Anda di halaman 1dari 10

15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

CHARACTERISTICS OF PN JUNCTION DIODE AND ZENER DIODE

OBJECTIVE
The purpose of the experiment is to examine
(i) the characteristics of Silicon PN junction diode and to determine the barrier potential of the diode.
From the characteristic curve determine the dc resistance, ac resistance, for forward biased
conditions and reverse resistance for reverse biased conditions.
(ii) the characteristics of Zener diode and to determine the diode parameters beyond the breakdown
region.

EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS USED


1N4007 silicon rectifier diode
1Z5V6 Zener diode
1 kΩ resistor, ¼ W
0-30 V dc regulated power supply
(0-50)mA, (0–100)µA dc ammeter
(0–1)V, (0-30)V, (0 – 10)V dc voltmeter
Breadboard
THEORY
PN Junction diode
• The diode is a device made up of a junction of n-type and p-type semiconductor material.
• An ideal diode has two regions: a conduction region of zero resistance and a non-conduction region of
infinite resistance.
• In forward bias operation, the silicon diode will not conduct significant current until the voltage
reaches about 0.7V, called cut-in voltage.
• After the point of cut-in voltage small change in voltage causes large increase in current.
• In reverse bias operation, the diode will not conduct significant current until certain threshold voltage
called breakdown voltage.
• DC resistance or static resistance is the ratio of voltage to current in the forward bias characteristics.
• AC or dynamic resistance is the reciprocal of the slope of the characteristic curve.
• The resistance offered by the diode under reverse bias is the reverse resistance.

Zener diode
• Diodes which are designed with adequate power dissipation capabilities to operate in the breakdown
region are known as avalanche, breakdown, or Zener diodes.
• Zener diodes are heavily doped diodes. It behaves as ordinary diode in the forward bias mode.
• When the applied reverse bias voltage across the diode is increased, the electric field across the
depletion layer becomes very intense and electrons get pulled out from covalent bonds, generating
electron-hole pairs. Thus heavy reverse current flows. The phenomenon is known as Zener breakdown.
• The property of Zener is that the voltage across it remains constant and independent of current through it
when reverse biased. Hence Zener diodes are employed as voltage-reference or constant-voltage
devices.

11
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

FURTHER READING
1. Robert Boylstad, Louis Nashelsky, “Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory”, PHI, 2008
2. Theodore F.Bogart, Jeffrey S.Beasley, “Electron Devices and Circuits, PHI
3. Robert Diffenderfer, “Electronic Devices”, Delmar Cengage Learning, 2005.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Figure1: Forward Biased Diode

Figure2: Reverse Biased Diode

Figure3: Forward Biased Zener Diode

Figure4: Reverse Biased Zener Diode


12
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

PRELAB
1. Read the specifications of the following diodes from its datasheet and compare the types of
diodes offered by different manufacturers:
Device Part Number: 1N4001
Device Manufacturer: _________________________________
Description: ________________________________________________________
Peak Repetitive Reverse Voltage, VRRM =
Average Rectified Forward Current, IF(av) =
Maximum RMS Voltage, VRMS =
DC Reverse Voltage, VR =
Maximum reverse current IRM =
Maximum instantaneous forward voltage drop VF =

Device Part Number: 1N4007


Device Manufacturer: _________________________________
Description: ________________________________________________________
Peak Repetitive Reverse Voltage, VRRM =
Average Rectified Forward Current, IF(av) =
Maximum RMS Voltage, VRMS =
DC Reverse Voltage, VR =
Maximum reverse current IRM =
Maximum instantaneous forward voltage drop VF =

Device Part Number: 1N914


Device Manufacturer: _________________________________
Description: ________________________________________________________
Peak Repetitive Reverse Voltage, VRRM =
Average Rectified Forward Current, IF(av) =
Maximum RMS Voltage, VRMS =
DC Reverse Voltage, VR =
Maximum reverse current IRM =
Maximum instantaneous forward voltage drop VF =

2. Read the specifications of 1Z5V6 Zener diode from its datasheet.


Device Part Number: 1Z5V6
Device Manufacturer: _____________________________
Nominal Zener voltage, VZ =
Zener test current, IZT =
Maximum Zener impedance, ZZT @ IZT =
ZZK @ IZK =
Zener Knee current IZK =
Power dissipation, PD =

13
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

Exp. No. Date:

CHARACTERISTICS OF PN JUNCTION DIODE AND ZENER DIODE


OBJECTIVE

OBSERVATION
PN Junction Diode Characteristics
Circuit Diagram

PRACTICE PROCEDURE
1. Forward Bias
1. Construct the circuit as per the diagram shown in figure1.
2. Vary the power supply voltage in steps of 0.1V upto cut-in voltage and thereafter in steps of
1V upto a maximum of 10V.
3. Note down the voltage drop across the diode and the corresponding current.
4. Plot the graph: IF against VF
5. From the plot, find the static resistance, R = VF / IF.
6. Find also the dynamic resistance, r = VF /Δ IF.
2. Reverse Bias
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in figure2.
2. Vary the power supply voltage in steps of 1V upto 15V.
3. Note down the voltage drop across the diode and the corresponding current.
4. Plot the graph: IR against VR.

14
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

Table 1: PN junction diode - Forward Bias

Bias voltage, Vin Diode Forward Diode forward current,


Volts voltage, VF Volts IF mA
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0

Inference
______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

15
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

Table 2: PN Junction diode - Reverse Bias


Bias voltage, Diode Reverse Diode Reverse
Vin Volts voltage, VR volts current, IR µA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Inference
______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

16
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

Zener diode Characteristics


1. Forward Bias
1. Construct the circuit as per the diagram shown in figure1.
2. Vary the power supply voltage in steps of 0.1V upto cut-in voltage and thereafter in steps of 1V upto
a maximum of 10V.
3. Note down the voltage drop across the diode and the corresponding current.
4. Plot the graph IF Vs VF. Find the static resistance, R = VF / IF and dynamic resistance, r = Δ VF /Δ IF.

2. Reverse Bias
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in figure2.
2. Vary the power supply voltage in steps of 1V upto breakdown voltage.
3. Note down the voltage drop across the diode and the corresponding current.
4. Increase the supply voltage beyond the breakdown voltage by upto 50% (ensure maximum current is
within ammeter range) and record the voltage drop across the diode and the corresponding current.
5. Plot the reverse characteristics with voltage along x-axis and current along y-axis in third quadrant.
6. From the plot observe the break down voltage.
7. From the plot also calculate static resistance and dynamic resistance before and after breakdown.

Table 3: Zener diode - Forward Bias

Bias voltage, Zener Forward Zener forward


Vin Volts voltage, VF Volts current, IF mA
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0

17
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

Inference
______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4: Zener diode - Reverse Bias


Bias voltage, Zener Reverse Zener Reverse
Vin Volts voltage, Vz volts current , Iz mA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

18
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

Inference
______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

UNDERSTANDING & LEARNING


______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________
19
15EEE282 Electronic Circuits and Simulation Lab - I Lab #1

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

Prepared by:
Name: __________________________________________ Reg. No.: _________________________

Date of Experiment: …………… ASSESSMENT

Date of Report Submission: …………… Student Task Max. Marks Graded Marks

Submission Delay (if any): …........ Initial Preparation 20

Connection & Conduction 10

Results & Inference 20


Signature

Understanding 10

Total 60

20