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Dense Bituminous Macadam & Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete Mixes

1

D. Sakthibalan

ABSTRACT: The physical properties of coarse aggregates are more significant in new generation bituminous mixtures. The strength

and serviceability requirements of bituminous mixture such as Stability, Flow, Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA), Voids Filled with

Bitumen (VFB), Air Voids (Va) and Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) highly depend on the physical properties of aggregates. Flakiness is an

important physical property of mineral aggregates which affects the quality of bituminous mixes. In this study, the influence of flaky

aggregates on the properties of most commonly used bituminous mixes in India such as Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) and Semi

Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) mixes are analysed with different proportions of flaky aggregate and conclusions are drawn.

KEYWORDS: Flakiness, Tensile strength ratio, Mineral aggregate, Bituminous concrete, Bituminous Mecadam

Introduction Methodology

The shape of aggregate particle has a significant In this study, the behaviour of DBM and SDBC

influence on the performance of the bituminous mixes was studied with aggregates having different

pavement. Particle shape can be described as cubical, flat, flakiness indices (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%).

elongated and round. The presence of flaky aggregates is Since the aim of this study is to quantify the effects of

considered as undesirable in bituminous mixtures flaky aggregates alone, elongated aggregates were

because of their tendency to break down during completely removed from the aggregate samples to avoid

construction and subsequent traffic operations. The voids the influence of elongated aggregates. The following

present in a compacted mix depend on the shape of properties were investigated in this study by conducting

aggregates. Highly flaky aggregates have more voids Marshall tests.

and reduce the workability. Hence it was felt that the

study on the effect of the flaky aggregates on bituminous > Stability

mixtures is relevant and essential. > Flow

> Percent air voids (Va)

Objectives

> Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA percent)

The objectives of this study is investigate the > Percent Voids Filled with Bitumen (VFB)

effect of flaky aggregates on the following properties of

DBM and SDBC mixes > Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR)

and conclusions were drawn.

> Flow

> Percent air voids Experimental Investigations

> Voids in mineral aggregate percent

The aggregates used in this study were 20 mm,

> Percent voids filled with bitumen 12 mm, 6 mm and stone dust. Bitumen of penetration

grade 60/70 was used. The properties of the materials

> Tensile strength ratio used are given in Table 1 and Table 2.

Test results

Sl.No Test Test method Unit

20mm 12mm 6mm Dust

1. Aggregate Impact value IS:2386 % 15.01 19.88 - -

2. Water absorption IS:2386 % 0.92 0.96 - -

3. Stripping IS:2386 % Nil Nil - -

4. Specific gravity IS:2386 - 2.71 2.76 2.68 2.59

1

M.E (Urban Engineering) student, Division of Transportation Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai - 25

26 STUDENTS PAPER COMPETITION 2009

Table 2 Properties of 60/70 Grade Bitumen sizes for SDBC mix are as given below

> 20 mm aggregate - 5%

Test > 12 mm aggregate - 5%

Sl.No Test Unit Results

method

> 6 mm aggregate - 55%

1. Penetration IS: 1203 mm 65

> Stone dust - 35%

2. Ductility IS: 1208 cm 75

The mix design was carried out for DBM and

3. Specific Gravity IS:2386 - 1.01 SDBC mixes of 50mm thickness (Grading II in MoSRT&H

specifications) with non - flaky aggregates and non

4. Softening Point IS 1203 °C 50

elongated aggregates and optimum bitumen content was

5. Flash Point IS 1209 °c 240 observed as 4.6 % for DBM and 5.0 % for SDBC by

weight of mix.

Analysis of Data

The aggregate gradation for DBM and SDBC

mixes was selected from Ministry of Shipping Road

Transport & Highways (MoSRT&H) specifications. The DBM Mix with Different Flakiness Indices

proportions of aggregate sizes were determined by trial for Aggregates

and error method to achieve the combined gradation as

per the requirements. The proportions arrived for different Marshall specimens were prepared at optimum

aggregate sizes for DBM mix are as given below bitumen content with varying flakiness indices for

aggregates (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) and

> 20 mm aggregate - 20% tested in the laboratory. The above proportions of flaky

> 12 mm aggregate - 25% aggregates were maintained after carefully removing all

> 6 mm aggregate - 30% the elongated aggregates to avoid the influence of

elongated aggregates and to assess the influence of

> Stone dust - 25% flaky aggregates alone accurately. The properties of

DBM mix with various flakiness indices are given in

The proportions arrived for different aggregate

Table 3.

Table 3 Test results of DBM mix with different flakiness indices for aggregates

0 20 40 60 80 100

% requirement

Stability

The variation of stability with increase in

flakiness index is shown in Figure 1. It is observed that

stability decreases with increase in proportion of flaky

aggregates. The stability of mix with non - flaky

aggregates is found to be 18.922 kN against the

minimum requirement of 9kN which indicates that non -

flaky aggregates yield much higher strength than the

minimum requirement. Eventhough, the stability value

gradually decreases with increase in the proportion of flaky

aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the minimum

requirement of 9 kN upto flakiness index of 89%. Fig 1. Variation of Stability with Flakiness Indices

INFLUENCE OF AGGREGATE FLAKINESS 27

Flow

The variation of flow value with increase in

flakiness index is shown in Figure 2. It is observed that

flow value decreases with increase in proportion of flaky

aggregates. The flow of mix with non - flaky aggregates

is found to be 3.8 mm against the requirement of 2 - 4

mm which indicates that non - flaky aggregate satisfy

the requirement recommended by MoSRT&H.

Eventhough, the flow value gradually decreases with

increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found

to be satisfying the specification requirement of 2 - 4 Fig 2. Variation of Flow with Flakiness Indices

mm upto flakiness index of 92 %.

The variation of Va with increase in flakiness

index is shown in Figure 3. It is observed that Va

increases with increase in proportion of flaky

aggregates. The Va of mix with non - flaky aggregates is

found to be 3,2 % against the requirement of 3 - 5 %

which indicates that non - flaky aggregate yield better.

Eventhough, the Va value gradually increases with

increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found

to be satisfying the specification requirement of 3 - 5% Fig 3. Variation of Flow with Flakiness Indices

upto flakiness index of 94 %.

The variation of VMA with increase in flakiness

index is shown in Figure 4. It is observed that VMA

increases with increase in proportion of flaky

aggregates. The VMA of mix with non - flaky

aggregates is found to be 13.0% against the minimum

requirement of 13.0 % which indicates that non - flaky

aggregate yield better mix. Eventhough, the VMA value

gradually increases with increase in the proportion of

flaky aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the Fig 4. Variation of VMA with Flakiness Indices

specification requirement of 13.0 % for all proportions.

The variation of VFB with increase in flakiness

index is shown in Figure 5. It is observed that VFB

decreases with increase in proportion of flaky

aggregates. The VFB of mix with non - flaky aggregates

is found to be 83.18 % against the specification

requirement of 75 - 85 % which indicates that non -

flaky aggregates yield better mix. Eventhough, the VFB

value gradually decreases with increase in the

proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found to be

satisfying the minimum requirement of 75 - 85 % upto

flakiness index of 92 %.

increase in flakiness index is shown in Figure 6. It is

observed that tensile strength ratio decreases with

increase in proportion of flaky aggregates. The tensile

strength ratio of mix with non -flaky aggregates is found

to be 92.03 % against the requirement of minimum 80 %

which indicates that non - flaky aggregates yield much

higher tensile strength than the minimum requirement.

Eventhough, the tensile strength ratio value gradually

decreases with increase in the proportion of flaky

aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the minimum

requirement of 80 % upto flakiness index of 32 %. Fig 6. Variation of Tensile Strength Ratio with Flakiness Indices

28 STUDENTS PAPER COMPETITION 2009

SDBC Mix with Different Flakiness Indices tested in the laboratory. The above proportions of flaky

aggregates were maintained after carefully removing all

for Aggregates the elongated aggregates to avoid the influence of

elongated aggregates and to assess the influence of flaky

Marshall specimens were prepared at optimum aggregates alone accurately. The properties of SDBC mix

bitumen content with varying flakiness indices for with various flakiness indices are given in Table 4.

aggregates (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) and

Table 4 Test results of SDBC mix with different flakiness indices for aggregates

Flakiness MoSRT&H

0 20 40 60 80 100

Index % requirement

Stability (kN) 18.60 15.13 13.56 10.43 8.73 7.89 8.00

Flow (mm) 2.90 2.83 2.61 2.52 2.12 1.92 2-4

Va (%) 3.30 3.67 3.89 4.21 4.65 5.37 3-5

VMA (%) 13.50 13.72 14.03 14.54 14.78 15.02 Min 13

VFB (%) 77.00 76.54 72.46 70.04 69.28 66.28 65-75

TSR (%) 92.17 86.78 74.35 68.31 56.92 50.12 Min 80

Stability

The variation of stability with increase in flakiness

index is shown in Figure 7. It is observed that stability

decreases with increase in proportion of flaky aggregates.

The stability of mix with non - flaky aggregates is found to

be 18.60 kN against the minimum requirement of 8kN

which indicates that non - flaky aggregates yield much

higher strength than the minimum requirement.

Eventhough, the stability value gradually decreases with

increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found to

be satisfying the minimum requirement of 8 kN upto

flakiness index of 80%. Fig 7. Variation of Stability with Flakiness Indices

Flow

The variation of Va with increase in flakiness index

The variation of flow value with increase in

is shown in Figure 9. It is observed that Va increases with

flakiness index is shown in Figure 8. It is observed that

increase in proportion of flaky aggregates. The Va of mix

flow value decreases with increase in proportion of flaky

with non - flaky aggregates is found to be 3.2 % against the

aggregates. The flow of mix with non - flaky aggregates

requirement of 3 - 5 % which indicates that non - flaky

is found to be 2.9mm against the requirement of 2 - 4 mm

aggregate yield better. Eventhough, the Va value

which indicates that non – flaky aggregate satisfy the

gradually increases with increase in the proportion of

requirement recommended by MoSRT&H. Eventhough,

flaky aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the

the flow value gradually decreases with increase in the

specification requirement of 3 - 5% upto flakiness index

proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found to be satisfying

of 92%.

the specification requirement of 2 - 4 mm upto flakiness

index of 91 %.

Fig 8. Variation of air voids with flakiness indices Voids (Va)

INFLUENCE OF AGGREGATE FLAKINESS 29

The variation of VMA with increase in flakiness

index is shown in Figure 10. It is observed that VMA

increases with increase in proportion of flaky aggregates.

The VMA of mix with non - flaky aggregates is found to be

13.0% against the minimum requirement of 13.0 % which

indicates that non - flaky aggregate yield better mix.

Eventhough, the VMA value gradually increases with

increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found

to be satisfying the specification requirement of 13.0 %

for all proportions.

Fig 10. Variation of air Voids with Flakiness Indices

The variation of VFB with increase in flakiness

index is shown in Figure 11. It is observed that VFB

decreases with increase in proportion of flaky aggregates.

The VFB of mix with non - flaky aggregates is found to be

83.18 % against the specification requirement of 75 - 85 %

which indicates that non - flaky aggregates yield better

mix. Eventhough, the VFB value gradually decreases with

increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found

to be satisfying the minimum requirement of 65 - 75 %

upto flakiness index of 94 %.

in flakiness index is shown in Figure 12. It is observed

that tensile strength ratio decreases with increase in

proportion of flaky aggregates. The tensile strength ratio

of mix with non - flaky aggregates is found to be 92.03 %

against the requirement of minimum 80 % which Fig 11. Variation of VFB with flakiness indices 5.2.6 Tensile

indicates that non - flaky aggregates yield much higher Strength Ratio

tensile strength than the minimum requirement.

SDBC mixes.

> Flakiness index upto 32% for DBM and 33% for

SDBC can be permitted without compromising the

specification requirements.

References

Ahlrich, Aho and Rismantojo F (2005), 'Investigation of

the influence of aggregate properties on performance of

heavy duty HMA pavements', NCHRP Report 539.

Fig 12. Variation of Tensile Strength Ratio with

flakiness indices Bambang Ismanto siswosoebrotho and Kariantoni ginting

J (2005), 'Workability and resilient modulus of asphalt

Eventhough, the tensile strength ratio value gradually concrete mixtures containing flaky aggregates', Journal of

decreases with increase in the proportion of flaky the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.

aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the minimum 6, pp. 1302 -1312.

requirement of 80 % upto flakiness index of 33%.

Erol tutumluer, Tongyan pan C (2005), ‘Investigation of

aggregate shape effects on hot mix performance using

Conclusions an image analysis approach', Department of Civil and

Environmental Engineering University of Dlinois at

From the experiments conducted in this study, the urbane champaign urbana, Dlinois.

following conclusions are drawn

Isaac K.P, Bhuduru S and (Ms) Mathew BS (2006),

> The parameters such as stability, flow, voids filled 'Influence of flaky and elongated aggregates on the

with bitumen and tensile strength ratio decreases properties of bituminous concrete mix', Journal for

with increase in proportion of flaky aggregates for Engineers (i) Journal-Cv, Vol 87, pp. 54-58.

both DBM and SDBC mixes.

Krishnamurthy and Mohammed i Anjum (2004),

> The parameters such as air voids and voids in 'Influence of coarse aggregate shape factors on mixes',,

mineral aggregate increases with increase in Indian Highways, pp. 51-56.

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