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INDIAN GEOTECHNICAL SOCIETY CHENNAI CHAPTER

Influence of Aggregate Flakiness on


Dense Bituminous Macadam & Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete Mixes
1
D. Sakthibalan

ABSTRACT: The physical properties of coarse aggregates are more significant in new generation bituminous mixtures. The strength
and serviceability requirements of bituminous mixture such as Stability, Flow, Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA), Voids Filled with
Bitumen (VFB), Air Voids (Va) and Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) highly depend on the physical properties of aggregates. Flakiness is an
important physical property of mineral aggregates which affects the quality of bituminous mixes. In this study, the influence of flaky
aggregates on the properties of most commonly used bituminous mixes in India such as Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) and Semi
Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) mixes are analysed with different proportions of flaky aggregate and conclusions are drawn.

KEYWORDS: Flakiness, Tensile strength ratio, Mineral aggregate, Bituminous concrete, Bituminous Mecadam

Introduction Methodology

The shape of aggregate particle has a significant In this study, the behaviour of DBM and SDBC
influence on the performance of the bituminous mixes was studied with aggregates having different
pavement. Particle shape can be described as cubical, flat, flakiness indices (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%).
elongated and round. The presence of flaky aggregates is Since the aim of this study is to quantify the effects of
considered as undesirable in bituminous mixtures flaky aggregates alone, elongated aggregates were
because of their tendency to break down during completely removed from the aggregate samples to avoid
construction and subsequent traffic operations. The voids the influence of elongated aggregates. The following
present in a compacted mix depend on the shape of properties were investigated in this study by conducting
aggregates. Highly flaky aggregates have more voids Marshall tests.
and reduce the workability. Hence it was felt that the
study on the effect of the flaky aggregates on bituminous > Stability
mixtures is relevant and essential. > Flow
> Percent air voids (Va)
Objectives
> Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA percent)
The objectives of this study is investigate the > Percent Voids Filled with Bitumen (VFB)
effect of flaky aggregates on the following properties of
DBM and SDBC mixes > Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR)

> Stability From the experimental results, analysis was made


and conclusions were drawn.
> Flow
> Percent air voids Experimental Investigations
> Voids in mineral aggregate percent
The aggregates used in this study were 20 mm,
> Percent voids filled with bitumen 12 mm, 6 mm and stone dust. Bitumen of penetration
grade 60/70 was used. The properties of the materials
> Tensile strength ratio used are given in Table 1 and Table 2.

Table 1 Physical Properties of Aggregates

Test results
Sl.No Test Test method Unit
20mm 12mm 6mm Dust
1. Aggregate Impact value IS:2386 % 15.01 19.88 - -
2. Water absorption IS:2386 % 0.92 0.96 - -
3. Stripping IS:2386 % Nil Nil - -
4. Specific gravity IS:2386 - 2.71 2.76 2.68 2.59
1
M.E (Urban Engineering) student, Division of Transportation Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai - 25
26 STUDENTS PAPER COMPETITION 2009

Table 2 Properties of 60/70 Grade Bitumen sizes for SDBC mix are as given below

> 20 mm aggregate - 5%
Test > 12 mm aggregate - 5%
Sl.No Test Unit Results
method
> 6 mm aggregate - 55%
1. Penetration IS: 1203 mm 65
> Stone dust - 35%
2. Ductility IS: 1208 cm 75
The mix design was carried out for DBM and
3. Specific Gravity IS:2386 - 1.01 SDBC mixes of 50mm thickness (Grading II in MoSRT&H
specifications) with non - flaky aggregates and non
4. Softening Point IS 1203 °C 50
elongated aggregates and optimum bitumen content was
5. Flash Point IS 1209 °c 240 observed as 4.6 % for DBM and 5.0 % for SDBC by
weight of mix.

Analysis of Data
The aggregate gradation for DBM and SDBC
mixes was selected from Ministry of Shipping Road
Transport & Highways (MoSRT&H) specifications. The DBM Mix with Different Flakiness Indices
proportions of aggregate sizes were determined by trial for Aggregates
and error method to achieve the combined gradation as
per the requirements. The proportions arrived for different Marshall specimens were prepared at optimum
aggregate sizes for DBM mix are as given below bitumen content with varying flakiness indices for
aggregates (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) and
> 20 mm aggregate - 20% tested in the laboratory. The above proportions of flaky
> 12 mm aggregate - 25% aggregates were maintained after carefully removing all
> 6 mm aggregate - 30% the elongated aggregates to avoid the influence of
elongated aggregates and to assess the influence of
> Stone dust - 25% flaky aggregates alone accurately. The properties of
DBM mix with various flakiness indices are given in
The proportions arrived for different aggregate
Table 3.

Table 3 Test results of DBM mix with different flakiness indices for aggregates

Flakiness index MoSRT&H


0 20 40 60 80 100
% requirement

Stability (kN) 18.922 17.017 15.299 12.990 9.959 8.097 9.000

Flow (mm) 3.800 3.703 3.510 2.997 2.760 1.757 2-4

Va (%) 3.200 3.387 3.431 3.971 4.018 5.302 3-5

VMA (%) 13.000 13.072 13.103 13.969 14.186 15.691 Min 13

VFB (%) 83.180 81.531 81.446 78.731 78.725 72.586 65-85

TSR (%) 92.03 89.64 63.41 58.60 52.65 49.43 Min 80

Stability
The variation of stability with increase in
flakiness index is shown in Figure 1. It is observed that
stability decreases with increase in proportion of flaky
aggregates. The stability of mix with non - flaky
aggregates is found to be 18.922 kN against the
minimum requirement of 9kN which indicates that non -
flaky aggregates yield much higher strength than the
minimum requirement. Eventhough, the stability value
gradually decreases with increase in the proportion of flaky
aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the minimum
requirement of 9 kN upto flakiness index of 89%. Fig 1. Variation of Stability with Flakiness Indices
INFLUENCE OF AGGREGATE FLAKINESS 27

Flow
The variation of flow value with increase in
flakiness index is shown in Figure 2. It is observed that
flow value decreases with increase in proportion of flaky
aggregates. The flow of mix with non - flaky aggregates
is found to be 3.8 mm against the requirement of 2 - 4
mm which indicates that non - flaky aggregate satisfy
the requirement recommended by MoSRT&H.
Eventhough, the flow value gradually decreases with
increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found
to be satisfying the specification requirement of 2 - 4 Fig 2. Variation of Flow with Flakiness Indices
mm upto flakiness index of 92 %.

Air Voids (Va)


The variation of Va with increase in flakiness
index is shown in Figure 3. It is observed that Va
increases with increase in proportion of flaky
aggregates. The Va of mix with non - flaky aggregates is
found to be 3,2 % against the requirement of 3 - 5 %
which indicates that non - flaky aggregate yield better.
Eventhough, the Va value gradually increases with
increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found
to be satisfying the specification requirement of 3 - 5% Fig 3. Variation of Flow with Flakiness Indices
upto flakiness index of 94 %.

Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA)


The variation of VMA with increase in flakiness
index is shown in Figure 4. It is observed that VMA
increases with increase in proportion of flaky
aggregates. The VMA of mix with non - flaky
aggregates is found to be 13.0% against the minimum
requirement of 13.0 % which indicates that non - flaky
aggregate yield better mix. Eventhough, the VMA value
gradually increases with increase in the proportion of
flaky aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the Fig 4. Variation of VMA with Flakiness Indices
specification requirement of 13.0 % for all proportions.

Voids Filled with Bitumen (VFB)


The variation of VFB with increase in flakiness
index is shown in Figure 5. It is observed that VFB
decreases with increase in proportion of flaky
aggregates. The VFB of mix with non - flaky aggregates
is found to be 83.18 % against the specification
requirement of 75 - 85 % which indicates that non -
flaky aggregates yield better mix. Eventhough, the VFB
value gradually decreases with increase in the
proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found to be
satisfying the minimum requirement of 75 - 85 % upto
flakiness index of 92 %.

Tensile Strength Ratio Fig 5. Variation of VFB with Flakiness Indices

The variation of&tensile strength ratio with


increase in flakiness index is shown in Figure 6. It is
observed that tensile strength ratio decreases with
increase in proportion of flaky aggregates. The tensile
strength ratio of mix with non -flaky aggregates is found
to be 92.03 % against the requirement of minimum 80 %
which indicates that non - flaky aggregates yield much
higher tensile strength than the minimum requirement.
Eventhough, the tensile strength ratio value gradually
decreases with increase in the proportion of flaky
aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the minimum
requirement of 80 % upto flakiness index of 32 %. Fig 6. Variation of Tensile Strength Ratio with Flakiness Indices
28 STUDENTS PAPER COMPETITION 2009

SDBC Mix with Different Flakiness Indices tested in the laboratory. The above proportions of flaky
aggregates were maintained after carefully removing all
for Aggregates the elongated aggregates to avoid the influence of
elongated aggregates and to assess the influence of flaky
Marshall specimens were prepared at optimum aggregates alone accurately. The properties of SDBC mix
bitumen content with varying flakiness indices for with various flakiness indices are given in Table 4.
aggregates (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) and

Table 4 Test results of SDBC mix with different flakiness indices for aggregates

Flakiness MoSRT&H
0 20 40 60 80 100
Index % requirement
Stability (kN) 18.60 15.13 13.56 10.43 8.73 7.89 8.00
Flow (mm) 2.90 2.83 2.61 2.52 2.12 1.92 2-4
Va (%) 3.30 3.67 3.89 4.21 4.65 5.37 3-5
VMA (%) 13.50 13.72 14.03 14.54 14.78 15.02 Min 13
VFB (%) 77.00 76.54 72.46 70.04 69.28 66.28 65-75
TSR (%) 92.17 86.78 74.35 68.31 56.92 50.12 Min 80

Stability
The variation of stability with increase in flakiness
index is shown in Figure 7. It is observed that stability
decreases with increase in proportion of flaky aggregates.
The stability of mix with non - flaky aggregates is found to
be 18.60 kN against the minimum requirement of 8kN
which indicates that non - flaky aggregates yield much
higher strength than the minimum requirement.
Eventhough, the stability value gradually decreases with
increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found to
be satisfying the minimum requirement of 8 kN upto
flakiness index of 80%. Fig 7. Variation of Stability with Flakiness Indices
Flow
The variation of Va with increase in flakiness index
The variation of flow value with increase in
is shown in Figure 9. It is observed that Va increases with
flakiness index is shown in Figure 8. It is observed that
increase in proportion of flaky aggregates. The Va of mix
flow value decreases with increase in proportion of flaky
with non - flaky aggregates is found to be 3.2 % against the
aggregates. The flow of mix with non - flaky aggregates
requirement of 3 - 5 % which indicates that non - flaky
is found to be 2.9mm against the requirement of 2 - 4 mm
aggregate yield better. Eventhough, the Va value
which indicates that non – flaky aggregate satisfy the
gradually increases with increase in the proportion of
requirement recommended by MoSRT&H. Eventhough,
flaky aggregates, it is found to be satisfying the
the flow value gradually decreases with increase in the
specification requirement of 3 - 5% upto flakiness index
proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found to be satisfying
of 92%.
the specification requirement of 2 - 4 mm upto flakiness
index of 91 %.

Fig 9. Variation of Flow with Flakiness Indices 5.23 Air


Fig 8. Variation of air voids with flakiness indices Voids (Va)
 
INFLUENCE OF AGGREGATE FLAKINESS 29

Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA)


The variation of VMA with increase in flakiness
index is shown in Figure 10. It is observed that VMA
increases with increase in proportion of flaky aggregates.
The VMA of mix with non - flaky aggregates is found to be
13.0% against the minimum requirement of 13.0 % which
indicates that non - flaky aggregate yield better mix.
Eventhough, the VMA value gradually increases with
increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found
to be satisfying the specification requirement of 13.0 %
for all proportions.

Voids Filled with Bitumen (VFB)


Fig 10. Variation of air Voids with Flakiness Indices
The variation of VFB with increase in flakiness
index is shown in Figure 11. It is observed that VFB
decreases with increase in proportion of flaky aggregates.
The VFB of mix with non - flaky aggregates is found to be
83.18 % against the specification requirement of 75 - 85 %
which indicates that non - flaky aggregates yield better
mix. Eventhough, the VFB value gradually decreases with
increase in the proportion of flaky aggregates, it is found
to be satisfying the minimum requirement of 65 - 75 %
upto flakiness index of 94 %.

The variation of tensile strength ratio with increase


in flakiness index is shown in Figure 12. It is observed
that tensile strength ratio decreases with increase in
proportion of flaky aggregates. The tensile strength ratio
of mix with non - flaky aggregates is found to be 92.03 %
against the requirement of minimum 80 % which Fig 11. Variation of VFB with flakiness indices 5.2.6 Tensile
indicates that non - flaky aggregates yield much higher Strength Ratio
tensile strength than the minimum requirement.

proportion of flaky aggregates for both DBM and


SDBC mixes.
> Flakiness index upto 32% for DBM and 33% for
SDBC can be permitted without compromising the
specification requirements.

References
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