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Government of Nepal

Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development


Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads
Rural Access Programme (RAP-3)
Jawalakhel, Lalitpur

Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)


of
Sallisalla- Darma
District Road in Humla

Submitted to
Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development
Government of Nepal
Singhdurbar, Kathmandu

Proponent
District Development Committee, Humla
Simikot
Ph. No: 087 680018
Fax No: 087 6800160

July 2014
Table of Contents

ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................... V
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (NEPALI)..................................................................................... VI
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (ENGLISH) ................................................................................... X
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Name of the Proponent and Address ........................................................................... 1
1.2 Background ................................................................................................................. 1
1.3 Rationale of IEE Study ................................................................................................ 2
1.4 Objectives of the IEE study ......................................................................................... 3
1.5 Methods Adopted ........................................................................................................ 3
1.6 Public Consultation and Information Disclosure ........................................................ 6
CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSAL ................................................................ 8
2.1 Relevancy of the Proposal ............................................................................................ 8
2.2 Location and Road Alignment Description .................................................................. 8
2.3 Nature and Type of Goods to be delivered ............................................................... 10
2.4 Construction Approach and Activities ...................................................................... 10
2.5 Resources required for the implementation of the proposal ..................................... 11
2.6 Potential Emission Resulting from Implementation of the Proposal ........................ 11
2.7 Project Implementation Schedule............................................................................... 12
CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF ACTS, POLICIES, RULES, REGULATIONS AND
GUIDELINES ........................................................................................................................... 13
3.1 Constitution ............................................................................................................... 13
3.2 Acts and Regulations................................................................................................. 13
3.3 Policies and Plans ...................................................................................................... 14
3.4 Manuals/Guidelines................................................................................................... 15
3.5 International Conventions and Treaties..................................................................... 15
CHAPTER 4 EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION ............................................... 17
4.1 Physical Environment ............................................................................................... 17
4.1.1 Topography ......................................................................................................... 17
4.1.2 Geology and Geomorphology ............................................................................. 17
4.1.3 Slope and Slide Hazard ....................................................................................... 18
4.1.4 River crossing area (Ch: 6+450) ......................................................................... 21
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4.1.5 Temperature and Climate .................................................................................... 21
4.1.6 Rainfall Pattern ................................................................................................... 21
4.1.7 Land Use Pattern ................................................................................................. 21
4.1.8 Air Quality, Water Quality and Noise Levels ..................................................... 22
4.2 Biological Environment ............................................................................................ 22
4.2.1 Flora .................................................................................................................... 22
4.2.2 Fauna ................................................................................................................... 22
4.2.3 Rare, Endangered and Protected Species ............................................................ 23
4.3 Socio-economic and Cultural Environment .............................................................. 24
4.3.1 Community pattern ............................................................................................. 24
4.3.2 Population by gender, caste and ethnicity........................................................... 24
4.3.3 Education Status within ZOI ............................................................................... 24
4.3.4 Occupation Status within ZOI ............................................................................ 24
4.3.5 Food Sufficiency Levels ..................................................................................... 25
Source: Field Survey, 2013 ............................................................................................... 25
4.3.6 Cropping Pattern ................................................................................................. 25
4.3.7 Horticulture and Livestock Rearing .................................................................... 26
4.3.8 Import and Export ............................................................................................... 26
4.3.9 Food Deficiency Coping Mechanisms ................................................................ 26
4.3.10 Migration for Employment ................................................................................. 26
4.3.11 Water Supply and Sanitation .............................................................................. 26
4.3.12 Religious, Cultural and Historical Sites .............................................................. 26
CHAPTER 5 ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS .......................................................................... 27
5.1 No action Alternatives ............................................................................................... 27
5.2 Proposal Alternatives ................................................................................................ 27
5.3 Alternative Route ...................................................................................................... 28
5.4 Alternative Technology ............................................................................................. 28
5.5 Alternative Construction Schedule............................................................................ 29
5.6 Alternative Resources ............................................................................................... 29
5.7 Other matters .............................................................................................................. 29
CHAPTER 6 IDENTIFICATION OF IMPACTS AND BENEFIT AUGMENTATION/
MITIGATION MEASURES .................................................................................................... 30
6.1 Pre-construction phase .............................................................................................. 30
6.2 Construction Phase .................................................................................................... 31
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6.2.1 Beneficial Impacts .............................................................................................. 31
6.2.2 Adverse Impacts.................................................................................................. 32
6.2 Operation Phase......................................................................................................... 40
6.2.1 Beneficial Impacts .............................................................................................. 40
6.2.2 Adverse Impacts.................................................................................................. 41
CHAPTER 7 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ................................................ 52
7.1 Institutions and their Roles ......................................................................................... 52
7.2 Reporting and Documentation .................................................................................. 53
7.3 Implementation of Mitigation Measures .................................................................... 54
7.4 Matters to be monitored while implementing the proposal........................................ 54
7.4.1 Monitoring Parameters........................................................................................ 55
7.4.2 Monitoring Indicators ......................................................................................... 57
7.4.3 Monitoring Activities and Methods .................................................................... 58
7.5 Costs for Executing the Environmental Management Plan ...................................... 62
7.5.1 Specific Cost Details ........................................................................................... 62
7.5.2 Awareness and Training Activities ..................................................................... 62
7.5.3 Environmental Monitoring Activities ................................................................. 63
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ................................................. 64
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 65

APPENDIXES
Appendix 1: ToR Approval Letter and Approved ToR
Appendix 2: Abstract of Cost
Appendix 3: Environmental Checklist
Appendix 4: Public Notice
Appendix 5: Muchulkas (Deed of Enquiries) for Public Notice
Appendix 6: Minutes of Public Consultation Meetings
Appendix 7: Recommendation Letters from VDCs and DFO
Appendix 8: Trees to be cut down
Appendix 9: Experts Involved in the Study and Declaration Form
Appendix 10: Location Map
Appendix 11: Necessary Photographs

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List of Tables
Table 1: Summary of Meeting Minutes ...................................................................................... 6
Table 2: Salient Features of the Project ...................................................................................... 9
Table 3: Project Implementation Schedule ............................................................................... 12
Table 4: Mountain Slope Classification .................................................................................... 18
Table 5: Slide potential of Rock of Nepalese Mountains (source Krahenbunl J. and Wagner
A., 1983) ................................................................................................................................... 19
Table 6: Major discontinuities and its characteristics around the proposed road alignment .... 20
Table 7: Rare, Endangered and Protected Species in ZoI of the Project .................................. 23
Table 8: Population of ZoI by settlement, gender, caste and ethnicity ..................................... 24
Table 9: Distribution of Population by Occupation .................................................................. 25
Table 10: Food grain availability .............................................................................................. 25
Table 11: Quantity Estimate of Uncoursed dry random rubble masonry for Toe Wall ........... 34
Table 12: Assessment of Identified/Predicted Beneficial Environmental Impacts and
Recommended Benefit Augmentation Measures...................................................................... 45
Table 13: Assessment of Identified/Predicted Adverse Environmental Impacts and
Recommended Mitigation Measures ........................................................................................ 46
Table 14: Institutions and their Role ......................................................................................... 52
Table 15: Monitoring Indicators selected for this IEE.............................................................. 57
Table 16: Compliance Monitoring for the proposed project .................................................... 59
Table 17: Impacts/ Effects Monitoring for the proposed project .............................................. 60
Table 18: Cost for Mitigation Measures ................................................................................... 62
Table 19: Cost for Awareness Training .................................................................................... 62
Table 20: Environmental Monitoring Cost ............................................................................... 63
Table 21: Environmental Management Cost ............................................................................ 63

List of Figures
Figure 1: Zone of influence Map of Proposed Road Project ...................................................... 4
Figure 2: Topographic Map showing road alignment................................................................. 9
Figure 3: Regional Geological Map of the area ........................................................................ 18
Figure 4: Environment Management Organization Structure ................................................... 53

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ABBREVIATIONS

amsl Above mean sea level


ARAMP Annual Road Asset Management Program
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and
Fauna
DDC District Development Committee
DIZ Direct Impact Zone
DoLIDAR Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads
DoR Department of Road
DRCC District Roads Coordination Committee
DTA District Technical Assistance
EA Environmental Assessment
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP Environmental Management Plan
EPA Environment Protection Act
EPR Environment Protection Rules
GIS Geographic Information System
GoN Government of Nepal
IEE Initial Environmental Examination
IIZ Indirect Impact Zone
Km Kilometer
RBG Roads Building Group
LRCC Local Roads Coordination Committee
LRUC Local Roads Users Committee
MFALD Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development
NGO Non-government Organization
NTFP Non-Timber Forest Products
RAP Rural Access Programme
SED Socio-Economic Development
ToR Terms of Reference
VDC Village Development Committee
ZoI Zone of Influence

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CHAPTER 7 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

This section identifies mitigation and management measures to avoid, reduce, mitigate or
compensate adverse environmental impacts that have been identified in the previous sections.
The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is a management tool and the issues are
accordingly addressed with regard to the sequence of operations, i.e. those activities that apply
to pre-construction, construction and operation. Hence, it identifies key issues likely to arise
from Project Implementation, and proposes mitigation measures, including monitoring
schedule and responsibility. Taking into account these considerations, the EMP guides the
Project management in such a way that the environment protection measures are adequately
implemented.

7.1 Institutions and their Roles


Different institutions involved in IEE and EMP implementation and roles of these institutions
are given in Table 15. The environmental management organizational structure is given below
in figure 4.
Table 15: Institutions and their Role
Institution Role Responsibility in the project
Mandate to formulate and
Ministry of Representation in IEE review team
implement environmental
Environment, Science constituted by the Environmental
policies, plans and programs
and Technology Management Section MFALD
at national level
To review and approve TOR for IEE
Ministry of Federal Executive agency and
and IEE report
Affairs and Local concerned IEE approval
Conduct environmental monitoring
Development authority as per EPA/EPR.
from central level.
Responsible to execute
Department of Local Overall coordination and supervision
infrastructure projects under
Infrastructure of the RAP in central level.
MFALD. Provides backup
Development and It also supports DDCs through DTOs
support to DDCs in technical
Agricultural Roads to implement the project activities.
matters through DTO.
Coordinate and monitor RAP Review, comment and forward TOR
Road section
activities in center and for IEE and IEE Report to MFALD
DoLIDAR
districts for approval.
Management of the EMP Implementation, Environmental
RAP
Programme Monitoring and Audit
Supervision, coordination, Support DoLIDAR for Supervision,
District Development
inspection and maintenance coordination, inspection and
Committee
of Road maintenance of Road
Coordinate and safeguard
environment of the district Monitor environmental safeguarding
DEECCs including operationalize and inclusion of climate change
energy technologies and aspects for the project
Climate Change analysis
District Technical Technical Assistance and Technical and management support
Assistance and Local Management of RAP at to DDC/DTO for the implementation

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Institution Role Responsibility in the project
Supervision district level of project activities in the districts.
Consultant Responsible for supervision and
monitoring at field level.
Sub-committee of the DDC to assist
District Roads
District level coordination in planning, construction and
Coordination
committee maintenance of district level road
Committee
network.
It is the link between the road users,
Local Roads Management operation
community, interest group based
Coordination committee for specific road
within the road corridor and the
Committee at local level.
DDC.
It assists in hiring of workforce,
Management of road supervision of works, takes part in
Local Roads Users
construction groups during the measurement of works done and
Committee
the construction work. takes care of distributing payments to
workers.
Working groups for rural Implementation of road construction
Roads Building Group
road construction works works in field

MFALD

DoLIDAR
RAP
DDC/DTO Humla/DEECCs

DRCC DTA/SC

LRCC/LRUC

RBG

Figure 4: Environment Management Organization Structure

7.2 Reporting and Documentation


As a part of EMP, reports are needed to be produced at regular time intervals by the EMP
compliance monitoring team (Supervision Consultant). The trimester EMP compliance report
will be prepared and submitted by the consultant to the client.
UC Agreements/Contract documents will categorically include provision of environmental
protection, health and safety, waste management and other environment mitigation measures
identified during the IEE study. It will spell out clearly the measures that will be taken in case
on non-compliance. This will make them comply with the provisions. Supervision consultant
will regularly monitor the construction activities and RAP will conduct Environmental Audit
of the sub-project.
This EMP makes also provision for a set of monitoring activities that are designed to ensure
the effectiveness of the proposed management. The monitoring activities will also help to
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improve/maintain an environmentally and socially sound and acceptable level once the project
has been constructed and becomes fully operational.
7.3 Implementation of Mitigation Measures
The mitigation measures should be integrated into project design and UC Agreements/contract
documents. Using this approach, the mitigation measures will automatically become part of
the project construction and operation phase. By including mitigation measures in the contract
or in specific items in the Bill of Quantities, monitoring and supervision of mitigation
implementation could be covered under the normal engineering supervision provisions of the
contract.

7.4 Matters to be monitored while implementing the proposal


Monitoring of the implementation of environmental protection measures provided a basis for
logical comparison for the predicted and actual impacts of a proposal. Environmental
monitoring involves the systematic collection of data to determine the actual environment
effects of the project, compliance of the project with regulatory standards, and the degree of
implementation and effectiveness of the environmental protection.
The national EIA guidelines (1993) and EPR, 1997 require monitoring plans and indicators,
schedules and responsibility be identified in the IEE report. The national EIA Guidelines of
1993, the EIA guidelines for the Forestry Sector of 1995 propose three stages for monitoring.
They are baseline monitoring, compliance monitoring and impact monitoring.
Baseline Monitoring
This monitoring sometimes also referred as pre-audit study, is to know the pre-project
baseline condition of the environmental parameters. It is the survey that documents detail
information on the pre-project conditions of physical, biological, socio-economic and cultural
resources. In general, it is done to know if there is a significant time lapse between the
preparation of the IEE report and the construction stage or the change in environmental
quality is noticeable. This project will proceed for construction immediately after the approval
of this IEE report and hence, baseline monitoring is not required for the proposed project.
Compliance Monitoring
This monitoring is carried out to know the implementation status of environmental
requirements as documented in EA report, and they should be complied with during pre-
construction, construction and operation stages of the project as appropriate. It employs
periodic sampling or continuous recording of certain parameters, and ensures implementation
of any conditions set-forth during EA report approval. Compliance with conditions may differ
to the proponent or other organizations and individuals. This monitoring is not concerned with
determining the actual effect of the project activities on the environment. This encourages the
proponent and other stakeholders to implement what has been proposed for in EA report or
the conditions issued during the approval process. Indicators of the compliance may differ
from project to project and location to location.

Although, environmental monitoring is not the responsibility of the proponent, under the
existing environmental laws, the project has included the monitoring for the compliance of the
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technical specification as an in-built practice. The agencies responsible for monitoring should
ensure compliance of activities such as inclusion of mitigation measures in the design and
tender documents, budget allocation for mitigation measures and monitoring and spoil
disposal sites, storage procedure, arrangement of construction activities, sprinkling of water to
arrest dust at regular or intermittent interval and so on.
Impact Monitoring
This monitoring detects environmental changes and estimates inherent variation within the
environment, establishes long term trends in the natural system, and derives conclusions by
making comparison against a standard or target.
Impact monitoring is generally carried out to access the effectiveness of the environmental
mitigation measures and provides actual levels of impacts in the field. Hence, impact
monitoring evaluation study is proposed by the end of the project construction phase or within
two years of project implementation. Impact monitoring will focus on each predicted impact
and effectiveness of environmental protection measures.

7.4.1 Monitoring Parameters


Pre-construction Phase
During this phase the consultant bear the main responsibility in ensuring that the
environmental and social safeguard considerations are adequately incorporated in the project
design and that the respective clauses to address the identified impacts are sufficiently
included in the specifications and work contracts. The consultants‟ environmental specialists
shall conduct, during the initial survey, a baseline monitoring with respect to the prevailing
physically and biological parameters. The consultants‟ social specialists shall conduct a
baseline monitoring on the prevailing social setting.
Environmental and Social Monitoring During Construction Phase
In this phase the monitoring focuses on the impacts on the environmental and social setting
caused by the ongoing project.
This monitoring checks compliance with the practices, norms, standards and technical
solutions prescribed in the design and in the EMP. It specifically controls whether the
environmental code of practice is adequately applied in all works, and if the management
practices are satisfactory with respect to the prescribed requirements. Besides, the monitoring
tasks will be to carry out a set of activities that will monitor the direct and indirect effects on
the bio-physical and social environment as caused by the project. The data obtained will be
presented in the required reporting format and will be entered in the project‟s baseline data
bank. The specific monitoring tasks will include
Collecting of data that identify, qualify and quantify distinct impacts on certain receptors
(soils, water, air, noise, habitats, species, local communities, services and utilities), and
conduct a cause-effect analysis;
 Verify and quantify the ongoing slope protection measures, and propose rectifying
measures as needed;

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 Verify and quantify the course of any environmental degradation caused by project
activities, their likely consequences, and propose corrective measures, including the
identification of responsibilities and costs;
 Verify and quantify the effects of disposal of spoil and construction wastes and their
consequences;
 Verify and quantify the effects of disruption of natural water courses, drainage work,
and their consequences;
 Monitor, by utilizing structures checklists and questionnaire, the LRUG/RBGs‟ full
compliance with the health and safety measures for the work staff;
 Verify and quantify the effects of losses in wildlife, degradation of forests, illegal
extraction of forest products, hunting, destructive fishing, wildlife trade and
disturbance to wildlife;
 Verify and quantify losses/damages to private property and community facilities;
 Verify the occupational health facilities in construction camps;
Environmental and Social Monitoring During Operation Phase
During this phase, the following parameters will be monitored over a period specified in the
consultant‟s contract and ToR. Note that the respective findings are, as applicable, to be stored
in the database, and that the prescribed reporting formats are observed.
The specific monitoring tasks in this project phase will include:
 Verify and quantify the adequacy of the compensation process, and the number and
nature of complaints in this respect;
 Assess changes in land-use patterns, development of cottage industries, services and
demographic composition that may be caused by the access development;
 Verify and quantify the occurrence of settlement within ROW of road, resulting in
encroachment and hindrance of traffic on the road;
 Verify all activities for decommissioning work sites and rehabilitation to their former
functional stage, as applicable. This refers also to quarry sites and borrow pits, and
propose rectifying measures as needed.
 Verify and quantify the adequacy of the executed slope protection and erosion
control;
 Verify and quantify the adequacy of the drainage structures, functionality of these
structures, shortcomings in maintenance, and possible effects on private and
communal lands, as well as on aquatic resources;
 Verify and quantify the courses of any environmental degradation caused by project
activities, their likely consequences, and propose corrective measures, including the
identification of responsibilities and costs;
 Monitor, by utilizing structured checklists and questionnaires, accidents in the road,
identifying causes and develop corrective measures;

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 Verify and quantify the effects of losses in wildlife, degradation of forests,
induced/accelerated logging, illegal extraction of forest products, hunting, wildlife
trade and disturbance to wildlife and aquatic life;
 Verify and quantify the damage to private property and community facilities;

7.4.2 Monitoring Indicators


Monitoring will be carried out in a transparent and credible manner by using established
indicators. To ensure that the monitored parameters are replicable i.e. do not depend on person
or specific methodology used; the selected indicators are easy to be verified and controlled by
the agencies where the final monitoring and supervision responsibility remains.
It is also foreseen to use standard checklists and formats to be used by the monitoring staff
both for site surveys and in the subsequent reports. Much of the monitoring is related to
quantifying the observed impacts, and to verify the nature and extent of impacts, photos,
parameter tests, collect local accounts of stakeholders and technical/social experts. The
monitoring will also include specific cause-effect analyses for the impacts observed.
Following Table 16 specifies the set of verifiable indicators that will be used for monitoring.
Table 16: Monitoring Indicators selected for this IEE
Monitoring Sector Parameters selected for monitoring
Number, location and extent of slope failures.
Cause analysis for such failure: natural/man-made
Soils, Landslides, Erosion
Area (ha) of land, forest and properties affected
Nos and extent of gully erosions and pavement failures
Nos and plant species selected for bio-engineering, disaggregated
Bio-engineering/Slope
by protective function
protection
Effectiveness of slope protection works
Nos and extent of water related problems at operative and/or
Water Pollution, Water decommissioned construction sites
resources and their use: Water pollution incidents due to unsafe disposal of waste and spoil
Surface water, Irrigation analyzing effects on local fisheries and adjoining agricultural land
water, Drinking water Use of field kit for drinking water quality, determining pH,
particulates, turbidity, etc.
Assessment of noise level in site and interview with stakeholders.
Air and Noise level in
Visual inspection and public opinion regarding dust pollution
relation to traffic volume
Traffic Volume count
Wildlife/ Habitat
Nos and extent of road accidents inflicting wildlife
Disturbance
Records of illegal timber extraction and wildlife killing cases
Impacts on Forest
Observations and handling of invasive species
Resources
Change in demographic and ethnic status within the ZoI along the
roadside settlements
Number of employment opportunities created
Socio-economic Number of workers received training on enhancement of technical
development near road skill including women
alignment Change in transportation cost and time
Number and type of enterprises, cottage industries established
Change in status of basic services and utilities in the ZoI for e.g.
education institutions, access to health infrastructures, water supply

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Monitoring Sector Parameters selected for monitoring
and irrigation facilities, energy status, trade and commerce ventures,
shift in livelihood strategies among the populace from the ZoI
Rate of involvement of female populace in activities other than
households and agriculture
Condition of affected infrastructures
Occupational health and safety measures provided to workers
Increase in number of people receiving social service facilities
(school, health post)
Increase in land value
No. of accidents related to road
State of settlement condition (no. of houses, shops, sanitation
condition)
Number and status of porter‟s livelihood

7.4.3 Monitoring Activities and Methods


The following Table 17 identifies the specific compliance monitoring activities. Phase-
wise/chronological details are provided for the methods, schedules, responsible implementing
agency and the responsible monitoring agency. The compliance monitoring refers primarily to
the pre-construction and construction stage of the project.
Table 18 details the impact and effect monitoring activities envisaged for this project. As in
the previous table, details are provided for the applied methods, schedules, location,
responsible implementing agency and the responsible monitoring agency.

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Table 17: Compliance Monitoring for the proposed project
Responsible Responsible
S.N. Parameters Implementing Verifiable Indicators Verification Methods Schedule Monitoring
agency Agency
Walk through along final
Final site selection as per IEE/EMP Incorporation of IEE/EMP recommendations into Initial stage of
1. RAP road alignment, verifying DoLIDAR
recommendation design document surveying
sensitive areas
Public consultation,
Check inventory against Well ahead of
2. Land acquisition and compensation DDC Properties acquisition procedures DDC
cadastral records and discuss construction
with people
Consultation with affected Well ahead of
3 Compensation of private properties (house) RAP/DDC Reinstated structure DoLIDAR
people construction
Site observation, geo-
Site selection and preparation of Project‟s arrangement for materials storage, and Beginning of DDC/DTO/
4 LRUC referencing and
construction logistics construction activities construction period DTA
photographic documentation
Records that facilitates and
Specifications which obligate the LRUC to observe During the entire
Use of local labors, particularly vulnerable coordinates the process for DDC/DTO/
5 LRUC certain quotas for employing local labor, especially period where labour
groups and women local people‟s employment, DTA
vulnerable groups and women, use of child labor work is employed
interviews
Training programs for skill development, women Specifications: Training
Awareness and on-the-job training on road Beginning of
empowerment, occupational safety and records, check training
6 construction to technicians, and locally RAP/DTA/DDC construction and DoLIDAR
environmental protection associated with road program reports, assess
employed laborers during construction
construction works feedback from participants
Health and safety regulations, first aid and medical
Spot checks at work sites, Monthly throughout
Compliance to occupational health and arrangements, contingency plan, number and type DDC/DTO/
7 LRUC photos, accident records, construction
safety measures of safety equipment such as mask, helmet, glove, DTA
interviews activities
safety belts
Site inspection, discussion
with local people.
Compliance to environmental protection Quantifying site-specific
measures, including pollution prevention, Arrangement specified in the code of practice and impacts, photos, laboratory
water and soil management, slope in manuals relating to environmental protection; tests where required. Before and during DDC/DTO/
8 LRUC
stabilization, cut and fill, waste records and observations on pollution, waste Existing patrol, control and construction period DTA
management, spoils, sensitive habitats and management, spoil disposal enforcement mechanisms,
critical sites, protection of fauna and flora enforcement records, air and
noise quality measurement
water quality test
Workers activity within forest area
Measures to avoid pressure on forest and Inspection, interview with Once a month during DDC/DFO
9 LRUC Construction scenario and process
wildlife local people construction phase /DTA
Events of hunting and killing of wildlife
10 Measures to protect environment from air LRUC Dust level and noise level at work sites, major Testing, observation of good Once in a month DDC/DTO/
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Responsible Responsible
S.N. Parameters Implementing Verifiable Indicators Verification Methods Schedule Monitoring
agency Agency
and noise pollution settlements and sensitive spots like health centers construction practices and during construction DTA
and schools discussion with residents
and workers
Visual observation, observation of open defecation
and waste disposal around water sources near
Once in a six months
construction sites; parameters like Temperature, Site inspection, test of site-
Measures to protect water bodies from during construction; DDC/DTO/
11 LRUC pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Suspended selected samples of water at
water pollution Upon demand for DTA
Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Hardness, laboratory
testing with field kit
Calcium Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Chloride,
Nitrate
Restoration, rehabilitation, reconstruction
Once in a month DDC/DTO/
12 of all disrupted or damaged by the proposed LRUC Status of quarry and spoil disposal sites Site observation; photos
during construction DTA
activities
Check number and type of
Adequate technical and environmental technicians available at site; Twice a month
13 DTA Adequate number of technicians regularly at site DoLIDAR
supervision Skill of work carried out; during construction
discussion

Table 18: Impacts/ Effects Monitoring for the proposed project


Responsible
S.N Parameters Verifiable Indicators Verification methods Monitoring locations Schedule
monitoring agency
Inclination, Slope failures, causes; Drainage facilities such as Site observation, Continuously during
Slope stability and Near steep slopes and at river
1 side drains and functionality of cross drainage structures; photos, discussion construction and DDC/ DTO/DTA
erosion bank cutting areas
Fresh gullies and erosion; Success/failure of bio-engineering with technicians operation
Disposal of spoils Affected aesthetic value, affected forest and agriculture, Site observation and
At specific locations where
2 and construction initiated land erosion by local blocked drainage, hazard to interviews, photos, During construction DDC/ DTO/DTA
such sites occur
wastes downstream slope residents and agriculture lands geo-referencing sites
Quarrying of Site observation,
Initiated erosion, changes in river regime, erosion by river
3 construction photos, records from Quarry site areas During construction DDC/ DTO/DTA
systems, landslide due to quarrying, degradation of vegetation
materials local health centers
Observation and
Loss or degradation Road side private/agricultural
4 Status of road side private/agricultural land consultation with local During construction DDC/ DTO/DTA
of private land land
people
Observation of open defecation and waste disposal around
water sources near construction sites; Parameters like River water, During construction;
Visual observation,
5 Water quality Temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Suspended Drinking water sources within Upon demand for DDC/ DTO/DTA
water sample test
Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Hardness, Calcium Hardness, project site testing
Total Alkalinity, Chloride, Nitrate

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Responsible
S.N Parameters Verifiable Indicators Verification methods Monitoring locations Schedule
monitoring agency
At construction sites and at
Visual observation,
sensitive spots (schools,
6 Air quality Dust level in ambient air consultation with local During construction DDC/ DTO/DTA
health posts, major
people
settlement)
Observations,
Forest and In and around the During construction
7 Signs of illicit logging consultation with local DFO
vegetation construction sites and operation
people
Twice a year during
Wildlife hunting trapping and poaching by work force, trade of Interview with local
Wildlife/Aquatic Forest areas within project construction and
8 wildlife, biological survey on selected biota, road accidents people, data from DFO
Life vicinity routine during
inflicting wildlife nearby range post
operation
Records kept by the
Numbers of people employed by the project during
project management, Trimester during
9 Change in economy construction, Project area DDC/ DTO/DTA
Discussion with construction phase
Numbers of women in work forces, number of enterprises
stakeholders
Numbers of shop increased or decreased, rental of houses and Records, interviews, Throughout project,
10 Trade and commerce Project area/ ZOI DDC
land spaces observations, photos once in a year
Records and
11 Cottage Industries Establishment of industries in the vicinity of project area Project Area/ ZOI Throughout project DDC
consultation, photos
Observations, Photos,
Occupational safety Type and number of accident occurred during construction;
12 spot checks, interview Construction sites During construction DDC/ DTO/DTA
and health Adequacy of occupational safety measures provided
with laborers
Observations,
No and extent of new settlements/ types and ethnic groups;
Change in socio- Interview with local Throughout project,
13 Nos and extent of new business; Nos and extent of new Project area DDC
economic structures people, DDC and once in a year
services and utilities, social conflicts
VDC records
Access to social Increase in number of people receiving social service facilities DDC/VDC/DPHO,
14 Records, interview Project Area During operation
service facilities (school, health post) DEO
Enhancement of
15 transportation Change in transportation cost and time Records, interview Project Area During operation DDC/DTO
services
State of settlement condition (no. of houses, shops)
16 Ribbon settlement Congestions to road users RoW encroachment, sanitation Records, Observations Project Area Throughout project DDC/DTO
status
17 Land value Increase in land value Records, interaction Project area During operation DDC/VDC/DLRO
Change in livelihood change in number of porters and their livelihood, change in Interview with local
18 Project area During operation DDC/VDC
pattern occupational status people, observation,

IEE study of Sallisalla-Darma District Road in Humla District 61


7.5 Costs for Executing the Environmental Management Plan
The design and cost estimate for most of the suggested mitigation measures such as slope
stabilization, quarry site management, spoil disposal, bioengineering measures, land slide
rehabilitation, etc. shall be incorporated in the design and cost estimates. Therefore, most of
the mitigation measures suggested would be a part of road design and construction without
additional cost. Most of the proposed mitigation measures will be integrated in the project
design so that these measures may automatically form part of the construction and operational
phases of the project.

7.5.1 Specific Cost Details


The following Table 19 presents summary cost for mitigation measures.
Table 19: Cost for Mitigation Measures
S.N. Measures/ Activities Costs in NRs. Remarks
Included in project
1 Slope Protection
cost
Included in project
2 Bio-engineering
cost
3 Shrub/tree plantation 700,000
Engineering structures (gabion wall, drainage Included in project
4
maintenance) cost
Workers facilities (pit latrine, drinking water
5 100,000
facilities)
6 Occupational health and safety measures 100,000
Included in project
7 Insurance of laborer
cost
8 Reinstate of Building 300,000
Sub-total 1,200,000

7.5.2 Awareness and Training Activities


Community awareness programs focusing on skill development, environmental protection and
work safety shall be undertaken. The following Table 20 presents summary cost for
community awareness and skill development training that will be provided in the project
during implementation of project.
Table 20: Cost for Awareness Training
Estimated
S.N. Description Remarks
Budget (NRs.)
Budget will be
Training to local users‟ committee on road
allocated by
maintenance
DDC
Skill Enhancement, Environmental Awareness
150,000
and Occupational health and safety
Sub-total 150,000

IEE study of Sallisalla-Darma District Road in Humla District 62


7.5.3 Environmental Monitoring Activities
Monitoring is an integral part of the project so as to know the unlikely impacts and implement
corrective measures. The proponent will develop in-built monitoring mechanism to show its
additional commitment for environmental improvement and mitigate undesirable
environmental changes, if any during construction and operational stage. DDC/DTO will be
supported by DTA in the district and Environmental specialist from the RAP for
environmental monitoring.
According to EPR, 1997, the MFALD/DoLIDAR is responsible for monitoring and evaluation
of the impact of the implementation of the project. The DoLIDAR checks whether the
DDC/DTO is carrying out monitoring activities as per the IEE or not. Total cost estimated for
central level environmental monitoring is NRs 150,000.
DDC/DTO with RAP support will make arrangements for project level monitoring. Thus, it is
recommended that an external team hired by DDC/DTO take responsibility for monitoring of
the environmental performance, in addition to the regular supervision and guidance provided
by the DTA at the site. At least one monitoring in each construction season is necessary.
The DTA will submit its report to RAP and DoLIDAR. Total cost of environmental
monitoring (field visits, observation, review of reports and report preparation as well as
central level monitoring cost) is estimated NRs. 360,000 as given in Table 21.
Table 21: Environmental Monitoring Cost
Description Duration (month) Rate (NRs) Amount (NRs) Remarks
District Level Monitoring
Environmental Specialist 1 75,000 75,000
Engineer 0.5 70,000 35,000
Support Staff 1 25,000 25,000
Transportation cost LS 50,000
Report preparation LS 15,000
Sampling and Lab test LS 10,000
Central level monitoring (Monitoring by MFALD)
Monitoring cost LS 150,000
Sub total 360,000

Summary costs for Environmental safeguard measures


The total environmental and social mitigation cost, include the costs for property acquisition
are summarized in Table 22.
Table 22: Environmental Management Cost
S.N. Measures/ Activities Costs Rs Remarks
1 Cost for Mitigation Measures 1,200,000
2 Cost for Awareness Training 150,000
3 Environmental Monitoring including
360,000
central level monitoring
Total (in round figures) 1,710,000

IEE study of Sallisalla-Darma District Road in Humla District 63


CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The implementation of proposed Sallisalla Darma District Road Project is expected to bring a
substantial set of beneficial impacts, providing improved access to rural people of that region.
Besides providing access, the project will also provide different other benefits both during the
construction and the operational stages. Major beneficial impacts during the construction
stage include the employment generation, wage income, increase in local economy, and
enhancement of technical skills and know-how of local laborers. Mover SED component of
RAP will be focused in enhancing socio-economic activities within ZoI of the Project. During
operation stage, the exisiting transportation and access standard will be enhanced. Access to
social services will be easier for the people of the remote and interior areas of the region. It
will surely have long term impact for the development of the local and regional areas.
The proposed project area does not fall on any environmentally sensitive area. The project has
been expected to have minimal detrimental effects on physical, biological, socio-economic
and cultural environment of the project area. Most of the adverse impacts identified and
predicted are of minimal and short to medium terms as well as reversible in nature. However,
gully erosion and small slip failures have been observed on the existing road alignment, which
need necessary measures to be employed during and after the construction work. Most of the
identified environmental adverse impacts are locally confined, and limited mainly to the
period of construction. It is concluded that with the set of proposed mitigation measures, most
of the impacts can be minimized or even set off.
The proposed road construction work do not exceed any of the prescribed thresholds by EPA,
1997 and EPR, 1997 (First Amendment, 1999) and other relevant Acts and Rules. Thus, an
EIA study is not required for this proposed project.

IEE study of Sallisalla-Darma District Road in Humla District 64