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(Rubble or Cyclopean concrete)

1. NHA Specifications (401.3.6.f) (Plum, Rubble or Cyclopean Concrete):-

1. Rubble or cyclopean concrete shall consist of Class B concrete containing large
embedded stones.
2. The total volume of the stone shall not be greater than one third (33%) of the
total volume of the portion of the work in which it is placed.
3. Each stone shall be surrounded by at least fifteen centimeter (150 mm) of
concrete and no stone shall be closer than thirty centimeter (300 mm) to any top
surface nor any closer than fifteen centimeter (150 mm) to any coping.
2. Methodology:-
1. Plum concrete shall consist of concrete Class B 170 kg/cm² (2500psi) containing
large embedded stones that one man can handle it.
2. Class B concrete slump should not be more than 150mm.
3. No two stones shall be closer than 150mm to each other either sideways or
bottom to top layer.
4. Only steel plates or plywood form work should be used and it should not be
damaged or misplaced while placing of stones.
5. Plum concrete will constitute only 33% stones of total volume and concrete
Class B will not be less than 67%. That means that the volume of stones is only
one-third and two-third in concrete.
6. Each stone should be covered by 150mm Class B concrete all around and the
spaces in between the larger stones should not be filled with smaller stone
chippings except concrete.
7. It is also to be ensured that water curing is carried out for at least 14 days.
3. Correct / Incorrect Practices:-
1. The common practice observed in such constructions is that stones used are
more than 33% and concrete used is less than 67%, which is incorrect practice
and needs to be monitored at the site. Such substandard works should be
rejected/ devalued proportionally.
2. Another incorrect practice observed is that a layer of closely placed stones is
made and then a layer of mortar is spread over the stone layers. The correct
practice is to first place a concrete layer of 150mm and then place the stones
150mm apart on the concrete layer.
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(Rubble or Cyclopean concrete)

All stones are placed 150 mm apart. Here stones are placed closer than

The concrete layer between the stones The concrete layer between the stones
layer is 150 mm. layer is less than 150 mm.
Advantages: Disadvantages:
 It is according to NHA  It is not according to NHA
Specifications (401.3.6.f) for Specifications (401.3.6.f) for
Plum, Rubble or Cyclopean Plum, Rubble or Cyclopean
Concrete. Concrete.
 Concrete quantity 66% with  Concrete quantity less than 50%
respect to stones 33% is achieved. and stones used are more than
50% is achieved.
 The work needs to be devalued

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