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CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

BY- Ananya Kaul XII S

TITLE- SHADES OF CHOCOLATES

INDEX……

Introduction
Chocolate is a usually sweet, brown food preparation of roasted and
ground cacao seeds that is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a
flavoring ingredient in other foods. The earliest evidence of use traces to
the Olmecs (Mexico), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating to 1900 BC .The word
"chocolate" is derived from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl.

Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, and many
foodstuffs involving chocolate exist, particularly desserts,
including cakes, pudding, mousse, chocolate brownies, and chocolate chip cookies.
Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, and bars of solid
chocolate and candy bars coated in chocolate are eaten as snacks.

HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE
hocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one
vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico, dates
chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. An early Classic-
period (460–480 AD) Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya
glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were
drinking chocolate around 400 AD.[10] Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate
was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life

Etymology
Cacao, pronounced by the Olmecs as kakawa,[1] dates to 1000 BC or earlier.[1] The word
"chocolate" entered the English language from Spanish in about 1600.[30] The word
entered Spanish from the word chocolātl in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. The
origin of the Nahuatl word is uncertain, as it does not appear in any early Nahuatl
source, where the word for chocolate drink is cacahuatl, "cacao water".

Types
Several types of chocolate can be distinguished. Pure, unsweetened chocolate, often
called "baking chocolate", contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying
proportions.
Milk
Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that also contains milk powder or condensed milk. In
the UK and Ireland, milk chocolate must contain a minimum of 20% total dry cocoa
solids; in the rest of the European Union, the minimum is 25%
White
White chocolate, although similar in texture to that of milk and dark chocolate, does not
contain any cocoa solids. Because of this, many countries do not consider white
chocolate as chocolate at all "White chocolate" contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk,
but no cocoa solids.
Dark
Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture liquor. A higher
amount of cocoa solids indicates more bitterness. Semisweet chocolate is a dark
chocolate with a low sugar content. Bittersweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which
some sugar (typically a third), more cocoa butter and vanilla are added] It has less sugar
and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable in baking. It
is also known to last for two years if stored properly. As of 2017, there is no high-quality
evidence that dark chocolate affects blood pressure significantly or provides other
health benefits
Unsweetened
Unsweetened chocolate is pure chocolate liquor, also known as bitter or baking
chocolate. It is unadulterated chocolate: the pure, ground, roasted chocolate beans
impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor. It is typically used in baking or other products to
which sugar and other ingredients are added. Raw chocolate, often referred to as raw
cacao, is always dark and a minimum of 75% cacao.
Poorly tempered or untempered chocolate may have whitish spots on the dark
chocolate part, called chocolate bloom; it is an indication that sugar and/or fat has
separated due to poor storage. It is not toxic and can be safely consumed.[

Production
Manufacturing Chocolate

Once the cocoa beans have reached the machinery of chocolate factories, they are ready
to be refined into chocolate. Generally, manufacturing processes differ slightly due to
the different species of cocoa trees, but most factories use similar machines to break
down the cocoa beans into cocoa butter and chocolate (International Cocoa
Organization, 1998). Firstly, fermented and dried cocoa beans will be refined to a
roasted nib by winnowing and roasting. Then, they will be heated and will melt into
chocolate liquor. Lastly, manufacturers blend chocolate liquor with sugar and milk to
add flavour. After the blending process, the liquid chocolate will be stored or delivered
to the molding factory in tanks and will be poured into moulds for sale. Finally,
wrapping and packaging machines will pack the chocolates and then they will be ready
to transport.
Composition
Nutrition Value Chart of major of the chocolates-:

Candies, milk chocolate

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 2,240 kJ (540 kcal)

Carbohydrates 59.4

Sugars 51.5

Fat 29.7

Protein 7.6

Vitamins Quantity%DV†

Vitamin A 195 IU
Thiamine (B1) 9%
0.1 mg

Vitamin B6 0%
0.0 mg

Vitamin B12 29%


0.7 μg

Vitamin C 0%
0 mg

Vitamin E 3%
0.5 mg

Vitamin K 5%
5.7 μg

Minerals Quantity%DV†

Calcium 19%
189 mg

Iron 18%
2.4 mg

Magnesium 18%
63 mg

Manganese 24%
0.5 mg

Phosphorus 30%
208 mg

Potassium 8%
372 mg
Sodium 5%
79 mg

Zinc 24%
2.3 mg

Other constituents Quantity

Water 1.5 g

Caffeine 20 mg

Cholesterol 23 mg

Nutrition
A 100-gram serving of milk chocolate supplies 540 calories. It is
59% carbohydrates (52% as sugar and 3% as dietary fiber), 30% fat and
8% protein (table). Approximately 65% of the fat in milk chocolate is saturated,
mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid, while the predominant unsaturated fat is oleic
acid .
Phytochemicals
Cocoa contains certain phytochemicals. Cocoa solids are a source
of flavonoids[94] and alkaloids, such as theobromine, phenethylamine, and caffeine.[95]
--WHY DOES EVERYONE LOVE CHOCOLATES?????
We crave chocolate because it is good! It tastes good. It smells good. It feels good when
it melts on our tongue. And all of those ‘feelings’ are the result of our brain releasing
chemicals in response to each chocolate experience. The experience of eating chocolate
results in feel good neurotransmitters (mainly dopamine) being released in particular
brain regions (frontal lobe, hippocampus and hypothalamus—definitions a bit later).

Dopamine is released when you experience anything that you enjoy— laughing, or
watching your favorite Olympian claim the gold. This reward circuit is partially hard-
wired by genetics, but it learns, changes and responds to your specific preferences
based on your life experiences. This malleability of the brain is what makes each of us
unique.
…………………………………………………………………………………..

Are you chocoholic? Not yet!


Are you passionate about chocolates and to get pleasurable feelings?
Is it chocolates taste makes you feel good or is there any other factors responsible
for that?

Then one must know the chemistry behind the chocolate making and why chocolate is
considered as the feel-good factor, mood-alternating factor etc.
Chocolate contains more than 300 - 500 known chemicals, some of which react within
the human brain to alter mood.
Out of these 300 - 500 chemicals in chocolate the following chemicals play major role in
humans:

Theobromine - Natural cough medicine. In large doses it may cause nausea and
anorexia and that daily intake of 50-100 g cocoa (0.8-1.5g theobromine) by humans has
been associated with sweating, trembling and severe headache.
The theobromine LD50 is about 1000 mg/kg

Caffeine - chocolate contains 27 mg of caffeine.

Phenylethylamine - it gives the pleasurable feelings and it is released by the brain


when people are falling in love.

One of the reasons chocolate is unique is the temperature at which it melts between 94
°F and 97 °F by the same time the human body, at 98.6 °F is just above the chocolate’s
melting temperature chocolate slides across your tongue and liquefies into a perfect
puddle of taste sensation.
Chocolate is a native food of South America.
Beans of the Theobroma cacao tree are dried, shelled, fermented and ground with sugar,
fats and other flavorings to produce the wide variety of dark and milk chocolate.
Chocolate's varied flavors, colors, shapes, and textures result from different recipe
traditions that have evolved in different parts of the world.
The essential ingredient in all chocolate is cocoa.

Types of Chemicals in Chocolate

 Xanthines
 Caffeine
 Theobromine
Phenolics - acts anti-oxidant & fat reducer
Phenylethylamine - it is a ‘love drug’ and it gives pleasurable effects by releasing b-
endorphin
Anandamide - produces transient feeling of well being
Serotonin - feel good factor in chocolate
Fats and Sugars - these controls blood cholesterol and produces energy. The high fat
content of most chocolate - Cadbury’s Dairy Milk alone contains 30 g of fat per 100g
these amounts of fat may causes obesity which intern leading to heart disease and
diabetes.

Other Chemicals

Histamine - it is responsible for the craving of chocolate and change in mood.


Thyphylline - Central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulant

Health benefits of chocolates

Benefits
Recent research suggests that chocolate may have some health benefits.

Chocolate receives a lot of bad press because of its high fat and sugar content. Its
consumption has been associated with acne, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary
artery disease, and diabetes.

Chocolate's antioxidant potential may have a range of health benefits. The higher the
cocoa content, as in dark chocolate, the more benefits there are. Dark chocolate may
also contain less fat and sugar, but it is important to check the label.

Eating chocolate may have the following benefits:

 lowering cholesterol levels

 preventing cognitive decline

 reducing the risk of cardiovascular problems

1) Cholesterol

One study, published in The Journal of Nutrition, suggests that chocolate consumption
might help reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, also known as "bad
cholesterol."
2) Cognitive function

Scientists at Harvard Medical School have suggested that drinking two cups of hot
chocolate a day could help keep the brain healthy and reduce memory decline in older
people.

The researchers found that hot chocolate helped improve blood flow to parts of the
brain where it was needed.

Lead author, Farzaneh A. Sorond, said:

"As different areas of the brain need more energy to complete their tasks, they also need

greater blood flow. This relationship, called neurovascular coupling, may play an

important role in diseases such as Alzheimer's."

3) Heart disease

Research published in The BMJ, suggests that consuming chocolate could help lower the
risk of developing heart disease by one-third.

Based on their observations, the authors concluded that higher levels of chocolate
consumption could be linked to a lower risk of cardiometabolic disorders.

4) Stroke

Canadian scientists, in a study involving 44,489 individuals, found that people who ate
one serving of chocolate were 22 percent less likely to experience a stroke than those
who did not. Also, those who had about two ounces of chocolate a week were 46 percent
less likely to die from a stroke.The findings suggested that eating up to 100 grams (g) of
chocolate each day may be linked to a lower risk of heart disease and stroke.

5) Athletic performance

Chocolate may help athletes cover more distance while using less oxygen.
Light vs. dark chocolate

Manufacturers of light, or milk, chocolate, claim that their product is better for health
because it contains milk, and milk provides protein and calcium. Supporters of dark
chocolate point to the higher iron content and levels of antioxidants in their product.

How do the nutrients compare?

Here are some sample nutrient levels in light and dark chocolate,

Nutrient Light (100 g) Dark (100 g)

Energy 531 kcal 556 kcal

Protein 8.51 g 5.54 g

Carbohydrate 58 g 60.49 g

Fat 30.57 g 32.4 g

Sugars 54 g 47.56 g

Iron 0.91 mg 2.13 mg


Phosphorus 206 mg 51 mg

Potassium 438 mg 502 mg

Sodium 101 mg 6 mg

Calcium 251 mg 30 mg

Cholesterol 24 mg 5 mg

The darker the chocolate, the higher the concentration of cocoa, and so, in theory, the
higher the level of antioxidants there will be in the bar.

Risks and precautions

Chocolate may have health benefits, but it can have some negative effects, too.

Weight gain: Some studies suggest that chocolate consumption is linked to lower body
mass index (BMI) and central body fat. However, chocolate can have a high calorie count
due to its sugar and fat content. Anyone who is trying to slim down or maintain their
weight should limit their chocolate consumption and check the label of their favorite
product.

Sugar content: The high sugar content of most chocolate can also be a cause of tooth
decay.

Migraine risk: Some people may experience an increase in migraines when eating
chocolate regularly due to cocoa's tyramine, histamine, and phenylalanine content.
However, research is mixed.
Bone health: There is some evidence that chocolate might cause poor bone structure
and osteoporosis. The results of one study, published in The American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition, found that older women who consumed chocolate every day had lower bone
density and strength.

Heavy metals: Some cocoa powders, chocolate bars, and cacao nibs may contain high
levels of cadmium and lead, which are toxic to the kidneys, bones, and other body
tissues.

Physical analysis of chocolates

Samples

Dark and milk chocolate (Figure 1) unfilled or aggregates acquired in major


supermarkets of Lima, Arequipa and Cusco.

Figure 1 Chocolates: (a) imported milk chocolate, (b) national milk chocolate, (c)
imported dark chocolate, (d) national dark chocolate.

Chocolate were chosen major selling in supermarkets. Chocolate samples were keep in
cooling rooms to avoid alteration; for milk chocolate from 18 to 22°C and for dark from
18 to 26°C (Timms, 2002). The information printed on the packaging of each product such
as: type and ingredients used in the formulation, considering the ingredient is present
in greater quantity is written first, descending in value until the last recorded. Coding to
identify samples was number corresponding codes from 01 to 12 for imported milk
chocolates, from 13 to 16 for national milk chocolates, from 17 to 27 for imported dark
chocolates and from 28 to 30 for national dark chocolates.

Colour

Taste

Nutrition content
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
EXPERIMENTS-:

Aim
To find out the presence of
 Proteins
 Fats
 Sugars
 Calcium
 Iron
 Magnesium
 Nickel

Material Required
1. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
2. Copper sulphate (CuSO4)
3. Moliscli’s Reagent C10H7OH)
4. Fehling’s Solution A & B
5. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
6. Tollen’s Reagent
7. Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)
8. Ammonium Hydroxide (NH4OH)
9. Sodium Phosphate (Na3PO4)
Procedure For Analysis
Organic testsand Inorganic tests done to find the presents of the different in chocolates.
Tests for identification of Calcium and Magnesium (Good Substances) and also tests for
identification of Lead and Nickel (Poisonous Substances) were also done.

Result
All samples studied showed that they contain PROTEIN.

(darkchocolate…..chocolate cream…. Milky bar…... milk chocolate bar….. Cadburys bar)

Result
All samples studied showed that they containFAT.(Dark chocolate…..chocolate cream….
Milky bar…... milk chocolate bar….. Cadburys bar)
Result
All samples studied showed that they contain REDUCING SUGAR.(Dark
chocolate…..chocolate cream…. Milky bar…... milk chocolate bar….. Cadburys bar)
Result
All samples studied showed that they contain CALCIUM.(Dark chocolate…..chocolate
cream…. Milky bar…... milk chocolate bar….. Cadburys bar)
Result
All samples studied showed that they do not contain IRON. (Dark chocolate…..chocolate
cream…. Milky bar…... milk chocolate bar….. Cadburys bar)

Result
All samples studied showed that they do not contain MAGNESIUM. (Dark
chocolate…..chocolate cream…. Milky bar…... milk chocolate bar….. Cadburys bar)
.

RESULT

All samples studied showed that they do not contain nickel.


CONCLUSION
References
- www.foodhealthinnovation.com

- https://www.slideshare.net/chocolate-analysis-51676357

- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chocolate

-https://www.seminarsonly.com/Engineering-Projects/Chemistry/chocolate-
analysis.php

- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HNYLWp0hljc

- https://www.worldofchemicals.com/113/chemistry-articles/chemistry-behind-the-
sweet-lure-of-chocolate.html

- https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/comfort-cravings/201402/why-do-we-
crave-chocolate-so-much

- https://www.nutritionix.com/i/whittakers/milk-chocolate-fruit-
nut/5ab5f7b96ded763c1dbd548a
NUTRITIONAL VALUE CHART OF WHITTAKERS FRUIT & NUT

NutritionFacts
Serving Size: g(25g)

Amount Per Serving

Calories 134 Calories from Fat 76

% Daily Value*

Total Fat 8.4g 13%

Saturated Fat 3.6g 18%


Sodium 14mg
1%

Total Carbohydrates 12g 4%


Sugars 11g

Protein 2.5g
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet.

NUTRITIONAL VALUE CHART OF DAIRY MILK CHOCOLATE

Amount per serving


Calories 200 Calories from fat 100
% Daily value
Total fat 11g 17%
Saturated fat 7g 35%
Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 10mg 3%
Sodium 40mg 2%
Potassium 0mg 0%
Total carbohydrate 23g 8%
Dietary fibre 0g 0%
Sugars 22g
Protein 3g 6%
Vitamin A 0% Vitamin C 0%
Calcium 8% Iron 2%
Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000
calorie diet
NUTRITIONAL VALUE CHART OF MILKY BAR CHOCOLATE

Amount per serving


Calories 81 Calories from fat 0
% Daily value
Total fat 5g 8%
Saturated fat 3.2g 16%
Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 17mg 1%
Potassium 0mg 0%
Total carbohydrate 8mg 3%
Dietary fibre 0mg 0%
Sugars 8g
Protein 1.1g 2%
Vitamin A 0% Vitamin C 0%
Calcium 0% Iron 0%
Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000
calorie diet