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CARBOHYDRATES
★monosccharides(simple sugars)
-GLUCOSE
-FRUCTOSE
-GALACTOSE

★disaccharides(double sugars)
-SUCROSE - glucose + fructose
-LACTOSE - glucose + galactose
-MALTOSE - glucose + glucose

★polysaccharides(complex sugars)
-STARCH
-GLYCOGEN
-CELLULOSE

UNFAMILIAR BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY


 ANATOMY – inner organs ENTOMOLOGY – insects
 BIOCHEMISTRY – chemical patterns of animals
 ECOLOGY – living things bet. Each other in environment
 EMBRYOLOGY – developmental patterns fr. zygote-birth
 GENETICS – heredity MYCOLOGY – fungi
 HERPETOLOGY – reptiles and amphibians
 HISTOLOGY – plant and animal tissues
 MORPHOLOGY – phenotype (appearance)
 ORNITHOLOGY – birds PARASITOLOGY – parasites
 PALEONTOLOGY – fossils of animals and plants
 PHYSIOLOGY – function of tissue, organ & system
 TAXONOMY – classification of living organisms

SCIENCE PROPONENTS
 CAROLUS LINNAEUS – Father of Taxonomy
 ROBERT HOOKE – termed “cells” (cellulae)
 ANTON VAN LEUWENHOEK – 1st person to observe microscopic organisms (animal cule)
 ROBERT BROWN – discovered Nucleus
 MATTHIAS SCHIEDEN (Botanist) & THEODORE (Zoologist) - found all plants consist of cells
 RUDOLF VIRCHOW – proposed cells come fr. existing cells

EARTH’S SPHERES
A. Atmosphere – gaseous sphere protection from meteors
Divided into five:
1. Troposphere
2. Stratosphere
3. Mesosphere
4. Thermosphere
5. Exosphere

B. Hydrosphere – water
C. Lithosphere – oceanic and continental crust
D. Biosphere – all life forms in Earth
E. Cryosphere – ice
F. Anthrosphere – ancestors
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PLANETS AND THEIR SEQUENCE
1. SUN – 99.86% of Solar System
- believed was formed 4.6 billion years ago
- Responsible for weather and climate

2. MERCURY – named after Roman God


- no satellite and atmosphere
- discovered by Mariner 10

3. VENUS – Goddess of Love and Beauty (Mariner 2)


- Perfect sphere, sister planet of Earth
- discovered by Mariner 10

4. EARTH

5. MARS – God of War, red planet (Mariner 9)

6. JUPITER -Gas Giant, fastest rotating planet (10hrs less)


- has Great Red Spot: huge storm for 350yrs

7. SATURN – God of Agriculture (chunks of rocks)


- made mostly of hydrogen

8. URANUS – Frederick William Herscel


- Sky & Ice Giant, 3rd largest planet

CELL ORGANELLES THEIR FUNCTIONS AND FONDLY NAMES

NUCLEUS - brain of the cells


ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM - transporter
RIBOSOMES - site of protein synthesis
CHLOROPLAST - site of photosynthesis
VACUOLE - garbage bin (storage)
LYSOSOMES - garbage collectors
NUCLEOLUS - site of ribosomal synthesis
CELL MEMBRANE - the guards of the cell
CYTOPLASM - gel- like structure
GOLGI APPARATUS - packaging site of the cell
CELL WALL - plant cell protector
MITOCHONDRIA - powerhouse of the cell