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Anda di halaman 1dari 14

20-33 (2003)

FOR CONCRETE CARBONATION

Key words: carbon dioxide, carbonation depth, diffusion coefficient, trans- with distance from the surface with time for different

port phenomena. surface-chloride levels and chloride diffusion coeffi-

cients as a design nomogram. This nomogram can

predict the service life of existing reinforced concrete

ABSTRACT structures. The literature is also rich in concrete car-

bonation investigations, aiming at developing empirical

A new concept, carbon dioxide (CO 2) transport in concrete, is

or semiempirical relations for the prediction of the rate

proposed in this paper to describe solute-transport processes. Using

this concept, a new one-dimensional mathematical model was devel- of carbonation, and hence of the time required for

oped to describe the transport phenomena of carbon dioxide in con- depassivation of the reinforcing steel [11, 23, 24, 25, 26,

crete structures. By treating transport phenomena as a concrete 27, 28, 29, 33, 34, 38] provided a general mathematical

carbonation process, a one-dimensional linear partial differential model of all physicochemical processes involved in

equation was derived based on the principle of mass balance and

concrete carbonation which was constructed and ex-

convective-dispersive equation and was found the analytical solution

by the separation of variables and the Laplace transform methods perimentally validated. Approximate solutions for this

combined with some substitution approaches. The concrete carbon- model allow quantitative prediction of the evolution of

ation numerical results were determined using parameters, such as the carbonation with time. This model helps in identifying

diffusion coefficient, CO 2 concentration, carbonation depth and time, those material and environmental parameters that affect

occurring in concrete structures. The numerical results are presented

the rate of carbonation and can be used for parametric

to illustrate the practical applications of this model. These results are

shown clearly that the proposed model may actually describe the studies of their effect on this rate.

concrete carbonation process chemically and physically. It is sug- Although these studies have provided much valu-

gested that experiment should be performed to select suitable param- able information on the relationship between material

eters for numerical simulations. and environmental factors, there are free of analytical

solution [22] and are still many factors that have not yet

INTRODUCTION been explored. This paper describes a theoretical study

that is a one-dimentional linear diffusion equation with

Carbonation in concrete regularly involves a chemi- initial and boundary conditions. The mathematical

cal reaction between carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and the model considers the relationships among unsteady state

products of cement hydration. This reaction can result and diffusion, pore-water convective effect and chemi-

in a significant reduction in the pH of the pore solution cal reaction and is shown in Table 1. The results of this

due to the removal of the hydroxyl ions (OH −), which study may be of importance to civil engineers and

may lead to steel depassivation and subsequent rein- scholars attempting to develop programming standards

forcement corrosion. While carbonation in temperate and to researchers interested in the theoretical aspects

climatic conditions may be related to environmental of computer programming.

pollution, in arid and semiarid regions it may be accen-

tuated by the elevated temperature and humidity. THEORETICAL MODELING OF CONCRETE

Browne [3] used Fick’s second diffusion law to CARBONATION

make a family of curves for the chloride concentration

The rate at which carbon dioxide (CO2) penetrates

into concrete structures can be determined using several

Paper Submitted 04/09/02, Accepted 02/27/03. Author for Correspondence: transport mechanisms. These mechanisms often act

Ming-Te Liang.

simultaneously on the concrete structures and may in-

*Professor, Department of Harbor and River Engineering, National Taiwan

Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan. clude such processes as convection, diffusion, dis-

**Postgraduate, Department of Harbor and River Engineering, National persion, and first-order production [40] or decay. The

Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan. general partial differential equation that relates these

M.T. Liang & S.M. Lin: Mathematical Modeling and Applications for Concrete Carbonation 21

factors to a one-dimensional transport process can be [40], x is space and t is time. Equation (1) or the

written as appropriate simplification has also found widespread

application in soil science, chemical and environmental

R ∂C = D s – v ∂C – K T C – r (1) engineering, and water resources. A similar form has

∂t ∂x

also been proposed by Tchobanoglons [36] and Chen et

where C is the concentration of carbon dioxide, Ds is the al. [5] for use in constructed wetlands.

diffusion coefficient, R is the retardation factor Equation (1) describes the one-dimensional trans-

(dimensionless), v is the pore-water velocity, K T is the port phenomena of concrete carbonation. If R = 1 (This

rate constant for first-order decay at a given tempera- means that the carbonation phenomenon is only con-

ture T, r is the rate constant for zero-order production cerned in this present study) and r = 0 (This means that

Governing equations Description References

1 PDE

∂C = D ∂ C 2

Consider the relationships between unsteady,

∂C ,

[3, 6, 7, 9, 12, 16, 17, 37, 38, 42]

∂t s

∂x 2 ∂t

∂C

2

IC C(x, 0) = Ci and diffusion, D s 2 .

∂x

BC C(0, t) = Cs

C(L, t) = Cf

2 PDE

∂C = D ∂ 2C – K C Consider the relationships among unsteady,

∂C ,

[19, 37]

∂t s

∂x 2

T

∂t

∂ 2

C

IC C(x, 0) = Ci and diffusion, D s 2 , and chemical reaction, KTC.

∂x

BC C(0, t) = Cs

C(L, t) = Cf

3 PDE

∂C = D ∂ 2C – r Consider the relationships among unsteady,

∂C ,

and [30, 32]

∂t s

∂x 2 ∂t

∂ 2

C

IC C(x, 0) = 0 diffusion, D s , and rate constant for zero-order

∂x 2

BC C(0, t) = Cs production,. r

∂C (0, t) = 0

∂n

∂C = D ∂ 2C – v ∂C ∂C ,

4 PDE ∂x Consider the relationships among unsteady, and [35]

∂t s

∂x 2 ∂t

∂ 2

C

IC C(x, 0) = 0 diffusion, D s and pore-water convective effect,

∂x 2

v ∂C .

BC C(0, t) = Cs ∂x

C(L, t) = 0

∂C ,

5 PDE Consider the relationships among unsteady, and [5, 18, 31]

∂t

∂C = D ∂ 2C – v ∂C – K C ∂C

2

∂t s

∂x 2

T

∂x

IC C(x, 0) = Ci v ∂C , and chemical reaction, KTC.

∂x

BC C(0, t) = Cs

C(L, t) = Cf

∂C ,

6 PDE Consider the relationships among unsteady, and [5, 36]

∂t

∂C = D ∂ 2C – v ∂C – K C – r ∂ 2

C

∂x diffusion, D s 2 , pore-water convective effect,

∂t s

∂x 2

T

∂x

IC C(x, 0) = Ci v ∂C , chemical reaction, KTC, and rate constant for

∂x

BC C(0, t) = Cs zero-order production,. r

C(L, t) = Cf

Remark: C(x, t) is the concentration of CO2 at space x time t, Ci, Cs and Cf are the initial concentration of CO2 in concrete, on

the surface of concrete structure, and at the interface between concrete and steel, respectively, Ds is the diffusion coefficient,

KT is the rate constant for first-order decay at a given temperature T, v is the pore-water velocity, r is the rate constant for zero-

order production, x is space and t is time. n represents the normal direction from the common boundary.

22 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2003)

in the carbonated zone the reduction of concrete ab- changes into the control equation with initial and bound-

sorbed CO 2 has been finished, i.e., the absorbed CO 2 ary conditions

mass pen unit volume per unit time equal zero), Eq. (1)

∂φ ∂ 2φ

becomes = Ds 2 (12)

∂t ∂x

∂C = D ∂ 2C – v ∂C – K C (2) φ (x, 0) = C ie−αx (13)

∂t s

∂x 2 ∂x T

modeled by Eqs. (12)-(15), one assumes

C(L, t) = C f (5)

where C i , C s and C f are the initial concentration of φ (x, t) = Φ(x, t) + ϕ (x) (16)

carbon dioxide in concrete, on the surface of the con-

crete structures, and at the interface between the con- Substitution Eq. (16) into Eqs. (12), (14), and (15)

crete and steel, respectively. L is the concrete cover yields

thickness on the reinforcing steel. ∂Φ = D ∂ 2Φ + D ϕ"(x)

s ∂x (17)

In order to solve the concrete carbonation problem ∂t s

φ (0, t) = Φ(0, t) + ϕ (0) = Cse −βt (18)

C(x, t) = e αx + βt

φ (x, t) (6)

φ (L, t) = Φ(L, t) + ϕ (L) = C fe−αL−βt (19)

where α and β are the constant parameters, and φ(x, t) is

a new function of CO 2 concentration. One chooses ϕ (x) as a solution of the problem

Substitution Eq. (6) into Eq. (2) gives

ϕ "(x) = 0; ϕ (0) = Cse −βt, ϕ (L) = C fe −αL−βt (20)

∂φ ∂φ2

∂φ

= D s 2 + (2αD s – v) + (D sα 2 – v α – K T – β) φ

∂t ∂x ∂x Integrating twice to ϕ "(x) = 0, one obtains

(7)

one-dimensional diffusion equation, the coefficients of

the second and third terms on the right-hand side should where A and B are integral constants.

be equal to zero, i.e., Putting the boundary conditions in Eq. (20) into

Eq. (21), one obtains

2α Ds − v = 0 (8)

A = 1 (C f e – α L – β t – C se – β t ) and B = C ie −ax.

L

D sα 2 − v α − K T − β = 0 (9)

Thus, one has

From Eq. (8), one has

ϕ(x) = 1 (C f e – α L – β t – C se – β t )x + C se – β t (22)

L

α= v (10)

2D s With the choice of ϕ (x), the initial and boundary

Substituting Eq. (10) into Eq. (9), one obtains value problem for Φ(x, t) is formulated as

2 ∂Φ = D ∂ 2Φ , 0 ≤ x ≤ L, t > 0

β = – v – KT (11) ∂t s (23)

4D s ∂x 2

The solution methods of Separation of Variables Φ(0, t) = 0 (24)

and Laplace transform are described in the following.

Φ(L, t) = 0 (25)

Separation of Variables Method

Φ(x, 0) = φ (x, 0) − ϕ (0) = C ie −αx − ϕ (x) = f(x)

Now the problem formulated by Eqs. (2)-(5) (26)

M.T. Liang & S.M. Lin: Mathematical Modeling and Applications for Concrete Carbonation 23

In order to solve the concrete carbonation problem If k > 0, then set k = p2, where p > 0. Equation (30)

modeled by Eqs. (23)-(26), the separation of variables is written as

method is used, i. e.,

X" − p 2X = 0 (38)

Φ(x, t) = X(x)T(t) (27)

The general solution for Eq. (38) is

where X(x) and T(t) are the functions of the independent

variables of x and t, respectively. Substituted Eq. (27) X(x) = Fe px + Ge −px (39)

into Eq. (23), one obtains

where F and G are constants.

XT = D sX'T (28) Placing Eqs. (34) and (35) into Eq. (39), one has F

= G = 0, i. e. X(x) = 0. This is again a trivial solution.

where the superscribe dot and prime indicate T and X of Φ(x, t) is again a corresponding trivial solution.

the first and second partial derivative with respect to t If k < 0, then put k = −p 2, where p > 0. Equation

and x, respectively. (30) is changed as

Equation (28) can be written as

X" + p2X = 0 (40)

X" = T = k (29)

X D sT

The general solution for Eq. (40) is

where k is an unknown constant to be determined.

Equation (29) can be rewritten as two ordinary X(x) = H cos(px) + I sin(px) (41)

differential equations

Substituting Eq. (34) into Eq. (41), one discovers

X" − kX = 0 (30) H = 0. Placing Eq. (35) into Eq. (41), one obtains

At the present, one first solves Eq. (30). However, If I = 0, then X(x) = 0, i.e., Φ(x, t) = 0. This is a

from Eqs. (24), (25) and (27), one knows trivial solution. One puts I = 0 into the discard. Now

consider

Φ(0, t) = X(0)T(t) = 0 (32)

sin(px) = 0 (43)

Φ(L, t) = X(L)T(t) = 0 (33)

From Eq. (43), one knows

If T(t) in Eqs. (32) and (33), then Φ(x, t) should be

pL = nπ, p > 0, n = 1, 2, 3.... (44)

a trivial solution. This is not an interesting result.

Hence, under the condition of T(t) ≠ 0, one discovers Thus, for each positive integer n, one obtains the

eigenvalue of the initial and boundary value problem for

X(0) = 0 (34) Φ(x, t), i.e.,

k n = n π2

2 2

X(L) = 0 (35) (45)

L

If k = 0 in Eq. (30), then Eq. (30) becomes The corresponding eigenfunction is

L

After doubling the integral, one has At present, one should solve Eq. (31). Equation

(31) is changed into

X(x) = Dx + E (37) n 2π 2D s

T+ T = 0 , n = 1, 2, 3... (47)

L2

where D and E are integral constants.

Substituting Eqs. (34) and (35) into Eq. (37), one The solution for Eq. (47) is

finds D = E = 0. Moreover, X(x) = 0. This is a trivial n 2π 2D st

T n = J n exp ( – ) (48)

solution. Φ(x, t) is a corresponding trivial solution. L2

24 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2003)

Substituting Eqs. (47) and (48) into Eq. (27), one

∂φ ∂ 2φ

obtains = Ds 2 (56)

∂t ∂x

n 2π 2D st

Φn (x, t) = K n sin (n π x ) exp (– ), φ (x, 0) = C ie−αx (57)

n = 1, 2, 3...

L L2 (49)

φ (0, t) = C se −βt (58)

where K n = I nJ n is a constant.

Since Eq. (23) is linear and homogeneous, one φ (L → ∞, t) = 0 ( φ(L, t) = C fe −αL−βt) (59)

obtains the solution using the principle of superposition

∞ n 2π 2D st Taking the Laplace transform of Eq. (56), one

Φn (x, t) = Σ K nsin (nLπ x ) exp (– ) (50) obtains

n =1 L2

C

Placing Eq. (26) into Eq. (50), one has Φ" – s Φ = – i e – α x (60)

Ds Ds

∞

Φn (x, 0) = f(x) = C i e – α x – ϕ(x) = Σ K nsin (nLπ x )

n =1

The complementary function of Eq. (60) is

(51) s x – s x

Φc(x, s) = c 1e Ds + c 2e Ds

(61)

Eq. (51) is the Fourier sine series. Thus, one chooses

One now assumes that the particular integral of Eq.

f (x) sin (n π x ) dx

L

Kn = 2 (60) can be expressed by

L 0 L

[C i e – α x – ϕ(x)] sin (n π x ) dx

L

=2 (52) Φ p(x, s) = me −αx (62)

L 0 L

Substituting Eq. (52) into Eq. (50), one has where m is a constant.

Substituting Eq. (62) into Eq. (60), one has

∞ L

Φn (x, t) = 2 Σ { [C i e – αξ Ci

Ln =1 0 m= (63)

2

n πξ – n 2π 2D st s– v

– ϕ(ξ )] sin ( ) d ξ } sin (n π x ) exp ( ) 4D s

L L L2 (53)

Therefore, the general solution to Eq. (60) is given

by

The substitution of Eqs. (22)and (53) into Eq. (16)

s x – s x

yields Φ(x, s) = Φc(x, s) + Φp (x, s) = c 1e Ds + c 2e Ds

∞ L

Φn (x, t) = 2 Σ { [C i e – αξ

Ln =1 0 Ci

+ e – αx (64)

n πξ – n 2π 2D st

) d ξ } sin (n π x ) exp (

2

– ϕ(ξ )] sin ( ) s– v

L L L2 4D s

+ 1 (C f e – α L – β t – C se – β t ) x + C se – β t (54) By taking the Laplace transform of Eqs. (58) and

L

(59) and using Eq. (64), one obtains

Finally, putting Eq. (54) into Eq. (6), one obtains Cs Ci

the analytical solution for the original problem Φ(0, s) = = c1 + c2 + (65)

s +β 2

∞ L s– v

C(x, t) = a α x + β t { 2 Σ {

4D s

[C i e – αξ

Ln =1 0 s ∞

Φ(∞, s) = 0 = c 1e Ds

(66)

n πξ n 2π 2D

) d ξ } sin (n π x ) exp (

– st

– ϕ(ξ )] sin ( )

L L L2 In order to obtain a bounded solution to Eq. (60),

+ 1 (C f e – α L – β t – C se – β t ) x + C se – β t } (55) let c 1 = 0 in Eq. (66). Thus, one obtains

L

Cs Ci

Laplace Transform Method c2 = – (67)

s +β 2

s– v

4D s

Now the problem formulated by Eqs. (2)-(5)

changes to the following governing equation with initial Hence Eq. (64) can be written as

M.T. Liang & S.M. Lin: Mathematical Modeling and Applications for Concrete Carbonation 25

s x

Cs Ci – Ci

Φ(x, s) = ( – )e Ds + e – αx and time at D s = 10 -11 m 2/s, D s = 10 -12 m 2/s and D s =

s +β 2 2

s– v s– v

10-13 m2/s are displayed in Figs. 1 to 3, respectively. The

4D s 4D s

(68) concentration-time relationships at Ds = 10-11 m2/s, Ds =

10 -12 m 2/s and D s = 10 -13 m2/s are manifested in Figs. 4

in terms of C i and C s. The following inverse Laplace to 6, respectively. The relation between concentration

transforms can be found from the table [1] and carbonation depth at Ds = 10-11 m2/s, Ds = 10-12 m2/s

– s x – x2 and D s = 10 -13 m 2 /s are disclosed in Figs. 7 to 9,

L – 1{e Ds } = x e 4D st (69) respectively. The diffusion coefficient-time relation-

2 π D st 3

ships at x = 0.01 m, x = 0.02 m and x = 0.03 m are shown

v 2 + 4K T D s in Figs. 10 to 12, respectively.

Cs t

L – 1{ } = C se 4D s

(70) Assume that a reinforced concrete structure

v 2 + 4K T D s

s– has C i = 0.0 g/m 3 , C s = 0.7 g/m 3, C f = 0.2 g/m 3, v =

4D s

10-12 m/s, KT = 10-10 1/s, and L = 0.05 m. From Fig. 1, one

Ci v t 2 knows the carbonation depth x = 0.025 m after t = 688

L – 1{ 2

} = C i e 4D s (71) days with C(x, t) = 0.35 g/m3 and Ds = 10-11 m2/s. For Ds

s– v = 10 -13 m 2/s and C(x, t) = 0.3 g/m 3, one needs t = 8000

4D s

days at x = 0.01 m from Fig. 6. If one knows Ds = 10 -12

Ci x

–v v t x

2 v t– ν x

–v 2 m2/s and C(x, t) = 0.4 g/m3, one obtains x = 0.014 m after

L – 1{ 2

e 2D s } = C i e 4D s ⋅ e 2D s = C i e 4D s 2D s t = 3000 days from Fig. 8.

s– v (72)

4D s

DISCUSSION

s x

Cs Ci –

L – 1{( 2

– 2

)e Ds } The numerical results obtained from both the

v + 4K T D s s – v

s– Laplace transform and separation of variables methods

4D s 4D s

are compared as shown in Figs. 1 to 12. Intuitively, as

x2 v 2 + 4K T D s the same concrete carbonation problem, however, the

t

x – (t – τ )

= e 4D sτ (C se 4D s

numerical results reveal the obvious differences be-

0 2 π D sτ 3

tween the Laplace transform method and the separation

of variables method. This is due to Cf = 0.2 g/m3 without

v 2 (t – τ )

– Ci e sτ

4D ) dτ appearing in Eq. (75) but with in Eq. (55). This means

(73)

that the value of C f is varied with time for the Laplace

transform method while C f is the constant value as just

Note that Eq. (73) has used the convolution

theorem. Taking the Laplace transform to Eq. (68), one

obtains

x2 v 2 + 4K T D s

t

x – (t – τ )

φ(x, t) = e 4D sτ (C se 4D s

0 22 π D sτ 3

v 2 (t – τ ) v2 t – v x

– Ci e sτ

4D ) dτ + C i e s 2D s

4D

(74)

the analytical solution for the original problem

v v 2 + 4K T D s t x2

x– t x –

C(x, t) = e 2D s 4D s e 4D sτ

0 2 π D sτ 3

v 2 + 4K T D s v 2 (t – τ )

(t – τ ) – K Tt

(C se 4D s – C i e 4D s ) d τ + C ie (75)

used to show the closed form solution of Eqs. (55) and

(75). The relationships between carbonation depth Fig. 1. Relationship between carbonation depth and time at Ds = 10-11 m2/s.

26 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2003)

given for the separation of variables method. tion with initial and boundary conditions

Guirguis [10] and Mallett [21] pointed out that a

general expression for the depth of carbonation, x, to the

∂C = D ∂ 2C (77a)

∂t s

∂x 2

quality of concrete and time of exposure, t, can be given

in the form C(x, 0) = C i (77b)

where K is related to the rate of carbonation and is Taking the Laplace transform method, the analyti-

dependent upon the properties of the concrete.

Now consider the one-dimensional diffusion equa-

Fig. 3. Relationship between carbonation depth and time at Ds = 10-13 m2/s. Fig. 6. Concentration-time relationships at Ds = 10-13 m2/s.

M.T. Liang & S.M. Lin: Mathematical Modeling and Applications for Concrete Carbonation 27

cal solution for Eq. (77) is Equation (78) may be written as [20]

4D st

–1 C – Ci

where erfc(•) is the complementary error function. where K = 4D s erfc ( ).

Cs – Ci

An empirical formula for the natural concrete car-

bonation process was established by Ju [14] and is

expressed as

10-11 m2/s.

10-12 m2/s.

10-13 m2/s. Fig. 11. Diffusion coefficient-time relationships at x = 0.02 m.

28 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2003)

Carbonation concrete exposure time t (years)

depth (mm)

water-cement cement content

5 10 15 20 25 30

ratio W (kg/m3)

C'

0.40 C' = 450 2.73 3.86 4.73 5.46 6.11 6.69

C' = 400 3.06 4.32 5.29 6.11 6.84 7.83

0.45 C' = 400 4.18 5.92 7.24 8.37 9.37 10.25

C' = 350 4.75 6.72 8.22 9.47 10.63 11.64

0.50 C' = 350 6.03 8.53 10.45 12.07 13.49 14.77

C' = 325 6.47 9.15 11.21 12.95 14.47 15.86

0.55 C' = 325 7.85 11.10 13.59 15.69 17.55 19.22

C' = 300 8.47 11.98 14.68 16.94 18.94 20.74

0.60 C' = 300 9.95 14.08 17.23 19.92 22.27 24.38

C' = 275 10.82 15.30 18.73 21.64 24.19 26.49

0.65 C' = 275 12.42 17.57 21.53 24.85 27.79 30.42

C' = 250 13.61 19.24 23.57 27.21 30.44 33.32

to analyze the carbonation depth of concrete and

compared it with the experimental results (see Table 2).

The experimental results were employed for comparing

the results obtained from Eqs. (76) and (79). For Eqs.

(76) and (79), C, Ci, Cs, r1, r2 and r 3 are set to 0.3 g/m3,

0.0 g/m 3 , 0.7 g/m 3 [27], 1.0 [14, 39], 1.1, and 1.0,

respectively. These results are disclosed in Figs. 13~18.

Clearly, the calculated values are in good agreement

with the experimental results.

If the environment changes with time, then the

surface carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration also changes

with time. To gain a relationship that permits a surface

build-up of CO 2, another equation may be used due to

the changes in boundary conditions. The equation

necessary is one that solves Eq. (77a), with the follow-

ing initial and boundary conditions for a semi-infinite

solid [2]:

C(x, 0) = 0 (80)

Fig. 12. Diffusion coefficient-time relationships at x = 0.03 m.

C(0, t) = λ(t), C(L, t) = 0 (81)

x = r 1r 2r 3(12.1 W – 3.2) t (79) where λ(t) is any function of the variable time. Though

C'

there has yet to be discovered any conclusive proof for

where x is the carbonation depth (mm), t is time (year), what this function should be assigned to λ (t), there is

W/C' is water-cement ratio of concrete, r 1 is the cement some intuitive support for a linear or a square root build-

type influence factor, which for pozzolanic cement r 1 = up of CO2 over time. For the case λ(t) = σt, where σ is

1.0, and for Portland cement, r1 = 0.5~0.7, and r2 is the a constant, the solution to Eqs. (77a), (80), and (81)

fly ash influence factor. If the value of the replaced simplifies to [4]:

cement is not larger than 15%, then take r 2 = 1.1. r 3 is 2 – x2

the atmospheric influence factor, for a wet region, r 3 = C(x, t) = σ t{(1 + x ) erfc ( x ) – x e 4D st }

2D st 2 D st π D st

0.5~0.8, and for a dry region, r 3 = 1.1~1.2, while be-

tween wet and dry regions, one takes r 3 = 1.0. (82)

M.T. Liang & S.M. Lin: Mathematical Modeling and Applications for Concrete Carbonation 29

1

For the case λ(t) = σ t 2 , in which σ is a constant, is necessary to survey or assume Ds, x, C i, Cs, and λ(t).

the solution to Eqs. (77a), (80), and (81) simplifies to The concrete carbonation problem is described as

[4]: a result of a chemical diffusion process due to CO 2

2

penetrating into concrete. The carbon dioxide content

– x

C(x, t) = σ t {e 4D st – [ x π erfc ( x )]} (83) can be predicted by means of a diffusion equation.

2 D st 2 D st Consider the one-dimensional diffusion equation [8]

with initial and boundary conditions

Equations (78), (82), and (83) are solutions to

Fick’s second law, Eq. (77a), which permits for a linear

∂C = D ∂ 2C – K C (84a)

∂t s

∂x 2

T

and a square root buildup of CO 2 on the surface of a

concrete structure, respectively. Equations (78), (82), C(x, 0) = C i (84b)

and (83) assume that D s is constant and is independent

of the concentration, time, or position. For this reason, C(0, t) = C s, C(L, t) = C f = C i (84c)

in order to determine at what time corrosion initiates, it

Fig. 13. Carbonation depth-time relationships at W/C' = 0.40. Fig. 16. Carbonation depth-time relationships at W/C' = 0.55.

Fig. 14. Carbonation depth-time relationships at W/C' = 0.45. Fig. 17. Carbonation depth-time relationships at W/C' = 0.60.

Fig. 15. Carbonation depth-time relationships at W/C' = 0.50. Fig. 18. Carbonation depth-time relationships at W/C' = 0.65.

30 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2003)

where K T is a constant.

– K Tt

carbonation depth and time as [13, 15]

Putting C = C e [4], where C is a new CO 2

content variable, and employing the Laplace transform x = at b (88)

method to Eqs. (84a), (84b) and (84c), one obtain an

analytical solution [19]: where a and b are the influence coefficients. Both a and

K Tt

b depend on concrete quality and environmental factors

C(x, t) = [C i + (C se – C i ) erfc ( x )] e – K T t

4D st

(85)

equation with initial and boundary conditions

∂C = D ∂ 2C – v ∂C (86a)

∂t s

∂x 2 ∂x

C(x, 0) = C i (86b)

analytical solution for Eqs. (86a), (86b) and (86c):

v x – v2 t t

C(x, t) = e 2D s 4D s x

0 2 π D sτ 3

2 v 2 (t – τ )

– x

e 4D sτ (C

s – C i) e

4D s dτ + C i (87)

Fig. 19. Effect of using various equations [Eqs. (75), (78), (82), (83), (85),

tions (75), (78), (82), (83), (85) and (87), Figs. 19-22 and (87)] to evaluate the carbon dioxide transport behavior in

illustrate the differences. The carbonation depth in a concrete of constant diffusion coefficient Ds = 10-12 m2/s and

concrete whose carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient concentration C = 0.2 g/m3.

was determined to be 10-12 m2/s was plotted as a function

of time in Figs. 19-22. For Eq. (75), C i, C s, v and K T

were set to be 0.1 g/m3, 0.7 g/m3, 10-12 m/s and 10-10 1/s,

respectively. For Eq. (78), C i and C s were set to be

0.1 g/m 3 and 0.7 g/m 3, respectively. For Eqs. (82) and

(83), σ was determined either assuming the linear or

square root buildup. Both Eqs. (82) and (83) used σ t

and σ t 1/2 values respectively, which were forced to a

maximum equivalent of Cs after 30 years. For Eq. (85),

C i , C s , and K T were set to be 0.1 g/m 3, 0.7 g/m 3 and

10 -10 1/s, respectively. For Eq. (87), C i, C s, C f , and v

were set to be 0.1 g/m 3 , 0.7 g/m 3, 0.2 g/m 3, and 10 -12

m/s, respectively. From Figs. 19~22, it is obvious that

Eq. (75) in general is more suitable than Eqs. (78), (82),

(83), (85) and (87), which give a significant underesti-

mation and overestimation of the carbonation depth or

service life.

For illustration of Eq. (76), one draws Figs. 23-25,

obtained from Figs. 1-3. From Figs. 23-25, one sees that

the rate of carbonation velocity is really not constant.

This shows that it is not easy to reduce Eq. (75) into Eq.

Fig. 20. Effect of using various equations [Eqs. (75), (78), (82), (83), (85),

(76). It is evident that Eq. (76) is not the general and (87)] to evaluate the carbon dioxide transport behavior in

expression of concrete carbonation. However, from concrete of constant diffusion coefficient Ds = 10-12 m2/s and

Figs. 1-3 one may express the relationship between concentration C = 0.25 g/m3.

M.T. Liang & S.M. Lin: Mathematical Modeling and Applications for Concrete Carbonation 31

such as the diffusion coefficient, carbon dioxide con- chemical contamination phenomena of reinforced con-

centration, temperature and relative humidity. crete structures. The new concept of CO 2 transport in

concrete, a solute-transport process, has been expressed.

CONCLUSIONS The analytical solution for the one-dimensional convec-

tive-dispersive equation can be solved by means of the

The concrete carbonation problem is one of the separation of variables and the Laplace transform method

associated with the substitution technique. Dealing

with the CO 2 transport phenomena as a concrete struc-

ture carbonation process, the proposed mathematical

model obtained from the Laplace transform method

express more accurately the solute-transport processes

Fig. 21. Effect of using various equations [Eqs. (75), (78), (82), (83), (85),

and (87)] to evaluate the carbon dioxide transport behavior in

concrete of constant diffusion coefficient Ds = 10-12 m2/s and

concentration C = 0.3 g/m3.

Fig. 22. Effect of using various equations [Eqs. (75), (78), (82), (83), (85),

and (87)] to evaluate the carbon dioxide transport behavior in

concrete of constant diffusion coefficient Ds = 10-12 m2/s and

concentration C = 0.35 g/m3. Fig. 24. Carbonation depth-time square root relationships at Ds = 10-12 m2/s.

32 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2003)

forced Concrete in Marine and Other Chloride

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6. Clifton, J.R., Predicting the Remaining Service Life of

Concrete. U. S. Department of Commerce, National

Institute of Standards and Technology, Report No.

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