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Biology Exam

Differences between DNA and RNA (pg. 106):


1. The sugar within DNA is deoxyribose (1 less Oxygen than RNA) and the sugar in
RNA is ribose.
2. DNA: 2 polymers of nucleotides RNA: 1 polymer
3. DNA: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine.
RNA: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil
Stages of mitosis:
From a mother cells comes two daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes
Prophase:​ Chromosomes become fat and shorter, as they coil up (supercoiling). The
nucleus breaks down and microtubules are created from Microtubule Organizing Center
(MTOC). At the end the nuclear membrane breaks down.
Metaphase:​ Microtubules grow and attach to centromeres on each chromosome. Attachment
points: opposite side of centromere. Pressure on microtube permit them to link up to the
correct, by shortening the microtubes. At the end the chromosomes are align in the middle.
Anaphase: ​The centromere divides (the pairs of sister chromatids separate) Microtubules
pull them to the poles of the cell.
Telophase: ​At the poles the chromosomes are pulled into tight group near MTOC. The
nuclear membrane begins to form again. The chromosomes uncoil and the nucleus is
formed again.

Properties of water:
As it is a polar molecule it has a solvent character because its positive charge (H)
joins the negative pole and its negative part (O) joins the positive pole of the molecule.
Cohesives: The binding together of 2 molecules of the same type. Due to the
hydrogen bridges the water molecules are binded/joined to each other.
Adhesives: Adhesion is when hydrogen bonds can form between water and other
polar molecules, causing water to stick to them.
Other info: Water is a hydrogen bond (weak IMF), not as strong as ionic. Molecules are
small, more per unit volume and more hydrogen bonds.
● High specific heat capacity: High energy is required to break hydrogen bond bonds
so the temperature is increased.
● High latent heat of vaporization: To separate the water it evaporates (latent heat of
vaporization) with a considerably high boiling point and therefore the evaporation
serves as a coolant.
● HIgh boiling point: This boiling point is determined by the amount of temperature
necessary to pass to steam the water reaches up to 100 ° C.

DNA replication:
DNA is semiconservative and depends on compleme a tentary bases. New strands
are created by adding nucleotides and linking them together. Bases can only connect with
their complementary bases, because they form hydrogen bonds. A-T and C-G

DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand, using pre-existing
strand as a template. The assembly of new strand of DNA is carried out by the enzyme DNA
polymerase. It moves along the template strand putting a nucleotide one by one. At the end
it links itself at the end (‘5 terminal) by making a covalent bond
Transcription
● The RNA polymerase (enzyme) binds to DNA at the beginning of the gene.
● RNA polymerase moves along the gene, separating the DNA into single
strands and pairing it up with RNA nucleotides.
● RNA polymerase forms covalent bonds between RNA nucleotides
● The RNA separates from the DNA and the double helix is reformed.

Translation: the amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mRNA


according to genetic code
mRNA: sequence of codons that specifies the amino acid sequence of the
polypeptide
tRNA: Molecules have an anticodon of the bases that binds to a
complementary codon on mRNA and they carry the amino acid corresponding
to that codon.
Ribosomes: act as the catalyst and binding site for mRNA and tRNA
1. mRNA binds to the ribosome
2. Molecule of tRNA with an anticodon complementary to the first codon. A maximum of
two tRNAs can be bond at the same time
3. The ribosome transfers the amino acid carried by the first tRNA (by making a new
peptide bond). The second tRNA is then carrying a chain of two amino acids-
dipeptide.
4. The ribosome moves along the mRNA so the first tRNA is released, the second
becomes first.
5. Another tRNA binds with the and anticodon complementary to the next codon on the
mRNA.
6. The ribosome transfers the chain of amino acids (carried by the first tRNA) to the
second tRNA, by making a new peptide.

Differences between ribose and deoxyribose


Deoxyribose: carbon 2 is bound to TWO HYDROGENS.
Ribose: carbon 2 is laced to a HYDROGEN AND A HYDROXIDE..
Structure of prokaryotic cell
A prokaryote is a simple (without compartments), single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus
and membrane-bound organelles.
● The plasma membrane is an outer covering that separates the cell’s interior from its
surrounding environment.
● Cytoplasm consists of the jelly-like cytosol inside the cell, plus the cellular structures
suspended in it. In eukaryotes, cytoplasm specifically means the region outside the
nucleus but inside the plasma membrane
● DNA is the genetic material of the cell.
● Ribosomes are molecular machines that synthesize proteins.
Process of Osmosis
Movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane, from lower to higher
concentration. The net movement is osmosis. Osmosis is due to differences in concentration
of substances dissolved in water (solutes).

Structure of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids


Amino Acid

Carbohydrate

structure of a nucleotide
Nucleotide Definition. A nucleotide is an organic molecule that is the building block of DNA
and RNA. ... A nucleotide is made up of three parts: a phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar,
and a nitrogenous base. The four nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine,
and thymine.
Difference between diffusion and facilitated diffusion
The simple diffusion: Net movement of particles from a region of high concentration at low
concentration until reaching equilibrium. SPreading out of particles in liquids and gases
that happens because the particles are in continuous random motion.
The facilitated diffusion is helped by the transport protein or channel. Ions and other particles
that cannot diffuse between phospholipids can pass into or out of cells if there are
channels for them through the plasma membrane. The holes are small and the walls are
proteins

Condensation reactions in formation of polypeptides


Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polypeptides. Condensation
happens on ribosomes by translation. Polypeptides are the main components to proteins
and sometimes are the only one.
Condensation involves the amine group (-NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxyl group
(-COOH) of another. Water is eliminated, as in al condensation reactions, and a new bond is
formed between the two amino acids linked by peptide bond
Lactose free milk
Lactose is the natural sugar found in milk. It can be converted into glucose and galactose.
Lactase is obtained from Kluyveromyces lactis, a type of yeast that naturally grows in milk.
Biotechnology companies culture the yeast and purify it for sale to food manufacturing
companies.
Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration:​ respiration which uses oxygen and produces relatively large amounts
of energy ​i​n cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen.
Glucose is broken down to release energy in the presence of oxygen, forming
carbon dioxide and water.
Glucose + Oxygen= Carbon Dioxide+water
ADP=ATP
Anaerobic Respiration:​ respiration ​without oxygen​ and produces relatively small amounts
of ATP, but reproduced quickly. Glucose is broken down to release energy in the absence of
oxygen.
Glucose=Lactate (animals) or glucose=ethanol (plants)
Useful for:
Short, but rapid burst of ATP
When there is a lack of oxygen in respiring cells
In environments that are deficient in oxygen, for example waterlogged soils

Enzyme denaturalization
Enzymes are a special type of protein. With the following characteristics:
● Acts as a catalyst (a substance that speeds up or accelerates the rate of
reaction)
● They are highly specific. There is a special type of enzyme for special types of
substances
● They only work @ a specific PH and temperature
Main function is to break down a substrate into more simple molecules. And because it is a
catalyst it will be done faster than regularly.
The process of enzyme activity (how does it work):
It has an active sight that will match exactly the substrate on which it will work
It is going to lower the activation energy and when the reaction is finished the result are the
product. After it produces its product it can be reused.
Example:
Amelays will break down starch into smaller molecules of glucose
Pepsin (only works in acidic environment) will break down proteins (happens in stomach)
lipase works on lipids breaking it into fatty acids

WHen the enzyme is destroyed or not working it is denaturalized


Proteins are denaturalized high temperatures

Catalyse are found in the liver to destroy alcohol (Hydrogen Peroxide)


Examples of Amino Acids
Pg 57 Graph interpretation:
Pg 29 Cell Micrograph:
A micrograph is a photo or digital image taken through a microscope to show a
magnified image of a specimen, while organelles have identifying structures, specific
shapes may vary depending on the location of cross-sections.
Prokaryotic Cell Feature:

Eukaryotic Cell Feature:


Organelles:

■ Mitochondria: Cells with many mitochondria typically undertake


energy-consuming processes (e.g. neurons, muscle cells)
■ ER: Cells with extensive ER networks undertake secretory activities (e.g.
plasma cells, exocrine gland cells)
■ Lysosomes: Cells rich in lysosomes tend to undertake digestive processes
(e.g. phagocytes)
■ Chloroplasts: Cells with chloroplasts undergo photosynthesis (e.g. plant leaf
tissue but not root tissue)

Endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cells:

● Endosymbiosis theory states that mitochondria were once free-living


prokaryotic organisms that had developed the process of aerobic cell
respiration.
● Larger prokaryotes that could only respire anaerobically took them in by
endocytosis.
● Small prokaryotes live in the cytoplasm.
● The larger and smaller prokaryotes that breathe aerobically maintain a
symbiotic relationship in which both of them benefited: known as the
mutualistic relationship.
● The endosymbiotic theory also explains the origin of chloroplast.
Although chloroplast and mitochondria are not capable of living
independently, both have features that suggest they evolved from independent
prokaryotes:
● Have their own genes in a circular molecule of DNA
● They have their own ribosomes.
● They transcribe their DNA and use the mRNA to synthesize some of their own
proteins.
● They only can be produced by the division of pre-existing mitochondria and
chloroplasts.
● The mitochondria's and the chloroplasts size is similar to the prokaryotes
size.

Stages in Interphase:
● During this phase many metabolic reactions occur: cell respiration, cell
division.
● DNA duplicates in the nucleus and protein synthesis in the cytoplasm only
happens in interphase
● The number of mitochondria increases, (in plant cells increases the # of
chloroplast)
● Has 3 phases- G1, S, and G2
G1 phase
● Cellular content, excluding the chromosomes, are duplicated (23 pairs of
chromosomes with 1 chromatid)
S phase
● DNA replication and chromosome duplication (23 pairs of chromosomes with
2 chromatids)
G2 phase
● Cell grows and prepares for mitosis, checks for errors

Concept of cyclins (Pg.56):


● Cyclins are involved in the control of the cell cycle (interphase+mitosis)
● Are a group of proteins
● It is responsible for verifying if the procedure within each phase it is done at
the precise moment. Also checks that the cell changes from one stage to
another at the right time
Four types of cyclins:
1. Cyclin D
2. Cyclin E
3. Cyclin A
4. Cyclin B
● Cyclins bind to enzymes called-Cyclin-dependent kinases
● This kinases become active and can attach phosphates groups to other
proteins inside the cell.
● This linking active the other proteins that make specific tasks in the cell cycle.
Comparing Water and Methane (Pg.71 and 79):
Methane:
➔ Is the waste product of anaerobic respiration in some prokaryotes who live in
places where there is no oxygen
➔ Can be used as fuel, but if it escapes to the atmosphere it will contribute with
the greenhouse effect
➔ The formula is CH​4
➔ Has a molecular mass of 16
Similarities with Water
● Both are linked by single covalent bonds
Differences with Water
● Water has higher: specific heat capacity (2.2 J per g per °C), latent heat of
vaporization(760 J/g), melting point (0°C) and boiling point (100°C)
● Methane has specific heat capacity-4.2 J per g per °C, latent heat of
vaporization(2 257 J/g), melting point (-182°C) and boiling point (-160°C)
Greenhouse Gases
Function of RNA polymerase and Helicase (pg 114-116-117):
Helicase unwinds and separates (by the helicase) the two strands by breaking
the hydrogen bonds. The helicase ​is made up of enzymes​ that receive the energy
from ATP. It is 6 globular polypeptides arranged in a donut shape. The helicase is
before transcription, in order for the RNA to enter.
RNA is an enzyme​ put at the start of a gene in transcription. Moves along the
gene connecting the rna to it complimentary base in DNA. Forms covalent bonds
between the covalent bond in RNA nucleotides. Separates DNA and reforms the
double helix.

Animal cells and plant cells:


Plant cells:
- Fixed rectangular shape
- Cell wall
- Plasma membrane
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Nucleus in one side of the cell
- Golgi apparatus
- Cytoplasm
- Ribosome
- Mitochondria
- large vacuole
- Nutrients: synthesize amino acids,
vitamins and coenzymes
Animal cells:
- Irregular circular shape
- No cell wall
- Plasma membrane
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Nucleus in the center of the cell
- Lysosome
- Golgi apparatus
- Cytoplasm
- Ribosome
- small vacuole
- Cilia
- Nutrients: can’t synthesize amino
acids, nutrients or coenzymes.

Eukaryotic cells:
1. Eukaryotic cells have an organized
nucleus with a nuclear envelope. They
have a "brain" for the cell. They have
a discreet area where they keep their
DNA. It is also said that they have a
"true nucleus."
2. Eukaryotic cells usually have organelles. They might have mitochondria,
maybe a chloroplast, or some endoplasmic reticulum. They have parts that
work to make the cell a self-sufficient organism.
3. eukaryotic cells can get very large
4. Eukaryotic cells have extra stuff going on and extra parts attached. Since they
have organelles and organized DNA they are able to create parts. One
example is the flagellum (a tail-like structure to help it move). They could also
create cilia (little hairs that help scoot the cell through the water).