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kinetic

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In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.[1] It

is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity.

Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed

changes. The same amount of work is done by the body when decelerating from its current speed to a

state of rest.

In classical mechanics, the kinetic energy of a non-rotating object of mass m traveling at

a speed v is . In relativistic mechanics, this is a good approximation only when v is much less than

the speed of light.

The standard unit of kinetic energy is the joule, while the imperial unit of kinetic energy is the foot-pound.

POTENTIAL ENERGY

In physics, potential energy is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to

other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.[1][2]

Common types of potential energy include the gravitational potential energy of an object that

depends on its mass and its distance from the center of mass of another object, the elastic potential

energy of an extended spring, and the electric potential energy of an electric charge in an electric field.

The unit for energy in the International System of Units (SI) is the joule, which has the symbol J.

The term potential energy was introduced by the 19th-century Scottish engineer and

physicist William Rankine,[3][4] although it has links to Greek philosopher Aristotle's concept

of potentiality. Potential energy is associated with forces that act on a body in a way that the total work

done by these forces on the body depends only on the initial and final positions of the body in space.

These forces, that are called conservative forces, can be represented at every point in space by vectors

expressed as gradients of a certain scalar function called potential.

Since the work of potential forces acting on a body that moves from a start to an end position is

determined only by these two positions, and does not depend on the trajectory of the body, there is a

function known as potential that can be evaluated at the two positions to determine this work.

ENERGY

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to

perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of

energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy

is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of

1 metre against a force of 1 newton.

Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential

energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic

energystored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant

energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature.

Mass and energy are closely related. Due to mass–energy equivalence, any object that has

mass when stationary (called rest mass) also has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is

called rest energy, and any additional energy (of any form) acquired by the object above that rest energy

will increase the object's total mass just as it increases its total energy. For example, after heating an

object, its increase in energy could be measured as a small increase in mass, with a sensitive

enough scale.

Living organisms require exergy to stay alive, such as the energy humans get from food. Human

civilization requires energy to function, which it gets from energy resources such as fossil fuels, nuclear

fuel, or renewable energy. The processes of Earth's climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant

energy Earth receives from the sun and the geothermal energy contained within the earth.

WORK

Work is the product of force and distance. In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting,

there is a movement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

For example, when a ball is held above the ground and then dropped, the work done on the ball

as it falls is equal to the weight of the ball (a force) multiplied by the distance to the ground (a

displacement). When the force is constant and the angle between the force and the displacement is θ,

then the work done is given by W = Fs cos θ.

Work transfers energy from one place to another, or one form to another.

The SI unit of work is the joule (J).

DISTANCE

Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has

covered" during its motion.

Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are. In physics or everyday

usage, distance may refer to a physical length or an estimation based on other criteria (e.g. "two counties

over"). In most cases, "distance from A to B" is interchangeable with "distance from B to A".

In mathematics, a distance function or metric is a generalization of the concept of physical distance. A

metric is a function that behaves according to a specific set of rules, and is a way of describing what it

means for elements of some space to be "close to" or "far away from" each other.

POWER

In physics, power is the rate of doing work or of transferring heat, i.e. the amount

of energy transferred or converted per unit time. Having no direction, it is a scalar quantity. In

the International System of Units, the unit of power is the joule per second (J/s), known as the watt in

honour of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the condenser steam engine. Another

common and traditional measure is horsepower (comparing to the power of a horse). Being the rate of

As a physical concept, power requires both a change in the physical system and a specified time

in which the change occurs. This is distinct from the concept of work, which is only measured in terms

of a net change in the state of the physical system. The same amount of work is done when carrying a

load up a flight of stairs whether the person carrying it walks or runs, but more power is needed for

running because the work is done in a shorter amount of time.

The output power of an electric motor is the product of the torque that the motor generates and

the angular velocity of its output shaft. The power involved in moving a ground vehicle is the product of

the traction force on the wheels and the velocity of the vehicle. The power of a jet-propelled vehicle is

the product of the engine thrust and the velocity of the vehicle. The rate at which a light bulb converts

electrical energy into light and heat is measured in watts—the higher the wattage, the more power, or

equivalently the more electrical energy is used per unit time.

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