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Table of Specifications (TOS) and Test Construction Review

1. 1. Table of Specification (TOS) with an Overview on Test


Construction Presented by: Arnel O. Rivera Faculty
Member BNHS-Villa Maria CAS, LPU-Cavite Presented to
the teachers of DepEd Bacoor City June 6, 2016
http://www.slideshare.net/sirarnelPHhistory
2. 2. OUTLINE:  Reading Diet  Introduction  Table of
Specification  Situational Judgment Tests (SJT) 
Workshop  Wrap-up
3. 3. For every problem there is a solution. If you are not part
of the solution then you are part of the PROBLEM. Chinkee
Tan Chink Positive
4. 4. 13% of students who got low grades in exams are
caused by faulty test questions. WORLDWATCH, The
Philadelphia Trumpet (August 2005)
5. 5. Common observation of students on test questions
Hindi kasama sa lessons. Masyadong mahaba ang question
at mga pagpipilian. Hindi maayos ang layout ng test, putol-
putol ang mga sentence. Nakakalito ang mga tanong.
Minsan wala sa pagpipiliaan ang sagot.
6. 6. Possible reasons for faulty test questions: Questions are
copied verbatim from the book or other resources. Not
consulting the course outline. Much consideration is given
to reduce printing cost. No TOS or TOS was made after
making the test.
7. 7. Factors to consider in preparing test questions (Oriondo
& Antonio, 1984) Purpose of the test Time available to
prepare, administer and score the test. Number of
students to be tested. Skill of the teacher in writing the
test. Facilities available in reproducing the test.
8. 8. “To be able to prepare a GOOD TEST, one has to have a
mastery of the subject matter, knowledge of the pupils to
be tested, skill in verbal expression and the use of the
different test format” Evaluating Educational Outcomes
(Oriondo & Antonio,1984)
9. 9. Characteristics of Good Tests Validity – the extent to
which the test measures what it intends to measure
Reliability – the consistency with which a test measures
what it is supposed to measure Usability – the test can be
administered with ease, clarity and uniformity
10. 10. Scorability – easy to score Interpretability – test
results can be properly interpreted and is a major basis in
making sound educational decisions Economical – the test
can be reused without compromising the validity and
reliability Other Things to Consider
11. 11. General Steps in Test Construction DRAFT ORDER
TEST ANALYZE SUBMISSION PRODUCE A T.O.S.
12. 12. Table of Specifications (TOS) A two way chart that
relates the learning outcomes to the course content It
enables the teacher to prepare a test containing a
representative sample of student knowledge in each of the
areas tested.
13. 13. Sample TOS
14. 14. KPU Paradox Knowledge (Remembering) –
answers the question what, where and when? (ano, saan at
kailan) Process (Application & Analysis) – answers the
question how? (paano) Understanding (Analysis) –
answers the question why ?(bakit)
15. 15. THE LEVELS OF COGNITIVE DOMAIN The levels
are the guiding posts in constructing test items. Regardless
of what type of teacher-made tests the teacher will
prepare, the items must follow the pattern set for
evaluation. The following items are features of levels with
regards to the objectives of the lessons.
16. 16. 1. KNOWLEDGE (Remembering) – includes those
objectives that deal with recall, recognize facts,
terminology, etc. Example: Sino ang kauna-unahang
bayani ng Pilipinas na nakipaglaban sa mga Kastila?
17. 17. 2. COMPREHENSION (Understanding) – includes
some level of understanding. It requires the learners to
change the form of communication to see the connection
or relations among parts of a communication
(interpretation) or draw a conclusion (inference).
Example: Bakit sa tabing dagat naninirahan ang mga
sinaunang Pilipino?
18. 18. 3. APPLICATION (Applying) – it requires the
pupils to use previously acquired information in a setting
other than the one in which it was learned. Example: Alin
sa mga sumusunod ang uri ng pamumuhay noong panahon
ng Martial Law?
19. 19. 4. ANALYSIS (Analysing) – It requires the pupils to
identify the logical errors (point out the prediction or
erroneous inference), differentiate among facts, opinions,
assumptions, hypothesis or conclusions, draw
relationships among ideas or to compare and contrast.
Example: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang dapat ginawa ng
mga Pilipino upang makamit ang inaasam na kalayaan
laban sa mga Kastila?
20. 20. 5. SYNTHESIS (Creating) – objectives at this level
require the pupils to [produce something unique or
original. Test questions at this level require the pupils to
solve unfamiliar problems or combine parts to form a
unique or novel whole. Example: Bilang mag-aaral, paano
ka makakatulong sa pagpapanatili ng kalinisan n gating
kapaligiran?
21. 21. 6. EVALUATION (Evaluating) – Under this
objective, the learners are required to form judgments
about the value of methods, ideas, people or products that
have a specific purpose. Example: Alin sa mga sumusunod
ang higit na mabisang paraan ng pagsugpo sa
ipinagbabawal na gamot?
22. 22. Tips in Preparing the Table of Specifications
(TOS) Don’t make it overly detailed. It's best to identify
major ideas and skills rather than specific details. Use a
cognitive taxonomy that is most appropriate to your
discipline. Weigh the appropriateness of the distribution
of checks against the students' level, the importance of the
test, the amount of time available.
23. 23. General Rules in Writing Test Questions Number
test questions continuously. Keep your test question in
each test group uniform. Make your layout presentable. Do
not put too many test questions in one test group.  T or F:
10 – 15 questions  Multiple Choice: max. of 30 questions 
Matching type: 5 questions per test group  Others: 5 – 10
questions
24. 24. Some additional guidelines to consider when
writing items are described below: 1. Avoid humorous
items. Classroom testing is very important and humorous
items may cause students to either not take the exam
seriously, become confused or anxious. 2. Items should
measure one’s knowledge of the item context not their
level of interest. 3. Write items to measure what students
know, not what they do not know. (Cohen & Wallack)
25. 25. What is the effect of releasing a ball in positive
gravity? a) It will fall “down.” correct b) It will retain its
mass. true but unrelated c) It will rise. false but related d)
Its shape will change. false and unrelated Anatomy of a
Perfect Multiple Choice Tests
26. 26. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Use negatively stated
stems sparingly and when using negatives such as NOT,
underline or bold the print. 2. Use none of the above and
all of the above sparingly, and when you do use them, don't
always make them the right answer. 3. Only one option
should be correct or clearly best.
27. 27. Multiple Choice Questions: 4. All options should
be homogenous and nearly equal in length. 5. The stem
(question) should contain only one main idea. 6. Keep all
options either singular or plural. 7. Have four or five
responses per stem (question).
28. 28. Multiple Choice Questions: 7. When using
incomplete statements place the blank space at the end. 8.
When possible organize the responses. 9. Reduce
wordiness. 10. When writing distracters, think of incorrect
responses that students might make.
29. 29. Situational Judgment Tests (SJT)
30. 30. Situational Judgment Tests (SJT) Is a type of test
which presents realistic scenarios similar to those that
would be encountered in real life.
(http://blog.careerbuilder.co.uk/2015/06/11/what- you-
need-to-know-about-situation-judgement- tests/)
31. 31. Situational judgment tests (SJT) Situational
judgment tests present the test-taker with realistic,
hypothetical scenarios and ask the individual to identify
the most appropriate response or to rank the responses in
the order they feel is most effective.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_judgeme
nt_test)
32. 32. Why use SJTs? Situational judgment test’s are
designed to clarify the difference between average from
superior response. The most effective response will look
at the situation from various angles, consider a wider
range of action, and take account the long-term
consequences of action. (Sharpley, 2010)
33. 33. Formats in SJT questions Ranking questions ask
you to rank in order your response to a situation. Multiple
choice questions ask you to choose the most appropriate
action or decision to take in a given situation.
(http://www.foundationprogrammeguru.co.uk/the-
situational-judgement-test.html)
34. 34. Things to remember in making SJT Questions
Since SJT questions require learners to identify the best or
worst answer, the stem should be presented in a manner
in which the test taker will choose the correct answer by
eliminating the distractors.
35. 35. Things to remember in making SJT Questions In
making the choices, the correct answer should always be
the one that actually solves the problem or answer the
question. Logically, the “correct” answers need to be
distinct from the other answer options. Hence if two
answer options seem very similar, it would be very
difficult to identify the “distractor”.
(http://www.foundationprogrammeguru.co.uk/the-
situational- judgement-test.html)
36. 36. Conceptual Framework Concept Ideas Situational
Judgemental Test (SJT) Answer
37. 37. Example: Kalabisan (Surplus) Ang kalabisan ay
dahilan upang magkaroon ng pagbaba ng presyo upang
makamit ang presyong ekwilibriyo. Answer: D Sa presyong
1,000, ang demand para sa cellphone A ay 10,000. Ngunit
ang naprodyus na cellphone A ay 14,000. Ano ang dapat
gawin upang magkaroon ng ekwilibriyo? A. Bawasan ang
supply B. Bawasan ang demand C. Taasan ang presyo D.
Ibaba ang presyo
38. 38. Knowledge: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang
nagpapahiwatig na may kakapusan sa bansa? A. Kung
mabilis ang paggawa ng produkto. B. Kung sagana ang
produkto sa pamilihan. C. Kung may kaguluhan sa pulitika.
D. Kung limatado ang suplay ng kalakal sa bansa.
39. 39. Process: • Sa papaanong paraan mo maitataguyod
ang karapatan sa tamang impormasyon? A. Pag-aralan ang
nakatatak sa etiketa ukol sa sangkap, dami, at
komposisyon ng produkto. B. Palaging pumunta sa
timbangang-bayan upang matiyak na husto ang biniling
produkto. C. Pahalagahan ang kalidad at hindi ang tatak ng
produkto o serbisyong bibilhin. D. Palagiang gumamit ng
recycled na produkto upang mapangalagaan ang
kapaligiran.
40. 40. Understanding: • Maituturing na kagustuhan ang
isang bagay kapag higit ito sa batayang pangangailangan.
Kailan maituturing na batayang pangangailangan ang
isang produkto o serbisyo? A. Magagamit mo ito upang
maging madali ang mahirap na gawain. B. Nagbibigay ito
ng kasiyahan at kaginhawaan. C. Hindi mabubuhay ang tao
kapag wala ang mga ito. D. Makabibili ka ng maraming
bagay sa pamamagitan nito.
41. 41. Understanding: Nagsimula sa maliit na puhunan
ang negosyo ni Mang Cenon, hanggang ito ay lumaki at
nagkaroon ng iba’t ibang sangay sa Bulacan. Alin ang
HINDI dahilan ng kanyang pag- unlad? A. Maayos ang
kanyang pangangasiwa. B. Marami siyang kabarkada at
kaanak C. Malawak ang kanyang kaalaman sa negosyo. D.
Mahusay siyang makitungo sa kanyang mga tauhan.
42. 42. Things to Remember: Making a good test takes
time Teachers have the obligation to provide their
students with the best evaluation Tests play an essential
role in the life of the students, parents, teachers and other
educators Break any of the rules when you have a good
reason for doing so! (emphasis mine) (Mehrens, 1973)
43. 43. POINTS TO PONDER… A good lesson makes a good
question A good question makes a good content A good
content makes a good test A good test makes a good grade
A good grade makes a good student A good student makes
a good COMMUNITY Jesus Ochave Ph.D. VP Research
Planning & Development Philippine Normal University
44. 44. For questions , comments or if you want to
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