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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL PNS/BAFS

STANDARD Draft copy onlyICS

Free Range Chicken

BUREAU OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES STANDARDS


BPI Compound Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines
Phone (632) 928-8741 to 64; loc. 3301 -3319
E-mail: info.dabafs@gmail.com
Website: www.bafs.da.gov.ph
PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

1 1 SCOPE
2
3 This standard establishes the minimum requirements for free range chicken production,
4 and covers the methods of production, harvesting and marketing of chicken and chicken
5 products labeled as free range.
6
7 This code covers both commercial and backyard production of free range chicken.
8
9
10 2 REFERENCES
11
12 The titles of the standard publications and other references of this Code are listed on the
13 inside back cover.
14
15
16 3 DEFINITION OF TERMS.
17
18 For the purpose of this Code, the definitions specified in the Philippine National Standard
19 Code of Good Animal Husbandry Practices for Chickens – Broilers and Layers shall apply.
20
21 Other relevant definitions are as follows:
22
23 3.1 Backyard farm
24 Refers to any farm or household raising at least one had of animal or bird and dose not
25 qualify as a commercial farm
26
27 3.2 Broiler
28 Refers to domestic chickens reared for consumption of their meat
29
30 3.3 Commercial farm
31 Refers to any farm which, for poultry chicken, satisfies at least one of the following
32 conditions: a) 500 layers or 1,000 broilers, or b) 100 layers and 100 broilers if raised in
33 combination
34
35 3.4 Free Range
36 Refers to a system of production that raises chickens in a confined environment while
37 allowing the birds to exhibit their natural behavior and allowing them access to forage,
38 grasses, insects, and sunlight. Free range production may be further classified into
39
40 a. Pasture Raised
41 Refers to a method of production where adult birds are kept on pasture 12 months
42 of the year, in an outside area that is mainly covered with living vegetation. The
43 birds have access to the pasture through exits from fixed or mobile houses, and
44 covered verandas if present. They are kept indoors at night for protection from
45 predators but it is prohibited to keep them continually indoors 24 hours per day
46 without access to pasture for more than 14 consecutive days.

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

47
48 b. Traditional free range
49 Refers to a method of production that exceeds the minimum requirements (e.g.
50 harvest age) for free range production.
51
52 3.5 Layer hens
53 Refers to domestic chickens reared for consumption of their eggs.
54
55 3.6 Native chicken
56 Refers to chickens found in one geographical location that developed unique physical
57 characteristics, behavior, product attributes adapted to the local environment and are
58 products of selection with no infusion of exotic breeds for at least five (5) generations
59
60
61 4 GENERAL PRINCIPLES
62
63 4.1. Free range refers to a system of animal production or husbandry that rears
64 chickens in a manner that allows the birds access to vegetation and sunlight for a
65 minimum period.
66
67 4.2. This type of animal farming addresses both the physiological and behavioral needs
68 of the animals, thereby minimizing stress, and promoting the health and welfare of
69 the animals.
70
71 4.3. The general principles and minimum requirements stated in the Philippine
72 National Standard Code of Good Animal Husbandry Practices for Chickens –
73 Broilers and Layers, as well as other animal farming and related environmental
74 laws and regulations, must also be complied with.
75
76
77 5 OVERARCHING PRINCIPLES OF GOOD ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PRACTICE FOR
78 CHICKENS
79
80 5.1 Overarching principles for good farming of chickens are presented in the
81 Philippine National Standard Code of Good Animal Husbandry Practices for
82 Chickens – Broilers and Layers. The practices and requirements stated therein
83 should be complied with.
84
85 5.2 Particular attention should be paid to the provisions regarding:
86
87 (1) Animal housing (section 5.1.4): “Chickens should be provided with sufficient
88 floor space/size suitable for their age, body weight and size to ensure
89 comfort to the chickens. Chickens should be provided with appropriate
90 space to feed and drink comfortably. The feeding and drinking equipment
91 and facilities should conform with the standards/requirements for each
92 species and should be constructed and conspicuously placed such that

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

93 chickens are allowed to eat and drink freely, allowing them to behave
94 normally; and contamination with chicken feces and urine is prevented,”
95 and,
96
97 (2) Feeds and Veterinary Inputs (section 5.2.1): “Feeds and veterinary inputs
98 should be used in accordance with label instructions, paying special
99 attention to the withdrawal period of each specific drug being administered
100 before the chickens and/or eggs are sent to market.”
101
102
103 6 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
104
105 Additional requirements specific to free range chicken production are as follows:
106
107 6.1. Breeds
108
109 Only strains or breeds that are available and suited for free range production should be
110 used. Examples are found below: (See Annex A for pictures of free-range and native chicken
111 breeds.)
112
Broiler Pure: Rhode Island, Barred Plymouth Rock, Cornish
Hybrid: SASSO, HUBBARD- GRIMUAD
Layers Pure: Leg horns (brown and white), Rhode Island, Barred
Plymouth Rock, Sussex
Hybrid: Dominant, Dekalb Brown, Hy-line Brown, Shaver
Brown, Bovans Brown, Lohmann Brown, ISA Brown
Native Chicken Paraoakan, Banaba, Darag, Joloanon, Camarines, Bolinao,
Boholano, Zampen
113
114 6.2. Flock size
115
116 Flock size should not exceed 5,000 birds per house with a maximum of 20,000
117 birds per site.
118
119 6.3. Indoor housing or building
120
121 6.3.1. Indoor Stocking Density
122
123 The indoor stocking density should not exceed the following recommendations:
124
Fixed building Mobile housing
Broilers  10 birds/m2 or For mobile housing of not less than
 17 kg/ m2 10 m2 floor space:
8 birds/ m2 or 13 kg/ m2

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

Layers  6 birds/ m2
 Not more than 5 birds per nest hole, and
 31 cm aerial perch space per hen
Native  6 birds/ m2
chicken  Not more than 5 birds per nest hole, and
 31 cm aerial perch space per hen
125 (See Annex B for pictures of indoor and mobile houses)
126
127 6.3.2. Building exit points/popholes (See Annex C for pictures of building popholes.)
128
129 a. Popholes should be evenly distributed along the entire length of the building.
130
131 b. Birds should have unhindered access to the range or building. Chickens must have
132 a clear view of the range from the building when standing at the pophole.
133
134 c. The maximum distance travelled by a chicken within a building to reach a pophole
135 must not exceed 10m.
136
137 d. When a veranda is installed, the total floor area occupied by the veranda on either
138 side of the house must occupy no less than 20% of the calculated floor area within
139 the house. The sides of the veranda should be of solid, waterproof material from
140 ground level to at least top of the pophole, and its roof must be entirely
141 waterproof and insulated.
142
143 e. Minimum requirements for popholes are as follows:
144
145 i. There should be a minimum of two (2) popholes for every 500 birds;
146 ii. There should be at least two (2) popholes every 10 m along one side of a house;
147 and
148 iii. The size of the opening should be at least 46 cm height x 100 cm width.
149
150
151 6.4. Outdoor or range access
152
153 a. The range area must be actively managed to:
154
155 i. Encourage birds to use the range area fully;
156 ii. Maintain vegetation quality;
157 iii. Prevent and/or manage muddy/worn/soddy areas;
158 iv. Prevent chickens from coming into contact with any toxic substances;
159 v. Minimize any build up of parasites or other disease causing organisms; and
160 vi. Offer protection and cover to the birds while they are ranging.
161
162 b. Cut and carry methods for forages and herbs may be practiced as supplement for
163 vegetation but is not a replacement for outdoor access.

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

164
165 c. Birds should not be exposed to pasture management practices that may cause
166 them harm, e.g. spraying, pesticide use, sowing, cropping, etc.
167
168 d. The pasture area must include patches with loose substrate (e.g. sand, soil)
169 suitable for dust bathing. (See Annex D for picture of dust bath.)
170
171 6.4.1. Vegetation cover
172
173 a. The outdoor area in free-range systems must consist of pasture mainly covered in
174 vegetation. Course grit must be available to aid digestion of vegetation.
175
176 b. Commercial arable crops are not regarded as acceptable vegetation and excluded
177 from calculations.
178
179 6.4.2. Shade or shelter within the range (See Annex E for pictures of range or pasture
180 area)
181
182 a. There should be sufficient well-drained, shaded resting area for chickens within
183 the range.
184
185 b. There should be 8 to 16 m2 shaded area per 1000 birds
186
187 c. There should be sufficient natural (e.g. trees such as Gemelina, Aratilles, banana,
188 and shrubs, cover crops) and artificial (e.g. horticultural nets, screens, sheds,
189 trailers) shelters in the range area to protect the birds against inclement weather
190 (excessive sunlight, temperatures, rain, and wind), lessen their fear of overhead
191 predators, and be distributed accordingly to encourage full use of the range.
192
193 d. Some of the shade and shelter provisions must be positioned within 20 to 25
194 meters of the house.
195
196 e. Shade and shelters should be of sufficient height to ensure all birds can adopt a
197 normal standing position under it, with sufficient headspace.
198
199 f. Natural cover such as trees or tall shrubs that provide enrichment to the range
200 should account to at least 5% of the total range area
201
202 6.4.3. Outdoor stocking density
203
204 The outdoor stocking density should not exceed the following recommendations:
205
Broilers Maximum of 2 birds/m2
Layers Maximum of 1 bird/m2
Native Chicken Maximum of 1 bird/m2

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

206
207
208 6.4.4. Pasture access age or length
209
210 Access to pasture should not start later than 45 days old and continue throughout the
211 growing period. Layers should be allowed access to pasture all throughout the laying
212 period.
213
214 6.4.5. Daylight hours
215
216 Except for inclement weather or for veterinary or emergency reasons, the animals
217 should be allowed a minimum of six (6) hours of daylight per day.
218
219 6.4.6. Pasture rotation
220
221 a. The pasture must be rotated periodically to prevent the land from becoming
222 contaminated and or denuded, and to allow it to recover from use.
223
224 b. A pasture/range management plan must be developed, implemented, and updated
225 annually. The plan should include:
226 i. Pasture or range rotation;
227 ii. How to prevent and/or manage heavily poached/muddy/worn areas;
228 iii. How to minimize any build up of parasites or diseases;
229 iv. Provision and appropriate distribution of natural and artificial shade/shelters
230 and covers; and
231 v. Drainage.
232
233 c. The pasture area should be rested at least 1 month between batches, except for
234 batches with less than 50 birds.
235
236 6.5. Age at harvest/slaughter
237
238 The harvest or slaughter age should not be earlier than 52 days old free-range
239 broilers, and not earlier than 90 days for native chicken.
240
241 6.6. Management Practices
242
243 6.6.1. Beak trimming
244
245 The practice of beak trimming is strictly prohibited.
246
247 6.6.2. Wing clipping
248
249 Clipping of wing feather for native chicken is allowed.
250
251 6.6.3. Diet

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

252
253 Diet of the broiler, layer and native chickens should be at least 70% cereal/grains,
254 with the rest coming from forage, grasses, insects, and other supplemental feeds.
255
256 6.7. Labeling
257
258 Only chicken and chicken products coming from farms or production units
259 complying with the above stated requirements may be labeled as ‘free-range’.

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

260 Annex A. Breeds of free-range broilers, layers, and native chicken


261

262
263 Figure 1. Rhode Island hen by User:Sherool / Wikimedia Commons
264 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rhode_Island_Red.jpg -
265 Accessed 03 July 2017)/ Public Domain
266

267
268 Figure 2. Barred Plymouth Rock hens by Thomas Kriese / Wikimedia
269 Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sophia_and_

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

270 ZsuZsu_walking_the_property.jpg - Accessed 03 July 2017)/ CC-BY-2.0

271
272 Figure 3. Sussex hen by User: CaptainVindaloo / Wikimedia
273 Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=
274 File:Light_sussex_hen.jpg - Accessed 03 July 2017)/ Public Domain
275

276
277 Figure 4. Brown Leghorn rooster by Fernando de Sousa /
278 Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/
279 wiki/File:Brown_Leghorn_rooster_in_Australia.jpg -
280 Accessed 03 July 2017)/ CC-BY-SA-2.0

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

281

282
283 Figure 5. Banaba black rooster and hen (source: Bureau of Animal Industry
284 - National Swine and Poultry Research and Development Center)
285
286

287
288 Figure 6. Banaba brown rooster and hen (source: Bureau of Animal Industry
289 - National Swine and Poultry Research and Development Center)

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

290

291
292 Figure 7. Joloanon rooster and hen (source: Bureau of Animal Industry -
293 National Swine and Poultry Research and Development Center)
294

295
296 Figure 8. Paraoakan rooster and hen (source: Bureau of Animal Industry -
297 National Swine and Poultry Research and Development Center)

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

298 Annex B. Examples of Free range housing


299

300
301 Figure 9. Indoor housing (source: Dr. Erwin Joseph Cruz)
302
303

304
305 Figure 10. Indoor housing with nearby range (source: Dr. Erwin Joseph Cruz)
306

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

307

308
309 Figure 11. Mobile housing, exterior view (source: Dr. Erwin Joseph Cruz)
310
311

312
313 Figure 12. Mobile housing, interior view (source: Dr. Erwin Joseph Cruz)
314
315

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

316 Annex C. Picture of popholes


317

318
319 Figure 13. Building popholes or exit points – example 1 (source: Dr. Justin Gonzales)
320

321
322 Figure 14. Building popholes or exit points – example 2 (source: Dr. Justin Gonzales)
323
324
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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

325 Annex D. Dust bath


326

327
328 Figure 15. Dust bath (source: Dr. Erwin Joseph Cruz)
329

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

330 Annex E. Range or pasture area


331

332
333 Figure 16. Pasture area (source: Bureau of Animal Industry - National Swine
334 and Poultry Research and Development Center)
335
336

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

337
338 Figure 17. Range area with vegetation (source: Bureau of Animal Industry -
339 National Swine and Poultry Research and Development Center)
340
341

342
343 Figure 18. Range with natural cover (source: Mr. Joseph Toledo)

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

344

345
346 Figure 19. Range with natural cover (source: Dr. Erwin Joseph Cruz)
347

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

348 Annex F. Examples of grasses and forage for free-range chicken


349
350 1. Carabao grass (Paspalum renggeri Steud.)
351 Other names for carabao grass: Buffalo grass, T-grass, carabao grass, sour grass,
352 sour paspalum, cow grass

353
354 Figure 20. Carabao grass (source: Dr. Gemerlyn Garcia)
355
356 2. Pinto peanut (Arachis pintoi)
357 Other names for pinto peanut: Mani-manihan (Tagalog)

358
359 Figure 21. Pinto peanut by Mokkie/ Wikimedia Commons
360 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pinto_Peanut_(Arachis_p
361 intoi)_1.jpg - Accessed 30 June 2017)/ CC-BY-SA-3.0

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

362 3. Madre de Agua (Trichantera gigantea)

363
364 Figure 22. Trichantera gigantea by Giles Tan/AFZ / Feedipedia
365 (http://www.feedipedia.org/content/nacedero-trichanthera-gigantea - Accessed
366 30 June 2017) / CC-BY-4.0
367
368 4. Guinea grass (Panicum maximum, Megathyrsus maximus)

369
370 Figure 23. Panicum maximum by Forest & Kim Starr / Feedipedia
371 (http://www.feedipedia.org/content/guinea-grass-maui - Accessed 30 June 2017)
372 / CC-BY-3.0

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

373
374 5. Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens, Urochloa decumbens)

375
376 Figure 24. Urochloa decumbens by Harry Rose/ Flickr
377 (https://www.flickr.com/photos/macleaygrassman/7429386486 - Accessed 04
378 July 2017)/ CC-BY-2.0
379
380 6. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens)

381
382 Figure 25. Centrosema pubescens by Tau’olunga/ Wikimedia Commons
383 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Centrosema_pubescens
384 .jpg - Accessed 30 June 2017)/ CC-BY-SA-3.0/ GNU FDL

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

385
386 7. Malunggay (Moringa oleifera)

387
388 Figure 26. Malunggay by Judgefloro/ Wikimedia Commons
389 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JfMalunggay9819Mori
390 nagafvf_08.JPG&oldid=214283515 - Accessed 30 June 2017)/ CC-BY-SA-4.0
391
392 8. Azolla
393 Other names for Azolla: Mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern

394
395 Figure 27. Azolla filiculoides by Daniel J. Layton/ Wikimedia Commons
396 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Azolla_filiculoides_MU
397 N.jpg&oldid=74825250 - Accessed 30 June 2017)/ CC-BY-SA-3.0/GNU FDL

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PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS ______________
Free Range Chicken
Working Draft 3.0
For public consultation

398 REFERENCES
399
400 European Commission Regulation (EC) No. 543/2008 laying down detailed rules for the
401 application of Council Regulation (EC) no 1234/2007 as regards to the marketing
402 standards for poultrymeat.
403
404 Humane Farm Animal Care. Animal Care Standards for Chickens. August 2014.
405
406 Humane Farm Animal Care. Animal Care Standards for Egg Laying Hens. August 2014.
407
408 Soil Association Organic Standards. Farming and Growing. August 2016.
409
410 PNS/BAFS 184:2016. Code of Good Animal Husbandry Practices for Chickens – Broilers
411 and Layers. Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards. Department of
412 Agriculture. Quezon City, Philippines.
413
414 RSPCA Welfare Standards for Chickens. November 2013

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