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Abstract

Drug abuse, also called substance abuse or chemical abuse, is a


disorder that is characterized by a destructive pattern of using a
substance that leads to significant problems or distress. Teens are
increasingly engaging in prescription drug abuse, particularly narcotics
(which are prescribed to relieve severe pain), and stimulant
medications, which treat conditions like attention deficit disorder and
narcolepsy.

Any substance, other than food, used in the prevention, diagnosis, all
aviation or treatment of a disease is called a drug. Drug is also known as
a medicine. Generally, the term drugs applied to any stimulating or
depressing substance that can be habituating or addictive. A drug,
broadly speaking, can be categorized in many ways; hard or soft,
uppers or downers, addictive or non-addictive, most harmful or least
harmful, legal or illegal.
Classification of Drugs

There are a large number of drugs on which people become dependent.


These are classifies into four major groups: sedatives and tranquillizers,
opiate narcotics, stimulations and hallucinogens.

Drug Addiction
Some Harmful Drugs
1. Heroin:
Commonly used as smack Heroin is chemically diacetylmorphine which
is a white, odorless, bitter crystalline compound. This is obtained by
acetylation of morphine which is extracted from latex of poppy plant
Papaver somniferum. Generally taken by snorting and injection, heroin
is a depressant and slows down body function.

2. Cannabinoids:
Natural cannabinoids are obtained from the inflorescences of the plant
Cannabis sativa. The flower tops, leaves and the resin of the plant are
used in various combinations to produce marijuana, hashish, charas
and ganja. Generally taken by inhalation and oral ingestion, these are
known for their effects on cardiovascular system of the body.

3. Cocaine:
It is obtained from coca plant Erythroxylum coca, native to South
America. It interferes with the transport of the neuro-transmitter
dopamine. Cocaine, commonly called coke or crack is usually snorted. It
has the potent stimulating action on central nervous system, producing
sense of euphoria and increased energy. Excessive dosage of cocaine
causes hallucinations.
How drug addiction Begin?

There are many factors that lead people to drug addiction.

1. Curiosity: Frequent references to drugs by public media create


curiosity for having a personal experience of the drugs.

2. Friend’s pressure: Frequent appreciation of drug experience by


friends allures others to start the use of drugs.

3. Frustration and Depression: Some people start taking drugs to get


relief from frustration and depression.

4. Desire for More Work: Students sometimes take drugs to keep


awake the whole night to prepare for examination. It is not desirable as
it may cause mental breakdown.

5. Looking for a Different World: A wrong notion that the drugs


open up a new world tempts some young pupils to start taking-drugs.

6. Relief from Pain: A prolonged use of pain-relieving drugs with


physician’s advice at times leads to addiction.
7. Family History: Children may take to drugs by seeing their elders in
the family.

8. Excitement and Adventure: The young take to drugs to satisfy


their instinct for excitement and adventure.
Smoking, Drinking and Use of Drugs
Smoking and drinking and use of drugs frequently or regularly are social
diseases. Young people take to these habits for fun, show off or
curiosity, as an adventure or feeling of freedom, or as a gesture of
defiance against the elders who themselves indulge in these activities
but check the youngsters. Temporary escape from the life problems
and mental relaxation felt on taking the drugs in the beginning increase
people’s interest in them. Soon they become habitual and find in
difficult to leave. The daily dose to get the desired effect increases with
time.

Short-Term Effects

• Loss of appetite

• Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature

• Contracted blood vessels

• Increased rate of breathing

• Dilated pupils

• Disturbed sleep patterns


• Nausea

• Hyperstimulation

• Bizarre, erratic, sometimes violent behavior

• Hallucinations, hyperexcitability, irritability

• Tactile hallucination that creates the illusion of bugs burrowing


under the skin

• Intense euphoria

• Anxiety and paranoia

• Depression

• Intense drug craving

• Panic and psychosis


• Convulsions, seizures and sudden death from high doses (even
one time)
Long-Term Effects

• Permanent damage to blood vessels of ear and brain, high blood


pressure, leading to heart attacks, strokes and death

• Liver, kidney and lung damage

• Respiratory failure

• Infectious diseases and abscesses if injected

• Malnutrition, weight loss

• Auditory and tactile hallucinations

• Sexual problems, reproductive damage and infertility (for both


men and women)

• Disorientation, apathy, confused exhaustion

• Irritability and mood disturbances


• Increased frequency of risky behavior

• Delirium or psychosis

• Severe depression

• Tolerance and addiction (even after just one use)

Drug Addiction
Harm caused by Drugs:
Sources
It is a native of South Africa, where the Red Indian first started smoking.
Now the tobacco plant has spread the world over. It has large, quote to
Lancelot leaves and terminal clusters of tubular, white or pink flowers.
Modes of Use
Tobacco is used for smoking, chewing and snuffing. Its main stimulating
component is poisonous volatile alkaid nicotine, which causes
addiction. Nicotine synthesis occurs in the roots of the plant but it is
stored in the leaves. The leaves contain 2 to 8% nicotine. Inhaling
tobacco smoke from cigars, cigarettes, biddies, pipes and hubble-
bubble is called smoking. Cigar is a roll of tobacco leaf. Cigarette is cut
tobacco wrapped in paper. Bidi is tobacco wrapped. In a piece of leaf.
Tobacco smoke is drawn directly from pipe and through water is
hubble-bubble. Smoking may give some temporary relief to the
strained nerves but in the long run it proves a dangerous health hazard.
The quantity of nicotine contained in one cigar may prove fatal if
injected intravenously into a person. When smoked only 10% of the
smoke is inhaled. Hence, no immediate ill effect is observed. Smokers
may develop a physiological craving for nicotine and then they cannot
give up smoking.
Effect of Nicotine

Nicotine is a low concentration.

(i) Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses.

(ii) Relaxes the muscles.

(iii) Releases adrenaline, increasing heart beat rate and pressure.

(iv) Increased blood pressure due to smoking chances the risk of heart
diseases.

(v) Retards fetal growth in expecting mothers and

(vi) Causes tobacco addiction. High concentration of nicotine paralyses


nerve cells.
Harmful components of
Tobacco Smoke:-
Besides the poisonous nicotine, the tobacco smoke contains carbon-
monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tar.

Other Effects:
(i) Smoking affects economy:
A smoker not only waste money, but also runs risk of burns and fires.

(ii) Smoking mars personality:


Teeth may become stained. Lips may get discolored and breath
becomes foul. A person with a cigarette hanging from the mouth look
odd.

(iii) Smoking is annoying to others:


Cigarette smoke is quite annoying to non-smokers. It may prove even
more harmful to them. A smoker should avoid smoking. When in the
company of non smokers. A smoker makes the nearby people passive
smokers through inhaling smoke released by him.
Alcohol
An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known
as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes
many other compounds. Ethanol is a centrally-acting drug with a
depressant effect. Beer is an alcoholic beverage and thus has the same
harmful effects as other kinds of alcohol, depending on the quantity
consumed.
Reasons for Drinking:
• Psychological factors are curiosity, poor stress
control, escape from reality, poor impulse control, low self – esteem,
positive attitudes towards alcohol, to get rid of problems, to overcome
loneliness, relief from tension and to gain courage.

• Social factors are peer pressure, modeling, easy availability of alcohol


in the market, party culture, family environment (Parent/s drinking
alcohol), lack of family support, to keep up social norms and to show
their masculinity.

• Biological factors are genetic vulnerability like family history of


alcoholism in parents or near relatives and to get sleep.

Impact of Drinking Alcohol:


Unlike other foods, alcohol does not require digestion. When one
drinks, alcohol is absorbed directly into the bloodstream through the
walls of the stomach and the intestine.

Once alcohol enters the bloodstream it circulates throughout the body.


Alcohol is metabolized in the liver and is changed to carbon dioxide,
water and some calories of energy which gets converted into fat. A
small amount of alcohol goes out of the body through breath, urine and
sweat. Regular, excessive use of alcohol causes acute and chronic
problems related to health, occupation, family and social relationships.
Health Problems:
Alcohol can damage every system of our body.

Gastro intestinal system (stomach and intestines): Increased acid


secretion leading to acidity, ulcers, gastritis, and cancer

Liver : Hepatitis, jaundice and vomiting of blood due to cirrhosis of


liver, liver cancer, acute liver failure.

Pancreas : Pancreatic damage due inflammation of pancreas and


acute pancreatitis leading to sudden death.

Central nervous system: (brain and spinal cord): Permanent


damage of brain resulting in memory disturbances, other nervous
problems, fits and mental illnesses.

Cardio vascular system: High blood pressure, increased tendency


to heart attacks, enlargement of the heart.
Hangovers: Excessive drinking can lead to hangovers, thus causing
problems like headache, nausea, vomit and body aches.

Weight gain: alcohol consumption in larger quantities can lead to


weight gain, because alcoholic beverages are usually high in calories.

Weak immune system: alcohol consumption makes your immune


system weak, thus making your body more susceptible to infections.

Cancer: alcohol when consumed in excessive quantities puts you at a


higher risk of developing cancer
Fetal alcohol syndrome:

Drinking alcohol in pregnancy may cause the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


(physical abnormalities, growth retardation and developmental delay).

Sources:
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, flammable, colorless liquid having a
penetrating odor and burning taste. It is one of the products of the
distillation of fermented grains, fruit juices and starches with the help
of yeast enzymes. It is the principal constituent and the in toxicating
principle of wines.

Modes of Use:
Alcohol is taken in low concentration, as the beer, toddy and wine and
in relatively high concentration as arrack, brandy, whisky, rum, gin,
vodka etc.
CONCLUSIONS
Reference
1. Comprehensive Laboratory Manual In Biology-XII 2. Biology Text For
Class XII – NCERT

2. http://www.wikipedia.org/