diesel in compression ignition (CI) engines; (3) substitute for gaso- application research in ICEs of butanol as a biofuel have been reviewed
line in spark ignition (SI) engines. by No [141] and Jin et al. [24]. Acetone (a colorless, somewhat aro-
matic and flammable liquid) is often referred to as a good solvent for
3.1. Physicochemical properties and tests in ICEs of ABE components some synthetic fibers and plastic materials and important orga-
nic synthesis for producing epikote, medicine, pesticide, etc.
The physicochemical properties directly affect the combustion [142–145], and has higher energy density, heating value, octane
quality of fuel and performance and emissions characteristics of ICEs. number and lower latent heat vaporization than ethanol. It can be
Some key physicochemical properties of gasoline, diesel and ABE produced through oxidation of isopropyl alcohol, cumene process and
components (i.e. ethanol, butanol and acetone), such as energy density, fermentation process, etc. [146–148]. Acetone has been considered an
lower heating value and laminar flame speed, etc., are listed in Table 3 alternative fuel of ICEs [149–154], however, less research was done on
[99–104]. The comparative features of these fuels are presented below: the effect of blending acetone on combustion and emission character-
(1) The oxygen contained in ethanol, n-butanol and acetone is bene- istics compared to ethanol and n-butanol.
ficial for combustion quality; (2) The lower C/H atom ratio of ethanol
and n-butanol compared to that of gasoline and diesel reduces the
adiabatic flame temperature; (3) The energy density of ethanol, n-

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

Table 3
Physicochemical properties of conventional fossil fuels and ABE components.
Parameter Gasolinea Dieselb Ethanolc n-Butanold Acetonee

Chemical formula C4 ∼ C12 C12 ∼ C25 C2H5OH C4H9OH C3H6O

Oxygen content (wt%) – – 34.8 21.6 27.6
C/H atom ratio 0.44 (octane) 0.44 (n-heptane) 0.33 0.40 0.50
Density (kg/m3) at 20 °C 715 ∼ 765 820 ∼ 860 795 813 791
Lower heating value (MJ/kg) 43.4 42.7 26.8 33.1 29.6
Energy density (MJ/l) 31.0 ∼ 33.2 35.0 ∼ 36.7 21.3 26.9 23.4
Octane number 88 ∼ 99 20 ∼ 30 100 96 117
Cetane number 0 ∼ 10 40 ∼ 55 5.0 ∼ 8.0 25 –
Latent heat at 298 K (kJ/kg) 380 ∼ 500 270 904 582 518
Auto-ignition temperature (K) ∼300 ∼210 434 343 465
Flash point (°C) −45 ∼ −38 65 ∼ 88 13 35 −20
Flammability limits (vol.%) at 25 °C 0.6 ∼ 8.0 1.5 ∼ 7.6 3.5 ∼ 15.0 1.4 ∼ 11.2 2.6 ∼ 12.8
Stoichimometric AFR 14.7 14.3 9.0 11.2 9.5
Saturation pressure (kPa) at 38 °C 31.0 1.9 13.8 2.3 52.5
Solubility in water (g/l) at 25 °C Immiscible Immiscible Miscible 73 Miscible
Laminar flame speed (cm/s) ∼33f – ∼39f ∼48g ∼34h

Note: aProperties of gasoline are from [99,100]. bProperties of diesel are from [103]. cProperties of ethanol are from [99,102]. dProperties of n-butanol are from
[103,104]. eProperties of acetone are from [101]. fp = 1 atm, T = 325 K. gp = 1 atm, T = 343 K. hp = 1 atm, T = 298 K.

600 oxygen extended sooting index (OESI). Results showed that the high H/
Ethanol and engine as search topics in Web of Sience
Butanol and engine as search topics in Web of Sience C ratio and oxygen content of ethanol and butanol had a positive effect
500 Acetone and engine as search topics in Web of Sience on reducing soot emission, while unsaturation degree of acetone had a
negative effect. A multi-component evaporation model was built to
Total publications

400 accurately predict the evaporation evolution of ABE-diesel blends, and

the model was validated by the experimental results of droplet fiber-
suspension evaporation [165].
In order to study the effect of acetone content in ABE on combustion
characteristics in CI engine, Wu et al. [166,167] tested the combustion
200 of 20 vol% ABEs with various components volumetric ratio (A:B:E of
3:6:1, 6:3:1 and 0:10:0) blended with diesel (i.e. ABE(6:3:1)20, ABE
100 (3:6:1)20 and ABE(0:10:0)20) in CVC. In comparison with diesel, ABE
(6:3:1)20 presented similar shape and peak value of both pressure trace
0 and heat release rate (HRR), shorter ignition delay and combustion

20 5
20 3
20 6
20 8
20 2
20 4



duration, and stronger premixed combustion. Meanwhile, ABE-diesel






blends showed a relatively lower spatial integrated natural flame lu-

minosity (SNIL, an indicator of soot emission [168]) compared to
Fig. 4. Total publications with ethanol, butanol, acetone and engine as search diesel. Tim et al. [169] tested a CI engine fueled with ABE(3:6:1)10,
topics in Web of Science respectively from 2000 to 2017. ABE(3:6:1)20, ABE(6:3:1)10, ABE(6:3:1)20 and diesel. It was seen that
ABE-diesel blends slightly reduce power output except for ABE(6:3:1)
3.2. Substitute for diesel in CI engines 10, and ABE(6:3:1) blends had a retarded combustion and lower
emissions compared to the ABE(3:6:1) blends.
Investigations of ABE as an alternative fuel in CI engine have been The effect of butanol content on ABE combustion in CI engine was
conducted by several researchers, as listed in Table 4. The effect of ABE studied through comparing pure ABE, n-butanol, and diesel referred to
ratio on combustion characteristics was study by Zhou et al. [155,156], as ABE100, n-B100 and D100, respectively [170]. ABE100 presented a
Wu et al. [157,158] and Lin et al. [159] through the experimental test longer flame lift-off length (FLoL) and a shorter liquid penetration than
of D100, ABE20, ABE50 and ABE80 (0, 20, 50 and 80 vol% ABE with a n-B100 and D100. Therefore, the droplets of ABE100 had more space
typical fermentation product volumetric ratio of A:B:E = 3:6:1 blended and time to evaporate and mix with air. With regards to combustion
with diesel) in a constant volume chamber (CVC) under different am- characteristics, ABE100 generally showed a retarded combustion
bient temperatures and oxygen concentrations, as shown in Fig. 5. phasing and a lower peak HRR than B100 and D100. The peaks of the
ABE50 displayed a combustion characteristic similar with pure diesel. It SINL and the time integrated natural luminosity (TINL) of n-B100 and
was speculated that a critical blend ratio between 50 vol% and 80 vol% D100 were higher than those of ABE100.
could be existed, beyond which the combustion characteristics may be Since the amount of ethanol is usually small (∼10 vol%) in ABE
controlled by ABE. Meanwhile, ABE-diesel blends got a lower natural from the current fermentation process, the investigations concerning
flame luminosity than pure diesel. It means the blends have the po- the effect of ethanol in ABE combustion is rare. However, through
tential to reduce soot emission. Lin et al. [160,161] tested a CI engine comparing the previous results of different ABE compositions and neat
fueled with ABE10 and ABE20. ABE additive retarded the start of auto- butanol, it was indicated that ethanol has a retardation effect on the
ignition, accelerated heat release during CA10 ∼ CA50, reduced power ignition timing of the mixtures due to its low cetane number. Some
output, improved indicated thermal efficiency (ITE), reduced soot researchers have also investigated the application of ethanol-diesel in
emissions, and increased NOx emissions. A phenomenological soot CI engines [171]. Common conclusions included the decreased engine
model considering the oxidation effect on soot density was proposed for torque, the increased brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and the
ABE by Zhao et al. [162,163]. Luo et al. [164] used a wick-fed burner to reduced particulate matter (PM) after ethanol addition.
evaluate soot tendency of ABE-diesel blends according to three para- Study on the effect of water containing on ABE combustion in CI
meters including flame height, threshold sooting index (TSI) and engine was performed by Chang et al. [172]. In comparison with diesel,
the ABE20 improved brake thermal efficiency (BTE), increased NOx

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

emissions and reduced PM and toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaPeq)



emissions, while adding 0.5 vol% water into ABE20 (ABE20W0.5) did





not only cause a further increase in BTE and decrease in PM and BaPeq
emissions, but also a decrease of NOx emissions. In order to solve the

Effect of acetone content on spray and combustion of ABE-

Effect of butanol content on spray and combustion of ABE-

Effect of blend ratio on spray and combustion of ABE-diesel

Engine performance, emissions and durability with ethanol-

Effect of blend ratio on combustion and emissions of ABE- problem of the increase of NOx emission after adding biodiesel to diesel,
the usage of water-containing ABE-biodiesel-diesel blends was in-

Effect of ABE and water contents on combustion and

vestigated, and results showed that both PM and NOx emissions of

emissions of water containing ABE-diesel blends

water-containing ABE-biodiesel-diesel blends were simultaneously re-
duced relative to those of diesel [173].
Evaporation model of ABE-diesel blends

3.3. Substitute for gasoline in SI engines

Soot model of ABE-diesel blends

There are also lots of work on ABE as a substitute for gasoline, as

listed in Table 5. Van Geem et al. conducted an experimentally kinetic
modeling study of ABE combustion [174]. In this study, a detailed
mechanism of the pyrolysis and oxidation of ABE was proposed, in
which 350 species and more than 10,000 reactions were contained. The
diesel blends

diesel blends

diesel blends

diesel blends

laminar flame speed (LFS) of ABE was also measured and its value was

higher than that of acetone and lower than that of ethanol and butanol.

The complicate interaction between ABE components was clarified by

Zhang et al. [175] based on the analysis of chemical kinetics, stretch
Surface mass fraction, Normalized squared droplet diameter,
Engine power, ITE, BSFC, Ignition delay, CA10-CA50, CA50-

effect and laminar flame speed under various component ratios and
Ignition delay, Combustion duration, Spay structure, Liquid

Ignition delay, Combustion duration, Spay structure, Liquid

equivalence ratios. It was seen the LFSs followed the order of ABE
Spatial distributions of soot and relevant species, Flame

(6:3:1) < ABE(3:6:1) < ABE(1:6:3), and ethanol or n-butanol had a

positive effect on burning velocity enhancement of ABE, while acetone
penetration, Flame structure, FLoL, SINL, TINL

had a negative effect.

Engine power, BTE, BSFC, HC, CO, NOx, PM
Ignition delay, Flame structure, FLoL, SINL

The effect of ABE as alternative fuel on performance and emissions

penetration, Flame structure, FLoL, SINL

of SI engine was preliminarily investigated in Refs. [176,177] through

the tests of ABE-gasoline blends (0–80 vol% ABE blended with gasoline

referred as G100-ABE80) in a port-fuel-injected (PFI) SI engine. ABE80

had a larger pressure peak and an advanced combustion phasing
compared to gasoline because the high laminar flame speed of ABE
suppressed charge cooling effect. The increase of ABE ratio in the
height, TSI, OESI

Evaporation rate
CA90, NOx, Soot

blends resulted in a steady increased BSFC due to its lower energy

Test parameter

density relative to gasoline, a decreased CO emission due to the en-

hanced oxidization, and an initially increased and then decreased HC
emission due to the competition between the improved combustion
quality and the more injected fuel. With respect to NOx emission, no
major differences were observed among the blends, as shown in Fig. 6.
The effect of the components in ABE on performance and emissions
Diesel engine generator, Diesel

of SI engine was investigated by Nithyanandan et al. [178,179] and Li

et al. [180] through the tests of ABE with different formulations of
A:B:E of 1:8:1, 3:6:1, 5:4:1, et al. It was found that the increase of n-
CVC, Wick-fed burner

engine dynamometer

butanol content caused an advanced combustion phasing due to the

higher flame speed of butanol relative to acetone and ethanol. At each
fuel’s MBT (Maximum Brake Torque), ABE(6:3:1)100 had a higher BTE
Summarization of the studies on combustion of ABE-diesel blends.

CI engine

CI engine

and a lower CO and HC emissions than ABE(3:6:1)100 and G100 be-





cause the more oxygen contained in acetone relative to butanol and

gasoline is favor of the improvement of combustion quality and the
post-flame oxidation of HC and CO emissions [178,179]. At gasoline’s
D100, ABE10, ABE20, ABE30, ABE10W0.5, ABE20W0.5,

MBT, ABE(3:6:1)30 showed a higher BTE than ABE(1:8:1)30 and ABE

D100, ABE5, ABE10, ABE20, ABE30, ABE50, ABE100

(5:4:1)30 due to the more work loss resulted from the advanced com-
D100, ABE(6:3:1)20, ABE(3:6:1)20, ABE(0:10:0)20

bustion phasing of ABE(1 8 1)30 and the longer combustion duration of

ABE(5:4:1)30. Meanwhile, ABE-gasoline blends presented an unstable
variation trend of CO and HC emissions due to the competition between
ABE30W0.5, ABE20W1, ABE30W1
D100, ABE20, ABE40, ABE60, ABE80

the effects of oxygen concentration and combustion temperature [180].

The effect of water containing on ABE-gasoline blends combustion
D100, ABE20, ABE50, ABE80

D100, ABE10, ABE20, ABE30

was investigated through the tests of ABE30, ABE29.5W0.5 and

ABE29W1 (29 vol% ABE, 1 vol% water and 70 vol% gasoline)
D100, ABE100, n-B100

[181,182]. In comparison with ABE30, ABE29.5W0.5 and ABE29W1

Ethanol-diesel blends

presented a longer and shorter 0–10% MFB and 10–90% MFB, respec-
tively, because water additive resulted in the decrease of combustion
temperature, but the increase of OH radicals at the same time.
ABE29.5W0.5 had a similar engine torque with ABE30, while ABE29W1
Table 4


had a higher one due to the increased volumetric efficiency and the
catalytic activity of water vapor. ABE29.5W0.5 and ABE29W1 had a

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

Fuel D100, ABE(6:3:1)20,

D100, ABE20, ABE50, ABE80 D100, ABE100, n-B100
ABE(3:6:1)20, ABE(0:10:0)
(Oxy16%,1000K) (Oxy16%,1200K)
Item (Oxy21%,800K)
D100ėABE 20ėABE 50ėABE 80 D100ėABE (6:3:1 )20ėABE (3:6:1 )20ėABE (0:10:)20 D100ėABE 100ėn-B10 0





Fig. 5. Combustion characteristics of ABE-diesel blends in CVC [158,166,170].

lower CO emission compared to ABE30 as result of the water-gas shift injection strategy, oxygenated fuels increased PM emission and E40 had
mechanism. However, for HC emission, a trend opposite to CO emission the highest increase, followed by ABE40 and B40, with respect to ga-
was found because of the higher amount of fuel got into the crevice soline. Based on the reality that high-level ethanol blend has been used
volumes or absorbed in oil layers and then deposited. Moreover, water in flexible fuel vehicles, a comparative study of neat gasoline and ga-
addition caused a reduced NOx emission due to the decreased com- soline blended with 85 vol% ethanol, butanol and ABE (E85, B85 and
bustion temperature. ABE85) in a PFI SI engine was carried out by Zhang et al. [184]. Among
The comparisons between ABE with conventional alternative fuels the fuels, E85 presented the largest peak of in-cylinder pressure and the
of SI engines were also carried out. Fournier et al. evaluated the most advanced combustion phasing, while B85 presented the smallest
emissions of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine (DISI) fueled with peak of in-cylinder pressure and the most retarded phasing. Both
low concentrations of oxygenated fuel (including ethanol, butanol and 0–10% MFB and 10–90% MFB of the fuels were followed in the same
ABE) and gasoline blends [183]. Oxygenated fuel addition increased sequence: B85 > Gasoline > ABE85 > E85. B85 produced much
the ignition delay and the fully developed turbulent combustion, and higher HC and CO emissions than other fuels due to the incomplete
caused slightly increased CO emission, decreased HC emission, de- combustion caused by poor evaporation of butanol. And in general, the
creased or constant NOx emission with homogeneous injection, and alcohol-containing fuels had slightly lower BTE and NOx emission.
increased HC emission with stratified charge injection. Under homo-
geneous injection strategy, ethanol and butanol-gasoline blends re-
duced PM emission, while PM emission of ABE-gasoline blends re- 3.4. Summary and perspectives
mained unchanged with respect to gasoline. While, under stratified
In this section, the application of ABE as a biofuel are summarized

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

from three aspects, including physicochemical properties and tests in



ICEs of ABE components, substitute for diesel in compression ignition
[174] engines, and substitute for gasoline in spark ignition engines. The

properties indicate ABE has a potential to be a suitable alternative fuel

emissions of water containing ABE-gasoline blends

Effect of blend ratio on combustion and emissions
as it is biodegradable, less detrimental to environment, oxygen con-

Comparison between ABE, ethanol and butanol

taining, etc. compared to gasoline and diesel, and has a higher energy
Effect of ABE components on combustion and

Effect of water content on combustion and

density, less ignition problems, better intersolubility, etc., compared to
ethanol. Based on the fundamental combustion experiments in reactors,
Detailed mechanism for ABE oxidation

the detailed mechanism for the oxidation of ABE was developed. The
emissions of ABE-gasoline blends

tests in CVC, burner and CI engines showed ABE-diesel blends can in-
crease ignition delay, decrease combustion duration, improve com-
bustion efficiency, and reduce soot emission. In SI engines, studies of
of ABE-gasoline blends

ABE-gasoline blends also revealed a decreased combustion duration and

an improved combustion efficiency. However, there were inconsistent
-gasoline blends

trends for HC, CO and NOx emissions of ABE-gasoline blends due to the
different tested engines, operating conditions, or measurement techni-

ques and instruments. The water contained in ABE can not only lead to
a further increase in combustion efficiency, but also a decrease in NOx
Butanol conversion, Yields of acetone, ethanol, methane, ethene, propene, butane,
hydrogen, major oxygenated species and minor heavier species, Laminar burning

Based on the above studies, several challenges are faced in the area
of ABE application in ICEs. The effect of ethanol on the combustion and
0–10% MFB, 10–90% MFB, 50% MFB location, BTE, BSFC, CO, HC, NOx

emissions characteristics of ABE-diesel blends and ABE-gasoline blends

should be further validated. The optimized blend ratio of ABE-gasoline
blends and ABE-diesel blends can be obtained in favor of the power,
0–10% MFB, 10–90% MFB, SFC, BTE, BSFC, CO, HC, PM, NOx

economy and emissions of ICEs. Numbers of key physicochemical

properties of ABE-gasoline blends and ABE-diesel blends being essential
to the proper operation of ICEs need to be evaluated. There is a need for
0–10% MFB, 10–90% MFB, BTE, BSFC, CO, HC, NOx

0–10% MFB, 10–90% MFB, BTE, BSFC, CO, HC, NOx

more optical experimental studies and more detailed chemical kinetic

models, which is important to the development of computational
combustion dynamics for ABE-gasoline blends and ABE-diesel blends.
The single-factorial design of experiment is difficult because the change
of one component of ABE mixture will surely affect the other two,
which makes the conclusions indefinite and obstructs the quantitative
analysis. The methodology and the instrumentation used for should be
improved to fulfill the measurements of ABE in ICEs.

4. Conclusions and future research directions

Test parameter

4.1. Conclusions

Global energy crisis and limited fossil-fuel resources have rekindled

the worldwide focus towards the usage of biofuel. Given that the issues
DISI engine and PFI SI

related to the low yields and the high cost of butanol would be avoided
if ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the interest in ABE
as a biofuel has dramatically increased recently.
PFI SI engine

PFI SI engine

PFI SI engine
Summarization of the studies on combustion of ABE-gasoline blends.

The development of ABE fermentation techniques is firstly re-



viewed, and related work in the areas of stains screen, substrates se-

lection and fermentation engineering innovation to increase production

efficiency are introduced in detail. Improvements in these areas, in-
G100, ABE(6:3:1)100, ABE(3:6:1)100, ABE(5:14:1)100, ABE

G100, E10-E40, B10-B40, ABE10-ABE40, E85, B85, ABE85

cluding the application of various novel genome sequence and genetic

modification tools, the use of fermentation substrates derived from
waste- and lignocellulose-based feedstocks, the optimization of fed-
batch and continuous fermentation processes, the manipulation of
growth and production conditions, etc., have improved ABE yields and
(1:8:1)30, ABE(3:6:1)30, ABE(5:4:1)30

making ABE an economically viable biofuel.

G100, ABE30, ABE29.5W0.5, ABE29W1
G100, ABE20, ABE40, ABE60, ABE80

Next, applications of ABE as the alternative fuel in ICEs are sum-

marized from the physical and chemical properties and the substitutes
Acetone, ethanol, butanol, ABE

for gasoline and diesel in combustion. The properties indicate ABE has
the potential to overcome some drawbacks brought by gasoline, diesel
and ethanol in combustion. The studies of ABE-diesel blends revealed
some common characteristics, including an increased ignition delay, a
decreased combustion duration, a better atomization and evaporation
processes, an increased fuel consumption, an improved combustion
efficiency and a reduced soot emission. In the studies of ABE-gasoline
Table 5


blends, a decreased combustion duration, an advanced combustion

phasing, an increased fuel consumption and an improved combustion

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

Fuel Gasoline, ABE(3:6:1), ABE0/Gasoline,

Gasoline, E85, B85, ABE85,
ABE(6:3:1), ABE(5:14:1), Butanol ABE30, ABE29.5W0.5
(Gasoline MBT)
Item (Fuels MBT) (Gasoline MBT)

0 - 10% MFB

10 - 90% MFB





Fig. 6. Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of engine fueled with ABE-gasoline blends [177,179,181,184].

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

efficiency were obtained. However, the CO, HC and NOx emissions may [7] Delucchi MA. Impacts of biofuels on climate change, water use, and land use. Ann
be reduced or increased depending on engines types, operating condi- NY Acad Sci 2010;1195:28–45.
[8] Granda CB, Zhu L, Holtzapple MT. Sustainable liquid biofuels and their environ-
tions and blending ratios, etc. mental impact. Environ Prog Sustain 2007;26:233–50.
Finally, according to all these reports, it can be concluded that ABE [9] Zhang Z, E J, Chen J, Zhu H, Zhao X, Han D, et al. Effects of low-level water
could be a good alternative biofuel due to the environmentally benign addition on spray, combustion and emission characteristics of a medium speed
diesel engine fueled with biodiesel fuel. Fuel 2019;239:245–62.
manufacturing process (from non-edible biomass feedstock and without [10] E J, Pham M, Deng Y, Nguyen T, Duy V, Le D, et al. Effects of injection timing and
a recovery process), and the potential to improve combustion efficiency injection pressure on performance and exhaust emissions of a common rail diesel
and reduce pollutant emissions. engine fueled by various concentrations of fish-oil biodiesel blends. Energy
[11] Franco J, Levidow L, Fig D, Goldfarb L, Hönicke M, Luisa Mendonça M.
4.2. Future research directions Assumptions in the European Union biofuels policy: frictions with experiences in
Germany, Brazil and Mozambique. J Peasant Stud 2010;37:661–98.
[12] Ziolkowska J, Meyers WH, Meyer S, Binfield J. Targets and mandates: lessons
Although ABE is a potential alternative biofuel for ICEs, the appli-
learned from EU and US biofuels policy mechanisms. J Agrobiotechnol Manage
cations of ABE are highly dependent on its production and price. Econ 2011;13:1–35.
Therefore, making ABE production economically and sustainably viable [13] E J, Zhang Z, Chen J, Pham M, Zhao X, Peng Q, et al. Performance and emission
is needed, and future research should focus on: (i) screening strains evaluation of a marine diesel engine fueled by water biodiesel-diesel emulsion
blends with a fuel additive of a cerium oxide nanoparticle. Energy Convers Manage
through molecular engineering to control the concentration, yield, and 2018;169:194–205.
ratios of solvents; (ii) using economical non-food carbon substrates [14] Yacoub Y, Bata R, Gautam M. The performance and emission characteristics of
obtained from renewable biomass at industrial scale; (iii) developing C1–C5 alcohol-gasoline blends with matched oxygen content in a single-cylinder
spark ignition engine. P I Mech Eng A-J Pow 1998;212:363–79.
advanced continuous fermentation strategies; (iv) introducing addi- [15] Kumar S, Cho JH, Park J, Moon I. Advances in diesel-alcohol blends and their
tional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. effects on the performance and emissions of diesel engines. Renew Sustain Energy
Although problems associated with strains complexity, substrates Rev 2013;22:46–72.
[16] Walker GM. 125th anniversary review: fuel alcohol: current production and future
availability and fermentation techniques feasibility are the challenges challenges. J I Brewing 2011;117:3–22.
in current age, it is expected that a sustainable and cost-effective pro- [17] Olah GA. Beyond oil and gas: the methanol economy. Angew Chem Int Edit
cess of ABE production will be realized in near future through a further 2005;44:2636–9.
[18] Gerdes KR, Suppes GJ. Miscibility of ethanol in diesel fuels. Indus Eng Chem Res
understanding of social conditions, scientific fundamentals and en- 2001;40:949–56.
gineering principles. [19] Torkkeli J, Hirsi V, Saukkonen T, Hänninen H. Mechanistic study of stress corro-
With regards to the usage of ABE in ICEs, studies are not as com- sion cracking of carbon steel in ethanol. Mater Corros 2013;64:866–75.
[20] He BQ, Shuai SJ, Wang JX, He H. The effect of ethanol blended diesel fuels on
prehensive as the case of conventional alternative fuels. Therefore,
emissions from a diesel engine. Atmos Environ 2003;37:4965–71.
more studies of ABE should be carried out from the following several [21] Jin C, Yao M, Liu H, Chia-fon FL, Ji J. Progress in the production and application of
aspects: (i) the effect of ABE added to gasoline or diesel fuel on certain n-butanol as a biofuel. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2011;15:4080–106.
key properties including stability, safety, materials compatibility and [22] Giakoumis EG, Rakopoulos CD, Dimaratos AM, Rakopoulos DC. Exhaust emissions
with ethanol or n-butanol diesel fuel blends during transient operation: a review.
fuel biodegradability, etc.; (ii) the tests of ABE at different kinds of Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2013;17:170–90.
engines, such as traditional engines or new engines, four-stroke or two- [23] Zhao D, Lu Z, Zhao H, Li XY, Wang B, Liu P. A review of active control approaches
stroke engines, port-injection and direct-injection engines, etc., under in stabilizing combustion systems in aerospace industry. Prog Aerospace Sci
different kinds of control strategies, such as multiple injection, cylinder [24] Jin C, Yao M, Liu H, Lee CF, Ji J. Progress in the production and application of n-
deactivation, homogeneous charge, EGR and boost, etc., using different butanol as a biofuel. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2011;15:4080–106.
kinds of combustion technologies, such as controlled auto-ignition, [25] Zhao D, Gutmark E, Goey P. A review of cavity-based trapped vortex, ultra-com-
pact, high-g, inter-turbine combustors. Prog Energy Combust 2018;66:42–82.
homogeneous charge compression ignition, low temperature combus- [26] Tao L, Aden A. The economics of current and future biofuels. Vitro Cell Dev-Pl
tion and reactivity controlled compression ignition, etc.; (iii) the 2009;45:199–217.
guidelines to optimize ABE formulation and ABE content in fuel blends, [27] Pfromm PH, Amanor-Boadu V, Nelson R, Vadlani P, Madl R. Bio-butanol vs. bio-
ethanol: a technical and economic assessment for corn and switchgrass fermented
including the identification of competing factors and numerically
by yeast or Clostridium acetobutylicum. Biomass Bioenergy 2010;34:515–24.
modelling of optimization problems; (iv) the conclusive trend of com- [28] Kraemer K, Harwardt A, Bronneberg R, Marquardt W. Separation of butanol from
bustion, performance and emissions when fueling ABE. More strict acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation by a hybrid extraction–distillation process.
Comput Chem Eng 2011;35:949–63.
emissions regulations and government policies to increase biofuel usage
[29] Qureshi N, Blaschek H. ABE production from corn: a recent economic evaluation. J
will drive the managers and researchers to resolve the remaining bar- Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2001;27:292–7.
riers of the application of ABE as a biofuel. [30] Zheng J, Tashiro Y, Wang Q, Sonomoto K. Recent advances to improve fermen-
tative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology. J
Biosci Bioeng 2015;119:1–9.
Acknowledgment [31] Xue C, Zhao XQ, Liu CG, Chen LJ, Bai FW. Prospective and development of butanol
as an advanced biofuel. Biotechnol Adv 2013;31:1575–84.
This material is based upon work supported by National Natural [32] Tracy BP, Jones SW, Fast AG, Indurthi DC, Papoutsakis ET. Clostridia: the im-
portance of their exceptional substrate and metabolite diversity for biofuel and
Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51806250). biorefinery applications. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2012;23:364–81.
[33] López-Contreras AM, Claassen PAM, Mooibroek H, De Vos WM. Utilisation of
References saccharides in extruded domestic organic waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum
ATCC 824 for production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. Appl Microbiol
Biotechnol 2000;54:162–7.
[1] Shafiee S, Topal E. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished? Energy Policy [34] Qureshi N, Saha BC, Dien B, Hector RE, Cotta MA. Production of butanol (a bio-
2009;37:181–9. fuel) from agricultural residues: Part I-Use of barley straw hydrolysate. Biomass
[2] Nel WP, Cooper CJ. Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and Bioenergy 2010;34:559–65.
global warming. Energy Policy 2009;37:166–80. [35] Tashiro Y, Takeda K, Kobayashi G, Sonomoto K, Ishizaki A, Yoshino S. High bu-
[3] Meinshausen M, Meinshausen N, Hare W, Raper SC, Frieler K, Knutti R, et al. tanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1–4 in fed-batch
Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 °C. Nature culture with pH-Stat continuous butyric acid and glucose feeding method. J Biosci
2009;458:1158. Bioeng 2004;98:263–8.
[4] Zhang Z, E J, Deng Y, Pham M, Zuo W, Peng Q, Yin Z. Effects of fatty acid methyl [36] Liew ST, Arbakariya A, Rosfarizan M, Raha A. Production of solvent (acetone-
esters proportion on combustion and emission characteristics of a biodiesel fueled butanol-ethanol) in continuous fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM
marine diesel engine. Energy Convers Manage 2018;159:244–53. 13864 using gelatinised sago starch as a carbon source. Malaysian J Microbiol
[5] Liu T, E J, Yang WM, Deng Y, An H, Zhang Z, Pham M. Investigation on the ap- 2006;2:42–50.
plicability for reaction rates adjustment of the optimized biodiesel skeletal me- [37] Jang YS, Malaviya A, Cho C, Lee J, Lee SY. Butanol production from renewable
chanism. Energy 2018;150:1031–8. biomass by clostridia. Bioresour Technol 2012;123:653–63.
[6] Demirbas A. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: a review. [38] Qureshi N, Lai L, Blaschek H. Scale-up of a high productivity continuous biofilm
Appl Energy 2009;86:108–17. reactor to produce butanol by adsorbed cells of Clostridium beijerinckii. Food

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

Bioprod Process 2004;82:164–73. [69] Mosier N, Hendrickson R, Ho N, Sedlak M, Ladisch MR. Optimization of pH con-
[39] Liu XB, Gu QY, Yu XB. Repetitive domestication to enhance butanol tolerance and trolled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover. Bioresour Technol
production in Clostridium acetobutylicum through artificial simulation of bio-evo- 2005;96:1986–93.
lution. Bioresource Technol 2013;130:638–43. [70] Humbird D, Davis R, Tao L, Kinchin C, Hsu D, Aden A, et al. Process design and
[40] Tashiro Y, Sonomoto K. Advances in butanol production by clostridia. Curr Res economics for biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol: dilute-
Technol Educ Top Appl Microbiol Microb Biotechnol 2010;2:1383–94. acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. Natl Renew Energy Lab
[41] Shen CR, Liao JC. Metabolic engineeing of Escherichia coli for 1-butanol and 1- Techn Report 2011.
propanol production via the keto-acid pathways. Metab Eng 2008;10:312–20. [71] Kaar WE, Holtzapple MT. Using lime pretreatment to facilitate the enzymic hy-
[42] Berezina OV, Zakharova NV, Brandt A, Yarotsky SV, Schwarz WH, Zverlov VV. drolysis of corn stover. Biomass Bioenerg 2000;18:189–99.
Reconstructing the clostridial n-butanol metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus brevis. [72] Kim TH, Kim JS, Sunwoo C, Lee YY. Pretreatment of corn stover by aqueous
Appl Microbiol Biot 2010;87:635–46. ammonia. Bioresour Technol 2003;90:39–47.
[43] Nielsen DR, Leonard E, Yoon S-H, Tseng HC, Yuan C, Prather KLJ. Engineering [73] Kilpeläinen I, Xie HB, King A, Granstrom M, Heikkinen S, Argyropoulos DS.
alternative butanol production platforms in heterologous bacteria. Metab Eng Dissolution of wood in ionic liquids. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:9142–8.
2009;11:262–73. [74] Zverlov VV, Berezina O, Velikodvorskaya GA, Schwarz WH. Bacterial acetone and
[44] Liu S, Bischoff KM, Qureshi N, Hughes SR, Rich JO. Functional expression of the butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: use of hydro-
thiolase gene thl from Clostridium beijerinckii P260 in Lactococcus lactis and lyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
Lactobacillus buchneri. New Biotechnol 2010;27:283–8. 2006;71:587–97.
[45] Steen EJ, Chan R, Prasad N, Myers S, Petzold CJ, Redding A, et al. Metabolic [75] Lynd LR. Toward an aggregated understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellu-
engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol. Microb lose: noncomplexed cellulase systems. Biotechnol Bioeng 2004;88:797–824.
Cell Fact 2008;7:36. [76] May O, Nguyen PT, Arnold FH. Inverting enantioselectivity by directed evolution
[46] Shi X, Pang X, Mu Y, He H, Shuai S, Wang J, et al. Emission reduction potential of of hydantoinase for improved production of l-methionine. Nat Biotechnol
using ethanol–biodiesel–diesel fuel blend on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Atmos 2000;18:317.
Environ 2006;40:2567–74. [77] Ó’Fágáin C. Enzyme stabilization—recent experimental progress. Enzyme Microb
[47] Huang WC, Ramey DE, Yang ST. Continuous production of butanol by Clostridium Technol 2003;33:137–49.
acetobutylicum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor. Proceedings of the Twenty- [78] Fuentes M, Segura RL, Abian O, Betancor L, Hidalgo A, Mateo C, et al.
Fifth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held May 4-7, 2003, in Determination of protein-protein interactions through aldehyde-dextran inter-
Breckenridge, CO. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2004. p. 887–98. molecular cross-linking. Proteomics 2004;4:2602–7.
[48] Chiao JS, Sun ZH. History of the acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation industry in [79] Gershenson A, Arnold FH. Enzyme stabilization by directed evolution. Genet Eng
China: development of continuous production technology. J Mol Microb 2000;22:55.
Biotechnol 2007;13:12–4. [80] Larsson S, Reimann A, Nilvebrant NO, Jönsson LJ. Comparison of different
[49] Thang VH, Kanda K, Kobayashi G. Production of acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) methods for the detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates of spruce. Appl
in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1–4. Biochem Biotechnol 1999;77:91–103.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2010;161:157–70. [81] Palmqvist E, Hahnhägerdal B. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II:
[50] Marchal R, Blanchet D, Vandecasteele J. Industrial optimization of acetone-bu- inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition. Bioresour Technol 2000;74:25–33.
tanol fermentation: a study of the utilization of Jerusalem artichokes. Appl [82] Huang HJ, Ramaswamy S, Tschirner UW, Ramarao BV. A review of separation
Microbiol Biotechnol 1985;23:92–8. technologies in current and future biorefineries. Sep Purif Technol 2008;62:1–21.
[51] Antoni D, Zverlov VV, Schwarz WH. Biofuels from microbes. Appl Microbiol [83] Lee SY, Park JH, Jang SH, Nielsen LK, Kim J, Jung KS. Fermentative butanol
Biotechnol 2007;77:23–35. production by Clostridia. Biotechnol Bioeng 2008;101:209–28.
[52] Li J, Xing Z, DeLaquil P, Larson ED. Biomass energy in China and its potential. [84] Wu H, He AY, Kong XP, Jiang M, Chen XP, Zhu DW, et al.
Energy Sustain Dev 2001;5:66–80. Acetone–butanol–ethanol production using pH control strategy and immobilized
[53] Qureshi N, Saha BC, Hector RE, Dien B, Hughes S, Liu S, et al. Production of cells in an integrated fermentation–pervaporation process. Process Biochem
butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: part II–use of corn stover and 2015;50:614–22.
switchgrass hydrolysates. Biomass Bioenergy 2010;34:566–71. [85] Ezeji TC, Qureshi N, Blaschek HP. Butanol fermentation research: upstream and
[54] Qureshi N, Ezeji TC, Ebener J, Dien BS, Cotta MA. Blaschek HP. Butanol produc- downstream manipulations. Chem Rec 2004;4:305–14.
tion by Clostridium beijerinckii. Part I: use of acid and enzyme hydrolyzed corn [86] Qureshi N, Schripsema J, Lienhardt J, Blaschek HP. Continuous solvent production
fiber. Bioresour Technol 2008;99:5915–22. by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 immobilized by adsorption onto brick. World J
[55] Qureshi N, Saha BC, Hector RE, Cotta MA. Removal of fermentation inhibitors Microb Biotechnol 2000;16:377–82.
from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw: [87] He CR, Lee MC, Kuo YY, Wu TM, Li SY. The influence of support structures on cell
production of butanol from hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii in batch re- immobilization and acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation performance. J
actors. Biomass Bioenergy 2008;32:1353–8. Taiwan Inst Chem E 2017;78:27–31.
[56] Al-Shorgani NKN, Kalil MS, Yusoff WMW. Biobutanol production from rice bran [88] Aleman EA, Pedini HS, Rueda D. Covalent-bond-based immobilization approaches
and de-oiled rice bran by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1–4. Bioproc for single-molecule fluorescence. ChemBioChem 2009;10:2862–6.
Biosyst Eng 2012;35:817–26. [89] Jang YS, Malaviya A, Lee SY. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high
[57] Priyadarshani I, Rath B. Commercial and industrial applications of micro algae – a productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19. Biotechnol Bioeng
review. J Algal Biomass Utln 2012;3:89–100. 2013;110:1646–53.
[58] Ellis JT, Hengge NN, Sims RC, Miller CD. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production [90] Juang RS, Chen HL, Chen YS. Membrane fouling and resistance analysis in dead-
from wastewater algae. Bioresour Technol 2012;111:491–5. end ultrafiltration of Bacillus subtilis fermentation broths. Sep Purif Technol
[59] Efremenko E, Nikolskaya A, Lyagin I, Senko O, Makhlis T, Stepanov N, et al. 2008;63:531–8.
Production of biofuels from pretreated microalgae biomass by anaerobic fermen- [91] Bankar SB, Survase SA, Singhal RS, Granström T. Continuous two stage acetone-
tation with immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum cells. Bioresour technol butanol-ethanol fermentation with integrated solvent removal using Clostridium
2012;114:342–8. acetobutylicum B5313. Bioresour Technol 2012;106:110–6.
[60] Taconi Katherine A, Venkataramanan Keerthi P, Johnson Duane T. Growth and [92] Outram V, Lalander CA, Lee JG, Davies ET, Harvey AP. Applied in situ product
solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum ATCC® 6013™ utilizing biodiesel- recovery in ABE fermentation. Biotechnol Prog 2017;33.
derived crude glycerol as the sole carbon source. Environ Prog Sustain [93] Jin WQ, Liu GP, Xu NP. Progress of pervaporation in bio-butanol production from
2009;28:100–10. ABE fermentation. Membr Sci Technol 2011;31:25–34.
[61] Vega JL, Antorrena GM, Clausen EC, Gaddy JL. Study of gaseous substrate fer- [94] Ha SH, Mai NL, Koo YM. Butanol recovery from aqueous solution into ionic liquids
mentations: carbon monoxide conversion to acetate. 2. Continuous culture. by liquid–liquid extraction. Process Biochem 2010;45:1899–903.
Biotechnol Bioeng 2004;34:785–93. [95] Qureshi N, Maddox IS. Reduction in butanol inhibition by perstraction: utilization
[62] Qureshi N, Blaschek H. Evaluation of recent advances in butanol fermentation, of concentrated lactose/whey permeate by Clostridium acetobutylicum to enhance
upstream, and downstream processing. Bioproc Biosyst Eng 2001;24:219–26. butanol fermentation economics. Food Bioprod Process 2005;83:43–52.
[63] Jørgensen H, Kristensen JB, Felby C. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into [96] Rohani SA, Mehrani P, Thibault J. Comparison of in-situ recovery methods of gas
fermentable sugars: challenges and opportunities. Biofuel Bioprod Biores stripping, pervaporation, and vacuum separation by multi-objective optimization
2007;1:119–34. for producing biobutanol via fermentation process. Can J Chem Eng
[64] Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, et al. Features of 2015;93:986–97.
promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour [97] Qureshi N, Blaschek HP. Recovery of butanol from fermentation broth by gas
Technol 2005;96:673–86. stripping. Renew Energy 2001;22:557–64.
[65] Sun Y, Cheng J. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a [98] Xue C, Zhao J, Lu C, Yang ST, Bai F, Tang IC. High-titer n -butanol production by
review. Bioresour Technol 2003;34(1):1–11. clostridium acetobutylicum JB200 in fed-batch fermentation with intermittent gas
[66] Kumar P, Barrett DM, Delwiche MJ, Stroeve P. Methods for pretreatment of lig- stripping. Biotechnol Bioeng 2012;109:2746–56.
nocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Ind Eng Chem [99] Graham LA, Belisle SL, Baas CL. Emissions from light duty gasoline vehicles op-
Res 2009;48:3713–29. erating on low blend ethanol gasoline and E85. Atmos Environ 2008;42:4498–516.
[67] Yang B, Wyman CE. Pretreatment: the key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. [100] Sileghem L, Alekseev VA, Vancoillie J, Van Geem KM, Nilsson EJK, Verhelst S,
Biofuel Bioprod Bior 2010;2:26–40. et al. Laminar burning velocity of gasoline and the gasoline surrogate components
[68] Lan W, Chen HZ. Increased fermentability of enzymatically hydrolyzed steam- iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene. Fuel 2013;112:355–65.
exploded corn stover for butanol production by removal of fermentation in- [101] Chong CT, Hochgreb S. Measurements of laminar flame speeds of acetone/me-
hibitors. Process Biochem 2011;46:604–7. thane/air mixtures. Combust Flame 2011;158:490–500.

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

[102] Veloo PS, Wang YL, Egolfopoulos FN, Westbrook CK. A comparative experimental [135] Merola SS, Valentino G, Tornatore C, Marchitto L. In-cylinder spectroscopic
and computational study of methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames. Combust measurements of knocking combustion in a SI engine fuelled with butanol–gaso-
Flame 2010;157:1989–2004. line blend. Energy 2013;62:150–61.
[103] Doğan O. The influence of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends utilization on a small diesel [136] Tornatore C, Marchitto L, Valentino G, Esposito Corcione F, Merola SS. Optical
engine performance and emissions. Fuel 2011;90:2467–72. diagnostics of the combustion process in a PFI SI boosted engine fueled with bu-
[104] Wallner T, Ickes A, Lawyer K. Analytical assessment of C2-C8 alcohols as spark- tanol–gasoline blend. Energy 2012;45:277–87.
ignition engine fuels. Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress. [137] Al-Hasan MI, Al-Momany M. The effect of iso-butanol-diesel blends on engine
Springer; 2013. p. 15–26. performance. Transport 2008;23:306–10.
[105] Lapuerta M, Armas O, García-Contreras R. Effect of ethanol on blending stability [138] Yao M, Wang H, Zheng Z, Yue Y. Experimental study of n-butanol additive and
and diesel engine emissions. Energy Fuel 2009;23:4343–54. multi-injection on HD diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel
[106] French R, Malone P. Phase equilibria of ethanol fuel blends. Fluid Phase Equilib 2010;89:2191–201.
2005;228–229:27–40. [139] Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Giakoumis EG, Dimaratos AM, Kyritsis DC.
[107] Balabin RM, Syunyaev RZ, Karpov SA. Molar enthalpy of vaporization of etha- Effects of butanol–diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-
nol–gasoline mixtures and their colloid state. Fuel 2007;86:323–7. speed DI diesel engine. Energy Convers Manage 2010;51:1989–97.
[108] Lapuerta M, García-Contreras R, Agudelo JR. Lubricity of ethanol-biodiesel-diesel [140] Zhang ZH, Balasubramanian R. Influence of butanol addition to diesel–biodiesel
fuel blends. Energy Fuels 2010;24:1374–9. blend on engine performance and particulate emissions of a stationary diesel en-
[109] Xu B, Qi Y, Zhang W, Cai S. Fuel properties and emisisons characteristics of gine. Appl Energy 2014;119:530–6.
ethanol-diesel blend on small diesel engine. Int J Auto Technol 2007;8:9–18. [141] No SY. Application of biobutanol in advanced CI engines – a review. Fuel
[110] Speidel HK, Ahmed I. Biodegradability characteristics of current and newly-de- 2016;183:641–58.
veloped alternative fuels. SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3518. [142] Sifniades S, Levy AB, Bahl H. Acetone. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA;
[111] Liao SY, Jiang DM, Cheng Q, Huang ZH, Wei Q. Investigation of the cold-start 2010.
combustion characteristics of ethanol−gasoline blends in a constant-volume [143] ICIS. Acetone Uses and Market Data; 2010.
chamber. Energy Fuel 2005;19:813–9. [144] Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Basic information
[112] Oh H, Bae C, Min K. Spray and combustion characteristics of ethanol blended on acetone; 1999.
gasoline in a spray guided DISI engine under lean stratified operation. SAE Int J html.
Engines 2010;3:213–22. [145] US Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Food additives & ingredients-food additive
[113] Lü X, Chen W, Zhang W, Li D. The influence of ethanol additives on the perfor- status list; 1998.
mance and combustion characteristics of diesel engines. Combust Sci Technol FoodAdditivesIngredients/ucm091048.htm.
2004;176:1309–29. [146] Han B, Gopalan V, Ezeji TC. Acetone production in solventogenic Clostridium
[114] Lü X, Hou Y, Zu L, Huang Z. Experimental study on the auto-ignition and com- species: new insights from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of acetoacetate. Appl
bustion characteristics in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) Microbiol Biotechnol 2011;91:565–76.
combustion operation with ethanol/n-heptane blend fuels by port injection. Fuel [147] Zhou J, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Li Y, Ma Y. Designing and creating a modularized
2006;85:2622–31. synthetic pathway in cyanobacterium Synechocystis enables production of acetone
[115] Tse H, Leung CW, Cheung CS. Investigation on the combustion characteristics and from carbon dioxide. Metab Eng 2012;14:394–400.
particulate emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-ethanol [148] Hoffmeister S, Gerdom M, Bengelsdorf FR, Linder S, Flüchter S, Öztürk H, et al.
blends. Energy 2015;83:343–50. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium
[116] Chen S, Zhao D. RANS investigation of the effect of pulsed fuel injection on woodii. Metab Eng 2016;36:37–47.
scramjet HyShot II engine. Aerosp Sci Technol 2019;84:182–92. [149] Gogoi TK, Sarma AK, Misra PS, Haque ST. Combustion analysis of jatropha methyl
[117] Yücesu HS, Sozen A, Topgül T, Arcaklioğlu E. Comparative study of mathematical ester and its ethanol and acetone blends in a diesel engine. Int J Emerg Technol
and experimental analysis of spark ignition engine performance used etha- Adv Eng 2014;3:51–7.
nol–gasoline blend fuel. Appl Therm Eng 2007;27:358–68. [150] Li Y, Nithyanandan K, Meng X, Lee TH, Lee CF, Ning Z. Experimental study on
[118] Aydin H, İlkılıç C. Effect of ethanol blending with biodiesel on engine performance combustion and emission performance of a spark-ignition engine fueled with
and exhaust emissions in a CI engine. Appl Therm Eng 2010;30:1199–204. water containing acetone-gasoline blends. Fuel 2017;210:133–44.
[119] Koç M, Sekmen Y, Topgül T, Yücesu HS. The effects of ethanol–unleaded gasoline [151] Elfasakhany A. Investigations on performance and pollutant emissions of spark-
blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a spark-ignition engine. ignition engines fueled with n -butanol–, isobutanol–, ethanol–, methanol–, and
Renew Energy 2009;34:2101–6. acetone–gasoline blends: a comparative study. Renew Sustain Energy Rev
[120] Hsieh WD, Chen RH, Wu TL, Lin TH. Engine performance and pollutant emission 2016;71:404–13.
of an SI engine using ethanol–gasoline blended fuels. Atmos Environ [152] Elfasakhany A. Performance and emissions analysis on using acetone–gasoline fuel
2002;36:403–10. blends in spark-ignition engine. Eng Sci Technol Int J 2016;19:1224–32.
[121] Sayin C. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of methanol and etha- [153] Lin SL, Lee WJ, Lee CF, Chen SJ. Energy savings and emission reduction of ni-
nol–diesel blends. Fuel 2010;89:3410–5. trogen oxides, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by adding
[122] Ren Z, Wang B, Zhao D, Zheng L. Flame propagation involved in vortices of su- water-containing acetone and neat soybean oil to a diesel-fueled engine generator.
personic mixing layers laden with droplets: Effects of ambient pressure and spray Energy Fuel 2010;24:4522–33.
equivalence ratio. Phys Fluids 2018;30:106–7. [154] Meng L, Zeng C, Li Y, Nithyanandan K, Lee T, Lee CF. An experimental study on
[123] Masum BM, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Fattah IMR, Palash SM, Abedin MJ. Effect of the potential usage of acetone as an oxygenate additive in PFI SI engines. Energies
ethanol–gasoline blend on NOx emission in SI engine. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2016;9:256.
2013;24:209–22. [155] Zhou N, Wu H, Lee CF, Wang Q, Huo M, Wang P. Different percentage of acetone-
[124] Ribeiro NM, Pinto AC, Quintella CM, da Rocha GO, Teixeira LSG, Guarieiro LLN, butanol-ethanol (ABE) and diesel blends at low temperature condition in a con-
et al. The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) stant volume chamber. SAE Technical Paper 2014–01-1257..
fuels: a review. Energy Fuel 2007;21:2433–45. [156] Zhou N, Huo M, Wu H, Nithyanandan K, Chia-fon FL, Wang Q. Low temperature
[125] Liu Y, Li J, Jin C. Fuel spray and combustion characteristics of butanol blends in a spray combustion of acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) and diesel blends. Appl
constant volume combustion chamber. Energy Convers Manage Energy 2014;117:104–15.
2015;105:1059–69. [157] Wu H, Nithyanandan K, Li B, Lee TH, Chia-fon FL, Zhang C. Investigation on spray
[126] Gu X, Huang Z, Wu S, Li Q. Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of and soot lift-off length of an ABE-diesel blend in a constant volume vhamber with
butanol isomers–air mixtures. Combust Flame 2010;157:2318–25. diesel engine conditions. ASME 2014 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall
[127] Veloo PS, Egolfopoulos FN. Flame propagation of butanol isomers/air mixtures. Technical Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2014.
Proc Combust Inst 2011;33:987–93. V001T02A11-VT02A11.
[128] Yang B, Oßwald P, Li Y, Wang J, Wei L, Tian Z, et al. Identification of combustion [158] Wu H, Nithyanandan K, Zhang J, Lin Y, Lee TH, Lee CF, et al. Impacts of acet-
intermediates in isomeric fuel-rich premixed butanol–oxygen flames at low pres- one–butanol–ethanol (ABE) ratio on spray and combustion characteristics of
sure. Combust Flame 2007;148:198–209. ABE–diesel blends. Appl Energy 2015;149:367–78.
[129] Dagaut P, Sarathy SM, Thomson MJ. A chemical kinetic study of n-butanol oxi- [159] Lin Y, Wu H, Nithyanandan K, Lee TH, Lee CF, Zhang C. Investigation of high
dation at elevated pressure in a jet stirred reactor. Proc Combust Inst percentage acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) blended with diesel in a constant vo-
2009;32:229–37. lume chamber. ASME 2014 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical
[130] Sarathy SM, Vranckx S, Yasunaga K, Mehl M, Oßwald P, Metcalfe WK, et al. A Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2014.
comprehensive chemical kinetic combustion model for the four butanol isomers. V001T02A12–VT02A12.
Combust Flame 2012;159:2028–55. [160] Lin Y, Lee T, Nithyanandan K, Zhang J, Li Y, Lee CF. Experimental investigation
[131] Black G, Curran HJ, Pichon S, Simmie JM, Zhukov V. Bio-butanol: combustion and analysis of combustion process in a diesel engine fueled with acetone-butanol-
properties and detailed chemical kinetic model. Combust Flame 2010;157:363–73. ethanol/diesel blends. SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0737.
[132] Sarathy SM, Thomson MJ, Togbé C, Dagaut P, Halter F, Mounaim-Rousselle C. An [161] Lee TH, Lin Y, Nithyanandan K, Zhang J, Li Y, Yang J, et al. Experimental in-
experimental and kinetic modeling study of n-butanol combustion. Combust Flame vestigation of a diesel engine fuelled with acetone-butanol-ethanol/diesel blends.
2009;156:852–64. ASME 2015 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference.
[133] Venugopal T, Ramesh A. Experimental studies on the effect of injection timing in a American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2015. V001T02A15–VT02A15.
SI engine using dual injection of n-butanol and gasoline in the intake port. Fuel [162] Zhao Z, Wu H, Wang M, Lee CF, Liu J, Fu J, et al. Computational investigation of
2014;115:295–305. oxygen concentration effects on a soot mechanism with a phenomenological soot
[134] Szwaja S, Naber JD. Combustion of n-butanol in a spark-ignition IC engine. Fuel model of acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE). Energy Fuel 2015;29:1710–21.
2010;89:1573–82. [163] Zhao Z, Xu Z, Liu J, Wang M, Lee CF, Chang W, et al. Experimental and numerical

Y. Li et al. Fuel 242 (2019) 673–686

investigation of soot mechanism of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) with various acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) mixtures. Combust Sci Technol 2012;184:942–55.
oxygen concentrations. SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0389. [175] Zhang S, Lee TH, Wu H, Pei J, Wu W, Liu F. Experimental and kinetical study of
[164] Luo J, Zhang Y, Zhang Q, Liu J, Wang J. Evaluation of sooting tendency of acet- component volumetric effects on laminar flame speed of acetone–butanol–ethanol
one–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fuels blended with diesel fuel. Fuel (ABE). Energy Fuel 2018;32:6278–92.
2017;209:394–401. [176] Nithyanandan K, Wu H, Huo M, Lee CF. A preliminary investigation of the per-
[165] Ma X, Zhang F, Han K, Song G. Numerical modeling of acetone–butanol–ethanol formance and emissions of a port-fuel injected SI engine fueled with acetone-bu-
and diesel blends droplet evaporation process. Fuel 2016;174:206–15. tanol-ethanol (ABE) and gasoline. SAE Technical Papers 2014-01-1459.
[166] Wu H, Nithyanandan K, Zhou N, Lee TH, Lee CF, Zhang C. Impacts of acetone on [177] Nithyanandan K, Lee CF, Wu H, Zhang J. Performance and emissions of acetone-
the spray combustion of acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE)-diesel blends under low butanol-ethanol (ABE) and gasoline blends in a port fuel injected spark ignition
ambient temperature. Fuel 2015;142:109–16. engine. ASME 2014 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical
[167] Wu H, Huo M, Zhou N, Nithyanandan K, Lee CF, Zhang C, et al. An experimental Conference. 2014. V001T02A10–VT02A10.
investigation of the combustion characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol-diesel [178] Nithyanandan K, Zhang J, Li Y, Wu H, Lee CF. Investigating the impact of acetone
blends with different ABE component ratios in a constant volume chamber. SAE on the performance and emissions of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and gasoline
Technical Papers 2014-01-1452. blends in an SI engine. SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0909.
[168] Dec JE. A conceptual model of DI diesel combustion based on laser-sheet imaging. [179] Nithyanandan K, Zhang J, Li Y, Wu H, Lee TH, Lin Y, et al. Improved SI engine
SAE Technical Paper 970873. efficiency using acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE). Fuel 2016;174:333–43.
[169] Lee TH, Lin Y, Meng X, Li Y, Nithyanandan K. Combustion characteristics of [180] Li Y, Meng L, Nithyanandan K, Lee TH, Lin Y, Lee CF, et al. Experimental in-
acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) blended with diesel in a compression-ignition vestigation of a spark ignition engine fueled with acetone-butanol-ethanol and
engine. SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0884. gasoline blends. Energy 2016;121:43–54.
[170] Wu H, Nithyanandan K, Lee TH, Lee CF, Zhang C. Spray and combustion char- [181] Li Y, Nithyanandan K, Lee TH, Donahue RM, Lin Y, Lee CF, et al. Effect of water-
acteristics of neat acetone-butanol-ethanol, n-butanol, and diesel in a constant containing acetone–butanol–ethanol gasoline blends on combustion, performance,
volume chamber. Energy Fuel 2014;28:6380–91. and emissions characteristics of a spark-ignition engine. Energy Convers Manage
[171] Hansen AC, Zhang Q, Lyne PWL. Ethanol–diesel fuel blends–a review. Bioresour 2016;117:21–30.
Technol 2005;96:277–85. [182] Li Y, Nithyanandan K, Zhang J, Lee CF, Liao S. Combustion and emissions per-
[172] Chang YC, Lee WJ, Lin SL, Wang LC. Green energy: Water-containing acet- formance of a spark ignition engine fueled with water containing acetone-butanol-
one–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines. Appl Energy ethanol and gasoline blends. SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0908.
2013;109:182–91. [183] Fournier S, Simon G, Seers P. Evaluation of low concentrations of ethanol, butanol,
[173] Chang YC, Lee WJ, Wu TS, Wu CY, Chen SJ. Use of water containing acet- BE, and ABE blended with gasoline in a direct-injection, spark-ignition engine.
one–butanol–ethanol for NOx-PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off in Fuel 2016;181:396–407.
the diesel engine fueled with biodiesel. Energy 2014;64:678–87. [184] Zhang J, Nithyanandan K, Li Y, Lee CF, Huang Z. Comparative study of high-
[174] Geem KMV, Cuoci A, Frassoldati A, Pyl SP, Marin GB, Ranzi E. An experimental alcohol-content gasoline blends in an SI Engine. SAE Technical Papers 2015-01-
and kinetic modeling study of pyrolysis and combustion of 0891.