Anda di halaman 1dari 58

S+ IEC 60909-3

Edition 3.0 2009-03

IEC STANDARDS+

Short-circuit currents in three-phase AC systems -


Part 3: Currents during two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short circuits
and partial short-circuit currents flowing through earth

Courants de court-circuit dans les reseaux triphases a courant alternatif-


Partie 3: Courants durant deux courts-circuits monophases simultanes separes
a Ia terre et courants de court-circuit partiels s'ecoulant a travers Ia terre
~ THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
~ Copyright © 2009 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland
AU rights reserved. Unless ottlenvise speafted, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by
any means, ele<:lronic: or mechanical. inctud•ng photoc:op)4ng and mic:rotitm. wfthout. permission in wl'itmg from either IEC o r
IEC's member National Commietee •n the country of the requester.
If you have any questions about IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication,
please contact the address below or your locaiiEC member National Committee for further information.

Oroits de reproduction reserves. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut etre reproduite
ni utilisee sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procedtl. electronique ou mecanique, y compris Ia photocopie
et les microfilms. sans l*accord ecrit de Ia CEI ou du Comite national de la GEl du pays du demandeur.
Si vous avez des questions sur le copyright de Ia CEI ou si vous desire-z obtenir des droits supple-mentaires sur ootte
publication. utilisez les coordonn8es ci-aprils ou c:ontaccez 1e Comite national de Ia CEI de votre pays de residence.

tEC Central Orfice


3. rue de Varembe
CH·121 1 Geneva 20
Switzerland
Email: inmall@iec.ch
Web: www.iec.ch

About the IEC


The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes
In ternational Standards for all electrical. electronic and related technologles.

About IEC publications


The technical content of I EC publications is kept under constant review by the I EC. Please make sure that you have the
latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been pubhshed.
• Catalogue of IEC publications: www iec chlseardJoub
The IEC on-line Catalogue enables you to search by a variety of criteria (reference numbe-r, text. technical committee, ... ).
It also gives information on projects. withdrawn and replaced publications.
• I EC Just Published : www.iec.ch/online newsljustoub
Stay up to date on all new IEC publk:ations. Just Published details twioe a month all new publications released. Available
on.Jine and also by email.
• Electropedia: www electrooedia.org
The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and electrical tenns containing more than 20 000 terms and definitions
in English and French, with equivalent terms in additional languages. AJso known as the International Electrotec:hnic-al
Vocabulary online.
• Customer Service Centre: wwwiec.chJwebstqe!custserv
If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or need further assistance, please visit the Customer Service
Centre FAQ or contact us:
Email: <:sc@iec.ch
Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
Fax: +41 22 919 03 00

A propos de Ia CEI
La Commission Electrotechnique lnternationa)e (CEI) est Ia premiere organisation mondiale qui elabore et publie des
normes internationates pour tout ce qu• a trait ~ retectncite, tll'etectromque et aux technologies apparentees.
A propos des publications CEI
le contenu technique des publications de Ia CEI est «~nstamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possedez
l'l!-dition Ia plus recente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir ere publl6.
• Catalogue des publications de Ia CEI: www.lec.chfsearchoublwr fut-f.htm
Le Catak>gue en..ligne de Ia CEI vous permet d'effectuer des rec:tletdles en ufilisant diff8rents criteres (numero de reference.
texte. comite d'etudes.... ). II donne aussi des informations sur 1es projets et les publications retirees ou remplatees.
• Just Published CEI: wwwj ec chlonline newsf!Ustoob
Restez inform& sur les nouvelles publications de Ia CEI. Just Published d8ta1lle deux fois par mois les nouvelles
publications parues. Oisponible en-ligne et aussi par emai.
• Elec.tropedia: www.etectrooedia.oro
le premier dictionnaire en ligne au monde de termes electroniques et electriques. II contient plus de 20 000 termes et
definitions en anglais et en franc;ais, ainsi que les termes eQuivalents dans le:s langues addrti:onnelles. Egalement appele
Vocabulaire Electrotechnique International en ligne.
• Servlce Clients: www.iec.ch/\vebstore/eustsetv/custsenr et~lnr-f.htm
Si vous desirez nous donner des commentaires sur cette publication ou si vous avez des questions. visitez le FAQ du
Service clients ou contactez-nous:
Email: csc@lec.ch
Tel.: •41 22 919 0211
Fax: +41 22 919 03 00
5+ IEC 60909-3
Edition 3.0 2009-03

IEC STANDARDS+
Contains the International Standard and its Redline version
Contient Ia Norme internationale et sa version Redline

Short-circuit currents in three-phase AC systems -


Part 3: Currents during two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short circuits
and partial short-circuit currents flowing through earth

Courants de court-circuit dans les reseaux triphases acourant alternatif -


Partie 3: Courants durant deux courts-circuits monophases simultanes separes
a a
Ia terre et courants de court-circuit partiels s'ecoulant travers Ia terre

INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION

COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE PRICE CODE
CODE PRIX
sw
ICS 17.220.01 ; 29.240.20 ISBN 2-3318·1027-8
-2- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

CONTENTS
FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5
1 Scope and object. ..........................................................................................•...... •........... 7
2 Normati ve references ....................................................................................................... 8
3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 8
4 Symbols ......................................................................................................................... 10
5 Calcu lation of currents during two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short
circuits ........................................................................................................................... 12
5.1 Initial symmetrical short-circuit current .................................................................. 12
5.1 .1 Determination of M (1) and M 12, .............................................. ...... 12
5.1.2 Simple cases of two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short
circuits ................................................................................................ ...... 13
5.2 Peak short-circuit current, symmetrical short circuit breaking current and
steady-state short-circuit current .................................................................... ...... 13
5.3 Distribu ti on of the currents during two separate simultaneous line-to- earth
short circuits .......................................................................................................... 14
6 Calculation of pa rtial short-circuit currents flowing through earth in case of an
unbalanced short circuit. ................................................................................................. 14
6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14
6.2 Li ne-to-earth short circuit inside a station .............................................................. 15
6.3 Li ne-to-earth short circuit outside a station ............................................................ 16
6.4 Li ne-to- earth short circuit in the vicinity of a station ............................................... 18
6.4 .1 Ea rth potential !ln. at the tower 11 outside station 8 .................................. 19
6.4 .2
Earth potential of station 8 during a line- to earth short circuit at the
tower n ........................................................................... ....... ... ....... ... ... .. .. 19
7 Reduction factor for overhead lines with earth wires ....................................................... 20
8 Calculation of current distribution and reduction factor in case of cables with
metallic sheath or shield earthed at both ends ................................................................ 21
8.1 Overview ............................................................................................................... 21
8.2 Three-core cable ................................................................................................... 22
8.2 .1 Line-to-earth short circuit in station 8 ....................................... ................ 22
8.2 .2 Line-to-earth short circuit on the cable between station A and
station 8 ................................................................................................... 23
8.3 Three single-core cables ....................................................................................... 26
8.3.1 Line-to-earth short circuit in station 8 ........................................................ 26
8.3.2 Line-to-earth short circuit on the cable between station A and
station 8 .................................................................................................... 26
Annex A ( informative) Example for the calculation of two separate simultaneous line-
to-earth short-circuit currents ................................................................................................ 30
Annex 8 ( informative) Examples for the calculation of partial short-circuit currents
through ea rth ........................................................................................................................ 33
Annex C (informative) Example for the calculation of the reduction factor r, and the
current distribution through earth in case of a three-core cable ............................................. 43
Annex D (informative) Example for the calculation of the reduction factor r 3 a nd the
curren t distribution through earth in case of three single-core cables .................................... 48
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -3-

Figure 1 - Driving point impedance Y, of an infinite chain , composed of the earth wire
impedance ~a =~~dr and the footing resistance R1 of the towers , w ith equal
distances d 1 between the towers .............................................................................................9
Figure 2 - Driving point impedance Y,. of a finite chain with " towers, composed of the
earth wire impedance ~Q =~~dr , the footing resistance R1 of the towers, with equa l
distances d 1 between the towers and the earthing impedance l£ 8 of station B from
Equation ( 29) ............................................................................................................. .......... 10
Figure 3 - Characterisation of two separate simultaneous line-to earth short circuits
and the curren ts /~ee .......................................................................................................... 12
Figure 4 - Partial short-circuit currents in case of a line-to-earth short circuit inside
station B ............................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 5 - Partial short-circuit currents in case of a line-to-earth short circuit at a
tower T of an overhead line .................................................................................................. 16
Figure 6 - Distribution of the total current to earth l ETtot ...................................................... 17
Figure 7 - Partial short-circuit currents in the case of a line-to-earth short circuit at a
tower 11 of an overhead line in the vicinity of station B ........................................................... 18
Figure 8 - Reduction factor r lor overhead lines with non-magnetic earth wires
depend ing on soil resistivity p .................................................................... .... ... ... .... ... ... .. .. ... 21
Figure 9 - Reduction factor of three-core power cables ........................................................ 23
Figure 10 - Reduction factors for three single-core power cables ......................................... 27
Figure A.1 - Two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short circuits on a single fed
overhead line (see Table 1) .................................................................................................. 30
Figure B.1 - Line-to-earth short circu it inside station B - System diagram for stations
A, Band C ............................................................................................................................ 34
Figure B.2- Line-to-earth short circu it inside station B- Positive-, negative- and zero-
sequence systems with connections at the short-circuit location F within station B ............... 34
Figure B.3 - Line-to-earth short circuit outside stations B and C at the tower T of an
overhead line - System diagram for stations A , B and C ....................................................... 36
Figure B.4 - Line-to-earth short circuit outside stations B and C at the tower T of an
overhead line - Pos itive-, negative- and zero-seq uence systems with connections at
the short-circuit location F .................................................................................................... 37
Figure B.S - Earth potentials "ET• = Ue"' IUET with UET = 1,912 kV and uesn = Ue•• IUes
with Ues = 0,972 kV , if the line-to-earth short circuit occurs at the towers "= 1, 2, 3, .. .
in the vicinity of station B ..................................................................................................... .42
Figure C.1 - Example for the ca lculation of the cable reduction factor and the current
distribution through earth in a 10-kV-network, Un = 10 kV; c = 1,1;f= 50 Hz ........................ 44
Figure C.2 - Short-circu it currents and partial short-circuit currents through earth for
the example in Figure C.1 ..................................................................................................... 45
Figure C.3- Example for the ca lculation of current distribution in a 10-kV-network with
a short circu it on the cable between A and B (data given in C.2.1 and Figure C.1 ) ............... 46
Figure C.4 -Line-to-earth short-circuit currents , partial currents in the shield and
partial currents through earth ................................................................................................ 47
Figure D.1 - Example for the calculation of the reduction factor and the current
distribution in case of three single-core cables and a line-to-earth short circuit in
station B ................................................................................................................. ............. 49
Figure D.2- Pos itive-, negative- and zero-sequence system of the network in Figure
D.1 with connections at the short-circuit location (station B) ........................ , ........................ 50
Figure D.3- Current distribution for the network in Figure D.1 , depend ing on the
length, (, of the single-core cables between the stations A and B .......................................... 51
-4- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

Figure 0.4 - Example for the calculation of the reduction factors '3 and the current
distribution in case of three single-core cables and a li ne-to-earth short circuit
between the stations A and B ............................................................................................... 52
Figure 0.5- Pos itive-, negative- and zero-sequence system of the network in Figure 0.4
with connections at the short-circuit location (anywhere between the stations A and B) ........ 52
Figure 0.6- Current distribution for the cable in Figure 0 .4 depending on tA. REF-4oo ......... 54
Figure D. 7 - Current distribution for the cable in Figure 0 .4 depending on tA. ReF = 5 Q ... .. . 56

Table 1 - Calculation of in itial line-to-earth short-circuit currents in simple cases ................ 13


Table 2- Resistivity of the soil and equivalent earth penetration depth ................................ 20
Table C.1 - Results for the example in Figure C.1 ................................................................ 45
Table C.2 - Results for the example in Figure C.3. f• 5 km ................................................. 47

Table C.3- Results for the example in Figure C.3, l = 10 km ............................................... 47


60909-3 © IEC:2009 - 5-

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION

SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS IN THREE-PHASE AC SYSTEMS-

Part 3: Currents during two separate simultaneous


line-to-earth short circuits and partial short-circuit
currents flowing through earth

FOREWORD
1) The International Electrotechnical Commissioo (IE C) Is a worldwide organlz.ation for standardization comprising
all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote
international co·operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To
this end and in addition to other aclivities. IEC publishes International Standards. Technieat Specifications,
Technical Reports. Publicly Available Specifications ( PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC
Publication( s)") . Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested
in the subject dealt with may participate i n thi s preparatory wortc. International. governmental and non·
governmental organi zations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates c losely
with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by
agreement between the two organizatioos.
2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express. as nearly as possible, an international
consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects sinee each technical comm•ltee has representation from all
interested IEC National Committees.
3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National
Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC
Publications is accurate. IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any
misinterpretation by any end user.
4) In order to ptomote international uni formity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications
transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence
between any IEC Publication and the eorrespon<hng national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in
the latter.
5) IEC provides no mar1<ing procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any
equipment declared to be i n conformi ty with an IEC Publication.
6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.
7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its di rectors, employees. servants or agents including individual experts and
members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or
other damage of any nature whatsoever. whether direct or indirect. or for costs (including legal fees) and
expenses arising out of the publication. use of. or reliance upon. this IEC Publication or any other IEC
Publications.
8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited '" this publicahon. Use of the referenced publications is
indispensable for the correct applicati on of thi s publication.
9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of
patent rights. IEC shall not be held respOnsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60909-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 73 : Short-
circui t currents.

T his International Standard is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60909-0.

Th is third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2003. This edition
constitutes a techn ical revision.

T he main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:

New proced ures are introduced for the calculation of reduction factors of the sh eaths
or shields and in add ition the current distribution through earth and the sheaths or
shields o f three-core cables or of three single- core cables with metallic non-magnetic
sheaths or shields earthed at both ends;
The information for the calculation of lhe reduction factor of overhead lin es with earth
wires are corrected and given in the new Clause 7;
- 6- 60909- 3 © IEC:2009

- A new Clause 8 is introduced for the calculation of current distribution and reduction
factor of three-core cables with metallic sheath or shield earthed at both ends;
- The new Annexes C and D provide examples for the calculation of reduction factors
and current distribution in case of cables with metallic sheath and shield earthed at
both ends.

T he text of this standard is based on the following documents:

FDIS Report on voting


731148/FOIS 731149/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on
voting ind icated in the above table.

T his publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISOIIEC Directives, Part 2.

A list o f all parts of the IEC 60909 series, published under the general title Short-circuit
currents in three-phase a.c. systems, can be found on the IEC website.

T he committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until
the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "hllp://webstore. iec.ch" in
the data related to the specific publication . At this date. the publication will be

reconfirmed,
withdrawn,
replaced by a revised edition, or
amend ed.
60909- 3 © IEC :2009 - 7-

SHORT-CIRCUIT CU RRENTS IN THREE-PHASE AC SYSTEMS-

Part 3: Currents d uring two separate simultaneous


line-to-earth short circu its an d partial short-circuit
c urrents f lowing through earth

1 Scope and obj ect

T his part of IEC 60909 specifies procedures for calculation of the prospective short-circu it
currents with an unbalanced short circuit in high-voltage three-phase a.c. systems operating
at nominal freq uency 50 Hz or 60 Hz, i. e.:

a) cu rrents during two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short circuits in isolated neutral or
resonant earthed neutral systems;
b) pa rti al short-circu it currents flowing through earth in case of single line-to-earth short
circuit in solid ly earthed or low-impedance earthed neutral systems.

T he currents calculated by these procedures are used when determining induced voltages or
touch or step voltages and rise of earth potential at a station (power station or substation) and
the towers of overhead lines.

Procedures are given for the calculation of reduction factors of overhead lines with one or two
earth wires.

The standa rd d oes not cover:

a) short-circuit currents deliberately created under controlled conditions as in short circuit


testing stations, or
b) short-circuit currents in the electrical installations on board ships or aeroplanes, or
c) single line-to-earth fault currents in isolated or resonant earthed systems.

T he object of this standard is to establish practical and concise procedures for the calculation
of li ne-to-earth short-circuit currents during two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short
circui ts and partial short-circuit currents through earth, earth wires of overhead lines and
sheaths or shields of cables leading to conservative results with sufficient accuracy. For this
purpose, the short-circuit currents are determined by considering an equivalent voltage
source a t the short-circuit location with all other voltage sources set to zero. Resistances of
earth grid s in stations or footing resistances of overhead line towers are neglected, when
calculating the short-circuit currents at the short-circuit location.

T his standa rd is an add ition to IEC 60909-0. General definitions, symbols and calculation
assum ptions refer to that publication. Special items only are defined or specified in this
standard .

The calculation of the short-circuit currents based on the rated data of the electrical
equipment and the topolog ical arrangement of the system has the advantage of being
possible both for existing systems and for systems at the planning stage . The procedure is
suitable for determination by manual methods or digital computation. This does not exclude
the use of sp ecial methods, for example the super-position m ethod, adjusted to particu lar
circumstances, if they give at least the same precision.

As stated in IEC 60909-0, short-circuit currents and their parameters may also be determined
by system tests.
- 8- 60909 -3 © IEC:2009

2 Normative references

T he following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of th is d ocument.


For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest ed ition
of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60 909-0:2001, Short-circuit currents in three-phase a .c. systems- Part 0: Calculation of


currents

IEC/T R 60909 -2:2008, Short-circuit currents in three-phase a.c. system s - Part 2: Data of
electrical equipmen t for short-circuit current calculations

3 Terms and definitions

For th e purposes o f this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
two separate simultaneous line-to earth short circuits
line-to-earth short circuits at different locations at the same time on different conductors of a
three-phase a.c. network having a resonant earthed or an isolated neutral

3.2
initial short-circuit currents during two separate simultaneous line-to -earth
short circu its /~EE
r. m .s va lue of the initial short-circuit currents flowing at both short-circuit locations with the
same magnitud e

3.3
partial short-circuit current through earth l Ea
r. m .s. value o f the current flowing through earth in a fictive line in the eq uival ent earth
penetration depth l
N OTE In case of overhead lines remote from the short-circuit location and the earthing system of a station. where
the distribution of the current between earthed conductors and earth is nearty constant, the current through earth
depends on the reduction factor of the overhead line (Figures 4 and 5). In ease of cables with metallic sheaths or
shields. earthed at both ends in the stations A and B. current through earth between the stations A and B (Figures
Sa) and 10a )). respectively between the short-circuit location and the stations A orB ( Figures 9b) and 10b)).

3.4
total current to earth IETtot at the short-circuit location on the tower T of an overhead
line
r. m . s. value of the current flowing to earth through the footing resistance of an overhead lin e
tower fa r away from a station connected with the driving point impedances of the overhead
line at both sides. see Figure 5

3.5
total current to earth /Eatot at the short-circuit locat ion in the station 8
r.m .s. val ue of th e current flowing to earth through the earthing system of a station B (power
station or substati on) with connected earthed conductors (earth wires of overhead lines or
sheaths or shields or armouring of cables or other earthed conductors as for instance metall ic
water pipes), see Fig ure 4

3.6
current to earth / ET•
r.m.s. value of the current flowing to earth causing the potential rise at an overhead line to wer
, in the vicinity of a station
60909-3 © IEC:2009 - 9-

3.7
current to earth l ean
r.m.s. value o f the current flowing to earth causing the potential rise Uean of a station B, in
case of a line-to-earth short circuit at an overhead line tower n in the vicinity of the station B

3.8
reduction fa ctor r
for overhead lines, which determines the part of the line-to-earth short-circuit current flowing
through the earth remote from the short-circuit location and the earthing systems of the
stations

3.9
reduction fa ctor r 1
for three-core cables with metallic sheath or shield earthed at both ends

3.10
reductio n factor r1
for three single-core cables with metallic sheaths or shields earthed at both ends

3.11
driving po in t Impedance z,
of an Inf inite c h ain
composed of the earth -wire impedance ~a between two towers with earth return and the
footing resistance Rr of the overhead line towers (Figure 1):

~P = 0.5~a +J(o.S~a'f + Rr~a ( 1)

d, - --1--- --+-- <~,


Zo Zo
'---<:ZS::I--t--<l!~--t--c::si:J--It-- !dlwre

z.

Figure 1 - Driving point impedance b


-
---
........ c:Jncte.-,
fEC fOOIOP

of an inf inite chain, composed of the earth wire


Impedance ~a = ~~dr and the footing resistance Rr of the towers , with equal d istances
d 1 between the towers
The driving point impedance b can be assumed constant at a distance from the short-circuit
location F longer than the far-from-station distanceD, defined by Equation (19).

3.12
driving point impedance z,.of a fin ite chain
with 11 towers of an overhead line as given in Figure 2 and with the impedance ~es at the
end, calculated according to Equation (2).

ZP<zea +.f.p)!" +(zp -Za)(zea -.f.p +Za)! -•


(2)
<zea +ZP )! " - {zee -~p +Ia )!-•
-10- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

with

(3)

NOTE For n - . GO, Equation ( 2) is leading to Equation (1 ). In prac1icat eases, this is true already for n = 10 ... 15.

Rr Rr Rr
E~ eerth
penetration depth
IEC H5f/09

Figure 2 - Dr ivi ng point impedance bn of a f in ite ch ai n w ith 11 towers, composed


of the earth w ire i mpeda nce Z.a = Z.~dT , t h e fo o ting r esi sta nce RT of th e towers,
with equal d istances dT between the t owers an d t he ea rthing i mpedance Z.ea
of stat ion B f ro m Equatio n (29)

4 Symbols

All equations are written as quantity equations, in wh ich the symbols represent physical
q uantities possessing both numerical values and dimensions. Symbols of complex quantities
are underlined in the text and equations of this standard.

cU0 1 J3 Equiva lent voltage source ( IEC 60909-0)


Dr Far-from-station d istance ( Equation (1 9))
dr Distance between two towers
d l 1l 2 Distance between the line conductors l1 and l2
do1a2 Distance between the earth wires 0 1 and 02
/bEE Short circuit breaking current in case of two separate simultaneous line-to -
earth short circuits
Current flowing to earth (lEA, lea. fee and fer in the Figures 4, 5, 7 )
Curre nt to ea rth in station B with a short-circuited tower n in the vicinity of
station B (Figure 7)
festot Total current to earth in the station B if a short circuit with earth connection
occurs in station B ( Figure 4)
fern Current to earth at the short-circuited tower 11 in the vicinity of a station
( Figure 7)
lenot Total current to earth at a short-circuited tower T far away from stations (see
Figure 5)
Initial symmetrical short-circuit current in case of two separate simultaneous
line-to-earth short circuits

Initia l symmetrical short-circuit current flowing to earth in the case of a line-to-


line short circuit with earth connection (I EC 60909-0 )
60909-3 © IEC:2009 - 11 -

Partia l short-circuit current flowing through earth (for instance in Figure 4:


~Eli\. = ~Ax 3!ro i A or in Figure gb): Current Le&>. flowing back to the station A
according to Equation (45))
Earth wire current

Current in the shea th or shield of a cable (in case of three single-core cables :
Is ,. /s2 and /53)
Partial short-circuit current through the footing resistance Rr of an overhead line
tower
ipEE Peak short-circuit current in case of two separate simultaneous line-to-earth
short circuits
M(l), MC2l Coupling impedances in the positive- and the negative-sequence system

flu.. flee Resistance of the earth grid in the station A or B

ReF Resistance to earth at the short-circuit location of a cable (Figure 9b) or 1 Ob))
Rr Footi ng resistance of an overhead line tower
r Reduction factor for overhead line w ith earth wires
'i Reduction factor of the sheath or shield of a three-core cable ( Figure 9a))
'3 Reduction factor of the sheaths or shields of three single core cables ( Figure
10a))
'a Earth wire rad ius

'5 Radius of the metallic sheath or shield of a cable (medium value)


Z 11 lA , Z!1>B Positive-sequence short-circuit impedance of a three-phase a .c. system at the
connection point A , B (Annex B)
z (O) Zero-sequence short-circuit impedance of the entire network between the
short-circu it locations A and B (admittances between line conductors and earth
are disregarded)
Zee Earthing impedance of a station B according to Equation (29)
Zee 101 Total earthing impedance of a station B according to Eq uation (17)
Zer Earthing im pedance of the short-circuited tower according to Equation (28)

Z ETtot Total earthing im pedance of the short-circuited tower according to Equation


(23)
Zp Driving point impedance of an infinite chain ( Equation ( 1) and Figure 1)

Zp, Driving point impedance of a finite chain ( Equation ( 2) and Figure 2 )

Za = Z~dr Earth-wire impedance between two towers with earth return

Z~ Earth-wire impedance per unit length with earth return

Z~L Mutual impedance per unit length between earth wire and line conductors with
earth return

Z~ Impeda nce per unit length of a metallic sheath o r shield with earth re turn

Z~L Mutual impedance per unit le ngth between the sheath (or the shield) and a
core inside the sheath (or the shield) of a cable with earth return
Zu Input impedance of sheaths, shields or armouring of cables or other metallic
p ipes or pipelines (Equation (17))
- 12 - 60909- 3 © IEC:2009

Equivalent earth penetration depth (Equation (36))

Po Magnetic constant, Jlo: 4;rx1o-7 Vs/Am

p Resistivity of the soil


11 Angu lar frequency, « = 2rr. f (f: 50 Hz or 60Hz)

5 Calculation of currents during two separate s i multaneous line-to-earth


short circuits

5.1 Initial symmetrical short-circuit current

Figure 3 shows the short-circuit current /~e during two separate simultaneous line-to-earth
short circuits on different line conductors at the locations A and B with a fi nite d istance be-
tween them. II is assumed that the locations A and B are far from stations.

-...j Olslan:e >0 1---


A B
L1
L2 --~--~r------------<~­
L3 ---D----+----------r--~---

IEC ~61109

NOTE The direction of current arrows is chosen arbitrarily.

Figure 3 - Characterisation of two separate simul taneous line-to earth short circuits
and t he cu rrents /~e

In networks with isolated or with resonant earthed neutral the initial symmetrical short-circuit
current /~ee is calcu lated with

(4)

NOTE For derivation of Equation (4) see ITU· T - Directives concerning protection of telecommunication lines
aga;nst harmful effects from electric power and ete~trified railway lines, Volume V: lnduc;ng currents and voltages
in power transmission and distribution systems. 1999.

In case of a far-from-generator short circuit, where ~Ill =~12 > and M 11l =M(2)· the initial
short-circuit current becomes

(5)

5.1.1 Det erm ination of M 11l and M (2)

T he positive- and the negative-sequence coupling impedances !li(1) and !li(2) a re de termined
as follows:
60909-3 © IEC:2009 - 13-

A voltage source is introduced at the short-circuit location A as the only active voltage of the
network . If [(1)A and !J.2JA are the currents due to this voltage source in the positive- and the
negative-s equence system at the short-circuit location A. a nd if 0 1 )B and !Lt2)B are the
resulting voltages in the positive- and negative-sequence system at the location B. then

~1)13 !£( 2)13


(6)
M (11 = - - !t4.2) = - -
41JA l t 2)A

The coupling impedances may also be determined at the short-circuit location B instead of A

M - u- (1)A u
!.::!.{2) _
_-(2)A
__
- Il l - I M ( 7)
!.{1)13 !.(2)13

5.1.2 Simple cases of two separate simultaneous li ne-to-earth short circuits

In simple cases , the current t;EE can be calculated as shown in Table 1, if Q 11 = ;?;(2) and
M (1) = Mt2) (fa r-from -g enerator short circuit). Equations (8) to (10) are d erived from Equation
(5). The ind ices in these equations refer to the relevant impedances in the respective network.

Table 1 - Calculation of initia l lin e-to-earth


short-circuit currents in simple cases

a) • (

l1
Single-fed radial line

[E}®
X
l2

lA F' t"kEE-- 3cUn (8)


16~(1)<1 + 2~(1)1 + ~(0)11
b)
- d
- __%
- l1
Two single- fed radial lines

J._~ t"kEE = 3cU. (9)


[}(])"
t:
l1 l
6!:(1)d + 2<!:(1)g + !:(1)11 )+ !:to)Q + !:to, I
l2
~l3

c) Double-fed single line
' ~ '
[F(]) lA gfa®[J •
/kEE = 3cUn (1 0)
2
16I(I)di(I)e + I(l)f<I(I)d + I(l)e) z I
+ (O)f
It•Jd + It•ll + ~(l>e -

T he voltage factor, c, shall be taken from Table 1 of IEC 60909-0.

5.2 Peak short-circuit current, symmetrical short circuit breaking current and steady-
state short-circu it current

The peak short-circuit current is calculated according to IEC 60909- 0:


- 14 - 60909-3 © IEC:2009

( 11)

For the factor, K , the same value is used as in the case of a three-phase short circuit at the
locations A or B, whichever is the largest.

If the short circuits can be assumed as far-from-generator short circuits, then

(12)

5.3 Distribution of the currents during two separate si mu ltaneous line-to-earth short
circuits

If two separate line-to-earth short circuits occur at the locations A and B, the current through
earth can be calculated assum ing Le6 = !L~e , with L~e as the only active current source
and ! as the reduction factor of an overhead line with earth wire (Equation 33) . For the short
circuit at a tower (short-circuit location A or B) far from stations, the current /T through the
footing resista nce RT of the tower is

• Zp
I - rl (13)
- T - --kEE ~p + 2RT

~P is the driving point impedance of an infinite chain according to Equation (1 ).

NOTE Equation (13) can be derived from Figure 6 if LETIOt is replaced by !_ ·bee .

In case of two separate line-to-earth short circuits at overhead lines without earth wire (for
instance in medium-voltage networks), the current through earth is equal to the short-circuit
current /~e .

6 Calculation of partial short-circuit c urrents f lowing t hrough earth in case


of an unba lanced short circuit

6.1 General

T he following subclauses deal with partial short-circuit currents flowing through earth and
earthed conductors (as earthing systems and earth wires of overhead lines) in the case of a
line-to-earth short circuit. This type of short circuit in solidly earthed high-voltage networks is
the most frequently occurring unbalanced short circuit. 1;, leads to the highest short-circuit
current to earth compared with the line-to-line short circuit with earth connection if Z101 > 2 111
(see Figure 10 o f IEC 60909-0 in case of Zm = Z 1, 1) . For Z101 < 2 111 , the cu rrent to earth
1;e2e in case o f a line-to-line short circuit with earth connection, shall be considered
a ccording to IEC 60909-0.

For the calculation of short-circu it currents according to IEC 60909-0, the tower impedances
with or without earth wire and the earth grid impedances and other connections to earth shall
be disregarded.

The calculation procedure will be considered on a simplified network consisting of three


stations A, B and C, and overhead lines with a single circuit and one earth wire. Moreover , it
60909-3 © IEC:2009 - 15 -

is assumed that the stations A , B and C are separated by more than twice the far-from-station
distance, f4, according to Equation (19).

6.2 Line-to -earth short circuit insid e a station

Figure 4 shows a transformer station B with feeders coming in from the stations A and C.

t£C fU/0~

Figure 4 - Pa rtial short-circuit currents in case of a line-to-earth


sho rt circuit Inside stat ion B

The line-to-earth short-circuit current Lk 1 on Figure 4 is equal to three times the zero-
sequence currents flowing to the short-circuit location F:

(1 4 )

The current 3L(0)8 is flowing back to the transformer-star point via the earth grid in station B
and therefore does not lead to a potential rise at the station B. The currents 3L(O)A and
3L(O)C are flowing back to the stations A and C through the earth and the earth wires between
the sta tion B and the sta tions A and C. For a far-from-station distance we have (see Figure 4 ):

(15a)

3£<o)C = U.r:.c +Lac = !:c 34oJC + (1- !:c )3£lo)C (15b)

~A and ~ 8 are the reduction factors of the earth wires between B and A and between B and
C respectively.

The total current to earth in station B (short-circuit location) is:

(16)

The current ~EBto< passes the total earthing impedance of station B:

1
f:Eetot = 1 1 1
(1 7 )
- + :E- + :E-
REB i ~Pi i ~Ui
-16- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

where
Rea is the resistance of the earth grid in station B;
Z.P is the driving point impedance according to Equation ( 1);

Z.u is the input impedance of sheaths, shields or armouring of a cables or other metallic
pipes or pipelines.

The current through Z.eatot leads to the earth potential {LEB at the station B:

{Les =Z.eatot Leato< (18)

The far-from-station distance (far from the short-circuit location) is calculated as follows:

(19)

where

Rr is the tower footing resistance;


dr is the d istance between towers ;

ReWa} is the real part of the square root of the earth wire impedance Z.a = Z.~dr with Z.~
from Equation (34 ).

NOTE 1 If the stations A or C a re nearer tha n l)f to station B, the total curre nt ltelot is reduced by an additional
part of the currents rA3L(o)A or !c3l(o)C flowing back to the nearest sta tion A or C via earth wires.

NOTE 2 Spe cial considerations may be neces.s.ary in the case of double -ci rcuit lines or parallel lines with coupled
zero- sequence system .

6.3 line-to-earth short c ircuit outside a statio n

A line-to-earth short circuit at a tower of an overhead line is shown in Figure 5. T he short


circuit is assumed to occur remote from the stations.

IEC 164/09

Figu re 5 - Partia l short-circ uit c urre nts in case of a line-to-earth short circuit
at a tower T of an overhead line
60909-3 © IEC:2009 - 17-

The line-to-ea rth short-circuit current £k1 in Figure 5 is eq ual to three tim es th e zero-
sequence currents flowing to the short-circuit location F:

(20)

The three currents 3£{0)A , 3[10)8 and 3£(o)C in Figure 5 are nowing back to the stations A , B
and C through th e earth and the earth wires of the overhead lines b etween the sta tions:

and as a lready known from Fig ure 4 and the Equations (15):

r.A and !:s are the reduction factors of the earth wires between B and A and between B and
C respectively.

The total current to earth at the tower T (short-circuit location), far away from stations B and C
(d istance higher than DF) is:

(22 )

T his current passes the total earthing impedance of th e short-circuited tower T connected to
the earth wire of the overhead line BC according to Figure 6:

(23)

RT is the footing resistance of the tower and ~P the driving point impedance according to
Figure 1.

lETtot

ZETtot

tEC 165109

Figure 6 - Distribution of the t otal current to earth l ETiot

lT is found from Equation ( 13), if !:L~e is replaced by !:c£~ 1 .


-18- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

The cu rrent through ZETtot leads to the earth potential flET at the short-circuited tower (see
Figu re 6).

(24 )

If the line-to-earth short circuit occurs on a tower in the vicinity of station B, then the earth
potential may be higher than the result found with Eq uation (24 ). A determination needs
specia l consideration as given in 6.4.

The current to earth in station B in the case of a line- to-earth short circuit at the tower T
(d istance higher than DF from station B) is according to Figure 5 found from:

(25)

The earth potential of station B with the current Leetot from Equation ( 25) becomes in this
case:

flee =Zeetot Leetot (26)

If the line-to-earth short circuit occurs on a tower in the vicinity of station B, then the current
to earth in station B may be higher than £eBiol found from Equation (16) in case of a line-to-
earth short circuit in station B (Figure 4). A determination needs special conditions as given in
6.4.

6.4 Line-to-earth short c ircuit in the vici nity of a station

If the line-to earth short circuit occurs at a tower in the vicinity (distance smaller than DF) of a
station (Figure 7), then the earth potential {Lee.. (additional index 11 to point out that the line
to-earth short circuit occurs at a tower 11 = 0, 1, 2, 3 ... outside the station) may be higher tha n
{Lee calculated with Eq uation (18). In this case, the earth potential {LET, of the short-
circuited tower , in the vicinity of station B is also higher than the earth potential {LET for a
tower far outside station B calculated with Equation (24).

fEC 166109

Figure 7- Partial short-circuit currents in the case of a line-to-earth short circuit


at a tower n of an overhead lin e in the vicinity of station B
60909-3 © IEC:2009 - 19-

Following Figure 2, the numbering of the towers has to be taken into account, when
calculating £~ 1 and 3£(0)8.

6.4.1 Earth potential 1f.ETn at the tower n outside station B

The current £er. (Figure 7) at the short-circuited tower in the vicinity of station B flowing
through ~ET accord ing to Equation ( 28) is found from the superposition of two terms, the first

one depend ing on the current to earth !:c£1c1 at the short-circuit location and the second one
depending on the current !:c 3 £(o)8 flowing back through earth to the star point of the
transformer in station B.

• Zp ,. 31 Zee
I - r I
- ETn - - C - k1 z . +Z
"
-Pn -ET
- C -(0)8 z
..<.EB
+ -P
Z •'·"
(27)

with

(28)
1 1
-+-
Rr b
and

(29)
1 1
--+-
Res ?_p

The driving point Impedance ~P is found from Equation (1), ~P. from Equation (2) and !£
from Equation (3).

The ea rth potential !Ler. at the short-circuited tower 11 is found with:

(30)

6.4.2 Earth potential of station B during a line -to earth short circu it at the tower 11

T he current Lee. passing ~EB in Figure 7 in case of a line-to earth short circuit at a tower "
in the vicinity of station B is found with the following equation:

I - r( Zer. 2Zp·Zo ,. 31 zp
- EBn - - C k1 z z I? ) • (.,
~ET + ~Pn ~EB +?_p !_ -~EB -?.p +?_a!_
) _, - C -(0)8 z
~ ee
+z
- P
(31)

The earth potential ol station B during the line- to- earth short circuit at the tower 11 in the
vicinity of station B is:

Q EBn = ~EB £ee. (32)


- 20 - 60909-3 © IEC:2009

7 Reduction factor for overhead lines w ith earth w ires

The reduction factor of overhead lines with earth wires can be calculated as follows:

(33)

Z:~ and Z:~L shall be calcu lated with the Equations ( 34 ) and (35). The result depends on the
soil resistivity p , the distance dOL between the earth wire and the line conductors and the
equivalent earth wire radius , r00 , for one or more earth wires.

Table 2 - Resistivity of the soil and equivalent earth penet ration depth

Equivalent earth penetration depth 6


Soil resistivity p
Soil typos m
Om
for 50 Hz for 60 Hz

Granite >10 000 >9 300 >8 500


Rocks 3 000 ... tO 000 5 t50 .. 9 330 4 670 ... 8520
Stony soil 1000 .. 3000 2 950 •.. 5110 2 690 ..• 4 670
Pebbles. dry sand 200 ••. 1 200 1 320 ••. 3 230 1200 ..• 2950
Calcareous soil, wet sand 70 ... 200 780 ... 1 320 710 ... 1200
Farmland 50 ••• 100 680 ••• 1 320 600 ..• 650
Ciay, loam 10 •. 50 295 . 680 270 ... 600
Marshy soil <20 <420 <380

The earth wire Impedance per unit length with earth return Is

(34)

and the mutual impedance per unit length between the earth wire and the line conductors with
earth return


Z01. Po . Po
=(i}- o
+ j(i}- ln - - (35)
- 8 2n dOL

The equiva lent earth penetration depth I> depends on the soil type as given in Table 2 and
can be found as follows:

(36)

The following definitions apply:

Earth wire resistance per unit length


Distance between the two earth wires 0 1 and 02
60909-3 © IEC:2009 - 21 -

r0 Earth wire radius


r00 Equivalent earth wire radius
for one earth wire: 'oo ='o
for two ea rth wires: r = J'r- d-,.-_1_ _
00 0 0 02
v Number of earth wires ( v = t 2)
doL Mean geometric distance between the earth wire and the line conductors
for one earth wire: dcx_ =Vd0 ud01..2dcx.3
for two earth wires dOL = ~rd:-o-,L-,"""'d:-
a- , l2---,d:-a-,u-d:-o-2l-,"""'d:-a-2l2-d:-o-2L-3

JL, Relative permeability of the earth wire material


Aluminium core steel reinforced (ACSR) wires with one layer of aluminium:
jl, =5 ... 10 ;
Other ACSR wires: Jlr ~ 1;
Steel wires: Jl, = 75 .

According to Equation (34) and (35), the reduction factor of usual ACSR earth wires depends
on the soil resistivity p. Figure 8 shows reduction factors for non-magnetic earth wires of
different overhead lines with nominal voltages 60 kV to 220 kV.

In case of overhead lines with one or two earth wires of steel , the magnitude of the redu ction
factor becomes about 0,95 and 0,90 respectively.


1,0

r
0.8 ·

0,6

0,4

0.2

2 4 6 8100 2 4 6 8 1000 2 4 6 8 10000


p - -.... nm
IEC 167/09

Figure 8- Reduction factor r for overhead lines w ith non-magnetic earth wires
depending on soil resistivity p

8 Calculation of current distribution and reduction factor in case of cables


with metallic sheath or shield earthed at both ends

8.1 Overview

The reduction factor of power cables with metallic sheath, shield and armouring earthed at
both ends depends on the type of cable: Three-core cable with a common sheath, three
single-core cables with three sheaths or shields and, in some cases, with additional
-22- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

a rmouring, the cross-section of the metallic sheath(s) or shield(s) in compliance with national
techniques and standards .

Red uction factor of cables with steel armouring shall be g iven from the manufacturer (see
IEC/TR 60909-2 ).

It is anticipated in this standard that the cables have an outer thermoplastic sheath (see
IEC/TR 60909-2).

8.2 T hr ee -core cab le

Figure 9 gives the configurations dealt with in case of a three-core cable with metallic sheath
or shield earthed at both ends and an outer thermoplastic sheath isolating the cable against
the surrounding soil.

8.2.1 Line -to -eart h sh ort c ircuit in station B

In the case o f Figure 9a), if the cable is fed from side A only with a line-to-earth short- circuit
curren t L~ 1 =3L(o)A in station B, the reduction factor [ 1 gives that part Le&A = !:13L(O)A of the
line-to-earth short-circuit current, that is flowing back through earth by the induction effect.

(37)

~~ is the impedance of the metallic (non magnetic) sheath (or shield) per unit length with
earth return:


;?;:s · Jlol n8-
=Rs· + (J)-Jlo + J(i)- (38)
8 2x r5

~~L is the mutua l impedance between the sheath and one of the cores (inside the sheath ,
independently of the position) per unit length with earth return:

-SL
.
Z =(J)-
/Jo · /Jo
+j(J)- 1n -
8 (39)
8 2lt 's

where

R~ Resistance per unit length of the sheath or shield (copper, aluminium , lead);

R~ = 1/(K · q 5 ) with q 5 ~ 2x r5 d 5 where ds is the thickness of the sheath or shield


rs Medium radius of the sheath or shield;
.l Equivalent earth penetration depth (Table 2 or Equation (36)).
The current in the sheath or shield in Figure ga) is calculated as follows:

(40)

The current through earth in Figure 9a) is found with :


60909-3 © IEC:2009 -23-

(4 1)

~'s
Three-core cable

L1~ l3

-----
1ESA• !'13l(O)A
~alent earth
--penetration de~
IEC 168/09

a) Feeding from station A only and line-to-earth short circuit in station B

fEC 169109

( £~1 = 34o>A + 3£co)B; 3£co>A =£sA ~ £eM; 3£co)B = Lss - Leos)


b) Feeding from stations A and B and line-to-earth short circuit on the cable
between the stations A and B

Figure 9 - Reduction factor of three-core power cables

8.2.2 Line-to-earth short circuit on the cable between station A and station B

In case of a line-to-earth short circuit on the cable between the stations A and B the currents
in the sheath or shield in Figure 9b) are calculated as follows:

1
- SA =(1 - !1 )31!.(O)A + !1 31-(O)A ~S101
~sA
r 31-(0)8 ~estot
z' I + -1 z' ,
~s < A
(42 )

-I SB -
- (1 - !t
~eStOI
)31!.(0)8 + !1 31-(0) 8 -
'I ~eSIOI
. - + !t .>!.{O)A - · - (43)
~sls ~sts

The current to earth at the short-circuit location is given as:

(44 )
-24- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

The currents through earth in Figure 9b) are found with:

(45)

(46)

with

1 Z~fA ta
~EStot = 1 1 1 (47)
- - + - - +- - l + Z~t AfB
Z~ t A Z~t 8 ReF ReF

The reduction factor r1 is given in Equation (37).

The given equations are valid for a cable length of at least e"' t / 2 ( t "'0,5 km in case of
p = 100 Qm) between the stations A and B in Figure 9a). and distances f. A and f. 8 between
the short-circu it location and the adjacent stations A and B in Figure 9b). for at least f = / 2 o
in Case 2 accord ing to 8.2.2.2.

Because in normal cases the resistance ReF at the short-circuit location against reference
earth is not known, the two cases ReF - oo (there is no connection at the short- circu it
location between the metallic sheath (shield) of the cable and the surrounding soil) and REF
-+ Min. have to be taken into account.

8.2 .2.1 Case 1: ReF - a

In case of ReF -+ oo, it is anticipated that the outer thermoplastic sheath is not destroyed by
the short-circuit current or by the arc at the short-circuit location. The following expressions
are found from the Equations (42) and (43):

(42a)

(43a)

In this case the Equations (45) and (46) lead to:

lA ta
f.eM =~13f_(O)A f- ~13f_(O)B t (45a)

(46a)

The line-to-earth short-circu it current at the short-circuit location between A and B shall be
calculated with the zero-sequence impedance per unit length Z.(O)S of the cable for a current
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -25-

return only through the sheath or shield (see IEC/TR 60909-2 and the information about the
calculation of th is value given in IEC/TR 60909-2, Equations ( 30) and (31)).

The highest current through the sheath or shield will occur, if the short- circuit location is near
the station A or the station Band if the short circuit in Figure 9b) is fed from both sides .

(42b)

(43b)

The highest current through earth Is also found if the short circuit occurs near the station A or
B:

(45b)

(46b)

8.2.2.2 Case 2: R eF "' 5 n


The value ReF • 50 Is to be seen as a conservative hypothesis. because the area of the
conn ection to the surrounding soli Is small even II the thermoplastic outer shea th Is destroyed.
When nxlng this value. It Is anticipated, that the short-circuli location is outside the stations A
and B and that no metallic rods or pipes are In the neighbourhood of the short-clrcull locallon.

In this case. the line-to-earth short-circuit current L~ 1 at the short-circuit location between A
'
and B shall be calculated with the zero-sequence impedance Z tolSE for a cu rrent return
through the sheath or shield of the cable and the ear1h (see IEC/TR 60909·2).

The currents In the sheath or shield and through the earth shall be calcula ted with Equations
(42) , (43) and ( 45), (46).

The highest current through the sheath or the shoeld can be calculated with Equation s (42b)
and (43b).

lr the highest values for the current.s through earth are searched for. use the highest line-to·
earth short-circuit current fed from one side of the cable only and neglect the current fed from
the o ther side. In this case Equations (45) and (46) lead to:

(45c)

_r
-1E3emax - _, 31
- (0)8
(fes101
- , + festot
~~g;
) (46c)
2 A
-S

Calculations with the above equations may lead to higher currents through earth than those
found w ith Equations (45b) or (4Sb).
NOTE Clause C.2 gives an example for the catculations. if the highest currents through earth are searched for.
-26- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

If the cable has an additional iron armouring (for instance in the case of a lead sheath), the
manufacturer shall g ive the reduction factor (depend ing on the current through the sheath)
found for instance from measurements . See for information IECITR 60909-2 .

8.3 Three single-core cables

As given under 8.2, in th is case a lso a distinction shall be made between a line-to-earth short
circuit in station B, if the short-current is fed from station A (Figure 10a)) or if the short circuit
is on the cable at a locati on between the station A and B (Figure 1 Ob)).

8.3.1 Line-to-earth short circuit in station B

In case of three single-core cables in Figure 10a), with three sheaths (shiel ds) earthed and
connected at both ends, the reduction factor !J shall be calculated as follows:

(48)

The distances du L2 and duLJ according to Figure 10a) shall be used for a triangular and a
flat config uration . The result found from Equation (48) is the exact result for a triangular
configuration . For a flat configuration the result of Equation (48) can be used as a sufficient
approximation for this standard , independently if the line-to-earth short-circuit current will
occur in an outer cable or the central cable of the flat configuration.

The sum of the currents through the three sheaths or shields according to Figure 1 Oa) is
calculated as follows :

(49)

The current through earth, flowing back to station A of Figure 10a), is found with the reduction
factor r 3 from Equation (48):

(50)

8.3.2 Line-to-earth short circuit on the cable between station A and station B

In case of a line-to-earth short circuit on the cable between the stations A and B, fed from
both sides in Figure 10b), currents generally are flowing in the three line conductors and in
the three sheaths or shields of the single core cables.

T he sum of the currents in the th ree sheaths or shields are calculated as follows:

(51)

(52)

The current to earth at the short circuit location is given as :


60 909-3 © IEC :2009 -27-

(53)

The curren ts through earth are fou nd with :

(54 )

(55 )

with Z:es 101 accordi ng to Equation (47).

In this case ~~ is the self imped ance pe r unit length of one of the three sheaths or shields,
calculated with Equation (38).

a) Feeding from station A only and line-to-earth short ci rcuit in station B

penetration depth
IEC 11'109

( /~1 = 3L(O>A + 3L(o)8; 3£(o)A = LsA i LeSA; 3£(o)B = Lse i LeiJB )

b) Feeding from stations A and B and line-to-earth short circuit on the cable
between the stations A and B

Figure 10 - Reduction factors for three single-core power cables


-28- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

Because in normal cases the resistance ReF at the short-circuit location against reference
earth is not known, the two cases ReF --> ro {there is no connection at the short-circu it
location between the metallic sheath or shield of the cable and the surrounding soil) and ReF
-+ Min . have to be taken into account.

8.3.2.1 Case 1: Rer ..... ro

In case of ReF -+ a:>, it is anticipated that the outer thermoplastic sheath is not destroyed by
the short-circuit current or by the arc at the short-circuit location. The following expressions
are found from Equations (51) and (52):

(51 a)

(52a )

In this case the Equations (54 ) and (55) lead to:

(54a)

(55a)

The line-to-earth short-circu it current at the short-circuit location between A and B shall be
calculated with the zero-sequence impedance ~(O)S of the cable system for a current return
on ly through the sheaths or shields (see IECITR 60909-2).

The highest current through the sheath or shield, S1 , will occur, if the short-circuit location is
near the station A or the station Band if the short circuit in Figure 10b) is fed from both sides.

(51b)

(52 b)

The hig hest currents through earth are a lso found if the short circuit occurs near the station A
or B.

(54 b)

(55b)

8.3.2.2 Case 2 : ReF = 50

T he valu e ReF = 5 Q is to be seen as a conservative hypothesis, see 8 .2 .2 .2.


60909- 3 © IEC:2009 -29-

The line-to-earth short-circuit current Lk1 at the short-circuit location between A and B shall

be calcu lated with the zero-sequence impedance per unit length Z:(O)SE for a current return
through the sheaths or shields of the cable and the earth {see IECfTR 60909-2) .

The sum of the currents in the sheaths or shields and the currents through earth shall be
calculated with Equations (51), { 52) and { 54), (55).

The highest currents through the sheath or shield , S1 , can be found with Equations (51 b) and
(52b) .

If the highest values for the currents through earth are searched for. use the highest line-to-
earth short-circuit current fed from one side of the cable only and neglect the current fed from
the other side. In this case, Equations (54 ) and (55) lead to:

(54 c)

(55c)

NOTE Annex 0 gives an example for the calculation of the currents flowing through earth.

If the cables should have additional iron armouring, the manufacturer shall give the reduction
factor and the current distribution.
- 30 - 60909-3 © IEC:2009

Annex A
(informative)

Example for the calculation of two separate simultaneous


line-to-earth short-circuit currents

A.1 Overview

Two separate simultaneous lin e-to-earth short circuits on a single fed overhead line are
shown in Figure A.1 .

d / = 10km
5km

IEC 172109

Figure A.1 - Two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short circuits


on a s ingle fed overhead line (see Table 1)

A.2 Data

Nominal voltage: Un = 66 kV
Nominal frequency: 50 Hz
Network with isolated or resonant earthed neutral
Network impeda nce at the feeder connection point Q : f:c1)0 = (1,5- j15)0
Initial symmetrical short-circuit current at Q (see IEC 60909-0):

l~o = 1,1 x 66 kV =2,S kA


J3l1.5+ j1~Q
Overhead line:

Conductors 3 x1x1 66/ 88 mm 2 ACSR

Ea rth wire 1x 49 mm 2 steel, r 0 = 4.5 mm, ~ = 2,92 Q / km, p, = 75

Mean geometric distance between the earth wire and the line conductors: doL = 6 m

Line impedance per unit length:

Positive -sequence impedance £~1l = (0,17 + j0,40) Ofkm

Zero-seq uence impedance £~o) = (0,32 + j1.40) Qfkm


Stony soil resistivity p=1 000 Qm
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -31-

Equivalent earth penetration depth ~ =2950 m from Table 2 or Equation {36)


Tower footi ng resistance Rr =10 0
Tower distance dr =300m

A.3 Calculations

Earth-wire impedance per unit length with earth return according to Equation (34) with v = 1:

z'
- O
=2.92_Q_+
km km
4 10
0,0493_Q_ + j314s"1 " '
2n Akm
Vs (
75
-4
4
+ In
2950
4,5mm
m )= (2,969+ j2,020)_Q_
km

Mutual impedance per un it length between the earth wire and the line conductors with earth
return according to Equation (35):

z' = 00493_Q_ +'314 14 10-4 Vsln 2950 m ={0049 +'0389) _Q_


5 " lt '
- OL ' km 1 2n Akm 6m · J' km

Reduction factor of the earth wire according to Equation {33):

,. = _ f:~L = _ (0.049 + ]0.389)0 / km = _ JO .


1 1 0 928 082 r= 0,931
~ z~ (2,969 + ]2,020)0 / km . ' .

Driving point impedance according to Equation (1) with:

Z a = Z~dr = (2,97 + j2.02)(0 / km) ·0.3km :

ZP = 0,5· (0,891 + J0,606)o + J[o.5 -<0.891 + J0.606>f + 10 ·(0,891 + J0,606) 0 = (3.610 + J1.303)n

Equa ti on (8) from Table 1 leads to:

/ _ 3·1.1 · 66kV
- kEE -
28
(14,1+ 3,4 + 3,2)0 + j{102 + 8 + 14)0 =(0. S-j1.709) kA ; /~EE = 1.732 kA

where

6Z 111d = 6-( (1.5 + ]15) 0+ 5km · (0.17 + j0.40)k~ )= (14.1+ j102)0

2~c1 > 1 = 2· 10km(0,17 + j0,40) ~ = (3.4 + j8) 0


. Q .
~(O)t = 10km(0,32 + JI,4\m =(3.2+ Jl 4) 0

The current to earth through the footing resistance , Rr , of the tower at the short-circu it
locations A or B is determined with Equation {13):
- 32 - 60909-3 © IEC:2009

1 = (O928- ·o 082)ro 285- ·1709)kA <3 •610 + i 1•303>0 _ (Oo94- ·o.z44) kA ·


- T ' J ' ~' J' (3.610 + j1,303)Q + 2 10Q ' J. '
IT = 0,262kA
60909- 3 © IEC: 2009 -33-

Annex 8
(informative)

Examples for the calculation of partial


short-circuit cu rrents through earth

8 .1 Overview

A 132-kV-network, 50 Hz, is given as shown in Figures 8 .1 and 8.3. The distances are 40 km
between the sta tions A and 8 and 100 km between the stations 8 and C.

8.2 Data

Station A :
Short-circuit impedance ?_A = (0 ; j6,4) 0
Zero-sequence impedance of the transformer ?_(O)A = (0 ; j1 2) 0

Station 8 :
Short-circuit impedance ?,8 = (0 • j7,6)0
Zero-sequence impedance of the transformer ?.(0)8 =(0 ; j7) 0
Resistance of earth grid Rea =5Q

Station C:
Short-circuit impedance ?.c = (0 - j21) Q
Zero-sequence impedance of the transformer Z (O)C = (0 ; j 20,3)Q

Overhead line:
Conductors 3 x 2 x 240/ 40mm 2 ACSR
Earth wire 1x240 / 40mm 2 ACSR
Positive-sequence line impedance per unit length ~1 )1. =b. =(0,06+ j0,298) 0/km
Zero-sequence line impedance per unit length ~;Oll = (0,272 + j 1,48) 0/km
Soil resistivity p=1000 Om
Equ ivalent earth penetration depth b = 2950 m from Table 2
Ea rth-wire impedance per unit length ~~ = (0,17 + j0,801) Q / km
Ea rth-wire red uction fa ctor r.A = r.c = r. = 0,6 • j0,03 ~ 0,6
Tower footi ng resistance Rr =10 n
Tower distance dr =400 m
Length of overhead line between A and 8 ( 1 = 40 km
Length of overhead line between 8 and C t 2 =100 km
- 34 - 60909- 3 © IEC:2009

8.3 Line-to-earth short circuit in a station

A line-to-earth short circuit occurs inside station 8 as shown in Figure 8 .1

-- ··· ~ -· ----
feM "!A3JttA
IEC 113/09

Figure 8 .1 - Line-to-earth short circuit ins id e station 8 -


System diagram for station s A, 8 and C

f
1(1)
·-
~
A ~ ~
c ~

ZA ZL1 Zu Zc

01
Posllve-seqJence ln'4>edance I Ze e

lm
()
A c
ZA ZL1 ZL2 Zc
~

02
Negative-sequence inpedance 1 Ze

l c•>=f (2>=l(w! l k"1


A ft.olA ll.o>ft.oy; c
.Z(O)A Z(0).1 ! (O'ft ~ Z(0).2 Z<oY:

00
lero-se~ence impedance I Z(Q'ft
I
IEC J74/09
Figure 8 .2 - Line-to-earth short circuit ins ide station B -
Pos itive-, negative- and ze ro-sequence systems w ith connections
at the short-circuit locat ion F w ith in station B

The line-to-earth short-circuit current can be calculated according to IEC 60909-0, Equation
(52), using Figure 8.2.

t" _ J3 ·1,1·1 32kV t


0 555 15 789
)
-k' - 2(o.222 + j4,876)n + (0,115 + j6,157)n \ • - i • kA ;

~~. = 15,799kA
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -35-

where

£(1) = ---,----:1,__......,.__ (0,222 + j4,876 )n


.,---~ + - + -::----::--
£A + £ u £s ~c +~L2

1
£co> = - - : : - - - - -; - - - - - , . - - - = (0.115 + j6,157)n
1
~-~- + --- + -::---=--
£ (O)A + £ (O)L1 £ (0)8 £ (O)C + £ (O)L2

The zero-sequence current at the short-circuit location is given by

The partial zero-sequence currents in Figure B.2 are:

Lco>A = (0.0753 - j0,4439)kA; /(O)A = 0,450kA


£(0)8 = (0,0763 . j4,6319) kA; /(O)B = 4,633kA
L(O)C = (0,0334. j0,1872) kA; /(O)C = 0,190kA
The total current Lestot flowing to earth through £e 6 101 at the short-circuit location in station B
(Figure B.1) is calcu lated with Equation (1 6), if !:.A = !:c =!:.:

Iestot = !: 3(£(0)A · L(o)C)= 0,6 ·3 (0,10B8- j0,6311)kA =(0,1958- j1,1360) kA;


lestot = 1,1528kA

The driving point impedance for ca lculation of £ eBttJt is found with £o = £~dT from Equation
(1 ):

£p = o,5(0,068 + j0,3204 )n + J [o,5(0,068 + j0.3204)f + 1o(o,068 + j0,3204) n = (1,4369 + i1,306)n

T he to tal earth impedance £estot of station B with two outgoing overhead lines is ca lculated
with Equ ation ( 17):

£ estot = (0,6845 + j 0,4928 )n


1 2
-5 -n + 7(1-,4-3 6--9-'
+=-i1-,3-06-.)-n

The ea rth potential of station B is found with Equation (18):

!Lee = (0,6845 - j0,4928)Q (0,1958 - j1,1360)kA = (0.6938 - j0,6811)kV ; Ues = 0,9722kV

T he far-from-station distance /4 (Equation (19)) is:


-36- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

DF = 3.{i; d1
Re{ Z }
3J1on °· 4
km
Re{J(o.oss + j0,3204)n}
8,53km

In a distance longer tha n ~, i.e. in a distance remote from the stations , the earth-wire
currents are found from the relations given in Equations (15).

LoA =(1 - r)34o>A =0,4 ·3·(0,0753 - j0,4439)kA =(0,0904 - j0,5327)kA;

'aA =0.540kA

Lac = (1- r)3L 1o)C = 0,4 · 3·(0.0334 - j0.1873)kA = (0,0401 - j0,2247)kA;

lac = 0.288kA

The currents throu gh earth remote from the stations A and 8 as well as B and C are:

l eaA = r -3/(0)A = 0.6 · 3· 0.450kA = 0,810kA

ler,c = r -3/<0>C = 0.6 ·3· 0,190kA = 0,342kA

8.4 Line -to -earth short circuit outside a st ation

The line-to-earth short circuit shall occur far outside the stations at an overhead line tower T
between B and C In Figure 8.3. Distances 1 28 = 60 km and 1 211 = 40 km .

-- - -+--- - - - -
Je~·r.,.3.Q,..
fEC t15109

Figure 8.3 - Line-to-earth short circuit outside stations B and C at the tower T
of an overhead line- System diagram for stations A, B and C
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -37-

~
A ~ ~
fl<1l ~
c ~

ZA Zu J Zi/2o F Zi/21> Zc

1
Positive..sequence ~dance I Ze B

l(Z) ()
A c
ZA Zu Ziha Zi/21> .Zc
el
02
Negefive-s~nce ~ I Zo
[(rJ) l<•>-1C2rli.OJ" ~lk>
[(rJ)A i(o). ~·k_oy:;
A c
l(OJA Z<o'-' /m3J ZiJTJ..f28 ZiJrJ..t21> Z<OJc

00
Zero -sec::p..~en::e impedllrce l ~~
I
IEC 176109

Figure 8 .4- Line -t o-earth short c ircu it outside stations 8 and C at t he tow er T
o f an overhead l ine - Positive-, negat ive- and zero-sequence systems
w ith con nectio ns at the s h ort-ci rcuit l ocation F

Th e line-to-e arth short-circuit current can be calculated with IEC 60909-0, Equation (52),
usi ng Figur e 8.4 .

/ - J3 '1•1' 132 kV
- (0 4965 '34889)kA
-k• - 2(1,7145 + i13,6602)n +(6,6262 + i43,3324)n- ' -J '

where

~<'> = ~< 2> - - - , . . . . - - - - - - - - , - - - - = (1,7145 + j13,6602)n

~(0) = - - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - : - - - - - - (6,6262 + j43,3324)n


. + -------------~~-----
e
-2 <o>L 2b z
+ -(O)C - (·O)L t 2a + ---,----'-::---
2 1
- - + -:::--'-:::--
f: (O)B f:(OJL1 + ~(O)A

The zero-sequence current at the short-circuit location is given by

T he partial zero-sequence currents L (O)a and L (O)b on the left and right side of the short-
circuit location F in Figure 8.4 are found as follows:
-38- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

Z'(O)l t 2b i l (O)C
f.(O)a = f.(O) . . = (0,0851- j 0,5263 )kA
~(0)1. t 2b + ~(O)C + ~(0)1. f 2a + -,------.,-
1- -
+
l (O)B l (O)lt +l (O)A

The pa rtial zero-sequence currents L(o)A and L(O)B are found from Leola:

(0,0139- j0,0452)kA ;

I (O)A = 0,0473kA

Z ;Z
I -I '0 .0712- j'0,481 1)kA ·,
- (O)B - - (O)a z -(O)Az - (O)ltz
- (O)A + - (0)8 + - (0)1.1
~

Ico)B = 0,4864kA

T he total current to earth at the short-circuited tower in Figure 6 .3 is calculated with Eq uation
(22):

£ETtot = !:L~t = 0,6 · (0,4965- j3,4889)kA = (0,2979- j2,0933 )kA ;

Iertot = 2,114kA

With the tower footing resistance Rr and the driving point impedance as calcu lated in Clause
B.3, the total earth impedance l ETtot is found according to Equation (23):

lertot = (0,7048 + j0,5663 )n ;


1 2
-1 o-n + "(1...,,4..,..
37=-+....:J::..,·1,-=-
3-=-
o6"')..,.
n

,?:ETtot = 0,9041 Q

T he earth potential at the tower is calculated with Equation (24 ):

!Ler = k.,1f.ertDt = (0, 7048 + j0,5653)!l· (0,2979 - j2,0933)kA = (1,3954 - j1,3067)kV ;

Uer = 1,91 2kV

The currents in the stations A, B and C are :

LEAtot = r 3£. 1oJA =0.6·3 ·0,0473kA=0,0851kA


60909-3 © IEC:2009 -39-

Leetot = r 3L(o)8 = 0.6 ·3·0.4864kA = 0,8754kA

Lectot = !:3L(O)C = 0,6 · 3 · 0,6417kA = 1,1551kA

The earth potential of station B for example is found as follows :

~EB = ~EBtol ·!: · 3L(O)I:I = (0,6845 · j0.4928)Q ·0,6 ·3 · (0,0712- j0.4811)kA = (0,5145 · j0,5296)kV

Vee =0,7383kV

The currents in the earth wires and through the earth at a longer distance from the stations
and the short-circuited tower {Figure 8 .3) are:

LoA = (1- !:)3L(O)A = 0,4 3 · (0,0139 · j0,0452)kA = (0,0167 · j0,0542)kA ;

I OA = 0,0567 kA

LoA i Las = (1 - r)3<£<0>A i L1018 ) = 0,4 ·3 ·(0.0851 - j0,5263)kA = (0,1021- j0,6316)kA;

ILaA + Las I = 0,6397kA ;

Lac = (1- r)3L<o>c = 0,4 · 3 · (0,0804- j0,6367)kA = (0,0965 - jO,7640 )kA ;

foe =0,7701kA

feOA = r3I101A = 0,6· 3 -0,0473kA = 0,0851kA

feoA + Ieos =r3l4o>A + 4oJSI =0,6·3·0,5331 kA =0,9596kA

fe~c =r3I101c =0,6 -3 -0,6417kA=1,1551kA

8.5 Line-to-earth short circuit in the vicinity of a station

As an example, the line-to- earth short-circuit current and the earth potentials shall be
calculated, if the short circuit occurs at a tower T with the number n = 10 at the overhead line
between the stations B and C at a distance of 4,4 km from station B {see Figure 7).

The line-to- earth short-circu it current is calculated accord ing to IEC 60909-0, Equation {52)
using Figure 8.4 with changed line lengths.

/' _ ,{3 ·1,1·132kV


0 9421 10 5022
- kl - 2(0,4449 + j5,9037)Q + (12412 + j11,9481)Q ( • - i • )kA;

/;. = 10,5444kA

where
- 40 - 60909-3 © IEC:2009

1
~1 ,, =~1 2, =- - -1,------------:-
1
- - - - =(0, 4449+ j5, 9037) n
. + -------,- 1- -
~l (t 2 -11· dT) + ~C b. ·11 · dT + --,,..-----,----
1 1
- + -::--_:__.,.-
b b,,+~..

1
= ---~------------:------ = (1,2412 + j11,9481)0
K_(O)
.
1 +-----------:-----
-2 (O)l (l 2 -11 ·dT)+Z
- (O)C -z'(0)1.. . 11 . dT + 1 1
- -+ -,--:....,--
lco)8 lcoJL1 + l eolA

The zero-sequence current at the short-circuit location is given by

The partial zero-sequence currents l.co>a and l.colb on the left and right side of the tower T
(n= 10) are found as follows:

(0,2767 - j3,2458)kA

/ (O)C = 0,2577 kA

The partial zero-sequence currents !.(O)A and l.to)8 are found from l.to>a :

f.(O) A = f.(O)a
z
- (O)B = (0,0640 - j0,2817)kA ;
l(o)A + l co)B + l co)l1

/ (O)A = 0,2888kA

I -!
-(O)B - -(O)a z z z (0,2128- j2,9642)kA ;
- (O)A + - (0)8 + - (0)1..1

/(0)8 = 2,9718kA

Th e factor ~ can b e calculated from Equation (3):


60909-3 \1> IEC:2009 -41-

k = 1+ ~p = 1+ (1,4369 + j1,3060)Q (1,1437 + j0.1306)


- R1 100

The earthing impedance of station Bin this case is calculated with Equation (29):

1
~EB = = (1,2698 + j0,7568)Q
1 1 1 1
- +- - + ,..,-...,.-,.,--...:..,-:-::-:...,..,.-~
R8 ~P 50 (1,4370+ J1,3060)n

The driving point impedance of the finite chain lor 11=1 0 is found from Equation (2):

~p 1 0 = (1,4294 ; j1,3200)!l : ZP1o = 1.9457 !l

The earth ing impedance for the short-circuited tower is to be calculated with Equation (28):

1
~ET =~:--~=
1 +
1
+-
1
-
=(1,3690+ j0,9856)!l
R1 ~P 10!1 (1.4370 + j1.3060)n

The curren t LeT1o flowing through ~ET at the tower " = 10 is found with Equation (27) :

I =rt" . ~PIO - r31 Zee ·-1-= 06109421 - j105022)kA (1•4294 ; j1•3200)!l


-eno --kl Z.P1o +Z.er - -<Ol8 Z.ee +Z.p !'o , '. , (2,798 + j2,306)n

J
1 2697 0 7568
- 0.6 · 3 · (0,2128 -'2.9642)kA ( · • • )!1 _ !1
(2.7067 + j2.0628)!l (1.1437 + j0,1306)10
= (1.0194 - j3,1417)kA

I ET10 = 3.3029 kA

The earth potential at the short-circuited tower is given according to Equation (30):

!Lmo = ~ET Lm o = (4.4918 - j3.2961)kV :

Ueno = 5.5714kV

The current passing Z.ee in this case of a line-to-earth short circuit at the tower (~t=1 0) in the
vicinity of sta tion B is found with Equation (31 ):

2Zp- Za
I - ,.(
- EBIO - --kl z Zerz
-ET + P10

= 06(09421 - 1' 10.5022)kA <1·3690 - i 0 •9856)n 101185- 1'02323)


· ' · (2.7984 + J2.3056)n ' • •

- 0 6 . 3 .IO 2128 - 1'2 9642)kA (1•4370 ; j 1•3060)!l = (1,1557- 1'2 6487)kA


• ' • • (2.7067 + J2,0628)n • ·
lee1o = 2,8899kA
- 42 - 60909-3 © IEC:2009

The ea rth potential of the station 8 is calculated with Equation ( 32):

!'l.ea1o = ~ea lea1o =(- 3,4720- j2,4884)kV ;

Ue 810 = 4,272kV
Figu re 8.5 shows the ea rth potentials UET. related to Uer = 1,912kV from Clause 8.4 an d
Uea., rel ated to the earth potential Uea =0.972kV from Clause 8.3.

u
:=+31------:---
2

UET•

''a!.
~45 147
I
149
n ~~--
IEC JT710'J

Figure 8 .5 - Earth potentia ls liETn =u••• =


IUET w ith U ET 1,912 kV and "••· =u••• ,u••
=
w ith Ue 8 0,972 kV, if the line -to-earth short circuit occurs at the towers 11 = 1, 2, 3, ...
In the v icinity of station 8
60909-3 @ IEC:2009 -43-

Annex C
(informative)

Example for the calculation of the reduction factor r 1 and the current
distribution through earth in case of a three-core cable

C.1 Overview

A 10-kV-cable-connection between the stations A and B is given through a three-core cable


with a copper sh ield earthed at both ends in a 10-kV- network with d irect earthing (the star
point of a feeding transformer is earth ed at the medium-voltage side).

C.2 Line-to-earth short circu it at the end of the cable

C.2 .1 Data

Cable: 6/10 kV NA2XS2Y 3x150/25

Aluminium cores: QL = 150 mm 2 ; rL = 6,91 mm ; R~ = 0206 !l/ km ;

Copper shield: q5 =25 mm 2 ; r5 =23,6 mm ; R~ = 0,714 !l/ km ;

Distance between th e cores of the cable tl = 22,38 mm ;

Outer diameter of the cable Da = 53 mm

Earthing impedances : ZeA = 0.5 Q; Zes =0.5 Q;


Soil resistivity: p = 100 Qm

C.2.2 Cable impedances per unit length

With Equations (30) and (32), given in IECITR 60909-2, the following results are found.

Positive-sequence impedance per unit length:

l~1)L = ~ + jo/'2 n:0 (!4 +In~)=


rl
(0,206 + j0,0896) Q / km

Zero- sequence impedance per unit length in case of current nowing back through the shield
(S) and the earth ( E) :

2
3 o/10 + j o/'0 In i.
. . Jlo Jlo 1 /j 8 2 " rs . n
l (O)LSE =RL + 3lll-+jlll- - + 3ln w - ~ = (1,209+]1,092)-
8 211 ( 4 • d2 )
1L R. + Po . Po 1 a km
s lli- + Jlll- n-
8 2rr r5
-44- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

C.2 .3 Short-circuit currents

- - - - -- -- - -~e;;ii;;aie,dearth
1ESA:!"1 3l (O)A penetration deplh
IEC 178109

Network feeder: sk_a = 3000MVA ; U.a = 110 kV; Ro/Xo = 0,1:


Transformer: S,t = 31 .5 MVA: U,tKV = 115 kV; U,nv = 10,5 kV; ""' = 12%; uru = 1%; ltolt = 1,6·lt• >T·
Figure C.1 - Example for the calculation of the cable reduction factor and the current
distribution through earth in a 10-kV-network, Un = 10 kV; c = 1,1 ; f = 50 Hz

Accord ing to 6.1, the impedances fu and l.es are neglected when calculating the short-
circuit currents with earth connection.

Short-circuit currents:

£~ (t = 0) =(1,186+ j 13,844) kA

Line-to-earth short-circu it current flowing back through the shield and the earth

£~1SE (t =0) =(1,015 - j11,968) kA

C.2.4 Reduction factor, current in the shield and current through earth

T he current in the shield is calculated with Eq uation (40) :

T he partial short-circuit current flowing through earth is found with Equation (41 ):

Reduction factor [1 from Equation ( 37):


60909-3 @ IEC:2009 -45-

0,714E..
km
.
0,714 + 0,04935 + J·0,06283 -In 931m-3 ) - Q
( 23,6·10 m km

~~ = 0,5318- j0,4633 :

r1 = 0,7053

Figure C.2 gives the calcu lated short-circuit currents , the current in the shield and the current
through earth depending on the length l ~ 1 kmof the cable between stations A and B.

Earthing voltage in station A, in case of ( = 5km and leBA = 1,175kA (see Table C.1) is:

Table C.1 - Resu lts for the example i n Figure C.1

e lk1SE /~1SE lSA /SA lesA / ESA

km kA kA kA kA kA kA
1 2,983 - j4,846 5,690 3,641 - j0,887 3 ,748 - 0,659 - j3,959 4,014
5 1,200 - j 1, 156 1,666 1,097 +j0,015 1,097 0 ,103 - j 1,170 1,1 75
10 0,661 - j 0,5 78 0 ,878 0,577 +j0,036 0 ,578 0 ,084 - j0,6 13 0,619

.
r:
'
I ' I
1 '
I
'/YJ
'
. ..,,
''
+-- -

~~
'
''
'
' -' ' ' '
l
--- ,
- ---
I~
'
...... . - .... _
'
-
1- - -
~ --r--..
-
0
I I
0 6 8 10 u l4 16
18 km lO
e - -- fEC 179109

Figure C.2 - Short-circuit currents and partial short-ci rcuit currents through earth
for the examp le in Figure C.1
-46- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

C.3 Li ne-to-earth short circuit on the cable between the stations A and B

C.3.1 Configu ration and data

T he configuration is given in Figure C.3.

E"-""alert earth
--olion depth
tEC 160109

Figure C.3- Example for the calculation of current distribution in a 10-kV-network


with a short circuit on the cable between A and 8
(data given in C.2.1 and Figure C.1 )

The line-to-earth short circuit in Figure C.3 is fed only from station A . The line-to-earth short-
circuit is anticipated with earth connection at the short-circuit location F having ReF = 5fl
(see 8.2.2.2).

C.3 .2 Resu lts of calculation

T he reduction factor !:1 = 0,5318- j0,4633 is already calculated with Equation (37 ).

The currents lsA and leaA on the left side of the short-circuit location are calculated with
Equations (42) and (45) and the currents on the right side of the sh ort-circuit location with
Equ ations (43) and (46). In case of 3£<o)8 =0 according to Figure C.3, the following relation
is va lid: Leas =- Lss.
60909-3 @ IEC:2009 -47-

6 . .~~--. .------------~
'

I
·····jr
. 1:3
l:
I
' 11'·1 0kml

·-. ··.
1

llC ''r/Ot II!C Jf210t

a) Cable length f = 5 km b) Cable lengt h r = 10 km

Figure C.4 - Line-to-earth short-circuit currents, partial currents In the shield


and partial current s through earth

Table C.2 - Result s fo r the example In Figure C.3, f = 5 km

eA ~~1 SE LsA JSA Lss =- Le6s Iss Lea A IeM


km kA kA kA kA kA kA kA
0 12,000 1,016 - ] 11,967 12,000 0 0 0 0
1 5,090 2,911 - ]3,640 4,661 - 0.183 - j 0,688 0,712 0,072 - j 1.206 1,208
2,5 3,006 1,858 - j1 ,011 2,115 - 0.188 -j0,874 0.882 I 0,128 -j1.246 1,253
5 1,666 1.097 + ]0,015 1,097
I 0,103 - j 1 '170 1,175 0,103 - ] 1,170 1' 175

Table C.3- Result s fo r the example in Figure C.3, f = 10 km

f A 1; ,se LSA /SA Lss =-Leas Iss LeaA /EM


km kA kA kA kA kA kA kA
0 12,000 1,016 - ]11,967 12,000 0 0 0 0
1 5,690 2,800 - j3,931 4,826 - 0,094 -j0,338 0,351 0,183 - j0,915 0,933
2,5 3,006 1' 750 -j1 ,330 2,198 -0.075 -j0,309 0,405 0,236 - j0,928 0,957
5 1,666 1,036 -j0 ,394 1,108 -0,061 -j0,409 0,413 0,164 - jO,762 0,779
10 0,878 0,578 0,084 - j0,613 0,619 0,084 - j0,613 0,619
0,577 - j 0,036
-48- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

Annex 0
(informative)

Example for the calculation of the reduction factor r 3 and the current
distribution through earth in c ase of three single-core cables

0 .1 Overview

A 110-kV-cable-connection between the stations A and B is given with three single-core


cables with a lead sheath earthed at both ends in a 11 0-kV-n etwork with solid ly earthed
neutral.

0 .2 Line-to-earth s hort circu it at t h e end of t he cabl e

0 .2.1 Dat a

Single-core cables 64/ 110 kV, 2XK2Y: 3X1 X630 rm. Cu. in triangular configuration .

Copper cores: QL = 630 mm


2
; n = 15.6 mm; ~ = 0,0283 0 / km ;

rs = rsm = 39.8 mm; R~ =0,3790/ km ;


2
Lead sheath : Qs = 550 mm ;

Outer diameter of the cable Da = 85 mm;

Distance between th e cores of the cable d = 1,06·Da = 90,1 mm;

Soil resistivity: p = 100 Om

0 .2.2 Ca ble im pedances per unit l engt h

Positive-sequence impedance per unit length (IECfTR 60909-2, Equation (1 5)):

(J)Jlo ln - d 12
.
Z(1)LS
· . Jlo ( 1
[
d)
=RL + J(J) - - + In- + -'--211 rSm
- -=.......,.- (0,0351 + j0,125) 0 / km
2Jt 4 rL R. . Jlo In d
s+J(J)- -
2n r5m

NOTE 1 When taking care of the currents in the sheaths during balanced operation (no cross bonding). the real
part of ~~I)LS i s higher than the real part of ~;t)L· because of the losses on the sheaths. see IEC/TR 60909-2.
Table 5.

Zero-sequence impedance per unit length in case of current flowing back through the sheaths
only:

·
Z(OILS . Jlo ( -1 +In -rs ) = (0,4073 + ]0,0746)
= RL· +Rs· + j(J)- . 0 / km
2 Jt 4 rl

Zero-sequence impedance per unit length in case of current flowing back through the sheaths
and the earth (IECfTR 60909-2 . Equation (16)):
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -49-

3wflo + j3wflo ln - 6-
8 2n ~'Ld2
~(O)LSE =RL +3W-flo +jW-
o o 6 )
. flo ( -1 +31nw (0,3856+ j0,1483}n/ km
8 2n 4 3,.. d2
L

NOTE 2 The zero-sequence impedance Z~OJ-S = 0.414Hl / km in case of current flowing back through the

sheaths differs only for about 0,2 % from z (o)I.SE = 0,413Hl / km.

Oo2 o3 Short-circuit currents

From the network configuration a nd the data given in Figure 0 .1 , the following short- circuit
curren ts can be fou nd for a line-to-earth short circuit in station B.

f
I
:X :X
QA
--------""'- ---!"~ ---- I QB
:X :X
:X :X t- -- ......1- :X :X
:X ----- -· -4- - ... -----
~

J~ li~
~

3f(O)A 3f(O)A 3Ico~

A v
8
ZEA I~ZEB
'--- EIJ,ivalent earth
--- --- ---- ------ penetrellion depth

IEC 183109

Network feeder OA: I (l)QA =(0,442+ j4At8)Q I (O)QA =(1,768+ j8,836)!l


Network feeder OB : ~(tlQB = (1.350+ jSoOOO)n : ~(OlQB = (4o050+ j12o8oo)n

Figure Oo1 - Example for the calculation of the reduction factor


and the current d istribution in case of three single-core cables
and a line-to-earth short ci rcuit in station B
-50- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

rv
Z(1)-s·t
01

/V

Z (1)QA
rv
l(1)-s·t
l
c~
t/3"
02

rv 1j"
j - k1
Z(O)QA Z(o).SE ·t

00
IEC 184109

Figure 0.2- Pos itive-, negative- and zero-sequence system of the network in Figure 0 .1
with connections at the short-circuit location (station B)

r
In case o f a cable length = 5 km (for example), the line-to-earth short-circuit current at the
short-circuit location in station B is found from Figure 0 .2 as:

= J3 -1•1-11 0kV (4,0939-j16,9654)kA


2£(1) + Zco> 2(0,4339 + j3,0947)0 +(1,9492 + j5,4842)0

where

Ic,J = l (2) = - - - - , - - - - - - , - - (0,4339 + j3,094 7)0


___1.:.....,,--- + _ 1_
Zct)QA + z;,)Lsl ~(1)08

~(0) = 1 1 (1,9492 + j5,4841)0


--~~--+-­
l(O)OA + l ;O>LSE t Zco)Qs

From this result the partial short-circu it currents 3£co>A and 3£co)B are found:

0.2.4 Reduction factor and current distribution

Reduction factor a ccording to Equation (48) for a triangular configuration of the single-core
cables :
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -51 -

'3 = 0,2027

Sum of the currents in the three sheaths according to Equation (49 ) with f = 5 km :

£sA =(1· ~ 3 ~£(0)A = (1· 0,0572- j0,1945) -(2,5780 - j9,5528)<A=(4,2887 - j8,5054)kA;

Current through earth according to Equation (50), with r =5 km:


£EM =r3 3£(0)A =(0,0572· j0,1945)·(2,5780· j9,5528)kA=(- 1,7108 - j1,0474)kA

Figure 0 .3 shows the current distribution depending on the length, f . of the cables between
the stations A and B.

20

I ~kl I

I
~
16

I
14

12
~ 3f(O)A
10 !SA
I
---- ---- ----- --- -- 3J(o>s----- -- --- ------ -~ -- -----

l f -IESA
---
1 -- - -
3 4 .s 6 1 8 9 km 10
Length of the cable £ - - - - +
IEC JBS/09

Line-to-earth short circuit in B: £~1 = 3£(0)A + 3£(o)8; 3£(0)A =£sA; L EJ;A

Fig ure 0 .3- Current distribution for the network in Figure 0.1 , depending
on the length, t , of the single-core cables between the stations A and B
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -53-

0 .3.3 Current distribution in case of ReF~ (:J:)

In case of e.g. t A =5 km between station A and the short-circuit location, if the total length of
the cable is l = 10 km ( t = l A~ t 6 ), the line-to-earth short-circuit current is found as:

J3cUn J3 -1,1·110kV
(4,5573- j16,5163)kA
2~(1) +~(0) 2(0,4533 + j3,1844)0 +(2.3471 + j5,4225)Q

where

- - - - , -- - - - - . . , . .- - = (0,4532 + j3,1843)n
1
_ ____:_-;,-- +
1 •
~(1)QA + ~(1)1.5 { A ~(1)08 + ~(1)1.5{8

~<o> = -----,---__:_-----,-- - - - (2.3471 + j5,4225)n


1
----..,-
, --+ .
~(O)QA + ~(O)LS t A ~(O)QB + ~(O)LS { 8

From this results the partial short-circuit currents £(O)A and £(0')8 are found:

I
-(O)A
= ~(
- k1
Z:co)Q8 + £~o)lsls• = '08462 - . 3.2794)kA
~ ' J ·
3 £ (O)QA + ~(O)QB + £ (O)lSf

Currents in the sheaths accord ing to Equations (51 a) and (52a) with !: 3 = 0,0572- j0,1945 for
the numerica l example l A= 5 km :

/ SA = 10,1022kA

/ 58 = 7,0341kA

Currents through earth found with Equations (54a) and (55a ) for the numerical exampl e
eA = 5km :
-54- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

fesA =0,3246kA

less = 0,3246kA

The highest current through the sheath S1 can be found with Equations (51 b) or (52b):

£s1Amax = 3£(0)A(t A = 0) - (2 ~ !:3)£(0)8(1A = 0) = (2.3282- j16,3454)kA;


fs1Amax =16,5104kA

£s1Bmax =3£(0)s (l A = l)~ (2 ~ !:3)£(0)A(t A = l )= (2,9183 - j 13,2805) kA ;


fs1B max = 13,5973kA

The h ighest current through the earth is found from Equations (54 b) or (55 b):

I ESAmax = 1,8302 kA

I E3Bmax = 1,3264 kA

Figure 0 .6 shows the current distribution depending on the length l A between the station A
and the short-circuit location on the cable .

14 t---..:....;:-1--
12 Is&
-----::::;~~-- - -
10 I --~- ---- . -- ......... :-:--

. .......... .......3Iro-e
.: ---~ -
_,.- ----r·--.-.;.-_-- ----------
lse
--

IEC J8810t

Fig ure 0 .6- Current distribution for the cab l e in Figure 0.4
d epending on e.., REF ~ 00
60909-3 © IEC:2009 -55-

0 .3.4 Current distribution in case of ReF = 5 0

In case of e.g. f A = 5 km for the cable between station A and lhe short-circuit location F, if
the total length of the cable is I = 10 km ( I = t A ~ ( 8 ), the line-to-earth short-circuit current is
found as:

.J3. 1•1. 11 0kV {4,3588 - j16,326g)kA


2(0,4532+ j3, 1843)0 +(2.2925+ j5,6134)n

where

Z.<t>= z.(2) = - - - - - , - - - - - - - - , - - - = {0,4532 + j3,1843)n


------~ . ----+ .
~(1)QA + ~(t)I.S f A ~(1)08 + ~(1)1.$18

~<o> = -----..,, - - - - - - - - . . . , .- - - = {2,2925 + j5,6134)n


1 1
----C..,,,---- + '
~(O)OA + Z,(O)LSE ( A ~(O)QB + ~(O)lSE ( 8

From this results the partial short-circuit currents 3!.(o)A and 3!.(o)B are found:

3/
- (O)A
=/
-k1
~(O)QB + ~;O)LSEiB

= (2 3867 - . 9.6916)kA
' J .
Z.(o)QA + Zto)Q8 + Z.<OJLSE l

Total earth impedance of the sheath to earth with ReF = 50 (Equation (47)).

1
~EStot = 1 1 1 = (1,1433 + j1.0039)Q
. +. +-
~s ·5km f:s · 5km 50

Currents in the sheaths according to Equations (51 ) and (52) with !: 3 =0,0573- j0,1945 for
the numerical example f A = 5 km :

Lse = (1- !:3 l 3l <o)B + !:3 3!.,o)B -f:eStoo


. - + !:33!.<o>A -f:eSUl<
. - = (1,8425- J'6 , 26 56) kA
~st 8 ~sfe

Currents through earth found with Equations (54) and (55) for the numerical example
PA=5km:
-56- 60909-3 © IEC:2009

Highest currents through the sheath S 1 as given in 0 .3.3.

The highest current through earth is found from Equation (54c) if the short-circuit current is
fed from sta tion A only with 3f.(o)A(t A = ()=(2.5146- j10,0276) kA :

/ E aA max = 1,8614 kA

If the short-circuit current is fed from both sides as in Figure 0 .4, a result feOAm:rx = 1,7644 kA
is found (see Figure 0 .7).

Figure 0.7 shows the current distribution depending on the length t A between the station A
and the short-circuit location.

14 ~-------+--------+--------+--------+--------4

ll ~~-----+--------+--------+--------~-------4

-~-- - - ---
10r----t--=.. . . . .;rsSA~=-:::-:·: :-r:::--::::-:::::--::::--~-;--±~-~-~--=- =- -d--
81r--
~~~3~l~==~~r--
~====::==~~~~
~ =-~-~
--~----~-
d;..· -------- ~0}3 -- - - -- ~- - --- -- -- --

I I

Ies.;max=~6 kA
2
lese TeSA
00 l 6
eA s
f
km 10
IEC 189109

Figure 0 .7 - Current distribution for the cable in Figure 0 .4


depending on t ,., REF 5 Q =