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1. Management should encourage harmony and general good feeling among employees. -

RATIONALE: Esprit de corps is a sense of group cohesion in the organization and

between employees. It is an important concept to keep an organization and employees
loyal to each other. This group cohesion makes it easier for employees to work together
to achieve common objectives.

a. It refers to team spirit i.e. harmony in the work groups and mutual
understanding among the members.

b. Spirit De’ Corps inspires workers to work harder.

c. To inculcate Espirit De’ Corps following steps should be undertaken –

 There should be proper co-ordination of work at all levels

 Subordinates should be encouraged to develop informal relations
among themselves.
 Efforts should be made to create enthusiasm and keenness
among subordinates so that they can work to the maximum ability.

2. Retaining of productive employees. - STABILITY OF TENURE


'STABILITY' means no frequent change, termination and transfer etc. It means that, in
an organization whenever an employee is appointed for a job, he/she shouldn't be removed
from that position frequently. The management of the organization should ensure that there
must be stability in the job and frequent changes and shuffling of position should be
avoided. Stability of tenure of personnel is a principle stating that in order for an
organization to run smoothly, personnel (especially managerial personnel) must not
frequently enter and exit the organization.
a. The employees should be appointed after keeping in view principles of
recruitment & selection but once they are appointed their services should be
b. Time is required for an employee to get used to a new work & succeed to
doing it well but if he is removed before that he will not be able to render worthwhile
3. People/employees should be treated equally. – ORDER


a. This principle is concerned with proper & systematic arrangement of things and
b. Arrangement of things is called material order and placement of people is called social
order. c. Material order- There should be safe, appropriate and specific place for every
article and every place to be effectively used for specific activity and commodity.
d. Social order- Selection and appointment of most suitable person on the suitable job.

4. Is a body of organized knowledge underlying the art, managing is the art of doing or
accomplishing the goals of the group through effective and efficient use of resources-

 Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum results with a
minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both
employer and employee and give the public the best possible service.
 Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with
and through people and other organizational resources./
 Management and administration sometimes appear to be synonymous, but
they are not synonymous terms.

Nursing management consists of the performance of the leadership functions of

governance and decision-making within organizations employing nurses. It includes
processes common to all management like planning, organizing, staffing, directing and

5. Was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience-


When responsibility is given to a person, he must also be given the authority to make
commitments, use resources and take the actions necessary to carry out his

Three Forms of Authority

1. Line authority – is a direct supervisory authority from supervisor to subordinates.

o Chain of Command – unbroken line of reporting relationships that
extends through the entire organization. The line defines the chain of
command and the formal decision making structure.
o Unity of Command – within the chin states that, each person in the
organization should take orders and reports only to one person.
o Span of Control – refers to the number of employees that should be
placed under the direction of one leader-manager.
2. Staff Authority – authority that is based on the expertise and which usually involves
advising the line managers.
3. Team Authority – is granted to committees or work teams involved in an
organization’s daily operations. Work teams are group of operating employees who
shared a common vision, goals and objectives.

6. He defined leadership and management as legitimate source of power due to the

delegates authority- STEPHEN R. COVEY

7. Who is the father of scientific management? FREDERICK W. TAYLOR

Frederick Taylor's scientific management theory, also called the classical
management theory, emphasizes efficiency, much like Max Weber's. However,
according to Taylor, rather than scolding employees for every minor mistake,
employers should reward workers for increased productivity.

"The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity

for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee," said
Taylor. "The words 'maximum prosperity' are used, in their broad sense, to mean
not only large dividends for the company or owner, but the development of every
branch of the business to its highest state of excellence, so that the prosperity
may be permanent."

8. According to Max Weber the ideal form of organization is? BUREAUCRACY


Bureaucratic leadership is leadership based upon fixed official duties under a hierarchy of
authority, applying a system of rules for management and decision-making. This style of
leadership can be advantageous in highly regulated lines of business, and it can be an
efficient management style in companies that don't require much creativity or innovation
from employees.

9. He developed the “Principles of Management” and “Functions of Management”. HENRY


14 principles of Management are statements that are based on a fundamental truth.

These principles of management serve as a guideline for decision-making and
management actions. They are drawn up by means of observations and analyses of events
that managers encounter in practice.

10. He introduced the “7 Activities of Management” which inspired by Henry Fayol’s

Functions of Management? LUTHER GULICK



1. Where does colorectal cancer begins?

Answer: polyp

- a small growth, usually benign and with a stalk, protruding from a mucous

2. Warning sign of colorectal cancer?

Answer: blood in the stools


Colorectal cancers can often bleed into the digestive tract. Sometimes the blood can be
seen in the stool or make it look darker, but often the stool looks normal. Many of these
symptoms can be caused by conditions other than colorectal cancer, such as infection,
hemorrhoids, or irritable bowel syndrome.

3. What are the common risk factor of colorectal cancer?


-history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)- A group of chronic intestinal

diseases characterized by inflammation of the bowel -- the large or small intestine. The most
common types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are ulcerative colitis and Crohndisease.

-history of intestinal polyp/s

-family history of colorectal cancer

4. What diet is common cause of colorectal cancer?

Answer: high fat/cholesterol (EGGS, SHELLFISH, CHEESE, ETC..) and high red meat
diet (BEEF, PORK)

5. What are the 4 pathophysiologic changes of colorectal cancer in right side of colon?
-black tarry stool- dark red or black in color. Bloody or tarry stools can indicate bleeding or
other injuries in your gastrointestinal tract.
-weight loss

6. What are the 4 pathophysiologic changes of colorectal cancer in left side of colon and
-black tarry stool
-rectal bleeding
-abdominal cramping
-ribbon-shape stool

7. What is a test used to help diagnose colon cancer?

Answer: colonoscopy - a procedure in which a flexible fiber-optic instrument is inserted
through the anus in order to examine the colon.

8. What is the treatment for colon cancer?

-SURGERY- Resection of the colon with anastomosis. Part of the colon containing
the cancer and nearby healthy tissue is removed, and then the cut ends of the colon are


 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been the first-choice chemotherapy drug for colorectal
 panitumumab (Vectibix), cetuximab (Erbitux), bevacizumab (Avastin), ramucirumab
(Cyramza), and aflibercept (Zaltrap), and are usually given along with 5-FU, plus
irinotecan or oxaliplatin, for metastatic colorectal cancer.
 Regorafenib (Stivarga) is another new drug that can be taken orally as a single agent
after the other drugs have stopped working.


 PD-1 inhibitors

 Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and nivolumab (Opdivo) are drugs that

target PD-1, a protein on immune system cells called T cells that normally
help keep these cells from attacking other cells in the body. By blocking
PD-1, these drugs boost the immune response against cancer
cells.These drugs are given as an intravenous (IV) infusion every 2 or 3
Side effects: fatigue, cough, nausea, itching, skin rash, decreased
appetite, constipation, joint pain, and diarrhea. Other, more serious side
effects occur less often. These drugs work by basically removing the
brakes from the body’s immune system. Sometimes the immune system
starts attacking other parts of the body, which can cause serious or even
life-threatening problems in the lungs, intestines, liver, hormone-making
glands, kidneys, or other organs.

 CTLA-4 inhibitor
 Ipilimumab (Yervoy) is another drug that boosts the immune response,
but it has a different target. It blocks CTLA-4, another protein on T cells
that normally helps keep them in check. This drug can be used along with
nivolumab (Opdivo) to treat colorectal cancer, but it’s not used alone. It is
given as an intravenous (IV) infusion, usually once every 3 weeks for 4

The most common side effects from this drug include fatigue, diarrhea,
skin rash, and itching.

*Serious side effects seem to happen more often with this drug than with the PD-1 inhibitors.
Like the PD-1 inhibitors, this drug can cause the immune system to attack other parts of the
body, which can lead to serious problems in the intestines, liver, hormone-making glands,
nerves, skin, eyes, or other organs. In some people these side effects can be life threatening.

9. Where does colon cancer spread?

Answer: liver

10. If colorectal cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it can cause other health concerns,
such as:
Answer: liver cancer; jaundice and lung cancer and loss of appetite


1. A type of stroke also called “mini stroke”? TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK (TIA)


A neurological event with the signs and symptoms of a stroke, but which go
away within a short period of time. Also called a mini-stroke, a TIA is due to a
temporary lack of adequate blood and oxygen (ischemia) to the brain.

2. This type of stroke is causing bleeding around the brain? HEMORRHAGIC STROKE


Stroke caused by the rupture of a blood vessel in or on the surface of the

brain with bleeding into the surrounding tissue. Note: Hemorrhagic
stroke occurs most often from rupture of an aneurysm or an abnormally
formed blood vessel.

3. This type of stroke causes blockage to the artery? ISCHEMIC STROKE


The most common type. It is usually caused by a blood clot that blocks or
plugs a blood vessel in the brain.

4. Risk factors of stroke?

-ADVANCED AGE (>=65 y/o)

5. Site at least 3 common signs and symptoms of stroke?

FACIAL DROOPING, - Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to nerve

damage. Your facial muscles may appear to droop or become
weak (due to blood clotting in the brain which interrupt oxygen

6. “Silent strokes” and “warning strokes” are the same thing.

A. True
B. False

Correct Answer: False


A “warning stroke,” or transient ischemic attack (TIA), happens when a clot briefly keeps blood from
getting to part of the brain. Unlike a true stroke, it doesn't cause permanent damage.TIAs come and
go fast, lasting about a minute on average. If you have a TIA, you’re more likely to have a full stroke
in the months that follow

7. If you're angry a lot, you may be more likely to have a stroke.

A. True
B. False

Correct Answer: True


Having an angry personality can cause your blood vessels to narrow and your blood pressure to
rise. People with short tempers have more thickening of the neck arteries, which boosts the odds of
having a stroke.
If you have trouble controlling your anger, talk to your doctor about how to handle it.

8. What is the most common treatment for stroke?

A. Shock therapy
B. Aerobic exercise
C. Potassium
D. Blood thinner medications
Correct Answer: D, blood thinner medication

Correct Answer: D, blood thinner medication, Rationale: Blood thinners are the most common
treatment for stroke. Blood thinners are used to treat acute stroke. The ''clotbuster'' drug used in
emergency settings is called alteplase (Activase), also referred to as tPA (tissue plasminogen
activator). Blood thinners are also used to prevent or decrease the risk of stroke in conditions
such as heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart valve disorders, hypercoagulable states, and
previous cerebral vascular disease.
9. and stroke can occur together, or in very close proximity.
A. Kidney failure
B. Infection
C. Heart arrhythmias
D. Seizure
Correct Answer: C, heart arrhythmias


Patients with new onset arrhythmias of the heart (abnormal heartbeat), especially atrial
fibrillation, are at higher risk for having a stroke. Patients may not know they are in atrial
fibrillation (A-Fib) and they develop blood clots that develop in the heart and travel to the brain,
causing a stroke.

10. Which of the following is NOT a sign of stroke?

A. Slurred speech
B. Chest pain
C. Trouble moving

Correct Answer: Chest pain


Signs of a stroke can include weakness on one side of the body and slurred speech. Chest pain
may be a sign of a heart attack, which is also dangerous and needs medical attention right away.
Facial drooping is another sign of a stroke that should not be ignored.