Anda di halaman 1dari 70

CURRICULUM STANDARDS AND

COMPANION DOCUMENTS

3rd Grade - Earth Materials, Change, and


Resources

Contains:
- Science Companion Document for 3rd Grade Earth Materials... unit
- General Inquiry Questions Assessment questions
- 3rd Grade Earth Materials... Assessment questions
- 3rd Grade Science Expectations
- 3rd Grade ELA Expectations
- 3rd Grade Mathematics Expectations
- 3rd Grade Social Studies Expectations
- Grade 3-5 Technology Expectations
Introduction to the K-7 Companion Document
An Instructional Framework

Overview

The Michigan K-7 Grade Level Content Expectations for Science establish
what every student is expected to know and be able to do by the end of
Grade Seven as mandated by the legislation in the State of Michigan. The
Science Content Expectations Documents have raised the bar for our
students, teachers and educational systems.

In an effort to support these standards and help our elementary and middle
school teachers develop rigorous and relevant curricula to assist students in
mastery, the Michigan Science Leadership Academy, in collaboration with the
Michigan Mathematics and Science Center Network and the Michigan Science
Teachers Association, worked in partnership with Michigan Department of
Education to develop these companion documents. Our goal is for each
student to master the science content expectations as outlined in each grade
level of the K-7 Grade Level Content Expectations.

This instructional framework is an effort to clarify possible units within the K-


7 Science Grade Level Content Expectations. The Instructional Framework
provides descriptions of instructional activities that are appropriate for
inquiry science in the classroom and meet the instructional goals. Included
are brief descriptions of multiple activities that provide the learner with
opportunities for exploration and observation, planning and conducting
investigations, presenting findings and expanding thinking beyond the
classroom.

These companion documents are an effort to clarify and support the K-7
Science Content Expectations. Each grade level has been organized into four
teachable units- organized around the big ideas and conceptual themes in
earth, life and physical science. The document is similar in format to the
Science Assessment and Item Specifications for the 2009 National
Assessment for Education Progress (NAEP). The companion documents are
intended to provide boundaries to the content expectations. These
boundaries are presented as “notes to teachers”, not comprehensive
descriptions of the full range of science content; they do not stand alone, but
rather, work in conjunction with the content expectations. The boundaries
use seven categories of parameters:

a. Clarifications refer to the restatement of the “key idea” or specific


intent or elaboration of the content statements. They are not intended
to denote a sense of content priority. The clarifications guide
assessment.
b. Vocabulary refers to the vocabulary for use and application of the
science topics and principles that appear in the content statements
and expectations. The terms in this section along with those presented
within the standard, content statement and content expectation
comprise the assessable vocabulary.
c. Instruments, Measurements and Representations refer to the
instruments students are expected to use and the level of precision
expected to measure, classify and interpret phenomena or
measurement. This section contains assessable information.
d. Inquiry Instructional Examples presented to assist the student in
becoming engaged in the study of science through their natural
curiosity in the subject matter that is of high interest. Students explore
and begin to form ideas and try to make sense of the world around
them. Students are guided in the process of scientific inquiry through
purposeful observations, investigations and demonstrating
understanding through a variety of experiences. Students observe,
classify, predict, measure and identify and control variables while
doing “hands-on” activities.
e. Assessment Examples are presented to help clarify how the teacher
can conduct formative assessments in the classroom to assess student
progress and understanding
f. Enrichment and Intervention is instructional examples that stretch
the thinking beyond the instructional examples and provides ideas for
reinforcement of challenging concepts.
g. Examples, Observations, Phenomena are included as exemplars of
different modes of instruction appropriate to the unit in which they are
listed. These examples include reflection, a link to real world
application, and elaboration beyond the classroom. These examples
are intended for instructional guidance only and are not assessable.
h. Curricular Connections and Integrations are offered to assist the
teacher and curriculum administrator in aligning the science curriculum
with other areas of the school curriculum. Ideas are presented that will
assist the classroom instructor in making appropriate connections of
science with other aspects of the total curriculum.

This Instructional Framework is NOT a step-by-step instructional manual but


a guide developed to help teachers and curriculum developers design their
own lesson plans, select useful portions of text, and create assessments that
are aligned with the grade level science curriculum for the State of Michigan.
It is not intended to be a curriculum, but ideas and suggestions for
generating and implementing high quality K-7 instruction and inquiry
activities to assist the classroom teacher in implementing these science
content expectations in the classroom.
HSSCE Companion Document

Third Grade GLCE


Companion Document
Unit 4:
Earth Materials, Change, and
Resources

SCIENCE
• Big Ideas • Instructional Framework
• Clarifications • Enrichment
• Inquiry • Intervention
• Vocabulary • Real World Context
• Instruments • Literacy Integration
• Measurements • Mathematics Integration

v.1.09
Third Grade Companion Document
3-Unit 4: Earth Materials, Change, and Resources

Table of Contents Page 1

Curriculum Cross Reference Guide Page 2

Unit 4: Earth Materials, Change, and Resources Page 4

Big Ideas (Key Concepts) Page 4

Clarification of Content Expectations Page 4

Inquiry Process, Inquiry Analysis and Communication,


Reflection and Social Implications Page 14

Vocabulary Page 15

Instruments, Measurements, and Representations Page 16

Instructional Framework: Earth Systems Page 17

Enrichment: Earth Systems Page 20

Intervention: Earth Systems Page 20

Examples, Observations and Phenomena


(Real World Context): Earth Systems Page 21

Literacy Integration: Earth Systems Page 22

Instructional Framework: Solid Earth Page 24

Enrichment: Solid Earth Page 28

Intervention: Solid Earth Page 28

Examples, Observations, and Phenomena


(Real World Context): Solid Earth Page 29

Literacy Integration: Solid Earth Page 30

Mathematics Integration: Solid Earth Page 31

1
3rd Grade Unit 4:
Earth Materials, Change, and Resources

Content Statements and Expectations

Code Statements & Expectations Page


E.ES.E.4 Natural Resources – The supply of many natural 4
resources is limited. Humans have devised methods
for extending their use of natural resources through
recycling, reuse, and renewal.

E.ES.03.41 Identify natural resources (metals, fuels, fresh water, soil, 4


and forests).

E.ES.03.42 Classify renewable (fresh water, forests) and non-renewable 5


(fuels, metals) resources.

E.ES.03.43 Describe ways humans are protecting, extending and 5


restoring resources (recycle, reuse, reduce, renewal).

E.ES.03.44 Recognize that paper, metal, glass, and some plastics can 6
be recycled.

E.ES.E.5 Human Impact – Humans depend on their natural and 7


constructed environment. Humans change
environments in ways that are helpful or harmful for
themselves and other organisms.

E.ES.03.51 Describe ways humans are dependent on the natural 7


environment (forests, water, clean air, earth materials) and
constructed environments (homes, neighborhoods,
shopping malls, factories, and industry).

E.ES.03.52 Describe helpful or harmful effects of humans on the 8


environment (garbage, habitat destruction, land
management, renewable and non-renewable resources).

2
Code Statements & Expectations Page

E.SE.E.1 Earth Materials – Earth materials that occur in nature 9


include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of
the atmosphere. Earth materials have properties that
sustain plant and animal life.
E.SE.03.13 Recognize and describe different types of earth materials 9
(mineral, rock, clay, boulder, gravel, sand, soil).
E.SE.03.14 Recognize that rocks are made up of minerals. 10

E. SE.E.2 Surface Changes – The surface of the Earth changes. 10


Some changes are due to slow processes, such as
erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to
rapid processes, such as landslides, volcanic
eruptions, and earthquakes.
E.SE.03.22 Identify and describe natural causes of change in the 10
Earth’s surface (erosion, glaciers, volcanoes, landslides, and
earthquakes).
E.SE.E.3 Using Earth Materials – Some earth materials have 12
properties that make them useful either in their
present form or designed and modified to solve
human problems. They can enhance the quality of life
as in the case of materials used for building or fuels
used for heating and transportation.
E.SE.03.31 Identify earth materials used to construct some common 12
objects (bricks, buildings, roads, glass).

E.SE.03.32 Describe how materials taken from the Earth can be used as 12
fuels for heating and transportation.

3
3 – Unit 4: Earth Materials, Change, and Resources

Big Ideas (Key Concepts)

• The Earth has natural resources that are renewable or non-renewable.


• Humans are dependent on and affect their environments in helpful and
harmful ways.
• The Earth’s surface changes through slow processes and fast processes.
• Earth materials have useful properties and can enhance the quality of life.

Clarification of Content Expectations

Standard: Earth Systems

Content Statement – E.ES.E.4


Natural Resources – The supply of many natural resources is
limited. Humans have devised methods for extending their use
of natural resources through recycling, reuse, reduce, and
renewal.

Content Expectations

E.ES.03.41 Identify natural resources (metals, fuels, fresh water, soil, and
forests).

Instructional Clarifications
1. Identify means to recognize metals, fuels, fresh water, soil, and forests as
natural resources.
2. Natural resources are naturally occurring materials and include metals,
fuels, fresh water, soil, and forests.
3. Natural resources have different properties and help to sustain plant and
animal life.
4. People use natural resources to make or produce the things that they
need.
5. Natural resources can originate from living organisms (forests) or from
nonliving things (fuels, metals, freshwater).
Assessment Clarifications
1. Natural resources are naturally occurring materials and include metals,
fuels, fresh water, soil, and forests.
2. Natural resources come from living organisms (forests) or from nonliving
things (fuels, metals, fresh water).

4
E.ES.03.42 Classify renewable (fresh water, forests) and non-renewable
(fuels, metals) resources.

Instructional Clarifications
1. Classify means to arrange or order natural resources as renewable or
non-renewable based on the ability of the natural resource to be replaced
by nature in a reasonable amount of time.
2. Natural resources are materials or things that people use from the Earth.
3. A renewable resource is one that can be replaced in a reasonable amount
of time. It can be used again or made again by people or nature; or
never run out. Fresh water and forests are examples. Other examples
include plants and animals. Solar, wind, wave, or geothermal energies
are renewable because they are based on renewable resources.
4. A non-renewable resource is one that cannot be replaced, renewed or re-
grown by nature or people. It exists in a fixed amount in nature. Most
non-renewable resources come from the Earth; they are found in the
ground. Fuels taken from the Earth (fossil fuels) and metals are
considered non-renewable because the Earth cannot replenish them at a
rate fast enough for sustainability. They take longer than a person’s
lifespan to be replaced.
5. A common misconception is that all natural resources are renewable and
can be replaced by nature.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Classify natural resources as renewable and non-renewable based on the
ability of the resource to be replaced by nature in a reasonable amount of
time.
2. A renewable resource is one that can be replaced in a reasonable amount
of time. It can be used again or made again by people or nature; or
never run out. Water and forests are examples. Other examples include
plants and animals.
3. A non-renewable resource is one that cannot be made again by nature or
people. Most come from the ground. Fuels and metals taken from the
Earth are considered non-renewable because it takes millions of years for
the Earth to produce more.

E.ES.03.43 Describe ways humans are protecting, extending and restoring


resources (recycle, reuse, reduce, renewal).

Instructional Clarifications
1. Describe means to tell or depict in spoken or written words how humans
are protecting, extending and restoring resources.
2. Resources should be conserved and protected. This is especially true for
non-renewable resources but renewable resources can also be killed
(plants and animals) or overused (over-foresting, over-fishing the Great
Lakes).
3. Some natural resources can be recycled. Recycled is to collect and return
items or material to be manufactured into a new product. Materials that

5
are easily recycled include: glass, some plastics, paper, and aluminum,
cardboard and steel.
4. Reuse is to use an object or item again or find new uses for items instead
of throwing them away. Products that can be used again are paper bags,
plastic jugs, jars, coffee mugs, plastic containers and flatware, etc.
5. Reduce is to produce less waste by choosing to buy fewer products or
buying less wasteful products to conserve natural resources. Some
examples are turning out the lights, using less water, reusing grocery
bags, riding bikes, carpooling, using mass transportation, and considering
the packaging before purchasing a product.
6. Renewal of resources includes activities such as replanting, reforesting,
and composting.
7. A common misconception is that students cannot make a difference.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Resources should be conserved and protected. This is especially true for
non-renewable resources but renewable resources can also be killed
(plants and animals) or overused (over-foresting and over-fishing the
Great Lakes).
2. Some natural resources can be recycled. Recycled is to collect and return
items or material to be manufactured into a new product. Materials that
are easily recycled include: glass, some plastics, paper, aluminum,
cardboard and steel.
3. Reuse is to use an object or item again or find new uses for items instead
of throwing them away. Products that can be used again are paper bags,
plastic jugs, jars, coffee mugs, plastic containers and flatware, etc.
4. Reduce is to produce less waste by choosing to buy fewer products or
buying less wasteful products to conserve natural resources. Some
examples are turning out the lights, using less water, reusing grocery
bags, riding bikes, carpooling, using mass transportation, and considering
the packaging before purchasing a product.
5. Renewal of resources includes replanting, reforesting, and composting.

E.ES.03.44 Recognize that paper, metal, glass, and some plastics can be
recycled.

Instructional Clarifications
1. Recognize is to identify or perceive that some materials can be recycled.
2. Many materials that are used everyday can be recycled. This reduces the
waste of natural resources, reduces energy usage, and reduces pollution
and greenhouse gas emissions.
3. Almost all materials can be recycled but some of the most common are
paper, metal, glass, and some plastics.
4. Recycled paper is made into new paper.
5. Recycled glass is made into new glass products.
6. Recycled metal is used in sheet metal for cars, bridges and even new
cans.
7. Recycled plastic can be made into new plastic containers, clothing,
furniture, and building products.

6
8. A common misconception is that all items can be recycled.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Many materials that are used everyday can be recycled.
2. Almost all materials can be recycled but some of the most common are
paper, metal, glass, and some plastics.

Content Statement – E.ES.E.5


Human Impact – Humans depend on their natural and
constructed environment. Humans change environments in
ways that are helpful or harmful for themselves and other
organisms.

Content Expectations

E.ES.03.51 Describe ways humans are dependent on the natural


environment (forests, water, clean air, earth materials) and constructed
environments (homes, neighborhoods, shopping malls, factories, and
industry).

Instructional Clarifications
1. Describe is to tell or depict in spoken or written words how humans are
dependent on their natural and constructed environments.
2. A natural environment is the surroundings of an animal that include the
living and nonliving elements or conditions that occur in nature, such as
the air, water, plants, animals, climate, soil, rocks, and light.
3. A constructed environment is the surroundings, tools, and structures that
include items that are manufactured or built and/or used by inhabitants of
the environment, such as homes, stores, factories, neighborhoods,
vehicles, and appliances.
4. Living things needs include air, water, food, space and shelter.
5. Living things depend on their environment to help meet their needs.
6. Living things depend on their natural environment for clean air, clean
water, forests, food, and earth materials such as soil, sand, rocks and
minerals.
7. Humans depend on their constructed environments to meet their basic
needs and for shelter, work and recreation. Constructed or man-made
environments include homes, neighborhoods, shopping malls, factories
and industry.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Humans depend on their environment to help meet their needs.
2. A natural environment is the surroundings of an animal that include the
living and nonliving elements or conditions that occur in nature, such as
the air, water, plants, animals, climate, soil, rocks, and light.
3. A constructed environment is the surroundings, tools, and structures that
include items that are manufactured or built and/or used by inhabitants of
the environment, such as homes, stores, factories, neighborhoods,
vehicles, and appliances.

7
4. Humans depend on their natural environment for clean air, clean water,
food, forests, and earth materials such as soil, sand, rocks and minerals.
5. Humans depend on their constructed environments to meet their basic
needs and for shelter, work and recreation. Man-made (constructed)
environments include homes, neighborhoods, shopping malls, factories
and industry.

E.ES.03.52 Describe helpful or harmful effects of humans on the


environment (garbage, habitat destruction, land management, renewable
and non-renewable resources).

Instructional Clarifications
1. Describe means to tell or depict in spoken or written words how humans
affect the environment.
2. Changes that humans make to their environment can have helpful or
harmful effects.
3. Harmful effects include garbage, habitat destruction, resource depletion,
and pollution.
4. The average American produces approximately 1500 pounds of garbage
per year. Very little is recycled. Waste management and the 4 R’s
(reduce, reuse, recycle, renewal) are critical to resource conservation.
5. Farming, mining, logging, pollution and urban sprawl are the main causes
of habitat destruction. The main effects of habitat destruction are species
extinction and loss of a diverse community of plants and animals.
6. Helpful effects include land management and conservation of renewable
and non-renewable resources.
7. Land management is the process of managing natural resources in a
sustainable way. By improving agricultural practices, reclaiming wasted
land, protecting the environment, conserving soil, water, and air quality,
humans contribute to positive land management practices.
8. The management and conservation of renewable and non-renewable
resources are essential for sustainability. Alternative energy sources,
land management, reducing, reusing and recycling programs, and waste
management are all ways to conserve our natural resources.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Changes that humans make to their environment can have helpful or
harmful effects.
2. Harmful effects include garbage, habitat destruction, poor use of
resources, and pollution.
3. Helpful effects include land management and the management of non-
renewable and renewable resources (reduce, reuse, recycle, renew).

8
Standard: Solid Earth

Content Statement – E.SE.E.1


Earth Materials – Earth materials that occur in nature include
rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere.
Earth materials have properties that sustain plant and animal
life.

Content Expectations

E.SE.03.13 Recognize and describe different types of earth materials


(mineral, rock, clay, boulder, gravel, sand, soil).

Instructional Clarifications
1. Recognize is to identify or perceive minerals, rock, clay, boulders, gravel,
sand and soil as different types of earth materials.
2. Describe means to tell or depict in spoken or written word the properties
of different earth materials.
3. Earth materials are naturally occurring materials taken from the earth
such as minerals, rocks, clay, boulders, gravel, sand and soil.
4. The solid material of the Earth’s crust is rock.
5. Natural processes break down the Earth’s crust, which form earth
materials.
6. Most rocks are made of two or more minerals. Rocks are classified based
on how they were formed: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.
7. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances. Inorganic means
that they are made up of things that are not alive. Diamonds (carbon)
are considered to be a mineral but originate from organic materials.
Some minerals consist of only one element, but most are compounds.
They are identified based on their physical properties such as hardness,
color, and density. It is difficult for third grade students to distinguish
between rocks and minerals. They need to know that rocks are made up
of two or more minerals.
8. Rocks can be broken by weathering and breakage. Most of the Earth’s
surface is covered with broken rock materials that include boulders, sand,
gravel, silt and clay. Rocks sizes vary from boulders to gravel to soil to
sand to clay.
9. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed mostly of fine-grained
minerals. When dried or fired, it becomes hardened.
10.Soil makes up the outermost layer of the Earth’s surface. Soil is a
combination of organic materials (living and dead organisms), and
minerals/rocks of differing sizes and nutrients. The different sized
materials (sand, silt and clay) give soil texture.
11.Based on their composition, soils have different properties such as color,
texture, particle size and ability to hold water.
12.A common misconception is that rocks and minerals are the same thing.
13.A common misconception is that soil has always been in its present form.

9
14.A common misconception is that dirt and soil are different.
15.A common misconception is that soil is broken down rocks.
16.A common misconception is that sand is only made from broken down
rocks.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Earth materials are naturally occurring materials taken from the Earth
such as minerals, rocks, clay, boulders, gravel, sand and soil.
2. Rocks and minerals are solid materials that make up the Earth.
3. Most rocks are made of two or more minerals.
4. Rocks can be many different sizes such as boulders, gravel and sand.
5. Clay is a naturally occurring material. When dried or fired, it becomes
hardened and used to make bricks.
6. Soil makes up the outermost layer of the Earth’s surface. Soil is a
combination of dead plants and animals; minerals; different sized rock
materials (sand, silt, clay); and nutrients.
7. Based on their composition, soils have different properties such as color,
texture, and particle size.

E.SE.03.14 Recognize that rocks are made up of minerals.

Instructional Clarifications
1. Recognize is to identify or perceive that rocks are made of minerals.
2. Minerals are made of one or more element, neatly stacked together to
form crystals. A mineral is inorganic, is naturally occurring, has a
chemical composition, and has a crystalline structure.
3. Rocks are made of two or more minerals. Minerals give color, hardness
and sparkle to rocks.
4. A common misconception is that rocks and minerals are the same thing.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Minerals are natural solid substances found in the Earth’s crust.
2. Rocks are made of two or more minerals. Minerals give color, hardness
and sparkle to rocks.

Content Statement – E. SE.E.2


Surface Changes – The surface of the Earth changes. Some
changes are due to slow processes, such as erosion and
weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes,
such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

Content Expectation

E.SE.03.22 Identify and describe natural causes of change in the Earth’s


surface (erosion, glaciers, volcanoes, landslides, and earthquakes).

10
Instructional Clarifications
1. Identify means to recognize natural causes of change in the Earth’s
surface.
2. Describe means to tell or depict in spoken or written word the changes in
the Earth’s surface.
3. There are many changes that occur on the Earth’s surface or crust. Some
happen rapidly and some take millions of years.
4. Weathering is the breaking of rocks. Erosion is the movement of
weathered material.
5. Erosion is the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by wind, water, ice, or
other geologic processes. Water is the most powerful agent of erosion,
which is the movement of weathered rocks and soil. Erosion is
sometimes a slow process that is difficult to see because it happens over
thousands of years (Grand Canyon). Erosion may also be seen as a rapid
process as when rainwater runs down a slope.
6. Glaciers are moving masses of ice and snow that change the land. When
glaciers move they carry trees, soil, rock along causing erosion. When
glaciers melt, they leave behind soil and rock. Glaciers are an example of
a slow process. The State of Michigan is an excellent example of glacial
movement.
7. A volcano is an opening in the Earth’s surface through which lava and
other materials (rock fragments, gases, ash) erupt. Volcanoes are
associated with the movement of tectonic plates. As plates move and
make contact, magma (melted rock) forms, rises to the surface and
erupts through weak areas in the Earth’s surface. Magma that has
reached the Earth’s surface is called lava. Volcanic ash is full of nutrients
and enriches the soil. Volcanoes are an example of a rapid process.
8. Landslides are the movement of a mass of rock, soil or debris down a
slope. It can start with an earthquake, volcano, rainfall, or a man-made
activity. Landslides are an example of a rapid process.
9. Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural events. Earthquakes
occur when two tectonic plates slip and release the tension or energy
between them. Scientists believe that there are certain areas on Earth
that are more likely to experience earthquakes but they can happen
anywhere. Earthquakes cause the Earth’s surface to tremble and shake,
which causes a little or a lot of destruction. It is a very rapid process.
10. A common misconception is that mountains are created rapidly.
11. A common misconception is that glaciers do not move.
12. A common misconception is that volcanoes do not help the Earth.
Assessment Clarifications
1. There are many changes that occur on the Earth’s surface or crust. Some
happen rapidly and some take millions of years.
2. Erosion is the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by wind, water, ice. It
is also the movement of weathered rocks and soil. Erosion is a slow
process (Grand Canyon).
3. Glaciers are moving masses of ice and snow that change the land. The
changes made by glaciers are a slow process.

11
4. A volcano is an opening in the Earth’s surface through which lava and
other materials erupt. This process happens quickly.
5. Landslides are the movement of a large amount of rock, soil and other
materials down a slope. It can start with an earthquake, volcano, rainfall,
or a man-made activity. Landslides are an example of a rapid process.
6. Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural events. Earthquakes
cause the Earth’s surface to tremble and shake, which causes a lot of
destruction. It is a very rapid process.

Content Statement – E.SE.E.3

Using Earth materials– Some earth materials have properties


that make them useful either in their present form or designed
and modified to solve human problems. They can enhance the
quality of life as in the case of materials used for building or
fuels used for heating and transportation.

Content Expectations

E.SE.03.31 Identify earth materials used to construct some common objects


(bricks, buildings, roads, glass).

Instructional Clarifications
1. Identify means to recognize the earth materials used to construct some
common objects.
2. Earth materials are naturally occurring materials taken from the Earth’s
crust.
3. Some earth materials have properties that make them useful in building
or construction.
4. Bricks are made from a variety of earth materials including clay and rock
(shale).
5. Earth materials (rock and sand) are used in building construction.
6. Sand, rock (limestone) and petroleum are used in road construction
(concrete and asphalt).
7. Sand and limestone are used to make glass and glass products.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Bricks are made from a variety of earth materials including clay and rock.
2. Earth materials such as rock and sand are used in building construction.
3. Sand and rock are used in road constructions (concrete and asphalt).
4. Sand is used to make glass and glass products.

E.SE.03.32 Describe how materials taken from the Earth can be used as
fuels for heating and transportation.

Instructional Clarifications
1. Describe means to tell or depict in spoken or written word how materials
taken from the Earth are used as fuels for heating and transportation.

12
2. A fuel is any material that can burn.
3. Fossil fuels or fuels taken from the Earth include crude oil, natural gas
and coal. A fossil fuel contains the remnants of plants and animals, forms
over millions of years, and can be burned to release energy.
4. Oil is formed within the Earth’s crust from the remains of organisms that
lived millions of years ago. It is contained in porous, sedimentary rock
along with water and natural gas. Machines must drill down through the
rock to reach the oil.
5. Crude oil can be separated and processed into different fuels at refineries
for automobiles, airplanes, heating homes, and construction.
6. Coal is a fossil fuel that was formed millions of years ago. As plants in
swampy areas died, they formed peat. The peat became buried under
the Earth’s surface and through heat and pressure it changed into coal.
Coal is used to produce electricity and as a heating fuel for homes.
7. Natural gas is a mixture of flammable gases, mostly methane and ethane.
Natural gas usually occurs beneath the surface of the Earth in the same
area as petroleum (oil). Natural gas is processed to make it more useful
as a fuel for heating or generating electricity.
8. The movement toward alternative fuels is increasing because of concern
about what to use for energy when there are no longer any fossil fuels or
they are too expensive.
9. A common misconception is that humans will never run out of natural
fuels.
10. A common misconception is that fuels are manufactured.
Assessment Clarifications
1. Fuels taken from the Earth include oil, natural gas and coal.
2. The different fuels are used for transportation (automobiles, trains,
airplanes), heating and cooling buildings, and construction.

13
Inquiry Process, Inquiry Analysis and Communication,
Reflection and Social Implications

Inquiry Process
S.IP.03.11 Make purposeful observations of earth materials to describe
them in terms of color, particle, size, texture, and ability to hold water.
S.IP.03.11 Make purposeful observations of rocks and minerals to
determine that rocks are made up of minerals.
S.IP.03.12 Generate questions based on observations of earth materials.
S.IP.03.13 Plan and conduct simple and fair investigations to determine the
ability of earth materials to hold water.
S.IP.03.14 Manipulate simple tools that aid observation and data collection
(hand lens, balance, scale, graduated cylinder, stop watch/timer).
S.IP.03.15 Make accurate measurements with appropriate units (grams,
centimeters, milliliters, minutes, seconds) for the measuring tool.
S.IP.03.16 Construct simple charts and graphs from data and observations
generated in Earth material investigation.
Inquiry Analysis and Communication
S.IA.03.11 Summarize information from charts and graphs to determine the
ability of a variety of earth materials to hold water.
S.IA.03.12 Share ideas about earth materials through purposeful
conversation in collaborative groups.
S.IA.03.13 Communicate and present findings of observations and
investigations into earth materials.
S.IA.03.14 Develop research strategies and skills for information gathering
to find out about a variety of earth materials that are used to construct
common items and used as fuels for heating and transportation.
S.IA.03.15 Compare and contrast sets of data from multiple trials of the
earth material investigation to explain reasons for differences.
Reflection and Social Implications
S.RS.03.11 Use data/samples as evidence to separate fact from opinion
regarding the ability of different earth materials to hold water.
S.RS.03.12 Use evidence when communicating findings from earth material
investigations.
S.RS.03.13 Demonstrate how earth materials are used to construct some
common objects and are taken from the Earth as fuels for heating and
transportation though illustrations and models.
S.RS.03.14 Identify technology used to find and remove earth materials to
be used for building and fuel.
S.RS.03.16 Describe the effect humans have on the balance of the natural
world through the used of earth materials.

14
Vocabulary

Critically Important – State Assessable Instructionally Useful


boulder habitat
Earth materials pollution
rock rock cycle
clay fossil fuels
sand sustainability
gravel farmland
soil solid rock
soil texture Earth materials’ ability to hold water
soil color crude oil
water natural gas
wind coal
ice nutrients
helpful change particle size
changes in the Earth’s surface
harmful change
earthquake
erosion
landslide
glacier
metal
mineral
oil
recycle
reduce
reuse
renewal
rock breakage
volcanic eruptions
weathered rock
weathering
natural resources
renewable resources
non-renewable resources
metals
fuels
freshwater
forests
natural environment
constructed environment
garbage
habitat destruction
land management
crude oil
natural gas
coal

15
Instruments, Measurements, Representations

Measurement Instruments Representation


weight scale ounces, pounds
mass* balance grams
time stop watch, timer, clock seconds, minutes, hours
with a second hand
volume graduated cylinder milliliters
Observation Tools:
hand lens

Representations in Charts, Tables, and Graphs


With teacher assistance, third grade students label and enter information into
a data table that represents multiple trials. Third grade students use the
median number for graphing.
With teacher direction, and the use of information from a data table,
students construct a simple bar graph that includes appropriate labels (clear
title, axis labels, unit labels, scales or standard interval counting beginning at
zero).
Third grade students are expected to read and interpret both horizontal and
vertical bar graphs.
*To be instructed in fourth grade.

16
Instructional Framework

The following Instructional Framework is an effort to clarify possible units


within the K-7 Science Grade Level Content Expectations. The Instructional
Framework provides descriptions of instructional activities that are
appropriate for inquiry science in the classroom and meet instructional goals.
Included are brief descriptions of multiple activities that provide the learner
with opportunities for exploration and observation, planning and conducting
investigations, presenting findings, and expanding thinking beyond the
classroom. The Instructional Framework is NOT a step-by-step instructional
manual, but a guide intended to help teachers and curriculum developers
design their own lesson plans, select useful and appropriate resources and
create assessments that are aligned with the grade level science curriculum
for the State of Michigan.

Instructional Examples

Earth Systems
Natural Resources: E.ES.03.41, E.ES.03.42, E.ES.03.43, E.ES.03.44
Human Impact: E.ES.03.51, E.ES.03.52

Objectives

• Understand that the Earth’s natural resources are renewable and non-
renewable.
• Describe how humans can protect, extend and restore natural resources
through recycling and renewal programs, by reusing materials and
reducing the amount of resources used.
• Relate how humans are dependent on and affect their natural and
constructed environments.

Engage and Explore

• Invite students to look around and identify different materials they see in
the classroom. Create a list on the board that includes items such as
wood, metal, paper, glass, cotton, wool, cloth, leather, plastic, rubber, etc.
Working in small groups, challenge students to classify the materials into
two groups: items found in nature or man-made (manufactured). Create
a class list for future use. (S.IA.03.12)
• Within collaborative groups, students review the lists of previously
classified objects: Items Found in Nature or Man-made or Manufactured.
Based on their discussions, students modify the list.
• Have students research the man-made products to discover that man-
made materials are made from natural materials on Earth (plastics from
petroleum, glass from sand, and ceramics from minerals).

17
• Introduce students to the term natural resource to describe materials from
the Earth that are useful to people. After students identify the earth
material or natural resource found in each of the classroom items,
challenge them to classify the natural resources into items that are
renewable and non-renewable. Which items can be grown again or
replaced by nature? Which items cannot be replaced or take many years
to replace? Are there natural resources missing from the lists?
• In groups, students research renewable and non-renewable resources and
organize findings into a chart or other graphic organizer to share with the
class. (E.ES.03.41, E.ES.03.42, S.IA.03.12, S.IA.03.13)

Explain and Define

• Groups share their charts/graphic organizers of renewable and non-


renewable resources with the class. (E.ES.03.42, S.IA.03.11, S.IA.03.12)
• Create a class definition of the terms natural resource, earth material,
renewable resource, non-renewable resource. (E.ES.03.41, E.ES.03.42)

Elaborate and Apply

• Extend student understanding of renewable and non-renewable resources


by exploring how humans protect, extend, and restore natural resources
within the school, homes, and the community. Students create a survey
on practices to protect, extend and restore natural resources to be
completed as a class, within the school, at home. (E.ES.03.43,
S.IS.03.14)
• Pull out clean, discarded objects (paper, cardboard, milk containers,
plastic containers and bags, etc.) from a trash bag to sort into recyclable,
reusable, renewable or reducible categories. (E.ES.03.43, E.ES.03.44)
• Elaborate on student understanding by engaging them in activities such as
building a mini-landfill, creating a classroom recycling program, creating
art from junk, etc. (E.ES.03.43)
• Challenge students to reduce, reuse and recycle in the classroom (using
half sheets of paper, using wooden rather than plastic pencils, using
reusable lunch bags and drink containers [no plastic bottles], using paper
rather than Styrofoam plates in the cafeteria, etc.) and keep a classroom
record of ideas, activities, and solutions to share with other classrooms.
(E.ES.03.43, E.ES.03.44, S.IA.03.12)
• Divide students into four groups. Provide each group with a topic: forests,
clean water, clean air, and earth materials. Research human dependence
on the natural environment and resources. Develop a game, chart, or
other performance to share findings. (E.ES.03.51, S.IA.03.13)
• Elaborate further by defining the term, constructed environment. Create a
list of constructed environments (homes, neighborhoods, shopping malls,
factories, and industry). Divide the class into groups to explore human
dependence on constructed environments. In groups, create a chart that
describes the natural resources (renewable and non-renewable) used in a
constructed environment and how human (animal, plant) needs are met

18
within each environment. Students create an imaginary environment
designed to meet all human needs, i.e., build a house, create a town, draw
a factory, etc. (E.ES.03.51, S.IA.03.12)

Evaluate Student Understanding

Formative Assessment Examples


• Classify lists of classroom items into two groups: items found in nature
and man-made items. (E.ES.03.41)
• Classify and graphically organize natural resources into renewable and
non-renewable. (E.ES.03.42)
• Create and conduct surveys of individual, class, school, and home
activities to protect, extend, and restore natural resources. Use the
information to make suggestions and recommendations for more
responsible practices. (E.ES.03.43)
• Develop a program to reduce, reuse, and recycle natural resources in the
classroom. (E.ES.03.44)
• Develop a game or chart that depicts human dependence on the natural
environment. (E.ES.03.51)
Summative Assessment Examples
• Define and illustrate the terms natural resource, renewable resource, non-
renewable resource, recycle, reuse, reduce, renewal, habitat destruction,
land management. (E.ES.03.41, E.ES.03.43, E.ES.03.52)
• In a paper grocery bag, each student collects his/her individual “clean”
trash for a specified number of days. Students examine the trash and
divide it into categories: reduce, reuse, recycle, renew, other. Students
identify and graphically display ways to reduce the amount of trash
produced and improve their impact on the environment. (E.ES.03.43)
• Design a doghouse that uses all renewable materials. (E.ES.03.42)
• Using the topics: land management, clean air, clean water, garbage,
renewable resources, non-renewable resources create a conservation law
that protects, extends or restores resources. (E.ES.03.41, E.ES.03.42,
E.ES.03.43, E.ES.03.44, E.ES.03.52, E.ES.03.53)

19
Enrichment

• Write letters to the principal, city manager, or mayor explaining the


importance of improving the current recycling program.
• Create books to teach younger students about protecting, extending and
restoring natural resources.
• Create issue/solution cards. Place a title on 3x5 cards with helpful or
harmful effects of humans on the environment (garbage, waste
management, habitat destruction, land management, renewable
resources, non-renewable resources, etc.). Give each student a card. On
the cards, students describe ways they are individually directly or
indirectly involved in the topic. On the reverse, students describe
solutions or ways that they can enhance or improve their relationship with
the environment. As a class, students create class lists/charts defining the
positive and negative effects humans have on the environment with
solutions/improvements for each.

Intervention

• Conduct a home study project regarding ways to reduce energy use and
the use of natural resources.
• Identify and draw a diagram of natural resources found and used in the
classroom. For each natural resource, identify one way to reduce its use.
• Read books such as The Three R’s: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle by Nuria Roca
and Rosa Curto, 2007, and discuss ways that an individual can make a
difference.
• Take a field trip to a recycling center.

20
Examples, Observations, and Phenomena (Real World Contexts)

This unit lends itself to real world contexts because of the importance of
conserving, appreciating, and protecting our natural resources. Energy
conservation is in the media on a daily basis. Newspaper and magazine
articles regarding positive and negative conservation practices are real world
sources for what is happening to the natural resources and climate on Earth.

Classification and measurement are everyday skills. Classification of earth


materials as natural and man-made; renewable and non-renewable;
recyclable and non-recyclable is useful classification for environmental
awareness. As students explore earth materials they are discovering the
importance of conserving natural resources at home, at school, in the
community and globally. They examine their personal practices of recycling,
reusing, and reducing natural resources in the paper they use, water
consumption, energy use, recycling, avoiding the use of plastics, and reusing
products. Students discover that natural resources are contained in all
products: clothing, bicycles, toys, computers, games, sporting equipment,
etc.

21
Literacy Integration

Reading

R.CM.03.01 connect personal knowledge, experiences, and understanding of


the world to themes and perspectives in text through oral and written
responses.

R.CM.03.04 apply significant knowledge from grade-level science, social


studies, and mathematics texts.

Examples of trade books available for learning about natural resources:

How the Earth Works by Michelle O’Brien Palmer, 2002


Planet Earth/Inside Out by Gail Gibbons, 1998
50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Save the Earth by The Earthworks Group,
1990
Don’t Know Much About Planet Earth by Kenneth Davis and Tom Bloom, 2001
The Three R’s: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle by Nuria Roca and Rosa Curto, 2007

Writing

W.GN.03.03 Write an informational piece including a report that


demonstrates the understanding of central ideas and supporting details using
an effective organizational pattern (i.e., compare/contrast, cause/effect,
problem/solution) with a title, heading, subheading, and a table of contents.

• Write an informational piece that demonstrates understanding of natural


resources with supporting details comparing and contrasting renewable
and non-renewable resources.

W.GN.03.04 use the writing process to produce and present a research


project, initiate research questions from content area text from a teacher-
selected topic; and use a variety of resources to gather and organize
information.

Speaking

S.CN.03.03 speak effectively emphasizing key words and varied pace for
effect in narrative and informational presentations.

S.DS.03.04 plan and deliver presentations using an effective information


organizational pattern (e.g., descriptive, problem/solution, cause/effect);
supportive facts and details reflecting a variety of resources; and varying the
pace for effect.

22
Listening

L.CN.03.01 ask substantive questions of the speaker that will provide


additional elaboration and details.

23
Instructional Framework

Instructional Examples

Solid Earth
Earth Materials: E.SE.03.13, E.SE.03.14
Surface Changes: E.SE.03.22
Using Earth Materials: E.SE.03.31, E.SE.03.32

Objectives

• The surface of the Earth changes through slow and rapid processes.
• Earth materials have properties that make them useful.
• Earth materials are used in common objects and for fuels in
heating/cooling and transportation.

Engage and Explore

• Engage students in an outdoor Earth exploration. Give each student a


clipboard and a reusable container to collect observations and examples of
earth materials observed and found on the playground. This should be an
“unguided” activity in which students share ideas among themselves
rather than receiving direction from the teacher. Students draw and
describe findings and locations of earth materials on the playground.
Students collect small samples of earth materials such as soil, pebbles,
sand, rocks, etc. (no plants or animals). (E.SE.03.13, S.IA.03.12)
• Working in small, collaborative groups, students sort the earth materials
(rocks, sand, soil, clay, pebbles, etc.) into student-selected groups. As
students observe the materials, encourage them to write questions or
ideas to explore during the unit. (E.SE.03.13, S.IP.03.11, S.IP.03.12)

Note: The teacher should supplement the earth materials students found on
the playground so that each student group has an adequate sample of
minerals, rocks, clay, gravel, sand, and soil.

• Using a hand lens, scale or balance, and ruler, students explore and record
observations of the different earth materials found on the playground or
provided by the teacher. Within groups, then as a class, determine
categories or classifications for each earth material. Student observations
should be recorded in drawings and written descriptions. Create a chart to
record findings. (E.SE.03.13, E.SE.03.14, S.IP.03.11, S.IP.03.14,
S.IP.03.15, S.IP.03.16, S.IA.03.12)

24
EARTH MATERIALS
Minerals Rocks Pebbles Sand Soil Clay Drawing
Color

Texture

Particle
Size

Ability to
hold
water

• Give each student a rock. Using a hand lens, examine each rock carefully.
Compare with other rocks within their group. What are the similarities and
differences? Within their group, discuss properties and add to the Earth
Materials chart. Put the rocks in water. Observe changes in color.
Discuss the color of the rocks (One color? More than one color?) And
texture (smooth, rough, grainy). (E.SE.03.13, E.SE.03.14, S.IP.03.14)
• Give each student a sample of a mineral. Using a similar format as their
rock discovery, students will describe the color and texture of their
minerals. (E.SE.03.14)
• Within groups, students will describe the similarities and differences
between the rocks and minerals. Conclude that minerals appear to have
one color and texture while rocks appear to be made from different colors
and textures. Groups of students will develop a definition of rocks and
minerals. (E.SE.03.13, E.SE.03.14, S.IP.03.14)
• Give students samples of pebbles, clay, soil, and sand. Using a hand lens,
encourage students to make observations of color, texture and particle
size of each sample and record findings on their chart. Place drops of
water on each sample and observe. Place a small amount of each sample
on the surface of a glass of water and observe the interaction of the Earth
material and the water. Record findings on their charts or in a student
journal. In groups, describe the similarities and differences of each.
(E.SE.03.13, E.SE.03.14, S.IP.03.11, S.IP.03.16)
• Explore the ability of earth materials to hold water by conducting a simple
investigation. While working in collaborative groups, challenge students to
find out: Are all earth materials able to hold the same amount of water?
Students design and conduct a simple and fair investigation. Using hand
lenses, balances, scales, graduated cylinders, and timers; students make
accurate measurements of the weight and volume of water before and
after it is filtered through the various earth materials. They collect and
summarize their data and observations on simple bar graphs or charts.
(E.SE.03.13, S.IP.03.11, S.IP.03.12, S.IP.03.13, S.IP.03.14, S.IP.03.15,
S.IA.03.11, S.IA.03.12, S.RS.03.11)

25
• In collaborative groups, students share evidence from their charts, graphs
and communicate findings regarding the ability of various earth materials
to hold water. (S.IA.03.13, S.IA.03.15, S.RS.03.11, S.RS.03.12)

Explain and Define

• Students communicate and present their findings to complete the Earth


Materials chart. (E.SE.03.13, S.IA.03.11, S.IA.03.15, S.RS.03.12)
• Classroom definitions based on color, texture, particle size, and ability to
hold water will be developed for minerals, rocks, boulders, pebbles, sand,
and soil. (E.SE.03.13)

Elaborate and Apply

• Elaborate on earth materials by challenging students to identify and


demonstrate how they are used in common objects and purposes.
Through research and interviews, students explore and discover the use of
earth materials in construction, road building, fuels, heating, and
transportation. As students gather ideas and information from research,
discussions, and interviews, they complete a flip chart, step book or other
graphic organizer to display information that includes 1. Purpose 2. Earth
Material 3. Source 4. Renewable? Non-Renewable. (E.SE.03.31,
S.IA.03.14)
• Challenge the students with the question: Have the Earth and earth
materials stayed the same throughout our history? Using maps and
globes, students collaborate to identify processes that cause changes in
the Earth’s surface. Students explore erosion as a slow change and
glaciers, volcanoes, landslides and earthquakes as rapid changes.
Students create a graphic organizer to record information and findings
from research. (E.SE.03.22)
• Demonstrate the effects of erosion by pouring or sprinkling water on a
sandy slope and a grass slope. Using a fan to blow air across the slopes
demonstrates wind erosion. Record observations in a graphic organizer.
(E.SE.03.22)
• Create a glacier using a scoop of ice cream, waxed paper and chocolate
sandwich cookies. Allow the ice cream to move across a piece of waxed
paper lined with crushed chocolate sandwich cookies. Discuss the effect of
the movement of the glacier. What happened to the ice cream, waxed
paper, and cookie? How is this similar to and different than a real glacier?
(E.SE.03.22)
• Visit the FEMA for Kids website to learn about volcanoes. (Note: The
baking soda and vinegar activity is a poor model of a volcano.)
(E.SE.03.22)
• Landslides can be modeled using the earth materials. (E.SE.03.22)
• Students explore earthquakes by pushing hands together. Slowly begin to
slide one hand across the other. The burst of energy when the two hands
separate is an example of the energy burst in earthquakes. Students can
research recent earthquakes. (E.SE.03.22)

26
• Recall the classroom earth materials search that was used to engage the
students at the beginning of the unit. Review the earth materials that
students identified in the classroom. Conduct an earth materials search
outside the school building. As students walk around the school building,
they record materials used in construction. Divide students into groups to
investigate the composition of construction materials. Create a class chart
of earth materials used in construction. (E.SE.03.31)
• Provide newspaper articles, magazine ads, or commercial clips to
demonstrate the current trends in fuel costs and availability. Students
share ideas related to fuels. Where do fuels come from? What is a fossil
fuel? How do they get into our homes? The gas station? Do we all use
the same kinds of fuels? What is alternative energy? How can we use
alternative energy at home? At school? (E.SE.03.32)
• Students select a fuel to investigate and create a display, illustration or
model to share information on the source, method to extract fuel from the
Earth, impact on environment, alternative solutions, and the importance of
conserving earth materials. (E.SE.03.32, E.SE.03.13, E.SE.03.14)

Evaluate Student Understanding

Formative Assessment Examples


• Create a chart of earth materials’ observations. (E.SE.03.13)
• Summarize findings from an earth materials investigation on charts and
graphs. (E.SE.03.13, E.SE.03.14)
• Create a flipbook to record research findings on earth materials used in
common objects and purposes. (E.SE.03.31, E.SE.03.32)
• Write thank you letters to companies for their green practices and
products. (E.SE.03.31)
• Share information from research on fuels and alternative energy sources.
(E.SE.03.32)
Summative Assessment Examples
• Create a poster, demonstration, book or other product that explores a
boulder as it breaks down and turns into soil. (E.SE.03.13, E.SE.03.14)
• Create a display that illustrates the slow and rapid changes in the Earth’s
surface. (E.SE.03.22)
• Design a green building using renewable earth materials in the
construction and alternative fuels for heating and cooling. (E.SE.03.31,
E.SE.03.32)

27
Enrichment

• Investigate the growth of seeds in soil, clay, and sand. Create a potting
soil based on findings.
• Assign groups of students to research construction materials (glass,
lumber, bricks, asphalt, concrete, etc) and associated
manufacturers/companies. Investigate current “green” practices that
companies use to protect, extend and restore resources. Write thank you
letters to the companies, thanking them for their efforts to protect the
environment.
• Divide students into groups to investigate fuels used for transportation
(gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, other) and fuels used for heating/cooling
(natural gas, propane, oil, coal, other). Students investigate the source,
the projected supply, and the environmental impact. What will make the
demand for fossil fuels greater in the future? What could change the
projections?
• Investigate alternate energy sources. Design a mode of transportation
that uses an alternative energy source and renewable resources in its
construction.
• Investigate geothermal energy as an alternate for fuels for heating and
cooling. How does geothermal energy relate to volcanoes and other earth
processes?

Intervention

• Collect various earth materials from the schoolyard and backyard. Identify
the material. Investigate how the materials can be used in common
objects.
• Create a rock, mineral, or earth material collection. Encourage students to
collect samples while on vacation or while visiting other locations.
Discover the similarities and differences of the collected samples.
• Investigate different kinds of sand from various beaches. Use a
magnifying lens to observe the similarities and differences. Explore the
samples with a magnet (students may find magnetite or micro-
meteorites). Discuss findings.
• Investigate different soils from areas in the schoolyard or ask students to
bring samples from home. Discuss reasons for the similarities and
differences. Using a magnifying lens, divide soil into its various
components.
• As a class, design and conduct an investigation that explores a student-
developed question on earth materials.
• Read selected informational texts on topics such as natural resources,
Earth’s surface changes, protecting Earth resources.
• Invite a construction engineer or builder to speak to the students about
building homes and the materials used in construction. Emphasize natural
resources, green building practices, and alternative energy sources.

28
Examples, Observations and Phenomena (Real World Contexts)

This unit lends itself to real world contexts because of the importance of
conserving, appreciating, and protecting our natural resources. The real
world application is evident in the media with reference to shortages of
resources, pollution, forest fires, habitat destruction, climate change, and
extinction of organisms.

Classification and measurement are everyday skills. Students classify and


examine materials to identify properties. As students explore earth materials
they are discovering the importance of earth materials in common objects.
As they discover that natural resources are used in all products, their
appreciation of conserving natural resources at home, at school, in the
community and globally is reinforced.

Rock and mineral collections are high interest for young learners. The study
of the make-up of rocks and minerals and how they are formed and found
sparks an interest in the make-up of the surface of the Earth. Students are
familiar with the clearing of land for building of homes, shops, malls, etc., yet
may not be aware of the earth materials that are removed and discarded to
make way for the development of properties. Changes in the surface of the
Earth are not all due to natural occurrences. Many are due to activities of
humans.

The news media and magazines are excellent sources of information


regarding recent occurrences of earth changes. Volcanoes, earthquakes,
landslides are evidence that the Earth is dynamic. Erosion and other Earth
changes are apparent as students travel across the country and within their
own towns. Large examples include the Rocky Mountains, Grand Canyon,
Appalachian Mountains, Niagara Falls, Sedona, Arizona, the Bad Lands, etc.
Local examples of earth changes include river valleys, moraines, hills,
valleys, etc.

Students discover the importance of alternate fuels (wind, solar, biofuel


energy) as they investigate the non-renewable energy sources currently used
for transportation (oil, natural gas, coal). The current energy crisis is
evidence of the need for alternate energy.

29
Literacy Integration

Reading

R.CM.03.01 connect personal knowledge, experiences, and understanding of


the world to themes and perspectives in text through oral and written
responses.

R.CM.03.04 apply significant knowledge from grade-level science, social


studies, and mathematics texts.

Examples of trade books available for learning about natural resources:

How the Earth Works by Michelle O’Brien Palmer, 2002


Planet Earth/Inside Out by Gail Gibbons, 1998
Don’t Know Much About Planet Earth by Kenneth Davis and Tom Bloom, 2001

Writing

W.GN.03.03 write an informational piece including a report that


demonstrates the understanding of central ideas and supporting details using
an effective organizational pattern (i.e., compare/contrast, cause/effect,
problem/solution) with a title, heading, subheading, and a table of contents.

• Write an informational piece that demonstrates understanding of natural


resources with supporting details comparing and contrasting renewable
and non-renewable resources.

W.GN.03.04 use the writing process to produce and present a research


project; initiate research questions from content area text from a teacher-
selected topic; and use a variety of resources to gather and organize
information.

• Use the writing process to prepare and present information on the ability
of earth materials to hold water, beginning with a research question and
using a variety of resources including evidence from investigations to
organize information.

Speaking

S.CN.03.03 speak effectively emphasizing key words and varied pace for
effect in narrative and informational presentations.

S.DS.03.04 plan and deliver presentations using an effective information


organizational pattern (e.g., descriptive, problem/solution, cause/effect);
supportive facts and details reflecting a variety of resources; and varying the
pace for effect.

30
Listening

L.CN.03.01 ask substantive questions of the speaker that will provide


additional elaboration and details.

Mathematics Integration

Measurement

M.UN.03.01 Know and use common units of measurements in length,


weight and time.

M.UN.03.02 Measure in mixed units within the same measurement system


for length, weight, and time: feet and inches, meters and centimeters,
kilograms and grams, pounds and ounces, liters and milliliters, hours and
minutes, minutes and seconds, years and months.

• Know and use common units of measurement in weight and volume when
conducting simple investigations.
• Measure in mixed units with the same measurement system in weight
(kilograms, grams) or volume (liters, milliliters).

Data and Probability

D.RE.03.01 Read and interpret bar graphs in both horizontal and vertical
forms.

D.RE.03.02 Read scales on the axis and identify the maximum, minimum
and range of values in a bar graph.

D.RE.03.03 Solve problems using information in bar graphs, including


comparison of bar graphs.

• Create, read and interpret bar graphs in both vertical and horizontal forms
when recording data from an investigation.
• Create and read scales and axis and identify the maximum, minimum, and
range of values on a bar graph.
• Solve problems and interpret evidence, using information in bar graphs,
including comparison of bar graphs.

31
Science Grade 3: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version

Directions: For each of the following questions, decide which of the choices is best and fill in the corresponding
space on the answer document.

1. Bev thinks that heavy objects will sink and light 3. Ms. Wong’s class was discussing whether it was
objects will float. What would be the BEST way to better for the environment to use paper or
find out if this is true? styrofoam cups in fast food restaurants. Which of
A. Gather many heavy objects and many light the properties below would be MOST important
objects. Place each one in a tub of water and to consider in choosing a material that would be
see if it floats or sinks. better for the environment?
A. whether it will decay when disposed of
B. Find one heavy object and one light object
and whether it is made from a renewable
and test them by placing them in a tub of
resource
water.
B. whether it is light and whether it will burn
C. Find one heavy object and one light object
easily
and test them by placing them in a tub of
hot water. C. whether it will decay when disposed of and
whether it will burn easily
D. Find an object that sinks in a tub of water
and see if it is heavy or light. D. whether it is made from a renewable
ItemID kmorgan.1964
resource and whether it is light
Correct A ItemID kmorgan.1966
Standard(s) SCI.3.S.IP.03.13 ( 3 ) Correct A
Standard(s) SCI.3.S.IP.03.12 ( 3 )

2. The class noticed the squirrels and other small


animals gathering nuts, seeds and plant fruits. 4. The diagram shows an apple being weighed on a
Why were the animals gathering food? balance. How much does the apple weigh?
A. They were lost.
B. They needed the stored food to survive
A. 171 grams
through the winter.
B. 180 grams
C. They needed to be protected from enemies.
C. 126 grams
D. They were getting ready to sleep through
the winter. D. 76 grams
ItemID kmorgan.1965 ItemID kmorgan.1967
Correct B Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.3.S.IP.03.13 ( 3 ) Standard(s) SCI.3.S.IP.03.14 ( 3 ), SCI.3.S.IP.03.15 ( 3 )

Go on to the next page »

DataDirector Exam ID: 430 Page 1 of 2 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
 

 
Science Grade 3: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version

5. It is a cloudy January evening in Michigan. As you


look out your window, you notice that it is raining
and the ground is wet. A thermometer outdoors
reads 4°C. When you wake up the next morning,
you notice that the ground is covered with snow.
The temperature outside is now -3°C.
After observing the changes that happened during
the night, what question would you ask to help you
understand what had happened?
A. Is this the winter or summer season?
B. What was the temperature before and after
it snowed?
C. How high were the clouds in the sky before
the snow started?
D. Was there also fog in the morning?
ItemID kmorgan.1968
Correct B
Standard(s) SCI.3.S.IA.03.11 ( 3 )

Stop! You Go
have
onfinished
to the next
thispage
exam.
»
 

DataDirector Exam ID: 430 Page 2 of 2 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
Science Grade 3, Unit 4: Earth Materials, Change, and Resources » Teacher Version

Directions: For each of the following questions, decide which of the choices is best and fill in the corresponding
space on the answer document.

1. Cars and many other machines use gasoline as 4. Beryl finds a rock and wants to know what kind it
an energy source. What is the major source of is. Which piece of information about the rock will
gasoline? best help her to identify it?
A. Water from the Earth's oceans A. The size of the rock.
B. Wood from large trees B. The weight of the rock.
C. Gases in the atmosphere C. The temperature where the rock was found.
D. Oil from beneath the Earth's surface D. The minerals the rock contains.
ItemID kmorgan.1953 ItemID kmorgan.1956
Correct D Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.3.E.SE.03.32 ( 3 ) Standard(s) SCI.3.E.SE.03.14 ( 3 )

2. In some parts of the United States, smog 5. Natural processes change the surface of the Earth.
sometimes make the air seem hazy, even on a Some changes occur rapidly and some occur
sunny day. Smog also makes it hard for some slowly. Which of the following would cause the
people to breathe. Where does most of the smog slowest change in the Earth's surface?
in the air come from? A. wind
A. Factories and automobiles
B. landslides
B. Volcanoes and earthquakes
C. volcanoes
C. Forests and farm fields
D. earthquakes
D. Nuclear power plants ItemID kmorgan.1957
ItemID kmorgan.1954 Correct A
Correct A Standard(s) SCI.3.E.SE.03.22 ( 3 )
Standard(s) SCI.3.E.ES.03.52 ( 3 )

6. The road leading to Sarah’s farm is a gravel road.


3. Many earth materials are used to make other The road to her Aunt Martha’s home in the city
products. Which of the pairs below shows a correct is paved. How is the texture of the gravel road
progression from earth material to new product? different from that of the paved road?
A. ore ------> glass A. The gravel road is stiff and heavy.
B. gravel -----> concrete B. The gravel road is smooth and wet.
C. oil -----> water C. The gravel road is cold and flexible.
D. salt -----> asphalt D. The gravel road is rough and bumpy.
ItemID kmorgan.1955 ItemID kmorgan.1958
Correct B Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.3.E.SE.03.31 ( 3 ) Standard(s) SCI.3.E.SE.03.13 ( 3 )

Go on to the next page »

DataDirector Exam ID: 409 Page 1 of 2 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
 

 
Science Grade 3, Unit 4: Earth Materials, Change, and Resources » Teacher Version

7. Which of the following human activities has caused 10. Which of the following are renewable resources?
some plants and animals to become endangered? A. coal and oil
A. recycling
B. wool and coal
B. oil spills on lakes
C. trees and wool
C. wildlife photography
D. oil and trees
D. reforestation projects ItemID kmorgan.1962
ItemID kmorgan.1959 Correct C
Correct B Standard(s) SCI.3.E.ES.03.42 ( 3 )
Standard(s) SCI.3.E.ES.03.52 ( 3 )

11. The state of Michigan is bordered by four of the


8. Which of the following is an example of a simple five Great Lakes. Most geologists support the
way that students can help conserve trees? theory that the Great Lakes were formed by
A. Purchase paper when it is on sale. what?
A. The movement of ancient glaciers.
B. Only use colored paper for art projects.
B. The ancient meteors crashing into Earth.
C. Bring lunch in a paper bag instead of a lunch
box. C. The erosion of the land due to heavy
rainfall.
D. Write on both sides of each sheet of
notebook paper. D. The rivers dumping melted snow from
ItemID kmorgan.1960
Canada.
Correct D ItemID kmorgan.1963
Standard(s) SCI.3.E.ES.03.43 ( 3 ) Correct A
Standard(s) SCI.3.E.SE.03.22 ( 3 )

9. Michigan trees are used for many things, including


paper for school classrooms. Julie has been asked
by her teacher to come up with a way for the
classroom to help save trees. Which of these is the
best way to save trees?
A. Find new uses for paper products.
B. Replace wood with paper products.
C. Recycle paper in the school classroom.
D. Use paper products that are less expensive.
ItemID kmorgan.1961
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.3.E.ES.03.43 ( 3 ), SCI.3.E.ES.03.44 ( 3 )

Stop! You Go
have
onfinished
to the next
thispage
exam.
»
 

DataDirector Exam ID: 409 Page 2 of 2 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
THIRD GRADE SCIENCE

SCIENCE
GRADE LEVEL
CONTENT
EXPECTATIONS
v.1.09

Welcome to Michigan’s K-7 Grade Level Content Expectations

SCIENCE PROCESSES Purpose & Overview


In 2004, the Michigan Department of Education embraced the challenge of
creating Grade Level Content Expectations in response to the Federal No
Child Left Behind Act of 2001. This act mandated the existence of a set of
PHYSICAL SCIENCE
comprehensive state grade level assessments in mathematics and English
language arts that are designed based on rigorous grade level content. In
addition, assessments for science in elementary, middle, and high school
LIFE SCIENCE were required. To provide greater clarity for what students are expected to
know and be able to do by the end of each grade, expectations for each grade
level have been developed for science.
In this global economy, it is essential that Michigan students possess
EARTH SCIENCE personal, social, occupational, civic, and quantitative literacy. Mastery of
the knowledge and essential skills defined in Michigan’s Grade Level Content
Expectations will increase students’ ability to be successful academically, and
contribute to the future businesses that employ them and the communities in
which they choose to live.
Reflecting best practices and current research, the Grade Level Content
Expectations provide a set of clear and rigorous expectations for all students,
and provide teachers with clearly defined statements of what students should
know and be able to do as they progress through school.

Development
In developing these expectations, the K-7 Scholar Work Group depended heavily
on the Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational
Progress (National Assessment Governing Board, 2006) which has been the
gold standard for the high school content expectations. Additionally, the
National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996), the
Michigan Curriculum Framework in Science (2000 version), and the Atlas for
Science Literacy, Volumes One (AAAS, 2001) and Two (AAAS, 2007), were
all continually consulted for developmental guidance. As a further resource
for research on learning progressions and curricular designs, Taking Science
to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 (National Research
Council, 2007) was extensively utilized. The following statement from this
resource was a guiding principle:
“The next generation of science standards and curricula at the national and
state levels should be centered on a few core ideas and should expand on
them each year, at increasing levels of complexity, across grades K-8. Today’s
standards are still too broad, resulting in superficial coverage of science that
fails to link concepts or develop them over successive grades.”
Michigan’s K-7 Scholar Work Group executed the intent of this statement
Office of School Improvement in the development of “the core ideas of science...the big picture” in this
document.
www.michigan.gov/mde
Curriculum
Using this document as a focal point in the school improvement process, schools
and districts can generate conversations among stakeholders concerning current
policies and practices to consider ways to improve and enhance student achievement.
Together, stakeholders can use these expectations to guide curricular and instructional
decisions, identify professional development needs, and assess student achievement.

Assessment
The Science Grade Level Content Expectations document is intended to be a curricular
guide with the expectations written to convey expected performances by students.
Science will continue to be assessed in grades five and eight for the Michigan
Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) and MI-Access.

Preparing Students for Academic Success


In the hands of teachers, the Grade Level Content Expectations are converted into
exciting and engaging learning for Michigan’s students. As educators use these
expectations, it is critical to keep in mind that content knowledge alone is not
sufficient for academic success. Students must also generate questions, conduct
investigations, and develop solutions to problems through reasoning and observation.
They need to analyze and present their findings which lead to future questions,
research, and investigations. Students apply knowledge in new situations, to solve
problems by generating new ideas, and to make connections between what they learn
in class to the world around them.
Through the collaborative efforts of Michigan educators and creation of professional
learning communities, we can enable our young people to attain the highest
standards, and thereby open doors for them to have fulfilling and successful lives.

Understanding the Organizational Structure


The science expectations in this document are organized into disciplines, standards,
content statements, and specific content expectations. The content statements in
each science standard are broader, more conceptual groupings. The skills and content
addressed in these expectations will, in practice, be woven together into a coherent,
science curriculum.
To allow for ease in referencing expectations, each expectation has been coded with a
discipline, standard, grade-level, and content statement/expectation number.
For example, P.FM.02.34 indicates:
P - Physical Science Discipline

FM-Force and Motion Standard

02-Second Grade

34-Fourth Expectation in the Third Content Statement

Content statements are written and coded for Elementary and Middle School Grade
Spans. Not all content expectations for the content statement will be found in each
grade.

Why Create a 1.09 Version of the Expectations?


The Office of School Improvement is committed to creating the best possible product
for educators. This committment served as the impetus for revision of the 12.07
edition. This new version, v.1.09, refines and clarifies the original expectations, while
preserving their essence and original intent and reflects the feedback from educators
across the state during the past year.

27 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v. 1 2 . 0 7 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


Elementary (K-4) Science Organizational Structure

Discipline 1 Discipline 2 Discipline 3 Discipline 4


Science Processes Physical Science Life Science Earth Science

Standards and Statements (and number of Content Expectations in each Statement)


Inquiry Process (IP) Force and Motion (FM) Organization of Earth Systems (ES)
Inquiry Analysis Position (2) Living Things (OL) Solar Energy (2)
and Communication Gravity (2) Life Requirements (6) Weather (4)
(IA) Force (8) Life Cycles (2) Weather
Reflection and Social Speed (3) Structures and Measurement (2)
Implications (RS) Energy (EN) Functions (2) Natural
Forms of Energy (2) Classification (2) Resources (4)
Light Properties (2) Heredity (HE) Human Impact (2)
Sound (2) Observable Solid Earth (SE)
Energy and Characteristics (3) Earth Materials (4)
Temperature (3) Evolution (EV) Surface Chages (2)
Electrical Circuits (2) Environmental Using Earth
Properties of Matter Adaptation (2) Materials (2)
(PM) Survival (2) Fluid Earth (FE)
Physical Properties (8) Ecosystems (EC) Water (4)
States of Matter (3) Interactions (1) Water
Magnets (4) Changed Movement (2)
Material Environment Earth in Space and
Composition (1) Effects (1) Time (ST)
Conductive and Characteristics
Reflective Properties of Objects in the
(3) Sky (2)
Changes in Matter Patterns of
(CM) Objects in the
Changes in State (1) Sky (5)
Fossils (2)

Science Processes: Inquiry Process, Inquiry Analysis and Communication,


Reflection, and Social Implications
Students continue building their inquiry and investigation skills through the use of observations
and data collection. This learning requires using measurement with appropriate units of measure
and conducting simple and fair investigations. Students use their data as evidence to separate
fact from opinion, and compare and contrast different sets of data from multiple trials. In the
application of what students discover through their investigations, they begin to describe the
effect of humans and other organisms on the balance of the natural world and how people
contribute to the advancement of science.

The content expectations for third grade science students present high interest content that leads
to investigations, data collection, raising questions, and the identification of current problems in
the environment that society faces on Earth.

28 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v.1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


Physical Science: Motion of Objects, Energy, and Properties of
Matter
The previous grades have provided the students with an introduction to the
understanding of motion (kindergarten), and properties of matter (first grade and
second grade). The study of motion asks for students to compare and contrast motion
in terms of direction and speed of an object. Using force as a push or a pull from
the kindergarten expectations now builds toward the idea that when an object does
not move in response to a force, it is because another force is acting on it. The force
of gravity as the force that pulls objects towards the Earth is the foundation of this
learning.

The third grade science content expectations introduce the concept of energy through
the study of light and sound. Students explore light and how light travels in a straight
path, how shadows are made, and the behavior of light through water. Students
discover that different objects interact differently with light; objects can reflect,
absorb, or refract light. Objects can also absorb heat energy when exposed to light.
Properties of sound are also introduced in the third grade curriculum. Students are
given the opportunity to explore how different pitches are produced and sound as a
result of vibrations.

Life Science: Organization of Living Things, Evolution


The third grade life science curriculum combines the previous studies of animals and
plants from the first and second grades. These studies build toward an understanding
of the complex interactions among living and nonliving things and the diversity of life.
Children explore the functions of structures in plants and animals that help them to
survive in their environment, establish the initial association of organisms within their
environments, and develop ideas regarding the dependence of living things on various
aspects of behavior within their environment.

Earth Science: Earth Systems and Solid Earth


Initially, the third grade students explore natural causes of change on the Earth’s
surface, different types of Earth materials (rocks, minerals, clay, boulders, gravel,
sand, and soil), and identify those materials used to construct common objects. The
skills students need to understand and apply their scientific knowledge and develop
an awareness of the effects of humans and other organisms on the environment are
a primary focus in the third grade Earth science instruction. Students explore natural
resources (renewable and non-renewable), and describe how humans protect and
harm the environment. Children are asked to employ causal reasoning between human
activities and the impact on the environment.

The common idea of the dependency of life on the environment and the effects of
humans and other living organisms on the environment, provides the opportunity for
students to apply their knowledge to current environmental problems and what the
third grader can do to protect the environment.

29 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v. 1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


Third Grade Science Standards, Statements, and Expectations

Note: The number in parentheses represents the number of expectations.

Discipline 1: Science Processes (S)


Standard: Inquiry Process (IP)
1 Statement (6)
Standard: Inquiry Analysis and Communication (IA)
1 Statement (5)
Standard: Reflection and Social Implications (RS)
1 Statement (7)

Discipline 2: Physical Science (P)


Standard: Force and Motion (FM)
Gravity (1)
Force (4)
Speed (3)
Standard: Energy (EN)
Forms of Energy (1)
Light Properties (2)
Sound (2)
Standard: Properties of Matter (PM)
Conductive and Reflective Properties (2)

Discipline 3: Life Science (L)


Standard: Organization of Living Things (OL)
Structures and Functions (2)
Classification (2)
Standard: Evolution (EV)
Environmental Adaptation (2)

Discipline 4: Earth Science (E)


Standard: Earth Systems (ES)
Natural Resources (4)
Human Impact (2)
Standard: Solid Earth (SE)
Earth Materials (2)
Surface Changes (1)
Using Earth Materials (2)

30 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v.1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


SCIENCE PROCESSES Inquiry Process

K-7 Standard S.IP: Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and


reasoning involves observing, questioning, investigating, recording, and
developing solutions to problems.

S.IP.E.1 Inquiry involves generating questions, conducting
investigations, and developing solutions to problems through
reasoning and observation.

S.IP.03.11 Make purposeful observation of the natural world using the


appropriate senses.
S.IP.03.12 Generate questions based on observations.
S.IP.03.13 Plan and conduct simple and fair investigations.
S.IP.03.14 Manipulate simple tools that aid observation and data collection
(for example: hand lens, balance, ruler, meter stick, measuring
cup, thermometer, spring scale, stop watch/timer).
S.IP.03.15 Make accurate measurements with appropriate units
(centimeters, meters, Celsius, grams, seconds, minutes) for the
measurement tool.
S.IP.03.16 Construct simple charts and graphs from data and observations.

Inquiry Analysis and Communication

K-7 Standard S.IA: Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and


investigations require analysis and communication of findings, using
appropriate technology.

S.IA.E.1 Inquiry includes an analysis and presentation of findings


that lead to future questions, research, and investigations.

S.IA.03.11 Summarize information from charts and graphs to answer


scientific questions.
S.IA.03.12 Share ideas about science through purposeful conversation in
collaborative groups.
S.IA.03.13 Communicate and present findings of observations and
investigations.
S.IA.03.14 Develop research strategies and skills for information gathering
and problem solving.
S.IA.03.15 Compare and contrast sets of data from multiple trials of a
science investigation to explain reasons for differences.

Reflection and Social Implications

K-7 Standard S.RS: Develop an understanding that claims and evidence


for their scientific merit should be analyzed. Understand how scientists decide
what constitutes scientific knowledge. Develop an understanding of
the importance of reflection on scientific knowledge and its application to new
situations to better understand the role of science in society and technology.

31 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v.1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


S.RS.E.1 Reflecting on knowledge is the application
of scientific knowledge to new and different situations.
Reflecting on knowledge requires careful analysis of
evidence that guides decision-making and the application
of science throughout history and within society.

S.RS.03.11 Demonstrate scientific concepts through various


illustrations, performances, models, exhibits, and
activities.
S.RS.03.14 Use data/samples as evidence to separate fact from
opinion.
S.RS.03.15 Use evidence when communicating scientific ideas.
S.RS.03.16 Identify technology used in everyday life.
S.RS.03.17 Identify current problems that may be solved through
the use of technology.
S.RS.03.18 Describe the effect humans and other organisms have
on the balance of the natural world.
S.RS.03.19 Describe how people have contributed to science
throughout history and across cultures.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE Force and Motion



K-7 Standard P.FM: Develop an understanding that the position
and/or motion of an object is relative to a point of reference.
Understand forces affect the motion and speed of an object and
that the net force on an object is the total of all of the forces
acting on it. Understand the Earth pulls down on objects with a
force called gravity. Develop an understanding that some forces
are in direct contact with objects, while other forces are not
in direct contact with objects.

P.FM.E.2 Gravity- Earth pulls down on all objects with a
force called gravity. With very few exceptions, objects fall
to the ground no matter where the object is on the Earth.

P.FM.03.22 Identify the force that pulls objects towards the


Earth.

P.FM.E.3 Force- A force is either a push or a pull. The


motion of objects can be changed by forces. The size of the
change is related to the size of the force. The change is
also related to the weight (mass) of the object on
which the force is being exerted. When an object does not
move in response to a force, it is because another force is
being applied by the environment.

P.FM.03.35 Describe how a push or a pull is a force.


P.FM.03.36 Relate a change in motion of an object to the force
that caused the change of motion.
P.FM.03.37 Demonstrate how the change in motion of an object
is related to the strength of the force acting upon the
object and to the mass of the object.
P.FM.03.38 Demonstrate when an object does not move in
response to a force, it is because another force is
acting on it.

32 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v.1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


P.FM.E.4 Speed- An object is in motion when its position is
changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it
travels in a standard amount of time. *

P.FM.03.41 Describe the motion of objects in terms of direction. *


P.FM.03.42 Identify changes in motion (change direction,
speeding up, slowing down).
P.FM.03.43 Relate the speed of an object to the distance it travels
in a standard amount of time.

Energy

K-7 Standard P.EN: Develop an understanding that there are


many forms of energy (such as heat, light, sound, and electrical)
and that energy is transferable by convection, conduction, or
radiation. Understand energy can be in motion, called kinetic; or it
can be stored, called potential. Develop an understanding that as
temperature increases, more energy is added to a system.
Understand nuclear reactions in the sun produce light and heat for
the Earth.

P.EN.E.1 Forms of Energy- Heat, electricity, light, and
sound are forms of energy.

P.EN.03.11 Identify light and sound as forms of energy.



P.EN.E.2 Light Properties- Light travels in a straight path.
Shadows result from light not being able to pass through an
object. When light travels at an angle from one substance to
another (air and water), it changes direction. *

P.EN.03.21 Demonstrate that light travels in a straight path and


that shadows are made by placing an object in a path
of light. *
P.EN.03.22 Observe what happens to light when it travels
from air to water (a straw half in the water and half in
the air looks bent). *

P.EN.E.3 Sound- Vibrating objects produce sound. The


pitch of sound varies by changing the rate of vibration.

P.EN.03.31 Relate sounds to their sources of vibrations (for


example: a musical note produced by a vibrating
guitar string, the sounds of a drum made by the
vibrating drum head).
P.EN.03.32 Distinguish the effect of fast or slow vibrations as
pitch.

* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.

33 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v. 1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


Properties of Matter

K-7 Standard P.PM: Develop an understanding that all matter has


observable attributes with physical and chemical properties that are
described, measured, and compared. Understand that states of matter
exist as solid, liquid, or gas; and have physical and chemical properties.
Understand all matter is composed of combinations of elements, which
are organized by common attributes and characteristics on the Periodic
Table. Understand that substances can be classified as mixtures or
compounds and according to their physical and chemical properties.

P.PM.E.5 Conductive and Reflective Properties- Objects


vary to the extent they absorb and reflect light energy and
conduct heat and electricity.

P.PM.03.51 Demonstrate how some materials are heated more
than others by light that shines on them.
P.PM.03.52 Explain how we need light to see objects: light from a
source reflects off objects and enters our eyes.

LIFE SCIENCE Organization of Living Things



K-7 Standard L.OL: Develop an understanding that plants and animals
(including humans) have basic requirements for maintaining life which
include the need for air, water, and a source of energy. Understand that
all life forms can be classified as producers, consumers, or decomposers
as they are all part of a global food chain where food/energy is
supplied by plants which need light to produce food/energy. Develop
an understanding that plants and animals can be classified by observable
traits and physical characteristics. Understand that all living organisms
are composed of cells and they exhibit cell growth and division.
Understand that all plants and animals have a definite life cycle, body
parts, and systems to perform specific life functions.

L.OL.E.3 Structures and Functions- Organisms have
different structures that serve different functions in
growth, survival, and reproduction.

L.OL.03.31 Describe the function of the following plant parts:


flower, stem, root, and leaf.
L.OL.03.32 Identify and compare structures in animals used for
controlling body temperature, support, movement,
food-getting, and protection (for example: fur, wings,
teeth, scales). *

L.OL.E.4 Classification- Organisms can be classified on the basis


of observable characteristics.

L.OL.03.41 Classify plants on the basis of observable physical


characteristics (roots, leaves, stems, and flowers).
L.OL.03.42 Classify animals on the basis of observable physical
characteristics (backbone, body coverings, limbs). *

* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.

34 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v.1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION



Evolution

K-7 Standard L.EV: Develop an understanding that plants and animals


have observable parts and characteristics that help them survive and
flourish in their environments. Understand that fossils provide evidence that
life forms have changed over time and were influenced by changes in
environmental conditions. Understand that life forms either change
(evolve) over time or risk extinction due to environmental changes
and describe how scientists identify the relatedness of various organisms
based on similarities in anatomical features.

L.EV.E.1 Environmental Adaptation- Different kinds of


organisms have characteristics that help them to live in
different environments.

L.EV.03.11 Relate characteristics and functions of observable parts in
a variety of plants that allow them to live in their
environment (leaf shape, thorns, odor, color). *
L.EV.03.12 Relate characteristics and functions of observable body
parts to the ability of animals to live in their environment
(sharp teeth, claws, color, body coverings). *

EARTH SCIENCE Earth Systems

K-7 Standard E.ES: Develop an understanding of the warming of the


Earth by the sun as the major source of energy for phenomenon on
Earth and how the sun’s warming relates to weather, climate, seasons,
and the water cycle. Understand how human interaction and use
of natural resources affects the environment.

E.ES.E.4 Natural Resources- The supply of many natural


resources is limited. Humans have devised methods for
extending their use of natural resources through
recycling, reuse, and renewal.

E.ES.03.41 Identify natural resources (metals, fuels, fresh water,


fertile soil, and forests). *
E.ES.03.42 Classify renewable (fresh water, fertile soil, forests) and
non-renewable (fuels, metals) resources. *
E.ES.03.43 Describe ways humans are protecting, extending, and
restoring resources (recycle, reuse, reduce, renewal).
E.ES.03.44 Recognize that paper, metal, glass, and some plastics
can be recycled.


* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.

35 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v. 1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION



E.ES.E.5 Human Impact- Humans depend on their natural
and constructed environment. Humans change
environments in ways that are helpful or harmful for
themselves and other organisms.

E.ES.03.51 Describe ways humans are dependent on the natural


environment (forests, water, clean air, Earth materials)
and constructed environments (homes, neighborhoods,
shopping malls, factories, and industry).
E.ES.03.52 Describe helpful or harmful effects of humans on the
environment (garbage, habitat destruction, land
management, renewable, and non-renewable resources).

Solid Earth

K-7 Standard E.SE: Develop an understanding of the properties
of Earth materials and how those properties make materials useful.
Understand gradual and rapid changes in Earth materials and features
of the surface of Earth. Understand magnetic properties of Earth.

E.SE.E.1 Earth Materials- Earth materials that occur in nature


include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the
atmosphere. Some Earth materials have properties which
sustain plant and animal life.

E.SE.03.13 Recognize and describe different types of Earth materials


(mineral, rock, clay, boulder, gravel, sand, soil, water, and
air). *
E.SE.03.14 Recognize that rocks are made up of minerals.

E.SE.E.2 Surface Changes- The surface of Earth changes. Some


changes are due to slow processes, such as erosion and
weathering; and some changes are due to rapid processes,
such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

E.SE.03.22 Identify and describe natural causes of change in the


Earth’s surface (erosion, glaciers, volcanoes, landslides,
and earthquakes).

E.SE.E.3 Using Earth Materials- Some Earth materials have


properties that make them useful either in their present form
or designed and modified to solve human problems. They can
enhance the quality of life as in the case of materials used for
building or fuels used for heating and transportation.

E.SE.03.31 Identify Earth materials used to construct some common


objects (bricks, buildings, roads, glass). *
E.SE.03.32 Describe how materials taken from the Earth can be used
as fuels for heating and transportation.

* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.

36 THIRD GRADE SCIENCE v.1 . 0 9 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


T H I R D G RA D E E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A R T S

3
GRADE LEVEL

ELA
CONTENT
EXPECTATIONS v.12.05
Welcome to Michigan’s K-8 Grade Level Content Expectations
R EA D I N G
Purpose & Overview
In 2004, the Michigan Department of Education embraced the challenge of creating
Grade Level Content Expectations in response to the federal No Child Left Behind Act
W R IT I N G of 2001. This act mandated the existence of a set of comprehensive state grade level
assessments that are designed based on rigorous grade level content.
In this global economy, it is essential that Michigan students possess personal, social,
occupational, civic, and quantitative literacy. Mastery of the knowledge and essential skills
S P EA K I N G
defined in Michigan’s Grade Level Content Expectations will increase students’ ability to
be successful academically, contribute to the future businesses that employ them and the
communities in which they choose to live.
L I ST E N I N G The Grade Level Content Expectations build from the Michigan Curriculum Framework
and its Teaching and Assessment Standards. Reflecting best practices and current
research, they provide a set of clear and rigorous expectations for all students and
provide teachers with clearly defined statements of what students should know
V I EW I N G
and be able to do as they progress through school.

Why Create a 12.05 Version of the Expectations?


The Office of School Improvement is committed to creating the best possible product
for educators. This commitment served as the impetus for the revision of the 6.04 edition
that was previously released in June of 2004. This new version, v.12.05, refines and
clarifies the original expectations, while preserving their essence and original intent.
As education continues to evolve, it is important to remember that each curriculum
document should be considered as a work in progress, and will continue to be refined
to improve the quality.
The revision process greatly improved the continuity from one grade to the next, and
better ensured coherence both in content and pedagogy. To obtain more specific details
about the revisions, please refer to the addendum included in this document. The forward
of the Across the Grades v.12.05 companion document also clarifies the types of changes
made. Educators can access the Across the Grades companion document by visiting
the Michigan Department of Education Grade Level Content Expectations web page at
www.michigan.gov/glce.

Assessment
The Grade Level Content Expectations document is intended to be a state assessment
tool with the expectations written to convey expected performances by students. The
Office of Assessment and Accountability was involved in the development of version 12.05
and has incorporated the changes in the construction of test and item specifications for
the K-8 Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) and MI-Access. This updated
version will assist us in the creation of companion documents, content examples, and
to guide program planners in focusing resources and energy.
Office of School Improvement

www.michigan.gov/mde
Curriculum
Using this document as a focal point in the school improvement process, schools and districts
can generate conversations among stakeholders concerning current policies and practices
to consider ways to improve and enhance student achievement. Together, stakeholders can
use these expectations to guide curricular and instructional decisions, identify professional
development needs, and assess student achievement.

Understanding the Organizational Structure


The expectations in this document are divided into strands with multiple domains within each, as
shown below. The skills and content addressed in these expectations will in practice be woven
together into a coherent, English language arts curriculum. Beyond the English language arts
curriculum, students will use the skills and processes to support learning in all content areas.
To allow for ease in referencing expectations, each expectation has been coded with a strand,
domain, grade-level, and expectation number. For example, R.NT.00.01 indicates:
R - Reading Strand
NT - Narrative Text Domain
00 - Kindergarten Expectation
01- First Expectation in the Grade-Level Narrative Text Domain

Strand 1 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4


Reading Writing Speaking Listening & Viewing

Domains
Word Recognition and Genre (GN) Conventions (CN) Conventions (CN)
Word Study (WS) Process (PR) Discourse (DS) Response (RP)
• Phonemic Awareness Personal Style (PS)
• Phonics Grammar & Usage (GR)
• Word Recognition Spelling (SP)
• Vocabulary Handwriting (HW)
Fluency (FL) Writing Attitude (AT)
Narrative Text (NT)
Informational Text (IT)
Comprehension (CM)
Metacognition (MT)
Critical Standards (CS)
Reading Attitude (AT)

Preparing Students for Academic Success


Within the hands of teachers, the Grade Level Content Expectations are converted into exciting
and engaging learning for Michigan’s students. As we use these expectations to develop units of
instruction and plan instructional delivery, it is critical to keep in mind that content knowledge
alone is not sufficient for academic success. Students must be able to apply knowledge in new
situations, to solve problems by generating new ideas, and to make connections between what
they learn in class to the world around them. The art of teaching is what makes the content of
learning become a reality.
Through the collaborative efforts of Michigan educators and creation of professional learning
communities, we can enable our young people to attain the highest standards, and thereby
open doors for them to have fulfilling and successful lives.

2 THIRD GRADE E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A RT S ■ v.1 2 . 0 5 ■ MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


READING Word Recognition and Word Study

Word Recognition
Students will…
R.WS.03.01 automatically recognize frequently encountered words in print
whether encountered in connected text or in isolation with the number of words
that can be read fluently increasing steadily across the school year.
R.WS.03.02 use structural, syntactic, and semantic cues including letter-sound,
rimes, base words, and affixes to automatically read frequently encountered words,
decode unknown words, and decide meanings including multiple meaning words.
R.WS.03.03 know the meanings of words encountered frequently in grade-level
reading and oral language contexts.
R.WS.03.04 automatically recognize the 220 Dolch basic sight words and 95
common nouns.
R.WS.03.05 make progress to automatically read by sight the Dolch First 1000
Words for mastery in fifth grade.
R.WS.03.06 acquire and apply strategies to identify unknown words or word
parts; self-monitor and construct meaning by predicting and self-correcting, applying
knowledge of language, sound/symbol/structural relationships, and context.

Fluency
Students will…
R.WS.03.07 apply the following aspects of fluency: pauses and emphasis,
punctuation cues, intonation, and automatic recognition of identified grade-level
specific words and sight words while reading aloud familiar grade-level text.

Vocabulary
Students will…
R.WS.03.08 in context, determine the meaning of words and phrases including
synonyms, homonyms, multiple meaning words, content vocabulary, and literary
terms using strategies and resources including context clues, concept mapping, and
the dictionary.

Narrative Text
Students will…
R.NT.03.01 explain how characters express attitudes about one another in familiar
classic, multicultural, and contemporary literature recognized for quality and literary
merit.
R.NT.03.02 identify and describe the basic elements and purpose of a variety of
narrative genre including folktales, fables, and realistic fiction.
R.NT.03.03 identify and describe characters’ thoughts and motivations, story level
themes (good vs. evil), main idea, and lesson/moral (fable).
R.NT.03.04 explain how authors use literary devices including prediction,
personification, and point of view to develop a story level theme, depict the setting,
and reveal how thoughts and actions convey important character traits.

M I C H I G A N D E PA RT M E N T O F E D U C AT I O N ■ v.1 2 . 0 5 ■ E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A RT S THIRD GRADE 3


Informational Text
Students will…
R.IT.03.01 identify and describe the basic elements, features, and purpose of a variety
of informational genre including textbooks, encyclopedias, and magazines.
R.IT.03.02 identify informational text patterns including descriptive, sequential,
enumerative, compare/contrast, and problem/solution.
R.IT.03.03 explain how authors use text features including titles, headings and
subheadings, timelines, prefaces, indices, and table of contents to enhance the
understanding of key and supporting ideas.

Comprehension
Students will…
R.CM.03.01 connect personal knowledge, experiences, and understanding of the
world to themes and perspectives in text through oral and written responses.
R.CM.03.02 retell in sequence the story elements of grade-level narrative text and
major idea(s) and relevant details of grade-level informational text.
R.CM.03.03 compare and contrast relationships among characters, events, and key
ideas within and across texts to create a deeper understanding; including a narrative
to an informational text, a literature selection to a subject area text, and an historical
event to a current event.
R.CM.03.04 apply significant knowledge from grade-level science, social studies, and
mathematics texts.

Metacognition
Students will…
R.MT.03.01 self-monitor comprehension when reading or listening to texts by
automatically applying strategies used by mature readers to increase comprehension
including: predicting, constructing mental images, visually representing ideas in text,
questioning, rereading or listening again if uncertain about meaning, inferring, and
summarizing.
R.MT.03.02 plan, monitor, regulate, evaluate skills, strategies, and processes to construct
and convey meaning, (e.g., decoding unknown words), and use graphic organizers to
deepen understanding of problem/solution and organizational patterns.

Critical Standards
Students will…
R.CS.03.01 develop, discuss, and apply individual and shared standards using student/
class created rubrics and begin to assess the quality and accuracy of their own writing
and the writing of others.

Reading Attitude
Students will…
R.AT.03.01 be enthusiastic about reading and do substantial reading and writing on
their own.

4 THIRD GRADE E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A RT S ■ v.1 2 . 0 5 ■ MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


WRITING Writing Genre
Students will…
W.GN.03.01 write a cohesive narrative piece such as a fable, folktale, or realistic fiction
using personification, setting, actions and thoughts that reveal important character traits.
W.GN.03.02 write poetry based on reading a wide variety of grade-appropriate poetry.
W.GN.03.03 write an informational piece including a report that demonstrates the
understanding of central ideas and supporting details using an effective organizational
pattern (e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution) with a title, heading,
subheading, and a table of contents.
W.GN.03.04 use the writing process to produce and present a research project; initiate
research questions from content area text from a teacher-selected topic; and use a
variety of resources to gather and organize information.

Writing Process
Students will…
W.PR.03.01 set a purpose, consider audience, and replicate authors’ styles and patterns
when writing a narrative or informational piece.
W.PR.03.02 apply a variety of pre-writing strategies for both narrative and informational
writing (e.g., graphic organizers such as maps, webs, Venn diagrams) in order to generate,
sequence, and structure ideas (e.g., sequence for beginning, middle, and end, problem/
solution, or compare/contrast).
W.PR.03.03 draft focused ideas in written compositions using multiple sentences
and paragraphs to slow down or speed up reading; including varying patterns and/or
organizational text structures (e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect, or problem/solution).
W.PR.03.04 revise drafts based on constructive and specific oral and written responses
to writing by identifying sections of the piece to improve sequence and flow of ideas
(e.g., arranging paragraphs, connecting main and supporting ideas, transitions).
W.PR.03.05 proofread and edit writing using appropriate resources (e.g., dictionary,
spell check, writing references) and grade-level checklists, both individually and in groups.

Personal Style
Students will…
W.PS.03.01 exhibit personal style and voice to enhance the written message in both
narrative (e.g., varied word choice and sentence structure, character description) and
informational writing (e.g., examples, transitions, grammar and usage).

Grammar and Usage


Students will…
W.GR.03.01 in the context of writing, correctly use subjects and verbs that are in
agreement; verb tenses; nouns and possessives; commas in a series; and begin use of
quotation marks and capitalization in dialogue.

M I C H I G A N D E PA RT M E N T O F E D U C AT I O N ■ v.1 2 . 0 5 ■ E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A RT S THIRD GRADE 5


Spelling
Students will…
W.SP.03.01 in the context of writing, correctly spell frequently encountered words
(e.g., multi-syllabic, r-controlled, most consonant blends, contractions, compounds,
common homophones); for less frequently encountered words, use structural cues
(e.g., letter/sound, rimes, morphemic) and environmental sources (e.g., word walls, word
lists, dictionaries, spell checkers).

Handwriting
Students will…
W.HW.03.01 fluently and legibly write the cursive alphabet.

Writing Attitude
Students will…
W.AT.03.01 be enthusiastic about writing and learning to write.

6 THIRD GRADE E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A RT S ■ v.1 2 . 0 5 ■ MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


S P EA K I N G Conventions
Students will…
S.CN.03.01 use common grammatical structures correctly when speaking including
time relationships, verb tenses, and causal and temporal relationships.
S.CN.03.02 adjust their use of language to communicate effectively with a variety of
audiences and for different purposes including gathering information, making requests,
discussing, classroom presentations, and playground interactions.
S.CN.03.03 speak effectively emphasizing key words and varied pace for effect in
narrative and informational presentations.
S.CN.03.04 present in standard American English if it is their first language. (Students
whose first language is not English will present in their developing version of standard
American English.)
S.CN.03.05 understand, providing examples of how language differs from neighborhood
to neighborhood of the local community as a function of linguistic and cultural group
membership.

Discourse
Students will…
S.DS.03.01 engage in interactive, extended discourse to socially construct meaning
in book clubs, literature circles, partnerships, or other conversation protocols.
S.DS.03.02 discuss narratives (e.g., folktales, fables, realistic fiction), conveying the
story grammar (e.g., characters’ thoughts and motivation, setting, plot, story level theme)
and explain why the story is worthwhile and how it is relevant to the storyteller or the
audience.
S.DS.03.03 respond to multiple text types by reflecting, making connections, taking
a position, and/or showing understanding.
S.DS.03.04 plan and deliver presentations using an effective informational
organizational pattern (e.g., descriptive, problem/solution, cause/effect); supportive
facts and details reflecting a variety of resources; and varying the pace for effect.

M I C H I G A N D E PA RT M E N T O F E D U C AT I O N ■ v.1 2 . 0 5 ■ E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A RT S THIRD GRADE 7


L I ST E N I N G Conventions
& V I EW I N G Students will…
L.CN.03.01 ask substantive questions of the speaker that will provide additional
elaboration and details.
L.CN.03.02 listen to or view knowledgeably while demonstrating appropriate social
skills of audience behaviors (e.g., eye contact, attentive, supportive) in small and large
group settings.
L.CN.03.03 distinguish between and explain how verbal and non-verbal strategies
enhance understanding of spoken messages and promote effective listening behaviors.
L.CN.03.04 be aware that the media has a role in focusing attention on events and in
shaping opinions; recognize the variables (e.g., mistakes, misspeaks) in the media.

Response
Students will…
L.RP.03.01 listen to or view knowledgeably and discuss a variety of genre and compare
their responses to those of their peers.
L.RP.03.02 select, listen to or view knowledgeably, and respond thoughtfully to both
classic and contemporary texts recognized for quality and literary merit.
L.RP.03.03 respond to multiple text types listened to or viewed knowledgeably, by
discussing, illustrating, and/or writing in order to reflect, make connections, take a position,
and/or show understanding.
L.RP.03.04 combine skills to reveal strengthening literacy (e.g., viewing then analyzing
orally, listening then summarizing orally).
L.RP.03.05 respond to and retell what a speaker said, paraphrasing and explaining the
main idea, and then extend their response by connecting and relating it to personal
experiences.

8 THIRD GRADE E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A RT S ■ v.1 2 . 0 5 ■ MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


T H I R D G RA D E M A T H E M A T I C S

3
GRADE LEVEL

MATH
CONTENT
EXPECTATIONS v. 1 2 . 0 5

NUMBER & OPERATIONS Welcome to Michigan’s K-8 Grade Level Content Expectations
Purpose & Overview
In 2004, the Michigan Department of Education embraced the challenge of creating
A L G E B RA
Grade Level Content Expectations in response to the federal No Child Left Behind Act
of 2001. This act mandated the existence of a set of comprehensive state grade level
assessments that are designed based on rigorous grade level content.
M EA S U R E M E NT In this global economy, it is essential that Michigan students possess personal, social,
occupational, civic, and quantitative literacy. Mastery of the knowledge and essential
skills defined in Michigan’s Grade Level Content Expectations will increase students’
ability to be successful academically, contribute to the future businesses that employ
G E O M ET RY
them and the communities in which they choose to live.
The Grade Level Content Expectations build from the Michigan Curriculum Framework
and its Teaching and Assessment Standards. Reflecting best practices and current
DATA & PROBABILITY research, they provide a set of clear and rigorous expectations for all students and
provide teachers with clearly defined statements of what students should know
and be able to do as they progress through school.

Why Create a 12.05 Version of the Expectations?


The Office of School Improvement is committed to creating the best possible product
for educators. This commitment served as the impetus for the revision of the 6.04
edition that was previously released in June of 2004. This new version, v.12.05, refines
and clarifies the original expectations, while preserving their essence and original intent.
As education continues to evolve, it is important to remember that each curriculum
document should be considered as a work in progress, and will continue to be refined
to improve the quality.
The revision process greatly improved the continuity from one grade to the next, and
better ensured coherence both in content and pedagogy. To obtain more specific details
about the revisions, please refer to the addendum included in this document. The forward
of the Across the Grades v.12.05 companion document also clarifies the types of changes
made. Educators can access the Across the Grades companion document by visiting
the Michigan Department of Education Grade Level Content Expectations web page
at www.michigan.gov/glce.

Assessment
The Grade Level Content Expectations document is intended to be a state assessment
tool with the expectations written to convey expected performances by students. The
Office of Assessment and Accountability was involved in the development of version
12.05 and has incorporated the changes in the construction of test and item specifications
for the K-8 Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) and MI-Access. This updated
version will assist us in the creation of companion documents, content examples, and to
guide program planners in focusing resources and energy.
Office of School Improvement

www.michigan.gov/mde
Curriculum
Using this document as a focal point in the school improvement process, schools and districts can
generate conversations among stakeholders concerning current policies and practices to consider
ways to improve and enhance student achievement. Together, stakeholders can use these
expectations to guide curricular and instructional decisions, identify professional development
needs, and assess student achievement.

Understanding the Organizational Structure


The expectations in this document are divided into strands with multiple domains within each, as
shown below. The skills and content addressed in these expectations will in practice be woven
together into a coherent, Mathematics curriculum. The domains in each mathematics strand are
broader, more conceptual groupings. In several of the strands, the “domains” are similar to the
“standards” in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics from the National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics.
To allow for ease in referencing expectations, each expectation has been coded with a strand,
domain, grade-level, and expectation number. For example, M.UN.00.01 indicates:
M - Measurement strand
UN - Units & systems of measurement domain of the Measurement strand
00 - Kindergarten Expectation
01- First Expectation in the Grade-Level view of the Measurement strand

Strand 1 Strand 5
Strand 3 Strand 4
Number & Strand 2 Algebra Data and
Measurement Geometry
Operations Probability
Domains
Meaning, notation, Patterns, relations, Units and systems of Geometric shape, Data representation
place value, and functions, and measurement (UN) properties, and (RE)
comparisons (ME) change (PA) mathematical
Techniques and arguments (GS) Data interpretation
Number Representation (RP) formulas for and analysis (AN)
relationships measurement (TE) Location and spatial
and meaning of Formulas, relationships (LO) Probability (PR)
operations (MR) expressions, Problem
equations, and solving involving Spatial reasoning
Fluency with inequalities (RP) measurement (PS) and geometric
operations and modeling (SR)
estimation (FL)
Transformation and
symmetry (TR)

Preparing Students for Academic Success


Within the hands of teachers, the Grade Level Content Expectations are converted into exciting
and engaging learning for Michigan’s students. As we use these expectations to develop units of
instruction and plan instructional delivery, it is critical to keep in mind that content knowledge
alone is not sufficient for academic success. Students must be able to apply knowledge in new
situations, to solve problems by generating new ideas, and to make connections between what
they learn in class to the world around them. The art of teaching is what makes the content of
learning become a reality.
Through the collaborative efforts of Michigan educators and creation of professional learning
communities, we can enable our young people to attain the highest standards, and thereby open
doors for them to have fulfilling and successful lives.

2 THIRD GRADE M A T H E M A T I C S ■ v. 1 2 . 0 5 ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N
NUMBER AND Understand and use number notation and place value
OPERATIONS N.ME.03.01 Read and write numbers to 10,000 in both numerals and words, and relate them
to the quantities they represent, e.g., relate numeral or written word to a display of dots or
objects.
N.ME.03.02 Identify the place value of a digit in a number, e.g., in 3,241, 2 is in the hundreds
place. Recognize and use expanded notation for numbers using place value through 9,999,
e.g., 2,517 is 2000+ 500+10+ 7; 4 hundreds and 2 ones is 402.*
N.ME.03.03 Compare and order numbers up to 10,000.

Count in steps, and understand even and odd numbers


N.ME.03.04 Count orally by 6’s, 7’s, 8’s, and 9’s starting with 0, making the connection
between repeated addition and multiplication.
N.ME.03.05 Know that even numbers end in 0, 2, 4, 6,or 8; name a whole number quantity
that can be shared in two equal groups or grouped into pairs with no remainders; recognize
even numbers as multiples of 2. Know that odd numbers end in 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9, and work with
patterns involving even and odd numbers.

Add and subtract whole numbers


N.FL.03.06 Add and subtract fluently two numbers through 999 with regrouping and
through 9,999 without regrouping.*
N.FL.03.07 Estimate the sum and difference of two numbers with three digits (sums
up to 1,000), and judge reasonableness of estimates.
N.FL.03.08 Use mental strategies to fluently add and subtract two-digit numbers.

Multiply and divide whole numbers


N.MR.03.09 Use multiplication and division fact families to understand the inverse
relationship of these two operations, e.g., because 3 x 8 = 24, we know that 24 ÷ 8 = 3
or 24 ÷ 3 = 8; express a multiplication statement as an equivalent division statement.
N.MR.03.10 Recognize situations that can be solved using multiplication and division including
finding “How many groups?” and “How many in a group?” and write mathematical statements
to represent those situations.*
N.FL.03.11 Find products fluently up to 10 x 10; find related quotients using multiplication
and division relationships.
N.MR.03.12 Find solutions to open sentences, such as 7 x ■ = 42 or 12 ÷ ■ = 4, using the
inverse relationship between multiplication and division.
N.FL.03.13 Mentally calculate simple products and quotients up to a three-digit number by a
one-digit number involving multiples of 10, e.g., 500 x 6, or 400 ÷ 8.
N.MR.03.14 Solve division problems involving remainders, viewing the remainder as the “number
left over”; interpret based on problem context, e.g. , when we have 25 children with 4 children per
group then there are 6 groups with 1 child left over.*
*revised expectations in italics

M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ v. 1 2 . 0 5 ■ M A T H E M A T I C S THIRD GRADE 3
Problem-solving with whole numbers
N.MR.03.15 Given problems that use any one of the four operations with appropriate
numbers, represent with objects, words (including “product” and “quotient”), and mathematical
statements; solve.

Understand simple fractions, relation to the whole,


and addition and subtraction of fractions
N.ME.03.16 Understand that fractions may represent a portion of a whole unit that has been
partitioned into parts of equal area or length; use the terms “numerator” and “denominator.”
N.ME.03.17 Recognize, name, and use equivalent fractions with denominators 2, 4, and 8,
using strips as area models.
N.ME.03.18 Place fractions with denominators of 2, 4, and 8 on the number line; relate the
number line to a ruler; compare and order up to three fractions with denominators 2, 4, and 8.
N.ME.03.19 Understand that any fraction can be written as a sum of unit fractions,
3 1
e.g., 4 = 41 + 41 + 4 .
N.MR.03.20 Recognize that addition and subtraction of fractions with equal denominators
can be modeled by joining or taking away segments on the number line.

Understand simple decimal fractions in relation to money


N.ME.03.21 Understand and relate decimal fractions to fractional parts of a dollar, e.g.,
1 1
2 dollar = $0.50; 4 dollar = $0.25.*

MEASUREMENT Measure and use units for length, weight, temperature and time
M.UN.03.01 Know and use common units of measurements in length, weight, and time.
M.UN.03.02 Measure in mixed units within the same measurement system for length, weight,
and time: feet and inches, meters and centimeters, kilograms and grams, pounds and ounces,
liters and milliliters, hours and minutes, minutes and seconds, years and months.
M.UN.03.03 Understand relationships between sizes of standard units, e.g., feet and inches,
meters and centimeters.
M.UN.03.04 Know benchmark temperatures such as freezing (32ºF, 0ºC); boiling (212ºF, 100ºC);
and compare temperatures to these, e.g., cooler, warmer.

Understand meaning of area and perimeter and apply in problems


M.UN.03.05 Know the definition of area and perimeter and calculate the perimeter of a
square and rectangle given whole number side lengths.
M.UN.03.06 Use square units in calculating area by covering the region and counting the
number of square units.
M.UN.03.07 Distinguish between units of length and area and choose a unit appropriate in
the context.
M.UN.03.08 Visualize and describe the relative sizes of one square inch and one square
centimeter.
*revised expectations in italics

4 THIRD GRADE M A T H E M A T I C S ■ v. 1 2 . 0 5 ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N
Estimate perimeter and area
M.TE.03.09 Estimate the perimeter of a square and rectangle in inches and centimeters;
estimate the area of a square and rectangle in square inches and square centimeters.

Solve measurement problems


M.PS.03.10 Add and subtract lengths, weights, and times using mixed units within
the same measurement system.
M.PS.03.11 Add and subtract money in dollars and cents.
M.PS.03.12 Solve applied problems involving money, length, and time.
M.PS.03.13 Solve contextual problems about perimeters of rectangles and areas
of rectangular regions.

GEOMETRY Recognize the basic elements of geometric objects


G.GS.03.01 Identify points, line segments, lines, and distance.
G.GS.03.02 Identify perpendicular lines and parallel lines in familiar shapes and in the
classroom.
G.GS.03.03 Identify parallel faces of rectangular prisms in familiar shapes and in the classroom.

Name and explore properties of shapes


G.GS.03.04 Identify, describe, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes, e.g., parallelogram,
trapezoid, circle, rectangle, square, and rhombus, based on their component parts (angles, sides,
vertices, line segment) and on the number of sides and vertices.
G.SR.03.05 Compose and decompose triangles and rectangles to form other familiar
two-dimensional shapes, e.g., form a rectangle using two congruent right triangles, or
decompose a parallelogram into a rectangle and two right triangles.

Explore and name three-dimensional solids


G.GS.03.06 Identify, describe, build, and classify familiar three-dimensional solids, e.g., cube,
rectangular prism, sphere, pyramid, cone, based on their component parts (faces, surfaces,
bases, edges, vertices).
G.SR.03.07 Represent front, top, and side views of solids built with cubes.

DATA AND Use bar graphs


PROBABILITY D.RE.03.01 Read and interpret bar graphs in both horizontal and vertical forms.
D.RE.03.02 Read scales on the axes and identify the maximum, minimum, and range
of values in a bar graph.
D.RE.03.03 Solve problems using information in bar graphs, including comparison of
bar graphs.

M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ v. 1 2 . 0 5 ■ M A T H E M A T I C S THIRD GRADE 5
Michigan Studies Grade Three

Third grade students explore the social studies disciplines of history, geography, civics and government, and economics
through the context of Michigan studies. Building on prior social studies knowledge and applying new concepts of
each social studies discipline to the increasingly complex social environment of their state, the third grade content
expectations prepare students for more sophisticated studies of their country and world in later grades.

History
In third grade, students refine their abilities to think like a historian by identifying the types of questions that
historians ask. Building upon experiences of timeline construction, students sequence early periods of Michigan
history from exploration through attaining statehood. The expectations move students from examining a variety
of simple sources to understanding how historians use both primary and secondary sources to learn about the
past. Students use both types of sources as they explore the early history of Michigan, providing a rich connection
to the English language arts. Through traditional stories, students learn about the beliefs of American Indians. They
compare how American Indians and settlers interacted with their environment through informational text. The
skill of constructing historical narratives is developed using the context of daily life in the early settlements. The
expectations build on students’ sense of chronology by requiring students to describe causal relationships among
events. These foundational understandings prepare students for more sophisticated writing and analyses as they
prepare to study United States history in subsequent grades.

Geography
Third grade students draw upon prior knowledge to create more complex understandings of geographic concepts
using the context of Michigan. They further develop spatial awareness through the use of more complex maps of
Michigan. Students refine the concept of regions as they explore different ways Michigan can be divided into regions
and learn about the different geographic regions to which Michigan belongs. Building upon their knowledge of human
systems, students investigate current economic activities in Michigan and explore factors that influence the location
of these economic activities. The expectations also extend the geographic theme of movement as students describe
current movements of goods, people, jobs, or information to, from, or within Michigan, and investigate the reasons for
the movements. In addressing human-environment interactions, the expectations integrate history as students apply
their knowledge of how people adapt to, use, and modify the environment to the more complex social environment
of their state. More sophisticated understandings are also created as students locate different natural resources
in Michigan and analyze the consequences of their use. These foundations prepare students for a more elaborate
understanding of geography as they examine their country and world in subsequent grades.

Civics and Government


In extending students’ civic perspective beyond the family, neighborhood, and community to the state, the third grade
content expectations prepare students for their role as responsible and informed citizens of Michigan. Building
upon their knowledge of government of the local community, students distinguish the roles of state government
from local government. Using the context of state government, students examine the concept of separation of
powers by exploring the powers of each branch of state government. By examining how the state courts function to
resolve conflicts, students deepen their understanding of the rule of law. The idea of representative government is
introduced. By focusing on key concepts, such as citizens’ rights and responsibilities, separation of powers, individual
rights, rules of law, representative government, and justice, students are prepared for the roles of citizens in our
democratic republic.

GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 23
Economics
Third grade students refine their understanding of the principles and concepts of economics. Building on a basic
understanding of scarcity and choice, students learn to appreciate the relationships among scarcity, choice, and
opportunity costs in making economic decisions. In addition, students are introduced to how incentives impact
economic decision making. Students explore Michigan’s economy by examining how natural resources have
influenced economic development in the state. An introduction to the concepts of entrepreneurship, specialization,
and interdependence allows students to explore the relationship of Michigan to the national and global economies.
Finally, students use these concepts to consider the role of new business development in Michigan’s future.

Public Discourse, Decision Making, and Citizen Involvement


Students continue to develop a more sophisticated understanding of public issues and the importance of citizen
action in a democratic republic. Using the context of Michigan, third grade students identify public policy issues
facing citizens in Michigan, use graphic data and other sources to analyze information about the issue, and evaluate
alternative resolutions. By utilizing core democratic values to demonstrate why people may differ on the resolution
of a state issue, students continue to develop competency in expressing their own opinions relative to these issues
and justify their opinions with reasons. This foundational knowledge is built upon throughout the grades as students
develop a greater understanding of how, when, and where to communicate their positions on public issues with a
reasoned argument.

24 GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Three

History
H3 History of Michigan (Through Statehood)
Use historical thinking to understand the past.
3 – H3.0.1 Identify questions historians ask in examining the past in Michigan (e.g., What happened? When
did it happen? Who was involved? How and why did it happen?)
3 – H3.0.2 Explain how historians use primary and secondary sources to answer questions about the past.
3 – H3.0.3 Describe the causal relationships between three events in Michigan’s past (e.g., Erie Canal, more
people came, statehood).
3 – H3.0.4 Draw upon traditional stories of American Indians (e.g., Anishinaabeg - Ojibway (Chippewa),
Odawa (Ottawa), Potawatomi; Menominee; Huron Indians) who lived in Michigan in order to
make generalizations about their beliefs.
3 – H3.0.5 Use informational text and visual data to compare how American Indians and settlers in the early
history of Michigan adapted to, used, and modified their environment.
3 – H3.0.6 Use a variety of sources to describe interactions that occurred between American Indians and
the first European explorers and settlers in Michigan.
3 – H3.0.7 Use a variety of primary and secondary sources to construct a historical narrative about daily life
in the early settlements of Michigan (pre-statehood).
3 – H3.0.8 Use case studies or stories to describe how the ideas or actions of individuals affected the
history of Michigan.
3 – H3.0.9 Describe how Michigan attained statehood.
3 – H3.0.10 Create a timeline to sequence early Michigan history (American Indians, exploration, settlement,
statehood).

Geography
G1 The World in Spatial Terms
Use geographic representations to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.
3 – G1.0.1 Use cardinal directions (north, south, east, west) to describe the relative location of significant
places in the immediate environment.
3 – G1.0.2 Use thematic maps to identify and describe the physical and human characteristics of Michigan.
G2 Places and Regions
Understand how regions are created from common physical and human characteristics.
3 – G2.0.1 Use a variety of visual materials and data sources to describe ways in which Michigan can be
divided into regions.
3 – G2.0.2 Describe different regions to which Michigan belongs (e.g., Great Lakes Region, Midwest).

GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 25
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Three

G4 Human Systems
Understand how human activities help shape the Earth’s surface.
3 – G4.0.1 Describe major kinds of economic activity in Michigan today, such as agriculture (e.g., corn,
cherries, dairy), manufacturing (e.g., automobiles, wood products), services and tourism, research
and development (e.g., Automation Alley, life sciences corridor, university communities), and
explain the factors influencing the location of these economic activities. (E)
3 – G4.0.2 Describe diverse groups that have come into a region of Michigan and reasons why they came
(push/pull factors). (H)
3 – G4.0.3 Describe some of the current movements of goods, people, jobs or information to, from, or
within Michigan and explain reasons for the movements. (E)
3 – G4.0.4 Use data and current information about the Anishinaabeg and other American Indians living in
Michigan today to describe the cultural aspects of modern American Indian life; give an example
of how another cultural group in Michigan today has preserved and built upon its cultural
heritage.

G5 Environment and Society


Understand the effects of human-environment interactions.
3 – G5.0.1 Locate natural resources in Michigan and explain the consequences of their use.
3 – G5.0.2 Describe how people adapt to, use, and modify the natural resources of Michigan. (H)

Civics and Government

C1 Purposes of Government
Explain why people create governments.
3 – C1.0.1 Give an example of how Michigan state government fulfills one of the purposes of government
(e.g., protecting individual rights, promoting the common good, ensuring equal treatment under
the law).

C2 Values and Principles of American Government


Understand values and principles of American constitutional democracy.
3 – C2.0.1 Describe how Michigan state government reflects the principle of representative government.

C3 Structure and Functions of Government


Describe the structure of government in the United States and how it functions to serve citizens.
3 – C3.0.1 Distinguish between the roles of state and local government.
3 – C3.0.2 Identify goods and services provided by the state government and describe how they are funded
(e.g., taxes, fees, fines).
3 – C3.0.3 Identify the three branches of state government in Michigan and the powers of each.
3 – C3.0.4 Explain how state courts function to resolve conflict.
3 – C3.0.5 Describe the purpose of the Michigan Constitution.

C5 Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy


Explain important rights and how, when, and where American citizens demonstrate their responsibilities by participating
in government.
3 – C5.0.1 Identify rights (e.g., freedom of speech, freedom of religion, right to own property) and
responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., respecting the rights of others, voting, obeying laws).

26 GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Approved by the State Board of Education - October 2009

2009 Michigan Educational Technology Standards for Students

Grades 3-5
A goal of No Child Left Behind is that schools will “assist every State Board of Education
student in crossing the digital divide by ensuring that every student is
Kathleen N. Straus, President
technologically literate by the time the student finishes the eighth grade,
regardless of the student’s race, ethnicity, gender, family income, John C. Austin, Vice President

geographic location, or disability.” Carolyn L. Curtin, Secretary

The Michigan Educational Technology Standards for Students (METS-S) Marianne Yared McGuire, Treasurer
are aligned with the International Society for Technology in Education’s Nancy Danhof, NASBE Delegate
(ISTE) National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S)
Elizabeth W. Bauer
and the Framework for 21st Century Learning. The Michigan standards are
intended to provide educators with a specific set of learning expectations Reginald M. Turner
that can be used to drive educational technology literacy assessments. Casandra E. Ulbrich

These standards are best delivered by authentic instruction and assess- Jennifer M. Granholm Governor
ment with direct curricular ties and it is intended that these Standards will
Michael P. Flanagan, Superintendent
be integrated into all content areas. The preparation of our students to
the successful in the 21st Century is the responsibility of all educators.

Technology Literacy
Technology literacy is the ability to responsibly use appropriate technology to communicate, solve problems, and
access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information to improve learning in all subject areas and to acquire
lifelong knowledge and skills in the 21st century.

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)


CAST (the Center for Applied Special Technology) offers three principles to guide UDL: provide multiple means of
representation; provide multiple means of expression; and provide multiple means of engagement. CAST asserts
that “These UDL Guidelines will assist curriculum developers (these may include teachers, publishers, and others) in
designing flexible curricula that reduce barriers to learning and provide robust learning supports to meet the needs of
all learners.” Educational technologies can be valuable resources for educators in addressing the UDL guidelines. For
additional information on UDL, visit the CAST website: www.cast.org.

For additional information and resources relating to the 2009 METS-S, please visit: http://www.techplan.org/METS

Page 1 of 2
2009 Michigan Educational Technology Standards—Grades 3-5

3-5.CI. Creativity and Innovation—By the end of grade 5 each student will:
3-5.CI.1. produce a media-rich digital project aligned to state curriculum standards (e.g., fable, folk tale, mystery, tall
tale, historical fiction)

3-5.CI.2. use a variety of technology tools and applications to demonstrate his/her creativity by creating or modifying
works of art, music, movies, or presentations

3-5.CI.3. participate in discussions about technologies (past, present, and future) to understand these technologies are
the result of human creativity
3-5.CC. Communication and Collaboration—By the end of grade 5 each student will:
3-5.CC.1. use digital communication tools (e.g., e-mail, wikis, blogs, IM, chat rooms, videoconferencing, Moodle,
Blackboard) and online resources for group learning projects

3-5-2.CC.2. identify how different software applications may be used to share similar information, based on the in-
tended audience (e.g., presentations for classmates, newsletters for parents)

3-5-2.CC.3. use a variety of media and formats to create and edit products (e.g., presentations, newsletters, bro-
chures, web pages) to communicate information and ideas to various audiences
3-5.RI. Research and Information Literacy—By the end of grade 5 each student will:
3-5.RI.1. identify search strategies for locating information with support from teachers or library media specialists

3-5.RI.2. use digital tools to find, organize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information

3-5.RI.3. understand and discuss that web sites and digital resources may contain inaccurate or biased information

3-5.RI.4. understand that using information from a single Internet source might result in the reporting of erroneous
facts and that multiple sources should always be researched
3-5.CT. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making —By the end of grade 5 each student will:
3-5.CT.1. use digital resources to access information that can assist in making informed decisions about everyday mat-
ters (e.g., which movie to see, which product to purchase)

3-5.CT.2. use information and communication technology tools (e.g., calculators, probes, videos, DVDs, educational
software) to collect, organize, and evaluate information to assist with solving problems

3-5.CT.3. use digital resources to identify and investigate a state, national, or global issue (e.g., global warming, econ-
omy, environment)

3-5.DC. Digital Citizenship—By the end of grade 5 each student will:


3-5.DC.1. discuss scenarios involving acceptable and unacceptable uses of technology (e.g., file-sharing, social net-
working, text messaging, cyber bullying, plagiarism)

3-5.DC.2. recognize issues involving ethical use of information (e.g., copyright adherence, source citation)

3-5.DC.3. describe precautions surrounding personal safety that should be taken when online

3-5.DC.4. identify the types of personal information that should not be given out on the Internet (name, address,
phone number, picture, school name)
3-5.TC. Technology Operations and Concepts—By the end of grade 5 each student will:

3-5.TC.1. use basic input and output devices (e.g., printers, scanners, digital cameras, video recorders, projectors)

3-5.TC.2. describe ways technology has changed life at school and at home

3-5.TC.3. understand and discuss how assistive technologies can benefit all individuals

3-5.TC.4. demonstrate proper care in the use of computer hardware, software, peripherals, and storage media

3-5.TC.5. know how to exchange files with other students using technology (e.g., network file sharing, flash drives)
Page 2 of 2 Approved by the Michigan State Board of Education—October 2009