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Tectona grandis (teak) – A review on its

phytochemical and therapeutic potential

Pooja Vyas, Dinesh Kumar Yadav & Poonam Khandelwal

To cite this article: Pooja Vyas, Dinesh Kumar Yadav & Poonam Khandelwal (2018): Tectona
grandis (teak) – A review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential, Natural Product Research,
DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1440217

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Published online: 06 Mar 2018.

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Natural Product Research, 2018


Tectona grandis (teak) – A review on its phytochemical and

therapeutic potential
Pooja Vyas, Dinesh Kumar Yadav and Poonam Khandelwal
Department of Chemistry, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India


Tectona grandis Linn (Teak), is locally known as Sagwan, belongs to Received 21 August 2017
Lamiaceae family. It is one of the most valuable timber in the world, Accepted 9 February 2018
due to its beautiful surface and its resistance to termite and fungal
damage. The main active ingredient compounds that are responsible Tectona grandis; teak;
for these action are tectoquinone, lapachol and deoxylapachol. Sagwan; anthraquinones;
Naphthoquinones, anthraquinones and isoprenoid quinones are naphthoquinones
abundant metabolites in teak. In addition to these, teak contains
several other phytochemicals such as triterpenoids, steroids, lignans,
fatty esters and phenolic compounds. Pharmacologically, the plant
has been investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic,
cytotoxic, analgesic, hypoglycemic, wound healing and antiplasmodial
activities. The present review highlights the phytochemical and
pharmacological aspects of teak.

1. Introduction
Tectona is a genus of tropical hardwood trees belongs to Lamiaceae family. This family
includes about 236 genera and 6900 to 7200 species (Kuete 2017). The genus Tectona com-
prises 3 species viz T. grandis, T. hamiltoniana and T. philippinensis, T. grandis (teak) is widely
distributed in Bangladesh, Thailand, China, India, and Pakistan. Tectona hamiltoniana (Dahat

CONTACT  Poonam Khandelwal

© 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
2   P. VYAS ET AL.

teak) is an endangered local endemic species confined to Burma. Tectona philippinensis

(Philippine teak) is also endangered endemic to the Philippines. Teak has worldwide repu-
tation as a quality timber on account of its remarkable physical and mechanical properties,
particularly elasticity, strength, durability and decay resistance (Palanisamy et al. 2009). In
this paper, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of this plant are reviewed and its
potential for further investigation, exploitation, and utilization are discussed.

2.  Ethno-medicinal uses

T. grandis has variety of medicinal properties and traditional uses. Virtually every part of the
teak tree has medicinal properties. The decoction of bark is used in bronchitis, hyperacidity,
dysentery, verminosis, burning sensation, diabetes, difficult labour, leprosy and skin diseases
(Nidavani and Mahalakshmi 2014). Teak leaves contain haemostatic properties thus can be
squeezed and applied on a cut skin to stop bleeding (Siddiqui et al. 1989; Gupta et al. 1997).
Leaves are also useful in inflammations, leprosy, skin diseases, pruritus, stomatitis, indolent
ulcers. Leaves extract applied topically or given orally promoted the breaking strength,
wound contraction and collegenation (Sharma et al. 2013). Wood powder paste has been
used against headache, biliousness, burning pains particularly over a region of liver (Khare
2007). The charred wood soaked in poppy juice and made into a paste has been used to
relieve the swelling of the eyelids (Varier 1997). The decoction of the root is useful for the
treatment of urinary system-related troubles like anuria (Sharma and Shaka 1986). Oil
extracted from the flowers is useful in scabies, and promotes the hair growth, according to
unani system of medicine (Ragasa et al. 2008). Flowers and seeds are diuretic, or they promote
the flow of urine. (Varier 1997). Traditionally seeds are acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian
system of medicine (Varier 1997).

3.  Use in agroforestry management practices

The forest species T. grandis has been used in agroforestry system denominated taungya
(Wiersum 1982), which involves combining crops with young teak plantations. In Cuba and
Venezuela, teak plantations with maize or bean cultures were successful, gave excellent
harvests, and fields remained clean, without the competition of undesirable plants
(Betancourt 1983). These results suggest an allelopathic interaction. Literature survey reveals
the phytotoxic effects of teak leaves on the germination of eggplant (Solanum melongena),
maize (Zea mays), groundnut (Arachis hypogagea), pepper (Capsicum annum), tomato
(Lycopersicum esculentum), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) (Jayakumar et al. 1987; Krishna et
al. 2003). At present no natural product with high phytotoxic activity has been isolated from
teak in a great enough amount that could explain that activity. Therefore, further research
should be promoted on the phytotoxic studies of this plant.

4. Pharmacology
Over the past decades, numerous researchers have investigated the pharmacological activ-
ities of teak. Summary of the pharmacological properties are given in Table 1.
Some interesting pharmacological properties are discussed below.

Table 1. Brief summary of the pharmacological properties.

Parts/extracts/possible chemical
S.No. Pharmacological activities constituents References
1. Wound healing activity Leaf: Hydro-alcoholic extract Varma and Giri (2013)
2. Antibacterial activity Leaf and Bark: Chloroform extract Krishna and Nair (2010), Didry
Wood: Ethyl-acetate extract et al. (1994), Neamatallah et al.
5-Hydroxy-1,4- (2005)
3. Synergistic in vitro antibacterial Wood: Methanol extract Purushotham et al. (2010)
4. Antiviral activity (Against Leaf: Ethanol extract (Ben- Sangeetha et al. (2017)
chikungunya virus) zene-1-carboxylic acid-2-
5. Cytotoxic activity Wood: Methanol extract Krishna and Nair (2010), Khan and
Bark: Chloroform extract Mlungwana (1999)
5-Hydroxylapachol, Lapachol
6. Antitumor activity Lapachol Rao et al. (1968)
7. Anti-metastatic activity Lapachol Balassiano et al. (2005)
8. Hair growth activity Seeds: Petroleum-ether extract Jaybhaye et al. (2010)
9. Antioxidant activity Leaf, Bark and Wood (Ethyl-acetate Krishna and Nair (2010), Rao et al.
extract) (2011), Jagetia and Baliga
10. Hypoglycemic activity Bark: Ethanol extract Ghaisas et al. (2009), Pooja et al.
Root: Methanol extract (2011)
11. Anthelmintic activity Fruits: Ethanol extract Gururaj et al. (2011)
12. Anti-inflammatory activity Flowers: Methanol extract Ramachandran et al. (2011), Giri
Stem : Hydro-alcoholic extract and Varma (2015)
13. Analgesic activity Flowers: Methanol extract Ramachandran et al. (2011), Asif
Stem : Hydro-alcoholic extract (2011), Giri and Varma (2015)
14. Antifungal activity Methanol extract: Phenolic acids Shalini and Srivastava (2009),
4′,5′-Dihydroxyepiisocatalponol Niamké et al. (2012), Sumthong
Sawdust extract: Deoxylapachol et al. (2006)
15. Anti wood-rot activity Hardwood sawdust/Deoxylapachol Sumthong et al. (2008)
16. Diuretic activity Leaf: Aqueous extract Kore et al. (2011), Phalphale et al.
17. Antiplasmodial activity Leaf/Corosolic acid, 5,8-Dihy- Kopa et al. (2014)
Hydroxysesamone, Tectogran-
18. Antipyretic Root: Methanol extract Sharma et al. (2011)
19. Gastroprotective activity Lapachol Goel et al. (1987), Singh et al.
Leaf: Ethanol extract/Verbascoside (2010)
20. Adverse cutaneous reaction Wood dust Chomiczewska-Skóra (2013)
21. Phytotoxic activitiy Dried leaves (2-Oxokovalenic acid, Macias et al. (2010)
22. Feeding deterrent activity and 2-Methylanthraquinone Ismayati et al. (2016)
23. Photodynamic therapy Leaf: Hydro-alcoholic extract (Pure Furtado et al. (2017)
and oil water nanoemulsion

4.1.  Wound healing potential

The methanolic and ethanolic extract of T. grandis has significant wound healing activities
(Varma and Giri 2013). In vivo, experimental animal studies provided that T. grandis exerts
potential wound healing activity, as summarized in Table 2.
4   P. VYAS ET AL.

Table 2. Summary of in vivo studies of wound healing potential of T. grandis.

T. grandis extract Negative
Model dose/duration control Investigation Results Reference
Healthy 5% & 10% Excision 5 % Ointment showed reduction T. grandis as Varma and
albino Ointment of leaf wound in wound area 8th day onward potential Giri
rats extract; p.o; 8 and 10% ointment in 4th day source of (2013)
days onward wound healing
5% & 10% Incision T. grandis leaf extract showed
Ointment of leaf wound significant (p < 0.05) &
extract (p < 0.001) increase in tensile
strength as compare to control

4.2.  Hypoglycemic potential

T. grandis has a folk medicine reputation among the insulin herbs as a hypoglycemic agent.
In vivo, experimental animal studies provided that T. grandis exerts potential antihypergly-
cemic activity, as summarized in Table 3.

4.3.  Anti-inflammatory potential

In vivo, experimental studies provided that T. grandis exerts potential anti-inflammatory
activities, as summarized in Table 4.

4.4.  Analgesic potential

In vivo, experiments provided that T. grandis exerts potential analgesic activity as summarized
in Table 5.

4.5.  Cytotoxic potential

5-Hydroxy lapachol and lapachol isolated from teak wood were tested for their lethality
against brine shrimp with an LC50 of 5 ppm (Khan and Mlungwana 1999). Both compounds
were found to be cytotoxic. Dehydro- α-lapachone and betulinic acid etc. are some other

Table 3. Summary of in vivo studies of antihyperglycemic potential of T. grandis.

T. grandis extract / Negative
Model Dose/duration control Investigation Results References
Wistar albino Methanolic extract Alloxan T. grandis reduced T. grandis Pooja et al.
Male rats of roots 500 mg/ blood sugar exerted (2011)
kg/day b.w, potential within antihypergly-
p.o;7 days 7 days cemic activity
Wistar albino Ethanolic extract of Alloxan T. grandis reduced T. grandis Varma and
male rats bark 2.5, 5 g/kg, blood sugar exerted Jaybhaye
p.o;30 days anti-hypergly- (2010)
cemic activity
Wistar albino Methanolic extract Streptozotocin (1) T. grandis reduced T. grandis Ramachan-
male rats of flowers 100 and blood sugar (2) T. exerted dran et al.
200 mg/kg, p.o; grandis decreased antihyper-gly- (2011)
28 days total cholesterol,tri- cemic and
glyceri-des and HDL. hyperlipidemic
Table 4. Summary of in vivo studies of anti-inflammatory potential of T. grandis.
Model T. grandis extract Dose/duration Negative control Investigation Results References
Albino Wistar rats Ethanolic and aqueous 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, Carageenan-induced T. grandis exhibited T. grandis exerted anti- Asif (2011)
extracts of stem bark p.o.; 4hr paw oedema methods significant inhibition inflammatory Potential
on the hind paw
Female and male Wistar Methanoic extract of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, Carageenan-induced T. grandis exhibited T. grandis exerted anti- Ramachandran et al.
albino rats flowers p.o.; 5hr paw oedema methods significant inhibition inflammatory Potential (2011)
on the hind paw
Female and male Wistar Hydro-alcoholic extract 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, Carageenan induced T. grandis exhibited T. grandis exerted anti- Giri and Varma (2015)
albino rats of stem p.o.; 4hr paw oedema methods significant inhibition inflammatory Potential
on the hind paw
Wistar albino rats Hydro-alcoholic extract 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, Cotton pellet-induced T. grandis exhibited T. grandis exerted anti- Giri and Varma (2015)
of stem p.o.; 8 days granuloma significant inhibition of inflammatory Potential
6   P. VYAS ET AL.

compounds with reported cytotoxicity also present in teak (Sandermann and Simatupang
1966; Cichewitz and Kouzi 2004). In vivo, experiments also provided that T. grandis exerts
potential cytotoxic activity, as summarized in Table 6.

4.6.  Hair growth potential

In vivo, experiments provided that T. grandis exerts potential hair growth activity, as sum-
marized in Table 7.

5.  Major milestone of teak chemistry, discovery of tectoquinone

The chemistry of Sagwan has puzzled chemists and pharmacologists for over 100 years as
the natural resistance of teak to vegetable and animal parasites is high. A scientific paper
dealing about the chemistry of this plant was first published in 1887 by Romains (Romains
1887), who isolated tectoquinone (12) from the extract as the first chemically uniform com-
pound. Further it was found that tectoquinone had a deterrent effect on termites (Wolcott
1947, 1949). Sandermann and Dietrichs suggested that resistance of various teak samples
rises with increasing tectoquinone concentration (Sandermann and Dietrichs 1957). Besides
tectoquinone, anthraquinones 3-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (17) (Pavanaram and Row
1957), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (23) (Dayal and Seshadri 1979), 2 hydroxymethy-
lanthraquinone (13) (Rudman 1960), and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone or 2-methyl

Table 5. Summary of in vivo studies of analgesic potential of T. grandis.

T. grandis extract/Dose/ Negative
Model duration control Investigation Results References
Albino Wistar Ethanolic and aqueous Hot plate test T. grandis exhibited T. grandis Asif (2011)
rats extracts of stem bark significant exerts
(100, 300 and 500 mg/ analgesic property analgesic
kg)/1 h potential
Male Swiss Methanolic extract of Hot plate test T. grandis exhibited T. grandis Ramachan-
albino mice flowers (100 mg/kg and significant exerts dran et al.
200 mg/ kg/240 min analgesic property analgesic (2011)
Wistar albino Hydro-alcoholic extract of Radiant heat T. grandis exhibited T. grandis Giri and
Rats stem (100, 200 and method significant exerts Varma
400 mg/kg)/ 4 h Analgesic property analgesic (2015)
Swiss albino Hydro-alcoholic extract of Acetic-acid T. grandis showed T. grandis Giri and
mice stem (100, 200 and induced decrease in the exerts Varma
400 mg/kg)/30 min Writhing number of writhes analgesic (2015)
test potential

Table 6. Summary of in vivo studies of cytotoxic potential of T. grandis.

T. grandis
Model extract/Dose Negative control Investigation Results Reference
Chick embryo Chloroform MTT assay 87% inhibition T. grandis exerts Krishna and Nair
fibroblast (CEF) extract of bark cytotoxic (2010)
and human (10 μg/mL) potential
kidney (HEK 293)

Table 7. Summary of in vivo studies of hair growth potential of T. grandis.

T. grandis Negative
Model extract/Dose control Investigation Results Reference
Albino 5% and 10% Shaved Complete hair growth Treatment was Jaybhaye et al.
Male rats petroleum denuded skin was observed on the successful in (2010)
ether extract of 18th day with 5% bringing a greater
seeds extract;15th day with number of hair
incorporate 5% extract plus follicles T. grandis
into simple 2%minoxidil; 22nd day exerted hair
ointment base with 10% petroleum growth activity
were applied ether extract
topically treatment; 20th day
with 10% petroleum
ether extract plus 2%
minoxidil;18th day
with minoxidil

quinizarin (21) (Sandermann and Simatupang 1966), anthraquinone-2-carbaldehyde-(15)

and anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (16) (Rudman 1960) present in teak have been exam-
ined demonstrate repellent and toxic effects on termites and in some cases-on fungi (Rudman
and Dacosta 1959). Because of their average low content in the wood they presumably play
a subsidiary role in the wood’s natural durability. An important step forward was the contri-
bution of Sandermann and Dietrichs (1957, 1959), who isolated naphtoquinones lapachol
(1) and deoxylapachol (2) with toxic effect on termites. Contact allergies are produced by
deoxylapachol and lapachol, but the effect of the latter is 100 to 200 times less. Two other
interesting extractives present in teak are tectol (9) and dehydrotectol (Sandermann and
Dietrichs 1959, 1964). Further Khanna suggested that dehydrotectol should be referred as
tecomaquinone I (11) (Khanna et al. 1987).
Matthes and Schreiber (1914) identified a hydrocarbon caoutchouc (Narayanamurti and
Singh 1960), which is responsible to the resistance of the timber to water and chemical
attacks, and perhaps to a low rate of shrinkage too (Narayanamurti et al. 1962; Sandermann
and Simatupang 1963). The next important discovery from teak was the isolation of phyto-
toxic compounds from its leaves by Macias group (Macias et al. 2008, 2010). The allelopathic
activity of naphthotectone (36) isolated from teak leaves has also been evaluated (Lacret
et al. 2011).

6.  Compounds present in teak

It is important to know that, which secondary plant metabolites are found in plant as it may
provide a basis for its traditional uses. During more than 100 years of intensive research on
the chemistry of T. grandis, various compounds have been detected from different parts of
the plant. So far, 92 compounds have been isolated from the teak. Molecular formula and
the part from which these compounds were isolated are tabulated in Table 8.
Quinones are major secondary metabolites which are present in T. grandis in the form of
naphthoquinones (Figure 1) and anthraquinones (Figure 2). In addition to these, teak also
contains several other phytochemicals such as terpenoids (Figure 3), apocarotenoids
(Figure 4), phenolic compounds and flavonoids (Figure 5), steroids/saponins (Figure 6), phe-
nylpropanoids (lignans and norlignans) & phenylethanoid glycosides (Figure 7), some fatty
8   P. VYAS ET AL.

Table 8. Compounds isolated from T. grandis.

Compound name (Molecular formula) Plant part & References
1. Lapachol (C15H14O3) Heartwood (Sandermann and Dietrichs 1957; Singh et al.
1989; Gupta and Singh 2004; Lukmandaru and Takahashi
2009; Khan and Mlungwana 1999), Roots (Joshi et al.1977)
2. Deoxylapachol (C15H14O2) Heartwood (Smith and Thomson 1961; Windeisen et al.
2003; Sandermann and Simatupang 1963; Gupta and
Singh 2004)
3. 5-Hydroxylapachol (C15H14O4) Root heartwood (Khan and Mlungwana 1999)
4. Hydroxysesamone (C15H14O5) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014)
5. α-Lapachone (C15H14O3) Roots (Joshi et al. 1977)
6. β-Lapachone (C15H14O3) Roots (Joshi et al. 1977)
7. Dehydro-α-lapachone (C15H12O3) Heartwood (Singh et al.1989; Gupta and Singh 2004; Khan
and Mlungwana 1999), Roots (Joshi et al. 1977)
8. 4′,5′-Dihydroxy-epiisocatalponol (C15H18O4) Heartwood (Niamké et al. 2012)
9. Tectol (C30H26O4) Heartwood (Sandermann and Dietrichs 1959; Sandermann
and Simatupang 1964; Lukmandaru and Takahashi 2009)
Roots (Joshi et al. 1977; Dayal and Seshadri 1979)
Saw dust (Sumthong et al. 2008)
10. Dehydro-α-isodunnione (C15H12O3) Heartwood (Gupta and Singh 2004)
11. Tecomaquinone-I (C30H24O4) Heartwood (Sandermann and Dietrichs 1959; Gupta and
Singh 2004)
Roots (Joshi et al. 1977; Dayal and Seshadri 1979)
12. Tectoquinone(C15H10O2) Heartwood (Romains 1887; Kafaku and Sebe 1932;
Pavanaram and Row 1957; Gupta and Singh 2004)
Sapwood (Ahluwalia and Seshadri 1957; Lukmandaru and
Takahashi 2009) Saw dust (Sumthong et al. 2008) Roots
(Joshi et al. 1977)
13. 2-Hydroxymethyl-anthraquinone (C15H10O3) Heartwood (Rudman 1960; Windeisen et al. 2003) Saw dust
(Sumthong et al. 2008)
14. 2-Acetoxymethyl-anthraquinone (C15H12O4) Heartwood (Rudman 1960)
15. Anthraquinone-2-carbaldehyde (C15H8O3) Heartwood (Rudman 1960)
16. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (C15H8O4) Heartwood (Rudman 1960)
17. 3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-anthraquinone (C15H10O3) Heartwood (Pavanaram and Row 1957; Kopa et al. 2014)
18. Pachybasin (C15H10O3) Heartwood (Thomson 1971; Sumthong 2007) Roots (Dayal
and Seshadri 1979)
19. Rubiadin (C15H10O4) Heartwood (Burnett and Thomson 1968)
20. Munjistin (C15H8O6) Heartwood (Burnett and Thomson 1968) Roots (Joshi et al.
21. 2-Methylquinizarin (C15H10O4) Heartwood (Sandermann and Simatupang 1965) Root
heartwood (Khan and Mlungwana 1999)
22. Quinizarine (C14H8O4) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014)
23. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl anthraquinone (C15H10O3) Roots (Dayal and Seshadri 1979) Stem (Windeisen et al.
24. 5,8-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (C15H10O4) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014)
25. Obtusifolin (C16H12O5) Roots (Dayal and Seshadri 1979) Saw dust (Sumthong et al.
26. 9,10-Dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,4-anthraquinone Heartwood (Singh et al. 1989)
27. 5-Hydroxy-2-methyl anthraquinone (C15H10O3) Heartwood (Bhargava et al. 1991)
28. 1-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylanthraquinone Heartwood (Bhargava et al.1991)
29.1,5-Dihydroxy-2methylanthraquinone (C15H10O4) Heartwood (Bhargava et al. 1991)
30. 5-Hydroxydigitolutein (C16H12O5) Tissue culture (Dhruva et al.1972)
31. Barleriaquinone-I (C15H10O3) Heartwood (Singh et al. 2008)
32. Tectoleafquinone (C19H14O6) Leaves (Agarwal et al.1965)
33. Grandiquinone A (C17H12O5) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014)
34. Tectograndone (C30H20O10) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014; Aguinaldo et al. 1993)
35. Anthratectone (C27H18O9) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2011)
36. Naphthotectone (C17H16O7) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2011)


Table 8. (Continued).
Compound name (Molecular formula) Plant part & References
37. (6RS)-(E)-2,6-Dimethyl-2,7-octadiene-1,6-diol Leaves (Macias et al. 2008)
38. lβ-6α-Dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene (C15 H26O2) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al.2010)
39. 7-Epieudesm-4(15)-ene-1α,6α-diol (C15 H26O2) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
40. Abeograndinoic Acid (C20H32O4) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
41. Phytol (C20H40O) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
42. 7,11,15-Trimethyl-3-methylene-hexadecan-1,2-diol Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
43. Rhinocerotinoic acid (C20H30O3) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
44. 2-Oxokovalenic acid (C20H30O3) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
45. 19-Hydroxyferruginol (C20H30O2) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
46. Tectograndinol (C20H34O3) Leaves (Horst and Ilona 1977)
47. Solidagonal acid (C20H30O3) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
48. Lupeol (C30H50O) Bark (Pathak et al. 1988)
49. Betulin (C30H50O2) Bark (Pathak et al. 1988)
50. Betulinaldehyde (C30H48O2) Bark (Pathak et al.1988)
51. Betulinic acid (C30H48O3) Heartwood and Stem bark (Sandermann and Simatupang
1966; Khan et al. 2010) Bark (Ahluwalia and Seshadri 1957)
Roots (Dayal and Seshadri 1979) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014)
52. Ursolic acid (C30H48O3) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014); Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
53. Corosolic acid (C30H48O4) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014)
54. Oleanolic acid (C30H48O3) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
55. Maslinic acid (C30H48O4) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
56. Methyl-2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-l2-en-28-oate (C30H48O4) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
57. Euscaphic acid (C30H48O5) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
58. Squalene (C30H50) Roots (Windeisen et al. 2003; Khan and Mlungwana 1999)
59. Caoutchouc or Indian rubber Polymer Wood (Sandermann and Dietrichs 1959; Narayanamurti and
Singh 1960; Yamamoto et al. 1998)
60. Tectoionol A (C13H23O3) Leaves (Macias et al. 2008)
61. Tectoionol B (C13H24O2) Leaves (Macias et al. 2008)
62. Annuionone D (C13H20O3) Leaves (Macias et al. 2008)
63. 3β-Hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionol (C13H24O2) Leaves (Macias et al. 2008)
64. 9(S)-4-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-β-ionol (C13H22O2) Leaves (Macias et al. 2008)
65. 3β-Hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone (C13H22O2) Leaves (Macias et al. 2008)
66. Gallic acid (C7H6O5) Leaves (Nayeem and Karvekar 2010)
67. Ellagic acid (C14H6O8) Leaves (Nayeem and Karvekar 2010)
68. Acetovanillone (C9H10O3) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012)
69. E-Isofuraldehyde (C10H10O3) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012; Macias et al. 2004)
70. 3-Hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012)
propan-1-one (C11H14O5)
71. Evofolin A (C17H1806) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012)
72. Rutin (C27H30O16) Leaves (Nayeem and Karvekar 2010)
73. Quercitin (C15H10O7) Leaves (Nayeem and Karvekar 2010)
74. β-Sitosterol (C29H50O) Roots (Joshi et al. 1977; Dayal and Seshadri 1979)
75. Hydroxyenone (C29H48O2) Leaves and Bark (Macias et al. 2010)
76. β-Sitosterol-β-d-[4′linolenyl-6′-(tridecan-4′″-one-1′″- Stem bark (Khan et al. 2010)
oxy)] Glucuranopyranoside (C66H110O8)
77. Stigmast-5-en-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (C35H60O6) Stem bark (Khan et al. 2010; Misra et al. 2008)
78. Sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (C60H100O7) Leaves (Kopa et al. 2014; Singh et al. 2010)

10   P. VYAS ET AL.

Table 8. (Continued).
Compound name (Molecular formula) Plant part & References
79. Syringaresinol (C22H26O8) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012; Macias et al. 2004)
80. Medioresinol (C21H24O7) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012; Macias et al. 2004)
81. 1-Hydroxypinoresinol (C20H22O7) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012)
82. Lariciresinol (C20H24O6) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012; Macias et al. 2004)
83. Balaphonin (C20H20O6) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012)
84. Zhebeiresinol (C14H16O6) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012)
85. Tectonoelin A (C18H16O6) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012)
86. Tectonoelin B (C19H18O7) Leaves (Lacret et al. 2012)
87. Verbascoside or acteoside (C29H36O15) Leaves (Singh et al. 2010)
88. 7′-Hydroxy-n-octacosanoyl n-decanoate(C28H56O3 Stem bark (Khan et al. 2010)
89. 20′-Hydroxyeicosanyl linolenate (C38H72O3) Stem bark (Khan et al. 2010)
90. 18′-Hydroxy-n-hexacosanyl-n-decanoate (C36H72O3) Stem bark (Khan et al. 2010)
91. n-Docosane (C22H46) Stem bark (Khan et al. 2010)
92. O-Tolylmethylether (C8H10O) Wood (Dharmcharee 1957)

Figure 1. Chemical structures of naphthoquinones.


Figure 2. Chemical structures of anthraquinones.

esters and miscellaneous compounds. These discrepancies suggest that further investigation
of the chemical constituents of T. grandis will provide interesting information regarding the
chemistry of this species.

7.  Conclusions and future directions

T. grandis is a forest species, which is very famous for its timber value and decay resistance.
It possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as wound healing, anti-
microbial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and hair growth etc. In addition to these,
cultivation of T. grandis has also become an efficient tool for pest control towards sustainable
agriculture due to its phytotoxic activity. However, pharmacological and phytochemical
studies have been carried out independently and lack identification of isolation of active
molecules. Hence, more research is required to correlate its pharmacological activity with
chemical constituents, so that promising potential drug candidates could be developed.
Based upon this critical review it can be concluded that there is sufficient scientifically valid
evidence to state that, T. grandis is an interesting source of bioactive compounds.
12   P. VYAS ET AL.

Figure 3. Chemical structures of terpenoids.


Figure 4. Chemical structures of apocarotenoids.

Figure 5. Chemical structures of phenolic compounds (66–71) and flavonoids (72–73).

Figure 6. Chemical structures of streroids/saponins.

14   P. VYAS ET AL.

Figure 7. Chemical structures of phenylpropanoids (79–86) & phenylehtanoid glycoside (87).

Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

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