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11.

INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION


1. Monochromatic light from a narrow slit λD
illuminates two narrow slits 0.3 mm X = and
apart producing an interference pattern d
with bright fringes 1.5 mm apart on a λD
screen 75 cm away. Find the wavelength ′′
X′′ =
d′
of the light. How will the fringe width
be altered if X ′′ d d 1
∴ = = =
i) the distance of the screen is X d′ 2d 2
doubled X
ii) the separation between the slits is ∴ ′′
X′′ =
2
doubled ?
Given : 1.5 × 10 –3
d = 0.3 mm = 3 × 10–4 m =
2
X = 1.5 mm = 1.5 × 10–3 m
= 0.75 × 10–3 m
D = 75 cm = 0.75 m
To Find : ∴ X′′ ′ = 0.75 mm
λ = ?
X′′ = ? 2. In Young’s double slit experiment, the
′′
X′′ = ? slits are 0.5 mm apart and interference
Formula : is observed on a screen placed at a
distance of 100 cm from the slits. It is
Xd found that the 9th bright fringe is at a
λ =
D distance 8.835 mm from the second dark
Solution : fringe from the centre of the fringe
Xd pattern. Find the wavelength of light
λ = used.
D
Given :
1.5 × 10 –3 × 3 × 10 –4 d = 0.5 mm
λ = = 0.5 × 10–3 m
0.75
= 6 × 10–7 m = 5 × 10–4 m
∴ λ = 6000 A.U. D = 100 cm = 1 m
λD X9 – X′′2 = 8.835 mm
X = and
d [Assuming both bright and dark fringes
are on same side of centre of fringe
λ D′
X′′ = pattern]
d
= 8.835 × 10–3 m
X′ D′ 2D To Find :
∴ = = = 2
X D D λ = ?
∴ X′′ = 2X Formula :
= 2 × 1.5 × 10–3
Xd
= 3 × 10–3 m λ =
∴ X′′ = 3 mm D

Interference and Diffraction


.. 60 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

Solution : Solution :
Since distance of nth bright band Xd
nλ D λ =
D
Xn =
d
0.944 × 10 –3 × 7.5 × 10 –4
9λ D λ =
X9 = 1.2
d
Since distance of n th dark band from 0.944 × 75
= × 10–7
center 12
= 5.9 × 10–7 m
λD
X′′ 2 = (2 × 2 – 1) ∴ λ = 5900 A.U
2d
3λ D 4. A biprism is placed 5 cm from slit
= illuminated by sodium light of
2d
wavelength 5890 A.U. The width of the
9λ D 3λ D 15λ D fringes obtained on a screen 75 cm from
Now X9 – X′′2 = – =
d 2d 2d the biprism is 9.424 × 10–2 cm. What is
the distance between two coherent
2d ( x9 – x′2 )
∴ λ = sources ?
15D Given :
D = 5 + 75
2 × 5 × 10 –4 × 8.835 × 10 –3
= = 80 cm = 0.8 m
15 × 1
–7 λ = 5890 A.U
= 5.89 × 10 m
∴ λ = 5890 A.U = 5.89 × 10–7 m
X = 9.424 × 10–2 cm
3. In biprism experiment, the eye-piece is = 9.424 × 10–4 m
placed at a distance of 1.2 metre from
To Find :
the sources. The distance between the
d = ?
virtual sources was found to be
Formula :
7.5 × 10–4 m. Find the wavelength of light
if the eye-piece is to be moved Xd
λ =
transversly through a distance of D
1.888 cm for 20 fringes. Solution :
Given : From formula
D = 1.2 m
λD
d = 7.5 × 10–4 m d =
X
20 X = 1.888 cm
= 1.888 × 10–2 m 5.89 × 10 –7 × 0.8
=
∴ X = 0.944 × 10–3 m 9.424 × 10 –4
To Find : = 0.5 × 10–3 m
λ = ? ∴ d = 0.5 mm
Formula :
Xd
λ =
D
Interference and Diffraction
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 61

5. A point is situated at 6.5 cm and 6.65 cm Path difference S2P – S1P


from two coherent sources. Find the = 0.0075 m
nature of illumination at the point if
= 7.5 × 10–6 m
wavelength of light is 5000 A.U.
Given : Path difference S2Q – S1Q
X1 = 6.5 cm = 0.0015 m
= 6.5 × 10–2 m = 1.5 × 10–6 m
X2 = 6.65 cm To find :
= 6.65 × 10–2 m No. of bright bands betweeen P and Q = ?
λ = 5000 A.U = 5 × 10–7 m Formula :
To Find : λ
Nature of illumination at the point = ? S2 P – S1 P = (2n – 1)
2
Solution :
path difference is given by λ
S2 Q – S1 Q = (2n – 1)
∆X = X2 – X1 2
= 6.65 × 10–2 – 6.5 × 10–2 Solution :
= 0.15 × 10–2 For point P,
λ
∆X 0.15 × 10 –2 S2 P – S1 P = (2n – 1)
= = 3000 2
λ 5 × 10 –7
λ ∴ S 1P – S 2 P ( 2n – 1)
∴ ∆X = 3000 λ = 6000 × =
2 λ 2
As the path difference is even multiple
7.5 × 10 –6 2n – 1
λ –7 =
of . 6 × 10 2
2
∴ The point is bright. 75 2n – 1
=
6 2
6. In Young’s experiment, the wavelength
of monochromatic light used is 6000 25 2n – 1
=
A.U. The optical path difference 2 2
between the rays from the two coherent
sources at point P on the screen is 0.0075 26 – 1 2n – 1
=
mm and at a point Q on the screen is 2 2
0.0015 mm. How many bright and dark
2 × 13 – 1 2n – 1
bands are observed between the two ∴ =
points P and Q ? (points P and Q are on 2 2
the opposite sides of central bright above equation gives,
band.) n = 13
Given : th
o ∴ 13 band will occur at P.
λ = 6000 A
∴ No. of bright bands between P and
= 6 × 10–7 m central bright band O = 12.
Similarly, for point Q,

Interference and Diffraction


.. 62 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

λ Formula :
S2Q – S1Q = (2n – 1)
2 nλ D
Xn =
d
1.5 × 10–6 ( 2n – 1)
∴ –7 = Solution :
6 × 10 2
nλ D
15 2n – 1 Xn =
= d
6 2
3λ r D
5 2n – 1 X3 = and
= d
2 2
4λ b D
X4 =
6–1 2n – 1 d
=
2 2 But
X3 = X4
2×3–1 2n – 1
∴ = 3λ r D 4λ b D
2 2 ∴ =
d d
above equation gives
∴ 3λλr = 4λλb
n = 3
rd
3 × λr
∴ 3 dark bands will occur at Q. ∴ λb =
4
∴ No. of bright bands between Q and
central bright band O = 2. 3
= × 6400
∴ No. of bright bands between P and Q 4
= 12 + 2 + 1 (central bright band) ∴ λb = 4800 A.U
= 15
8. In a single slit diffraction pattern the
distance between the first minimum on
7. In biprism experiment, the slit is
the right and the first minimum on the
illuminated by red light of wavelength
left is 5.2 mm. The screen on which the
6400 A.U. and the cross wire of eyepiece
pattern is displayed is 80 cm from the
is adjusted to the centre of 3rd bright
slit and the wavelength is 5460 A.U.
band. By using blue light it is found
Calculate the slit width.
that 4th bright band is at the centre of
Given :
the cross wire. Find the wavelength of
λ = 5460 A.U
blue light.
= 5.46 × 10–7 m
Given :
X1 = 1 st minimum distance on
λr = 6400 A.U
right side
X3 = Centre of 3rd bright band for X′′ 1 = 1st minimum distance on left
red side
X4 = Centre of 4th bright band for Also
blue X1 = X′′ 1
X3 = X4 ∴ X1 + X′′ 1 = 5.2 mm
To Find : = 5.2 × 10–3 m
D = 80 cm
λb = ?
= 0.8 m

Interference and Diffraction


MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 63

To Find : Solution :
d = ? λD
Formula : X1 = and
d
For minimum
nλ D λD
Xn = X′′ 1 =
d 2d
Solution : λD λD
Since ∴ X1 – X′′1 = –
d 2d
n = 1
λD
nλ D =
∴ Xn = , becomes 2d
d
4.89 × 10 –7 × 0.4
λD =
∴ X1 = 2 × 5 × 10 –3
d
λD λD 2λD ∴ X1 – X′′1 = 1.956 × 10–5 m
X1 + X′′1 = + =
d d d
10. The semivertical angle of cone of the
–3
2 × 5.46 × 10–7 × 0.8 rays incident on the objective of
∴ 5.2 × 10 =
d microscope is 200. If the wavelength of
incident light ray is 6600 A.U. Calculate
2 × 5.46 × 0.8 × 10–7 the smallest distance between two
∴ d =
5.2 × 10 –3 points which can be just resolved.
= 1.68 × 10–4 Given :
∴ d = 0.168 mm α = 200
λ = 6600 A.U
9. Diffraction pattern of single slit of
= 6.6 × 10–7 m
width 0.5 cm is formed by a lens of focal
length 40 cm. Calculate the distance µ = 1 (for air)
between the first dark and the next To Find :
bright fringe from theo axis. Wavelength d = ?
of light used is 4890 A. Formula :
Given :
d = 0.5 cm 1.22 λ
d =
= 5 × 10–3 m 2µ sin α
f = D = 0.4 m Solution :
o
λ = 4890 A 1.22 λ
= 4.89 × 10–7 m d =
2µ sin α
To Find :
X1 – X′′1 = ? 1.22 × 6.6 × 10 –7
d =
Formula : 2 × 1 × sin 200
For minimum
1.22 × 6.6 × 10 –7
=
λD 2 × 0.3420
X =
d
Interference and Diffraction
.. 64 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

Calculate the wavelength of the


1.22 × 6.6 × 10 –7 monochromatic light used in
=
0.684 experiment.
∴ d = 11.77 × 10–7 Given :
∴ d = 11770 A.U µ = 1.6
t = 1.964 mm
11. What is the minimum angular
= 1.964 × 10–6 m
separation between two stars if telescope
is used to observe them with an To Find :
objective of aperture 20 cm ? The λ = ?
wavelength of light used is 5900 A.U. Formula :
Given :
D
a = 20 cm Fringe shift, ∆X = µ – 1)t

d
= 0.2 m
λ = 5900 A.U Solution :
= × 10–7 m
5 . 9 Dλ
Since, X =
To Find : d
dθθ = ? When distance D is increased to 2D, the
Formula : fringe-width becomes equal to ∆X.

1.22 λ 2Dλ
θ
dθ = ∴ ∆X = ... (i)
a d
Solution : D
∆X = µ – 1)t

1.22 λ d
θ
dθ = using (i), we get,
a
2Dλ D
1.22 × 5.9 × 10 –7 = µ – 1)t

θ
dθ = d d
0.2
∴ θ
dθ = 3.599 × 10–6 rad 1 1
∴ λ = µ – 1)t = (1.6 – 1) × 1.964

2 2
12. InYoung’s double slit experiment using × 10–6
monochromatic light, the fringe pattern = 0.5892 × 10–6 m
o
shifts by certain distance on the screen ∴ λ = 5892 A
when mica sheet of refractive index. 1.6
and thicknesss 1.964 microns is 13. Two slits in Young’s experiement have
introduced in the path of one of the widths in the ratio 81 : 1. What is the
interfering waves. The mica sheet is ratio of the amplitudes of light waves
then removed and the distance between coming from them ?
the slits and screen is doubled. It is
Given :
found that the distance between
successive maxima now is same as the w1 81
observed fringe shift upon the =
w2 1
introduction of the mica sheet.
Interference and Diffraction
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 65

To Find : λ
∴ 0.5 corresponds to phase difference
a1 2
= ?
a2 π
0.5 π =
Formula : 2

w1 I1 a 21 π
= = ∴ φ=
w2 I2 a 22 2

Solution :  π
∴ Iy = K  a 21 + a 22 + 2a 1 a 2 cos 
 2
w1 I1 a 21
= =
w2 I2 a 22  π 
= K ( a 21 + a 22 ) ∵ cos 2 = 0 
 
81 a 21
∴ =
1 a 22 I K ( a1 + a2 )
2

Now x =
a1 Iz K ( a 21 + a 22 )
9
∴ =
a2 1 If a1 = a2 = a
∴ a1 : a2 = 9 : 1 2
Ix (a + a) ( 2a )
2
4a 2
= = =
14. Find the ratio of intensities at two Iz (a 2
+a 2
) 2a 2 2a 2
points x and y on a screen in Young’s
double slit experiment, where waves Ix
from S1 and S2 have path difference of = 2:1
Iz
λ
(i) 0 and (ii) .
4 15. Two coherent sources, whose intensity
Solution : ratio is 81 : 1 produce interference fringes.
For point x, ∆x = 0 Calculate the ratio of intensity of
maxima and minima in the fringe
∴ Path difference of 0 corresponds to phase
system.
difference 0.
Given :
Intensity Ix = K ( a 1 + a 2 + 2a1 a 2 cos 0 )
2 2 0
∴ I1 81
=
I2 1
= K ( a 2 + a 22 + 2a 1 a 2 )
To Find :
∴ Ix = K (a1 + a2)2
For point y, I max
= ?
I min
λ 1 λ λ
∆x = = . = 0.5 Formula :
4 2 2 2
2
λ I max ( a1 + a2 )
∴ Path difference of corresponds to = 2
4 I min ( a 1 – a2 )
π
phase difference
2
Interference and Diffraction
.. 66 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

Solution :

I1 a 21 81
= =
I2 a 22 1

a1 9
=
a2 1
∴ a1 = 9 a2
2
I max ( a1 + a2 )
= 2
I min ( a1 – a2 )
2 2
I max ( 9a 2 + a 2 ) ( 10a 2 )
= = 2
I min ( 9a 2 – a 2 )
2
( 8a 2 )

100a22
=
64a22

I max 25
∴ =
I min 16

Interference and Diffraction