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5+ IEC 609093
Edition 3.0 200903
IEC STANDARDS+
Contains the International Standard and its Redline version
Contient Ia Norme internationale et sa version Redline
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE PRICE CODE
CODE PRIX
sw
ICS 17.220.01 ; 29.240.20 ISBN 23318·10278
2 609093 © IEC:2009
CONTENTS
FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5
1 Scope and object. ..........................................................................................•...... •........... 7
2 Normati ve references ....................................................................................................... 8
3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 8
4 Symbols ......................................................................................................................... 10
5 Calcu lation of currents during two separate simultaneous linetoearth short
circuits ........................................................................................................................... 12
5.1 Initial symmetrical shortcircuit current .................................................................. 12
5.1 .1 Determination of M (1) and M 12, .............................................. ...... 12
5.1.2 Simple cases of two separate simultaneous linetoearth short
circuits ................................................................................................ ...... 13
5.2 Peak shortcircuit current, symmetrical short circuit breaking current and
steadystate shortcircuit current .................................................................... ...... 13
5.3 Distribu ti on of the currents during two separate simultaneous lineto earth
short circuits .......................................................................................................... 14
6 Calculation of pa rtial shortcircuit currents flowing through earth in case of an
unbalanced short circuit. ................................................................................................. 14
6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14
6.2 Li netoearth short circuit inside a station .............................................................. 15
6.3 Li netoearth short circuit outside a station ............................................................ 16
6.4 Li neto earth short circuit in the vicinity of a station ............................................... 18
6.4 .1 Ea rth potential !ln. at the tower 11 outside station 8 .................................. 19
6.4 .2
Earth potential of station 8 during a line to earth short circuit at the
tower n ........................................................................... ....... ... ....... ... ... .. .. 19
7 Reduction factor for overhead lines with earth wires ....................................................... 20
8 Calculation of current distribution and reduction factor in case of cables with
metallic sheath or shield earthed at both ends ................................................................ 21
8.1 Overview ............................................................................................................... 21
8.2 Threecore cable ................................................................................................... 22
8.2 .1 Linetoearth short circuit in station 8 ....................................... ................ 22
8.2 .2 Linetoearth short circuit on the cable between station A and
station 8 ................................................................................................... 23
8.3 Three singlecore cables ....................................................................................... 26
8.3.1 Linetoearth short circuit in station 8 ........................................................ 26
8.3.2 Linetoearth short circuit on the cable between station A and
station 8 .................................................................................................... 26
Annex A ( informative) Example for the calculation of two separate simultaneous line
toearth shortcircuit currents ................................................................................................ 30
Annex 8 ( informative) Examples for the calculation of partial shortcircuit currents
through ea rth ........................................................................................................................ 33
Annex C (informative) Example for the calculation of the reduction factor r, and the
current distribution through earth in case of a threecore cable ............................................. 43
Annex D (informative) Example for the calculation of the reduction factor r 3 a nd the
curren t distribution through earth in case of three singlecore cables .................................... 48
609093 © IEC:2009 3
Figure 1  Driving point impedance Y, of an infinite chain , composed of the earth wire
impedance ~a =~~dr and the footing resistance R1 of the towers , w ith equal
distances d 1 between the towers .............................................................................................9
Figure 2  Driving point impedance Y,. of a finite chain with " towers, composed of the
earth wire impedance ~Q =~~dr , the footing resistance R1 of the towers, with equa l
distances d 1 between the towers and the earthing impedance l£ 8 of station B from
Equation ( 29) ............................................................................................................. .......... 10
Figure 3  Characterisation of two separate simultaneous lineto earth short circuits
and the curren ts /~ee .......................................................................................................... 12
Figure 4  Partial shortcircuit currents in case of a linetoearth short circuit inside
station B ............................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 5  Partial shortcircuit currents in case of a linetoearth short circuit at a
tower T of an overhead line .................................................................................................. 16
Figure 6  Distribution of the total current to earth l ETtot ...................................................... 17
Figure 7  Partial shortcircuit currents in the case of a linetoearth short circuit at a
tower 11 of an overhead line in the vicinity of station B ........................................................... 18
Figure 8  Reduction factor r lor overhead lines with nonmagnetic earth wires
depend ing on soil resistivity p .................................................................... .... ... ... .... ... ... .. .. ... 21
Figure 9  Reduction factor of threecore power cables ........................................................ 23
Figure 10  Reduction factors for three singlecore power cables ......................................... 27
Figure A.1  Two separate simultaneous linetoearth short circuits on a single fed
overhead line (see Table 1) .................................................................................................. 30
Figure B.1  Linetoearth short circu it inside station B  System diagram for stations
A, Band C ............................................................................................................................ 34
Figure B.2 Linetoearth short circu it inside station B Positive, negative and zero
sequence systems with connections at the shortcircuit location F within station B ............... 34
Figure B.3  Linetoearth short circuit outside stations B and C at the tower T of an
overhead line  System diagram for stations A , B and C ....................................................... 36
Figure B.4  Linetoearth short circuit outside stations B and C at the tower T of an
overhead line  Pos itive, negative and zeroseq uence systems with connections at
the shortcircuit location F .................................................................................................... 37
Figure B.S  Earth potentials "ET• = Ue"' IUET with UET = 1,912 kV and uesn = Ue•• IUes
with Ues = 0,972 kV , if the linetoearth short circuit occurs at the towers "= 1, 2, 3, .. .
in the vicinity of station B ..................................................................................................... .42
Figure C.1  Example for the ca lculation of the cable reduction factor and the current
distribution through earth in a 10kVnetwork, Un = 10 kV; c = 1,1;f= 50 Hz ........................ 44
Figure C.2  Shortcircu it currents and partial shortcircuit currents through earth for
the example in Figure C.1 ..................................................................................................... 45
Figure C.3 Example for the ca lculation of current distribution in a 10kVnetwork with
a short circu it on the cable between A and B (data given in C.2.1 and Figure C.1 ) ............... 46
Figure C.4 Linetoearth shortcircuit currents , partial currents in the shield and
partial currents through earth ................................................................................................ 47
Figure D.1  Example for the calculation of the reduction factor and the current
distribution in case of three singlecore cables and a linetoearth short circuit in
station B ................................................................................................................. ............. 49
Figure D.2 Pos itive, negative and zerosequence system of the network in Figure
D.1 with connections at the shortcircuit location (station B) ........................ , ........................ 50
Figure D.3 Current distribution for the network in Figure D.1 , depend ing on the
length, (, of the singlecore cables between the stations A and B .......................................... 51
4 609093 © IEC:2009
Figure 0.4  Example for the calculation of the reduction factors '3 and the current
distribution in case of three singlecore cables and a li netoearth short circuit
between the stations A and B ............................................................................................... 52
Figure 0.5 Pos itive, negative and zerosequence system of the network in Figure 0.4
with connections at the shortcircuit location (anywhere between the stations A and B) ........ 52
Figure 0.6 Current distribution for the cable in Figure 0 .4 depending on tA. REF4oo ......... 54
Figure D. 7  Current distribution for the cable in Figure 0 .4 depending on tA. ReF = 5 Q ... .. . 56
FOREWORD
1) The International Electrotechnical Commissioo (IE C) Is a worldwide organlz.ation for standardization comprising
all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote
international co·operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To
this end and in addition to other aclivities. IEC publishes International Standards. Technieat Specifications,
Technical Reports. Publicly Available Specifications ( PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC
Publication( s)") . Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested
in the subject dealt with may participate i n thi s preparatory wortc. International. governmental and non·
governmental organi zations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates c losely
with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by
agreement between the two organizatioos.
2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express. as nearly as possible, an international
consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects sinee each technical comm•ltee has representation from all
interested IEC National Committees.
3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National
Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC
Publications is accurate. IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any
misinterpretation by any end user.
4) In order to ptomote international uni formity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications
transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence
between any IEC Publication and the eorrespon<hng national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in
the latter.
5) IEC provides no mar1<ing procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any
equipment declared to be i n conformi ty with an IEC Publication.
6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.
7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its di rectors, employees. servants or agents including individual experts and
members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or
other damage of any nature whatsoever. whether direct or indirect. or for costs (including legal fees) and
expenses arising out of the publication. use of. or reliance upon. this IEC Publication or any other IEC
Publications.
8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited '" this publicahon. Use of the referenced publications is
indispensable for the correct applicati on of thi s publication.
9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of
patent rights. IEC shall not be held respOnsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard IEC 609093 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 73 : Short
circui t currents.
Th is third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2003. This edition
constitutes a techn ical revision.
T he main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
New proced ures are introduced for the calculation of reduction factors of the sh eaths
or shields and in add ition the current distribution through earth and the sheaths or
shields o f threecore cables or of three single core cables with metallic nonmagnetic
sheaths or shields earthed at both ends;
The information for the calculation of lhe reduction factor of overhead lin es with earth
wires are corrected and given in the new Clause 7;
 6 60909 3 © IEC:2009
 A new Clause 8 is introduced for the calculation of current distribution and reduction
factor of threecore cables with metallic sheath or shield earthed at both ends;
 The new Annexes C and D provide examples for the calculation of reduction factors
and current distribution in case of cables with metallic sheath and shield earthed at
both ends.
Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on
voting ind icated in the above table.
T his publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISOIIEC Directives, Part 2.
A list o f all parts of the IEC 60909 series, published under the general title Shortcircuit
currents in threephase a.c. systems, can be found on the IEC website.
T he committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until
the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "hllp://webstore. iec.ch" in
the data related to the specific publication . At this date. the publication will be
reconfirmed,
withdrawn,
replaced by a revised edition, or
amend ed.
60909 3 © IEC :2009  7
T his part of IEC 60909 specifies procedures for calculation of the prospective shortcircu it
currents with an unbalanced short circuit in highvoltage threephase a.c. systems operating
at nominal freq uency 50 Hz or 60 Hz, i. e.:
a) cu rrents during two separate simultaneous linetoearth short circuits in isolated neutral or
resonant earthed neutral systems;
b) pa rti al shortcircu it currents flowing through earth in case of single linetoearth short
circuit in solid ly earthed or lowimpedance earthed neutral systems.
T he currents calculated by these procedures are used when determining induced voltages or
touch or step voltages and rise of earth potential at a station (power station or substation) and
the towers of overhead lines.
Procedures are given for the calculation of reduction factors of overhead lines with one or two
earth wires.
T he object of this standard is to establish practical and concise procedures for the calculation
of li netoearth shortcircuit currents during two separate simultaneous linetoearth short
circui ts and partial shortcircuit currents through earth, earth wires of overhead lines and
sheaths or shields of cables leading to conservative results with sufficient accuracy. For this
purpose, the shortcircuit currents are determined by considering an equivalent voltage
source a t the shortcircuit location with all other voltage sources set to zero. Resistances of
earth grid s in stations or footing resistances of overhead line towers are neglected, when
calculating the shortcircuit currents at the shortcircuit location.
T his standa rd is an add ition to IEC 609090. General definitions, symbols and calculation
assum ptions refer to that publication. Special items only are defined or specified in this
standard .
The calculation of the shortcircuit currents based on the rated data of the electrical
equipment and the topolog ical arrangement of the system has the advantage of being
possible both for existing systems and for systems at the planning stage . The procedure is
suitable for determination by manual methods or digital computation. This does not exclude
the use of sp ecial methods, for example the superposition m ethod, adjusted to particu lar
circumstances, if they give at least the same precision.
As stated in IEC 609090, shortcircuit currents and their parameters may also be determined
by system tests.
 8 60909 3 © IEC:2009
2 Normative references
IEC/T R 60909 2:2008, Shortcircuit currents in threephase a.c. system s  Part 2: Data of
electrical equipmen t for shortcircuit current calculations
For th e purposes o f this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
two separate simultaneous lineto earth short circuits
linetoearth short circuits at different locations at the same time on different conductors of a
threephase a.c. network having a resonant earthed or an isolated neutral
3.2
initial shortcircuit currents during two separate simultaneous lineto earth
short circu its /~EE
r. m .s va lue of the initial shortcircuit currents flowing at both shortcircuit locations with the
same magnitud e
3.3
partial shortcircuit current through earth l Ea
r. m .s. value o f the current flowing through earth in a fictive line in the eq uival ent earth
penetration depth l
N OTE In case of overhead lines remote from the shortcircuit location and the earthing system of a station. where
the distribution of the current between earthed conductors and earth is nearty constant, the current through earth
depends on the reduction factor of the overhead line (Figures 4 and 5). In ease of cables with metallic sheaths or
shields. earthed at both ends in the stations A and B. current through earth between the stations A and B (Figures
Sa) and 10a )). respectively between the shortcircuit location and the stations A orB ( Figures 9b) and 10b)).
3.4
total current to earth IETtot at the shortcircuit location on the tower T of an overhead
line
r. m . s. value of the current flowing to earth through the footing resistance of an overhead lin e
tower fa r away from a station connected with the driving point impedances of the overhead
line at both sides. see Figure 5
3.5
total current to earth /Eatot at the shortcircuit locat ion in the station 8
r.m .s. val ue of th e current flowing to earth through the earthing system of a station B (power
station or substati on) with connected earthed conductors (earth wires of overhead lines or
sheaths or shields or armouring of cables or other earthed conductors as for instance metall ic
water pipes), see Fig ure 4
3.6
current to earth / ET•
r.m.s. value of the current flowing to earth causing the potential rise at an overhead line to wer
, in the vicinity of a station
609093 © IEC:2009  9
3.7
current to earth l ean
r.m.s. value o f the current flowing to earth causing the potential rise Uean of a station B, in
case of a linetoearth short circuit at an overhead line tower n in the vicinity of the station B
3.8
reduction fa ctor r
for overhead lines, which determines the part of the linetoearth shortcircuit current flowing
through the earth remote from the shortcircuit location and the earthing systems of the
stations
3.9
reduction fa ctor r 1
for threecore cables with metallic sheath or shield earthed at both ends
3.10
reductio n factor r1
for three singlecore cables with metallic sheaths or shields earthed at both ends
3.11
driving po in t Impedance z,
of an Inf inite c h ain
composed of the earth wire impedance ~a between two towers with earth return and the
footing resistance Rr of the overhead line towers (Figure 1):
z.
3.12
driving point impedance z,.of a fin ite chain
with 11 towers of an overhead line as given in Figure 2 and with the impedance ~es at the
end, calculated according to Equation (2).
with
(3)
NOTE For n  . GO, Equation ( 2) is leading to Equation (1 ). In prac1icat eases, this is true already for n = 10 ... 15.
Rr Rr Rr
E~ eerth
penetration depth
IEC H5f/09
4 Symbols
All equations are written as quantity equations, in wh ich the symbols represent physical
q uantities possessing both numerical values and dimensions. Symbols of complex quantities
are underlined in the text and equations of this standard.
Current in the shea th or shield of a cable (in case of three singlecore cables :
Is ,. /s2 and /53)
Partial shortcircuit current through the footing resistance Rr of an overhead line
tower
ipEE Peak shortcircuit current in case of two separate simultaneous linetoearth
short circuits
M(l), MC2l Coupling impedances in the positive and the negativesequence system
ReF Resistance to earth at the shortcircuit location of a cable (Figure 9b) or 1 Ob))
Rr Footi ng resistance of an overhead line tower
r Reduction factor for overhead line w ith earth wires
'i Reduction factor of the sheath or shield of a threecore cable ( Figure 9a))
'3 Reduction factor of the sheaths or shields of three single core cables ( Figure
10a))
'a Earth wire rad ius
Z~L Mutual impedance per unit length between earth wire and line conductors with
earth return
Z~ Impeda nce per unit length of a metallic sheath o r shield with earth re turn
Z~L Mutual impedance per unit le ngth between the sheath (or the shield) and a
core inside the sheath (or the shield) of a cable with earth return
Zu Input impedance of sheaths, shields or armouring of cables or other metallic
p ipes or pipelines (Equation (17))
 12  60909 3 © IEC:2009
Figure 3 shows the shortcircuit current /~e during two separate simultaneous linetoearth
short circuits on different line conductors at the locations A and B with a fi nite d istance be
tween them. II is assumed that the locations A and B are far from stations.
IEC ~61109
Figure 3  Characterisation of two separate simul taneous lineto earth short circuits
and t he cu rrents /~e
In networks with isolated or with resonant earthed neutral the initial symmetrical shortcircuit
current /~ee is calcu lated with
(4)
NOTE For derivation of Equation (4) see ITU· T  Directives concerning protection of telecommunication lines
aga;nst harmful effects from electric power and ete~trified railway lines, Volume V: lnduc;ng currents and voltages
in power transmission and distribution systems. 1999.
In case of a farfromgenerator short circuit, where ~Ill =~12 > and M 11l =M(2)· the initial
shortcircuit current becomes
(5)
T he positive and the negativesequence coupling impedances !li(1) and !li(2) a re de termined
as follows:
609093 © IEC:2009  13
A voltage source is introduced at the shortcircuit location A as the only active voltage of the
network . If [(1)A and !J.2JA are the currents due to this voltage source in the positive and the
negatives equence system at the shortcircuit location A. a nd if 0 1 )B and !Lt2)B are the
resulting voltages in the positive and negativesequence system at the location B. then
The coupling impedances may also be determined at the shortcircuit location B instead of A
M  u (1)A u
!.::!.{2) _
_(2)A
__
 Il l  I M ( 7)
!.{1)13 !.(2)13
In simple cases , the current t;EE can be calculated as shown in Table 1, if Q 11 = ;?;(2) and
M (1) = Mt2) (fa rfrom g enerator short circuit). Equations (8) to (10) are d erived from Equation
(5). The ind ices in these equations refer to the relevant impedances in the respective network.
a) • (
l1
Singlefed radial line
[E}®
X
l2
5.2 Peak shortcircuit current, symmetrical short circuit breaking current and steady
state shortcircu it current
( 11)
For the factor, K , the same value is used as in the case of a threephase short circuit at the
locations A or B, whichever is the largest.
(12)
5.3 Distribution of the currents during two separate si mu ltaneous linetoearth short
circuits
If two separate linetoearth short circuits occur at the locations A and B, the current through
earth can be calculated assum ing Le6 = !L~e , with L~e as the only active current source
and ! as the reduction factor of an overhead line with earth wire (Equation 33) . For the short
circuit at a tower (shortcircuit location A or B) far from stations, the current /T through the
footing resista nce RT of the tower is
• Zp
I  rl (13)
 T  kEE ~p + 2RT
NOTE Equation (13) can be derived from Figure 6 if LETIOt is replaced by !_ ·bee .
In case of two separate linetoearth short circuits at overhead lines without earth wire (for
instance in mediumvoltage networks), the current through earth is equal to the shortcircuit
current /~e .
6.1 General
T he following subclauses deal with partial shortcircuit currents flowing through earth and
earthed conductors (as earthing systems and earth wires of overhead lines) in the case of a
linetoearth short circuit. This type of short circuit in solidly earthed highvoltage networks is
the most frequently occurring unbalanced short circuit. 1;, leads to the highest shortcircuit
current to earth compared with the linetoline short circuit with earth connection if Z101 > 2 111
(see Figure 10 o f IEC 609090 in case of Zm = Z 1, 1) . For Z101 < 2 111 , the cu rrent to earth
1;e2e in case o f a linetoline short circuit with earth connection, shall be considered
a ccording to IEC 609090.
For the calculation of shortcircu it currents according to IEC 609090, the tower impedances
with or without earth wire and the earth grid impedances and other connections to earth shall
be disregarded.
is assumed that the stations A , B and C are separated by more than twice the farfromstation
distance, f4, according to Equation (19).
Figure 4 shows a transformer station B with feeders coming in from the stations A and C.
t£C fU/0~
The linetoearth shortcircuit current Lk 1 on Figure 4 is equal to three times the zero
sequence currents flowing to the shortcircuit location F:
(1 4 )
The current 3L(0)8 is flowing back to the transformerstar point via the earth grid in station B
and therefore does not lead to a potential rise at the station B. The currents 3L(O)A and
3L(O)C are flowing back to the stations A and C through the earth and the earth wires between
the sta tion B and the sta tions A and C. For a farfromstation distance we have (see Figure 4 ):
(15a)
~A and ~ 8 are the reduction factors of the earth wires between B and A and between B and
C respectively.
(16)
1
f:Eetot = 1 1 1
(1 7 )
 + :E + :E
REB i ~Pi i ~Ui
16 609093 © IEC:2009
where
Rea is the resistance of the earth grid in station B;
Z.P is the driving point impedance according to Equation ( 1);
Z.u is the input impedance of sheaths, shields or armouring of a cables or other metallic
pipes or pipelines.
The current through Z.eatot leads to the earth potential {LEB at the station B:
The farfromstation distance (far from the shortcircuit location) is calculated as follows:
(19)
where
ReWa} is the real part of the square root of the earth wire impedance Z.a = Z.~dr with Z.~
from Equation (34 ).
NOTE 1 If the stations A or C a re nearer tha n l)f to station B, the total curre nt ltelot is reduced by an additional
part of the currents rA3L(o)A or !c3l(o)C flowing back to the nearest sta tion A or C via earth wires.
NOTE 2 Spe cial considerations may be neces.s.ary in the case of double ci rcuit lines or parallel lines with coupled
zero sequence system .
IEC 164/09
Figu re 5  Partia l shortcirc uit c urre nts in case of a linetoearth short circuit
at a tower T of an overhead line
609093 © IEC:2009  17
The linetoea rth shortcircuit current £k1 in Figure 5 is eq ual to three tim es th e zero
sequence currents flowing to the shortcircuit location F:
(20)
The three currents 3£{0)A , 3[10)8 and 3£(o)C in Figure 5 are nowing back to the stations A , B
and C through th e earth and the earth wires of the overhead lines b etween the sta tions:
and as a lready known from Fig ure 4 and the Equations (15):
r.A and !:s are the reduction factors of the earth wires between B and A and between B and
C respectively.
The total current to earth at the tower T (shortcircuit location), far away from stations B and C
(d istance higher than DF) is:
(22 )
T his current passes the total earthing impedance of th e shortcircuited tower T connected to
the earth wire of the overhead line BC according to Figure 6:
(23)
RT is the footing resistance of the tower and ~P the driving point impedance according to
Figure 1.
lETtot
ZETtot
tEC 165109
The cu rrent through ZETtot leads to the earth potential flET at the shortcircuited tower (see
Figu re 6).
(24 )
If the linetoearth short circuit occurs on a tower in the vicinity of station B, then the earth
potential may be higher than the result found with Eq uation (24 ). A determination needs
specia l consideration as given in 6.4.
The current to earth in station B in the case of a line toearth short circuit at the tower T
(d istance higher than DF from station B) is according to Figure 5 found from:
(25)
The earth potential of station B with the current Leetot from Equation ( 25) becomes in this
case:
If the linetoearth short circuit occurs on a tower in the vicinity of station B, then the current
to earth in station B may be higher than £eBiol found from Equation (16) in case of a lineto
earth short circuit in station B (Figure 4). A determination needs special conditions as given in
6.4.
If the lineto earth short circuit occurs at a tower in the vicinity (distance smaller than DF) of a
station (Figure 7), then the earth potential {Lee.. (additional index 11 to point out that the line
toearth short circuit occurs at a tower 11 = 0, 1, 2, 3 ... outside the station) may be higher tha n
{Lee calculated with Eq uation (18). In this case, the earth potential {LET, of the short
circuited tower , in the vicinity of station B is also higher than the earth potential {LET for a
tower far outside station B calculated with Equation (24).
fEC 166109
Following Figure 2, the numbering of the towers has to be taken into account, when
calculating £~ 1 and 3£(0)8.
The current £er. (Figure 7) at the shortcircuited tower in the vicinity of station B flowing
through ~ET accord ing to Equation ( 28) is found from the superposition of two terms, the first
one depend ing on the current to earth !:c£1c1 at the shortcircuit location and the second one
depending on the current !:c 3 £(o)8 flowing back through earth to the star point of the
transformer in station B.
• Zp ,. 31 Zee
I  r I
 ETn   C  k1 z . +Z
"
Pn ET
 C (0)8 z
..<.EB
+ P
Z •'·"
(27)
with
(28)
1 1
+
Rr b
and
(29)
1 1
+
Res ?_p
The driving point Impedance ~P is found from Equation (1), ~P. from Equation (2) and !£
from Equation (3).
(30)
6.4.2 Earth potential of station B during a line to earth short circu it at the tower 11
T he current Lee. passing ~EB in Figure 7 in case of a lineto earth short circuit at a tower "
in the vicinity of station B is found with the following equation:
I  r( Zer. 2Zp·Zo ,. 31 zp
 EBn   C k1 z z I? ) • (.,
~ET + ~Pn ~EB +?_p !_ ~EB ?.p +?_a!_
) _,  C (0)8 z
~ ee
+z
 P
(31)
The earth potential ol station B during the line to earth short circuit at the tower 11 in the
vicinity of station B is:
The reduction factor of overhead lines with earth wires can be calculated as follows:
(33)
Z:~ and Z:~L shall be calcu lated with the Equations ( 34 ) and (35). The result depends on the
soil resistivity p , the distance dOL between the earth wire and the line conductors and the
equivalent earth wire radius , r00 , for one or more earth wires.
Table 2  Resistivity of the soil and equivalent earth penet ration depth
The earth wire Impedance per unit length with earth return Is
(34)
and the mutual impedance per unit length between the earth wire and the line conductors with
earth return
•
Z01. Po . Po
=(i} o
+ j(i} ln   (35)
 8 2n dOL
The equiva lent earth penetration depth I> depends on the soil type as given in Table 2 and
can be found as follows:
(36)
According to Equation (34) and (35), the reduction factor of usual ACSR earth wires depends
on the soil resistivity p. Figure 8 shows reduction factors for nonmagnetic earth wires of
different overhead lines with nominal voltages 60 kV to 220 kV.
In case of overhead lines with one or two earth wires of steel , the magnitude of the redu ction
factor becomes about 0,95 and 0,90 respectively.
•
1,0
r
0.8 ·
0,6
0,4
0.2
Figure 8 Reduction factor r for overhead lines w ith nonmagnetic earth wires
depending on soil resistivity p
8.1 Overview
The reduction factor of power cables with metallic sheath, shield and armouring earthed at
both ends depends on the type of cable: Threecore cable with a common sheath, three
singlecore cables with three sheaths or shields and, in some cases, with additional
22 609093 © IEC:2009
a rmouring, the crosssection of the metallic sheath(s) or shield(s) in compliance with national
techniques and standards .
Red uction factor of cables with steel armouring shall be g iven from the manufacturer (see
IEC/TR 609092 ).
It is anticipated in this standard that the cables have an outer thermoplastic sheath (see
IEC/TR 609092).
Figure 9 gives the configurations dealt with in case of a threecore cable with metallic sheath
or shield earthed at both ends and an outer thermoplastic sheath isolating the cable against
the surrounding soil.
In the case o f Figure 9a), if the cable is fed from side A only with a linetoearth short circuit
curren t L~ 1 =3L(o)A in station B, the reduction factor [ 1 gives that part Le&A = !:13L(O)A of the
linetoearth shortcircuit current, that is flowing back through earth by the induction effect.
(37)
~~ is the impedance of the metallic (non magnetic) sheath (or shield) per unit length with
earth return:
•
;?;:s · Jlol n8
=Rs· + (J)Jlo + J(i) (38)
8 2x r5
~~L is the mutua l impedance between the sheath and one of the cores (inside the sheath ,
independently of the position) per unit length with earth return:
SL
.
Z =(J)
/Jo · /Jo
+j(J) 1n 
8 (39)
8 2lt 's
where
R~ Resistance per unit length of the sheath or shield (copper, aluminium , lead);
(40)
(4 1)
~'s
Threecore cable
L1~ l3

1ESA• !'13l(O)A
~alent earth
penetration de~
IEC 168/09
fEC 169109
8.2.2 Linetoearth short circuit on the cable between station A and station B
In case of a linetoearth short circuit on the cable between the stations A and B the currents
in the sheath or shield in Figure 9b) are calculated as follows:
1
 SA =(1  !1 )31!.(O)A + !1 31(O)A ~S101
~sA
r 31(0)8 ~estot
z' I + 1 z' ,
~s < A
(42 )
I SB 
 (1  !t
~eStOI
)31!.(0)8 + !1 31(0) 8 
'I ~eSIOI
.  + !t .>!.{O)A  ·  (43)
~sls ~sts
(44 )
24 609093 © IEC:2009
(45)
(46)
with
1 Z~fA ta
~EStot = 1 1 1 (47)
  +   +  l + Z~t AfB
Z~ t A Z~t 8 ReF ReF
The given equations are valid for a cable length of at least e"' t / 2 ( t "'0,5 km in case of
p = 100 Qm) between the stations A and B in Figure 9a). and distances f. A and f. 8 between
the shortcircu it location and the adjacent stations A and B in Figure 9b). for at least f = / 2 o
in Case 2 accord ing to 8.2.2.2.
Because in normal cases the resistance ReF at the shortcircuit location against reference
earth is not known, the two cases ReF  oo (there is no connection at the short circu it
location between the metallic sheath (shield) of the cable and the surrounding soil) and REF
+ Min. have to be taken into account.
In case of ReF + oo, it is anticipated that the outer thermoplastic sheath is not destroyed by
the shortcircuit current or by the arc at the shortcircuit location. The following expressions
are found from the Equations (42) and (43):
(42a)
(43a)
lA ta
f.eM =~13f_(O)A f ~13f_(O)B t (45a)
(46a)
The linetoearth shortcircu it current at the shortcircuit location between A and B shall be
calculated with the zerosequence impedance per unit length Z.(O)S of the cable for a current
609093 © IEC:2009 25
return only through the sheath or shield (see IEC/TR 609092 and the information about the
calculation of th is value given in IEC/TR 609092, Equations ( 30) and (31)).
The highest current through the sheath or shield will occur, if the short circuit location is near
the station A or the station Band if the short circuit in Figure 9b) is fed from both sides .
(42b)
(43b)
The highest current through earth Is also found if the short circuit occurs near the station A or
B:
(45b)
(46b)
In this case. the linetoearth shortcircuit current L~ 1 at the shortcircuit location between A
'
and B shall be calculated with the zerosequence impedance Z tolSE for a cu rrent return
through the sheath or shield of the cable and the ear1h (see IEC/TR 60909·2).
The currents In the sheath or shield and through the earth shall be calcula ted with Equations
(42) , (43) and ( 45), (46).
The highest current through the sheath or the shoeld can be calculated with Equation s (42b)
and (43b).
lr the highest values for the current.s through earth are searched for. use the highest lineto·
earth shortcircuit current fed from one side of the cable only and neglect the current fed from
the o ther side. In this case Equations (45) and (46) lead to:
(45c)
_r
1E3emax  _, 31
 (0)8
(fes101
 , + festot
~~g;
) (46c)
2 A
S
Calculations with the above equations may lead to higher currents through earth than those
found w ith Equations (45b) or (4Sb).
NOTE Clause C.2 gives an example for the catculations. if the highest currents through earth are searched for.
26 609093 © IEC:2009
If the cable has an additional iron armouring (for instance in the case of a lead sheath), the
manufacturer shall g ive the reduction factor (depend ing on the current through the sheath)
found for instance from measurements . See for information IECITR 609092 .
As given under 8.2, in th is case a lso a distinction shall be made between a linetoearth short
circuit in station B, if the shortcurrent is fed from station A (Figure 10a)) or if the short circuit
is on the cable at a locati on between the station A and B (Figure 1 Ob)).
In case of three singlecore cables in Figure 10a), with three sheaths (shiel ds) earthed and
connected at both ends, the reduction factor !J shall be calculated as follows:
(48)
The distances du L2 and duLJ according to Figure 10a) shall be used for a triangular and a
flat config uration . The result found from Equation (48) is the exact result for a triangular
configuration . For a flat configuration the result of Equation (48) can be used as a sufficient
approximation for this standard , independently if the linetoearth shortcircuit current will
occur in an outer cable or the central cable of the flat configuration.
The sum of the currents through the three sheaths or shields according to Figure 1 Oa) is
calculated as follows :
(49)
The current through earth, flowing back to station A of Figure 10a), is found with the reduction
factor r 3 from Equation (48):
(50)
8.3.2 Linetoearth short circuit on the cable between station A and station B
In case of a linetoearth short circuit on the cable between the stations A and B, fed from
both sides in Figure 10b), currents generally are flowing in the three line conductors and in
the three sheaths or shields of the single core cables.
T he sum of the currents in the th ree sheaths or shields are calculated as follows:
(51)
(52)
(53)
(54 )
(55 )
In this case ~~ is the self imped ance pe r unit length of one of the three sheaths or shields,
calculated with Equation (38).
penetration depth
IEC 11'109
b) Feeding from stations A and B and linetoearth short circuit on the cable
between the stations A and B
Because in normal cases the resistance ReF at the shortcircuit location against reference
earth is not known, the two cases ReF > ro {there is no connection at the shortcircu it
location between the metallic sheath or shield of the cable and the surrounding soil) and ReF
+ Min . have to be taken into account.
In case of ReF + a:>, it is anticipated that the outer thermoplastic sheath is not destroyed by
the shortcircuit current or by the arc at the shortcircuit location. The following expressions
are found from Equations (51) and (52):
(51 a)
(52a )
(54a)
(55a)
The linetoearth shortcircu it current at the shortcircuit location between A and B shall be
calculated with the zerosequence impedance ~(O)S of the cable system for a current return
on ly through the sheaths or shields (see IECITR 609092).
The highest current through the sheath or shield, S1 , will occur, if the shortcircuit location is
near the station A or the station Band if the short circuit in Figure 10b) is fed from both sides.
(51b)
(52 b)
The hig hest currents through earth are a lso found if the short circuit occurs near the station A
or B.
(54 b)
(55b)
The linetoearth shortcircuit current Lk1 at the shortcircuit location between A and B shall
be calcu lated with the zerosequence impedance per unit length Z:(O)SE for a current return
through the sheaths or shields of the cable and the earth {see IECfTR 609092) .
The sum of the currents in the sheaths or shields and the currents through earth shall be
calculated with Equations (51), { 52) and { 54), (55).
The highest currents through the sheath or shield , S1 , can be found with Equations (51 b) and
(52b) .
If the highest values for the currents through earth are searched for. use the highest lineto
earth shortcircuit current fed from one side of the cable only and neglect the current fed from
the other side. In this case, Equations (54 ) and (55) lead to:
(54 c)
(55c)
NOTE Annex 0 gives an example for the calculation of the currents flowing through earth.
If the cables should have additional iron armouring, the manufacturer shall give the reduction
factor and the current distribution.
 30  609093 © IEC:2009
Annex A
(informative)
A.1 Overview
Two separate simultaneous lin etoearth short circuits on a single fed overhead line are
shown in Figure A.1 .
d / = 10km
5km
IEC 172109
A.2 Data
Nominal voltage: Un = 66 kV
Nominal frequency: 50 Hz
Network with isolated or resonant earthed neutral
Network impeda nce at the feeder connection point Q : f:c1)0 = (1,5 j15)0
Initial symmetrical shortcircuit current at Q (see IEC 609090):
Mean geometric distance between the earth wire and the line conductors: doL = 6 m
A.3 Calculations
Earthwire impedance per unit length with earth return according to Equation (34) with v = 1:
z'
 O
=2.92_Q_+
km km
4 10
0,0493_Q_ + j314s"1 " '
2n Akm
Vs (
75
4
4
+ In
2950
4,5mm
m )= (2,969+ j2,020)_Q_
km
Mutual impedance per un it length between the earth wire and the line conductors with earth
return according to Equation (35):
ZP = 0,5· (0,891 + J0,606)o + J[o.5 <0.891 + J0.606>f + 10 ·(0,891 + J0,606) 0 = (3.610 + J1.303)n
/ _ 3·1.1 · 66kV
 kEE 
28
(14,1+ 3,4 + 3,2)0 + j{102 + 8 + 14)0 =(0. Sj1.709) kA ; /~EE = 1.732 kA
where
The current to earth through the footing resistance , Rr , of the tower at the shortcircu it
locations A or B is determined with Equation {13):
 32  609093 © IEC:2009
Annex 8
(informative)
8 .1 Overview
A 132kVnetwork, 50 Hz, is given as shown in Figures 8 .1 and 8.3. The distances are 40 km
between the sta tions A and 8 and 100 km between the stations 8 and C.
8.2 Data
Station A :
Shortcircuit impedance ?_A = (0 ; j6,4) 0
Zerosequence impedance of the transformer ?_(O)A = (0 ; j1 2) 0
Station 8 :
Shortcircuit impedance ?,8 = (0 • j7,6)0
Zerosequence impedance of the transformer ?.(0)8 =(0 ; j7) 0
Resistance of earth grid Rea =5Q
Station C:
Shortcircuit impedance ?.c = (0  j21) Q
Zerosequence impedance of the transformer Z (O)C = (0 ; j 20,3)Q
Overhead line:
Conductors 3 x 2 x 240/ 40mm 2 ACSR
Earth wire 1x240 / 40mm 2 ACSR
Positivesequence line impedance per unit length ~1 )1. =b. =(0,06+ j0,298) 0/km
Zerosequence line impedance per unit length ~;Oll = (0,272 + j 1,48) 0/km
Soil resistivity p=1000 Om
Equ ivalent earth penetration depth b = 2950 m from Table 2
Ea rthwire impedance per unit length ~~ = (0,17 + j0,801) Q / km
Ea rthwire red uction fa ctor r.A = r.c = r. = 0,6 • j0,03 ~ 0,6
Tower footi ng resistance Rr =10 n
Tower distance dr =400 m
Length of overhead line between A and 8 ( 1 = 40 km
Length of overhead line between 8 and C t 2 =100 km
 34  60909 3 © IEC:2009
 ··· ~ · 
feM "!A3JttA
IEC 113/09
f
1(1)
·
~
A ~ ~
c ~
ZA ZL1 Zu Zc
01
PosllveseqJence ln'4>edance I Ze e
lm
()
A c
ZA ZL1 ZL2 Zc
~
02
Negativesequence inpedance 1 Ze
00
lerose~ence impedance I Z(Q'ft
I
IEC J74/09
Figure 8 .2  Linetoearth short circuit ins ide station B 
Pos itive, negative and ze rosequence systems w ith connections
at the shortcircuit locat ion F w ith in station B
The linetoearth shortcircuit current can be calculated according to IEC 609090, Equation
(52), using Figure 8.2.
~~. = 15,799kA
609093 © IEC:2009 35
where
1
£co> =   : :     ;      , .    = (0.115 + j6,157)n
1
~~ +  + ::=
£ (O)A + £ (O)L1 £ (0)8 £ (O)C + £ (O)L2
The driving point impedance for ca lculation of £ eBttJt is found with £o = £~dT from Equation
(1 ):
T he to tal earth impedance £estot of station B with two outgoing overhead lines is ca lculated
with Equ ation ( 17):
DF = 3.{i; d1
Re{ Z }
3J1on °· 4
km
Re{J(o.oss + j0,3204)n}
8,53km
In a distance longer tha n ~, i.e. in a distance remote from the stations , the earthwire
currents are found from the relations given in Equations (15).
'aA =0.540kA
lac = 0.288kA
The currents throu gh earth remote from the stations A and 8 as well as B and C are:
The linetoearth short circuit shall occur far outside the stations at an overhead line tower T
between B and C In Figure 8.3. Distances 1 28 = 60 km and 1 211 = 40 km .
  +    
Je~·r.,.3.Q,..
fEC t15109
Figure 8.3  Linetoearth short circuit outside stations B and C at the tower T
of an overhead line System diagram for stations A, B and C
609093 © IEC:2009 37
~
A ~ ~
fl<1l ~
c ~
ZA Zu J Zi/2o F Zi/21> Zc
1
Positive..sequence ~dance I Ze B
l(Z) ()
A c
ZA Zu Ziha Zi/21> .Zc
el
02
Negefives~nce ~ I Zo
[(rJ) l<•>1C2rli.OJ" ~lk>
[(rJ)A i(o). ~·k_oy:;
A c
l(OJA Z<o'' /m3J ZiJTJ..f28 ZiJrJ..t21> Z<OJc
00
Zero sec::p..~en::e impedllrce l ~~
I
IEC 176109
Figure 8 .4 Line t oearth short c ircu it outside stations 8 and C at t he tow er T
o f an overhead l ine  Positive, negat ive and zerosequence systems
w ith con nectio ns at the s h ortci rcuit l ocation F
Th e linetoe arth shortcircuit current can be calculated with IEC 609090, Equation (52),
usi ng Figur e 8.4 .
/  J3 '1•1' 132 kV
 (0 4965 '34889)kA
k•  2(1,7145 + i13,6602)n +(6,6262 + i43,3324)n ' J '
where
T he partial zerosequence currents L (O)a and L (O)b on the left and right side of the short
circuit location F in Figure 8.4 are found as follows:
38 609093 © IEC:2009
Z'(O)l t 2b i l (O)C
f.(O)a = f.(O) . . = (0,0851 j 0,5263 )kA
~(0)1. t 2b + ~(O)C + ~(0)1. f 2a + ,.,
1 
+
l (O)B l (O)lt +l (O)A
The pa rtial zerosequence currents L(o)A and L(O)B are found from Leola:
(0,0139 j0,0452)kA ;
I (O)A = 0,0473kA
Z ;Z
I I '0 .0712 j'0,481 1)kA ·,
 (O)B   (O)a z (O)Az  (O)ltz
 (O)A +  (0)8 +  (0)1.1
~
Ico)B = 0,4864kA
T he total current to earth at the shortcircuited tower in Figure 6 .3 is calculated with Eq uation
(22):
Iertot = 2,114kA
With the tower footing resistance Rr and the driving point impedance as calcu lated in Clause
B.3, the total earth impedance l ETtot is found according to Equation (23):
,?:ETtot = 0,9041 Q
~EB = ~EBtol ·!: · 3L(O)I:I = (0,6845 · j0.4928)Q ·0,6 ·3 · (0,0712 j0.4811)kA = (0,5145 · j0,5296)kV
Vee =0,7383kV
The currents in the earth wires and through the earth at a longer distance from the stations
and the shortcircuited tower {Figure 8 .3) are:
I OA = 0,0567 kA
foe =0,7701kA
As an example, the lineto earth shortcircuit current and the earth potentials shall be
calculated, if the short circuit occurs at a tower T with the number n = 10 at the overhead line
between the stations B and C at a distance of 4,4 km from station B {see Figure 7).
The lineto earth shortcircu it current is calculated accord ing to IEC 609090, Equation {52)
using Figure 8.4 with changed line lengths.
/;. = 10,5444kA
where
 40  609093 © IEC:2009
1
~1 ,, =~1 2, =  1,:
1
    =(0, 4449+ j5, 9037) n
. + , 1 
~l (t 2 11· dT) + ~C b. ·11 · dT + ,,..,
1 1
 + ::_:__.,.
b b,,+~..
1
= ~: = (1,2412 + j11,9481)0
K_(O)
.
1 +:
2 (O)l (l 2 11 ·dT)+Z
 (O)C z'(0)1.. . 11 . dT + 1 1
 + ,:....,
lco)8 lcoJL1 + l eolA
The partial zerosequence currents l.co>a and l.colb on the left and right side of the tower T
(n= 10) are found as follows:
(0,2767  j3,2458)kA
/ (O)C = 0,2577 kA
The partial zerosequence currents !.(O)A and l.to)8 are found from l.to>a :
f.(O) A = f.(O)a
z
 (O)B = (0,0640  j0,2817)kA ;
l(o)A + l co)B + l co)l1
/ (O)A = 0,2888kA
I !
(O)B  (O)a z z z (0,2128 j2,9642)kA ;
 (O)A +  (0)8 +  (0)1..1
/(0)8 = 2,9718kA
The earthing impedance of station Bin this case is calculated with Equation (29):
1
~EB = = (1,2698 + j0,7568)Q
1 1 1 1
 +  + ,..,...,.,.,...:..,::::...,..,.~
R8 ~P 50 (1,4370+ J1,3060)n
The driving point impedance of the finite chain lor 11=1 0 is found from Equation (2):
The earth ing impedance for the shortcircuited tower is to be calculated with Equation (28):
1
~ET =~:~=
1 +
1
+
1

=(1,3690+ j0,9856)!l
R1 ~P 10!1 (1.4370 + j1.3060)n
The curren t LeT1o flowing through ~ET at the tower " = 10 is found with Equation (27) :
J
1 2697 0 7568
 0.6 · 3 · (0,2128 '2.9642)kA ( · • • )!1 _ !1
(2.7067 + j2.0628)!l (1.1437 + j0,1306)10
= (1.0194  j3,1417)kA
I ET10 = 3.3029 kA
The earth potential at the shortcircuited tower is given according to Equation (30):
Ueno = 5.5714kV
The current passing Z.ee in this case of a linetoearth short circuit at the tower (~t=1 0) in the
vicinity of sta tion B is found with Equation (31 ):
2Zp Za
I  ,.(
 EBIO  kl z Zerz
ET + P10
Ue 810 = 4,272kV
Figu re 8.5 shows the ea rth potentials UET. related to Uer = 1,912kV from Clause 8.4 an d
Uea., rel ated to the earth potential Uea =0.972kV from Clause 8.3.
u
:=+31:
2
UET•
''a!.
~45 147
I
149
n ~~
IEC JT710'J
Annex C
(informative)
Example for the calculation of the reduction factor r 1 and the current
distribution through earth in case of a threecore cable
C.1 Overview
C.2 .1 Data
With Equations (30) and (32), given in IECITR 609092, the following results are found.
Zero sequence impedance per unit length in case of current nowing back through the shield
(S) and the earth ( E) :
2
3 o/10 + j o/'0 In i.
. . Jlo Jlo 1 /j 8 2 " rs . n
l (O)LSE =RL + 3lll+jlll  + 3ln w  ~ = (1,209+]1,092)
8 211 ( 4 • d2 )
1L R. + Po . Po 1 a km
s lli + Jlll n
8 2rr r5
44 609093 © IEC:2009
       ~e;;ii;;aie,dearth
1ESA:!"1 3l (O)A penetration deplh
IEC 178109
Accord ing to 6.1, the impedances fu and l.es are neglected when calculating the short
circuit currents with earth connection.
Shortcircuit currents:
£~ (t = 0) =(1,186+ j 13,844) kA
Linetoearth shortcircu it current flowing back through the shield and the earth
C.2.4 Reduction factor, current in the shield and current through earth
T he partial shortcircuit current flowing through earth is found with Equation (41 ):
0,714E..
km
.
0,714 + 0,04935 + J·0,06283 In 931m3 )  Q
( 23,6·10 m km
~~ = 0,5318 j0,4633 :
r1 = 0,7053
Figure C.2 gives the calcu lated shortcircuit currents , the current in the shield and the current
through earth depending on the length l ~ 1 kmof the cable between stations A and B.
Earthing voltage in station A, in case of ( = 5km and leBA = 1,175kA (see Table C.1) is:
km kA kA kA kA kA kA
1 2,983  j4,846 5,690 3,641  j0,887 3 ,748  0,659  j3,959 4,014
5 1,200  j 1, 156 1,666 1,097 +j0,015 1,097 0 ,103  j 1,170 1,1 75
10 0,661  j 0,5 78 0 ,878 0,577 +j0,036 0 ,578 0 ,084  j0,6 13 0,619
.
r:
'
I ' I
1 '
I
'/YJ
'
. ..,,
''
+ 
~~
'
''
'
' ' ' ' '
l
 ,
 
I~
'
...... .  .... _
'

1  
~ r..

0
I I
0 6 8 10 u l4 16
18 km lO
e   fEC 179109
Figure C.2  Shortcircuit currents and partial shortci rcuit currents through earth
for the examp le in Figure C.1
46 609093 © IEC:2009
C.3 Li netoearth short circuit on the cable between the stations A and B
E"""alert earth
olion depth
tEC 160109
The linetoearth short circuit in Figure C.3 is fed only from station A . The linetoearth short
circuit is anticipated with earth connection at the shortcircuit location F having ReF = 5fl
(see 8.2.2.2).
T he reduction factor !:1 = 0,5318 j0,4633 is already calculated with Equation (37 ).
The currents lsA and leaA on the left side of the shortcircuit location are calculated with
Equations (42) and (45) and the currents on the right side of the sh ortcircuit location with
Equ ations (43) and (46). In case of 3£<o)8 =0 according to Figure C.3, the following relation
is va lid: Leas = Lss.
609093 @ IEC:2009 47
6 . .~~. .~
'
I
·····jr
. 1:3
l:
I
' 11'·1 0kml
·. ··.
1
Annex 0
(informative)
Example for the calculation of the reduction factor r 3 and the current
distribution through earth in c ase of three singlecore cables
0 .1 Overview
0 .2.1 Dat a
Singlecore cables 64/ 110 kV, 2XK2Y: 3X1 X630 rm. Cu. in triangular configuration .
(J)Jlo ln  d 12
.
Z(1)LS
· . Jlo ( 1
[
d)
=RL + J(J)   + In + '211 rSm
 =.......,. (0,0351 + j0,125) 0 / km
2Jt 4 rL R. . Jlo In d
s+J(J) 
2n r5m
NOTE 1 When taking care of the currents in the sheaths during balanced operation (no cross bonding). the real
part of ~~I)LS i s higher than the real part of ~;t)L· because of the losses on the sheaths. see IEC/TR 609092.
Table 5.
Zerosequence impedance per unit length in case of current flowing back through the sheaths
only:
·
Z(OILS . Jlo ( 1 +In rs ) = (0,4073 + ]0,0746)
= RL· +Rs· + j(J) . 0 / km
2 Jt 4 rl
Zerosequence impedance per unit length in case of current flowing back through the sheaths
and the earth (IECfTR 609092 . Equation (16)):
609093 © IEC:2009 49
3wflo + j3wflo ln  6
8 2n ~'Ld2
~(O)LSE =RL +3Wflo +jW
o o 6 )
. flo ( 1 +31nw (0,3856+ j0,1483}n/ km
8 2n 4 3,.. d2
L
NOTE 2 The zerosequence impedance Z~OJS = 0.414Hl / km in case of current flowing back through the
sheaths differs only for about 0,2 % from z (o)I.SE = 0,413Hl / km.
From the network configuration a nd the data given in Figure 0 .1 , the following short circuit
curren ts can be fou nd for a linetoearth short circuit in station B.
f
I
:X :X
QA
""' !"~  I QB
:X :X
:X :X t  ......1 :X :X
:X  · 4  ... 
~
J~ li~
~
A v
8
ZEA I~ZEB
' EIJ,ivalent earth
    penetrellion depth
IEC 183109
rv
Z(1)s·t
01
/V
Z (1)QA
rv
l(1)s·t
l
c~
t/3"
02
rv 1j"
j  k1
Z(O)QA Z(o).SE ·t
00
IEC 184109
Figure 0.2 Pos itive, negative and zerosequence system of the network in Figure 0 .1
with connections at the shortcircuit location (station B)
r
In case o f a cable length = 5 km (for example), the linetoearth shortcircuit current at the
shortcircuit location in station B is found from Figure 0 .2 as:
where
From this result the partial shortcircu it currents 3£co>A and 3£co)B are found:
Reduction factor a ccording to Equation (48) for a triangular configuration of the singlecore
cables :
609093 © IEC:2009 51 
'3 = 0,2027
Sum of the currents in the three sheaths according to Equation (49 ) with f = 5 km :
Figure 0 .3 shows the current distribution depending on the length, f . of the cables between
the stations A and B.
20
I ~kl I
I
~
16
I
14
12
~ 3f(O)A
10 !SA
I
     3J(o>s    ~  
l f IESA

1   
3 4 .s 6 1 8 9 km 10
Length of the cable £     +
IEC JBS/09
Fig ure 0 .3 Current distribution for the network in Figure 0.1 , depending
on the length, t , of the singlecore cables between the stations A and B
609093 © IEC:2009 53
In case of e.g. t A =5 km between station A and the shortcircuit location, if the total length of
the cable is l = 10 km ( t = l A~ t 6 ), the linetoearth shortcircuit current is found as:
J3cUn J3 1,1·110kV
(4,5573 j16,5163)kA
2~(1) +~(0) 2(0,4533 + j3,1844)0 +(2.3471 + j5,4225)Q
where
    ,      . . , . .  = (0,4532 + j3,1843)n
1
_ ____:_;, +
1 •
~(1)QA + ~(1)1.5 { A ~(1)08 + ~(1)1.5{8
From this results the partial shortcircuit currents £(O)A and £(0')8 are found:
I
(O)A
= ~(
 k1
Z:co)Q8 + £~o)lsls• = '08462  . 3.2794)kA
~ ' J ·
3 £ (O)QA + ~(O)QB + £ (O)lSf
Currents in the sheaths accord ing to Equations (51 a) and (52a) with !: 3 = 0,0572 j0,1945 for
the numerica l example l A= 5 km :
/ SA = 10,1022kA
/ 58 = 7,0341kA
Currents through earth found with Equations (54a) and (55a ) for the numerical exampl e
eA = 5km :
54 609093 © IEC:2009
fesA =0,3246kA
less = 0,3246kA
The highest current through the sheath S1 can be found with Equations (51 b) or (52b):
The h ighest current through the earth is found from Equations (54 b) or (55 b):
I ESAmax = 1,8302 kA
I E3Bmax = 1,3264 kA
Figure 0 .6 shows the current distribution depending on the length l A between the station A
and the shortcircuit location on the cable .
14 t..:....;:1
12 Is&
::::;~~  
10 I ~  .  ......... ::
. .......... .......3Iroe
.: ~ 
_,. r·..;._ 
lse

IEC J8810t
Fig ure 0 .6 Current distribution for the cab l e in Figure 0.4
d epending on e.., REF ~ 00
609093 © IEC:2009 55
In case of e.g. f A = 5 km for the cable between station A and lhe shortcircuit location F, if
the total length of the cable is I = 10 km ( I = t A ~ ( 8 ), the linetoearth shortcircuit current is
found as:
where
From this results the partial shortcircuit currents 3!.(o)A and 3!.(o)B are found:
3/
 (O)A
=/
k1
~(O)QB + ~;O)LSEiB
•
= (2 3867  . 9.6916)kA
' J .
Z.(o)QA + Zto)Q8 + Z.<OJLSE l
Total earth impedance of the sheath to earth with ReF = 50 (Equation (47)).
1
~EStot = 1 1 1 = (1,1433 + j1.0039)Q
. +. +
~s ·5km f:s · 5km 50
Currents in the sheaths according to Equations (51 ) and (52) with !: 3 =0,0573 j0,1945 for
the numerical example f A = 5 km :
Currents through earth found with Equations (54) and (55) for the numerical example
PA=5km:
56 609093 © IEC:2009
The highest current through earth is found from Equation (54c) if the shortcircuit current is
fed from sta tion A only with 3f.(o)A(t A = ()=(2.5146 j10,0276) kA :
/ E aA max = 1,8614 kA
If the shortcircuit current is fed from both sides as in Figure 0 .4, a result feOAm:rx = 1,7644 kA
is found (see Figure 0 .7).
Figure 0.7 shows the current distribution depending on the length t A between the station A
and the shortcircuit location.
14 ~++++4
ll ~~+++~4
~   
10rt=.. . . . .;rsSA~=::::·: :r::::::::::::::::~;±~~~= = d
81r
~~~3~l~==~~r
~====::==~~~~
~ =~~
~~
d;..·  ~0}3     ~     
I I
Ies.;max=~6 kA
2
lese TeSA
00 l 6
eA s
f
km 10
IEC 189109