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Nama : I Dewa Ketut Ari Saputra

Nim : 1409005053


A. Superficial Musculature

The muscles of facial expression, mimetic musculature, are prominent features of head and
neck morphology of non-human primates (Huber, 1933). The variety of movements of the skin
of the eyelids, lips, ears, neck, and nostrils are critical for interanimal signaling within the
context of the social organization. Visual displays, as well as vocal repertoires, are essential to
communicate everything from threats and aggression to unease or sexual solicitation.

B. Ear

The external ears are positioned laterally on the skull. The pinna varies in size to generally
small relative to head size. There is interspecific variability in the shape of the external ear but
it is usually with some infoldings (Bast, 1933) The pinna is generally in, The external auditory
tube is the external opening of the ear and the tympanic ring and eardrum. The tube structure
varies along evolutionary lines. In Old World Monkeys and Apparatus, the bony tympanic ring
is prolonged laterally, the medial portion of the external auditory tube is rather than cartilage.
The New World monkeys lack this prolongation so the tympanic ring is exposed to the skull
and the entire meat is cartilagenous (Fig 5).

C. Eye and Orbit

The eyes of the others are distinct from most of the animals they have binocular vision. The
orbits are relatively close together and oriented anteriorly which results in overlapping their
visual fields (Bast, 1933). The bony orbit is complete with a well-developed postorbital bar
and postorbital plate which separates the orbit from the infratemporal fossa. The size of both
the eye and orbit varies among species but the relative size coincides with the behavioral habits
of the species. In the owl monkey (Aotus), a nocturnal species, the eyes and orbits are relatively
large compared to the size of the skull. In introduced species the orbit and eyes are relatively
small. As in humans, the lacrimal gland is located in the super- lateral portion of the orbit and
the duct inferiomedially. The hypotheses of this gland are constantly cornea like humans,
human primates develop age-related psychology such as cataracts, macular degeneration, and
loss of visual acuity. The superior and inferior eyelids are single extensions of the skin. In
some species the superior lid may have a distinctive coloration. Raising. or lowering, the
browsers are important clients of the communicative behavioral repertoire of priests. They can
expose, or conceal, the apper eyelids and widen, or narrow, the eye slit to display, or obscure,

D. Clinically Significant Features of Head and Neck Morphology

Clinical significant features of head and neck morphology include the use of samples of blood
and rebrospinal fluid and the use of dental eruptions for aging (see Section IV, B) higher
primates, it is usually easier to obtain blood samples almost exclusively from the region of the
face. The brain and A common site for animal species is the external jugular vein. Although
this vessel is accessible in either the femoral or saphenous veins. The external jugu lar vein is
primates is relatively short and the drains are drained by the internal jugular vein which joins
the external jugular vein near the root of the neck. In Old World Monkeys with cheek pouches
the exploration of the extent of recesses should precede venopuncture of the jugular vein.
amples of cerebrospinal fluid from the higher primates are readable by entering the
subarchnoid space either between the base of the skull and the first cervical vertebra or between
the first and second cervical vertebrae (CI and C2). Marked flexion of the head and neck opens
up spaces between the posterior (dorsal) arch of CI and both of the adjacent bones. The nuchai
ridge of the skull and the spine of C2 are easily palpable bony landmarks (Fig. 10). The
withdrawal of the cerebrospinal fluid is lowered by the broad place of the articular processes
of the lumbar vertebrae and the cranial placement of the iliac blades of the pelvis.


A. Overview of Back and Tail

The caudal region of higher primates shows conside variability, particularly in external
morphology. Such as the great and the lesser, as well as humans, lack the reputation of an
external tail. All New World and Old World keys have a lot of length, with a little bit more
space than a lot of people, the Atelinae and the Alouattinae, are prehensile and have a tactile
pad on the ventral surface (Ger- man, 1982). This pad is very similar to the palmar / plantar on
the hands and feet, and in these species it is often used as a fifth extremity. Other families also
have some functional pre-emptiveness in their eyes but lack the pressure for necessary for true
there is a tremendous variability in tail length even among closely related species. No Old
World monkey has a prehensile tail event even though some species may occasionally wrap
their tails around soups and use their tails for balancing.

B. Musculature

Internally the muscles can be subdivided into intrinsic and intrinsic groups with the latter
groups including the muscles of the tail (Howell and Straus, 1933a). The extrinsic muscles
include hypersensitivity to the posterior midline and attached to the spines and transverse
processes of the vertebrae. in piimates the relatively short neck and posterior posi- tions, the
result of which is the extent and positioning of the pectoral girdle muscles, particuiarly mm.
trapezius and latissimus being generally broader in origin and shorter in most other
quadrupeds. All of these hypaxial muscles are innervated by ventral rami of spinal nerves. The
intrinsic muscles of the back extend from the skull to the tip of the tail. In primates, these
muscles are similar to epaxial muscles in most mammals. Each muscle bundle for a limited
number of segments and overlaps with adjacent bundles.

C. Spinal Cord

The spinal cord is housed in the vertebral canal formed by the arches of adjacent vertebrae
(Hines, 1933; Noback and Moskowitz, 1963). The meninges that surround the cord, as well
as relative to the spinal nerves to their exits via the intervertebral foramen, are similar to
those of other mammals including humans.

E. Clinically Significant Features of Back and Spine Morphology

Clinical significant features of back and spine morphology include the relative positions of the
vertebrae and the relationship between the vertebral column and the bony pelvis.
Morphological features associated with obtaining the cerebrospinal fluid from the head and
neck (Section VI.L. With this one exception, most famous landmarks used to locate internal
structures in the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal regions (Sections IX and X), in the vertebral
column the spines of the middle thoracic vertebrae, in particular, the sharp angle caudally and
the tip of a spine The spines of the lumbar vertebrae are very broad in craze, and are easily
palpated until surrounded by the ilia. The ilia project is cranially from the sacroiliac joints and
the iliac crests usually lie parallel to the inferior part of the second to the last lumbar vertebrae.
Similar to most nonhuman primates, anatomy is more human anatomy than to other mammals,
the bony pelvis and relationship to the vertebral column is an exception. In this the nonhuman
primate bony anatomy is a pillar of that of other quadrupeds rather than to the human biped.
The soft tissue, as discussed in the sections on the abdomen, pelvis, and perineu (Sections X
and XI), however, is more similar to humans in many respects.