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62.

2-2003: ASHRAE’S
RESIDENTIAL
VENTILATION STANDARD

©
Max Sherman
SPC 62.2P Chair
May 2004
VENTILATION AND ACCEPTABLE
INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN LOW-RISE
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
1: PURPOSE
2: SCOPE
3: DEFINITIONS A: BACKDRAFTING
4: WHOLE BLDG VENT B: OPERATIONS
5: LOCAL VENT. C: SYSTEMS
6: OTHER REQ.
7: EQUIPMENT GUIDELINE
8: REF. & CLIMATE
PURPOSE OF 62.2
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
“This standard defines the roles of and
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
minimum requirements for mechanical
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
and natural ventilation systems and
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
the building envelope intended to
STATUS provide acceptable indoor air quality in
low-rise residential buildings.”
END

Back

– Ventilation Systems
– Sources
– Envelope
62.2-2003 HISTORY
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø 1997: Split off From SSPC 62
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST Ø Summer 2000: 1st Full Public Review
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE – 500 commentors; 3000 comments
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END
Ø Summer 2001: 2nd Full (130,400)
Back Ø Spring 2002: 3rd ISC (19,66)
Ø Fall 2002: 4th ISC (7,28)
Ø Summer 2003: ASHRAE BOD Approval
Ø Fall 2003: Publication
NEED FOR STANDARD
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø American Houses Have No
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST “Ventilation” systems
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
Ø Indoor Air Quality Concerns Rising
– 4th largest problem
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END

Back
– Asthma is #1 childhood problem
Ø Energy & comfort concerns have led
to tightening of envelope
Ø New Materials in Dwellings
SCOPE OF STANDARD 62.2
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Single-family houses and multi-family
WHOLE-HOUSE structures of three stories or fewer
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ. Ø Chemical, physical and biological
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE contaminants
Not thermal comfort ; Not Unvented appl.
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS Ø
Caveats:
END
Ø
Back
– Diversity of sources & susceptibilities
– Non IAQ perceptions
– Poor outdoor air
– Improper O&M
– High Polluting Events
PRINCIPLES BEHIND 62.2
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø “A Man’s Home is his Castle”
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST – Occupants control sources
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
– Occupants operate building
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
Ø Envelope Plays Important Role
END
– Infiltration and Natural Ventilation
Back

– Potential Pollutant Source


Ø Sources Matter
Ø Simple Solutions
KEY DEFINITIONS
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Acceptable indoor air quality: air in an
WHOLE-HOUSE occupied space toward which a substantial majority of
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ.
occupants express no dissatisfaction and in which there are
EQUIPMENT not likely to be contaminants at concentrations that are
REFERENCE known to pose a health risk Acceptable indoor air quality
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
must also satisfy the requirements of acceptable perceived
END indoor air quality.
quality
Back Ø Pressure boundary: primary air enclosure
boundary, which separates indoor and outdoor air.

Ø High-Polluting Event: Isolated and


occupant controlled emission
COMPLIANCE
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Whole-House Mechanical Ventilation
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ.
– Or equivalent
Ø Fans in Kitchens and Baths
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END
Ø Windows in Most Rooms
Back Ø Some Source Control
Ø “Good” Equipment
OUTDOOR AIR TARGET
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Building+People Ø
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
– 3 cfm/100 ft2.
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
(15 l/s/100 m2.)
– + 7.5 cfm/person
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END
(3.5 l/s/person)
Back – Count Bedrooms
Ø Compare w/0.35
ACH from 62-01

10 ft2=1 m2
NATURAL VENTILATION
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Required in Most
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Rooms
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
Ø Openings
– 4% of Floor Area
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END Ø Extra Capacity
Back
Ø Whole-House
– rarely
Ø NOT Local Exhaust
MECHANICAL VENTILATION

OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Unusual in US
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Ø Control System
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT Ø Big-Pressurization
Restrictions Based
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END
on Climate
Back Ø Reduced by
Infiltration Credit
Ø Exceptions

2 cfm =1 l/s 10 ft2=1 m2


INTERMITTENT VENTILATION

OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Must Cycle: At least 1 hr out of 12
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Ø Timer to Assure Minimum On-time
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT – e.g. “Fan Recycler”
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø De-rate Flow if Cycle > 3 hours:
STATUS
END

Back F r a c t i o n a l O n -tim e , f V e n tila tio n E f f e c t i v e n e s s , ε


f<35% 0.33
35% < f<60% 0.50
60% < f<80% 0.75
80% <f 1 .0
INFILTRATION

OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Default in 62.2
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
– 2 cfm/100 ft2
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
(10 l/s/100 m2)
Extra Credit
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø
STATUS
END – Standard 136
Back
– Starts @ NL=.25 MILD CLIMATE

– Existing only
– Half of 136

10 ft2=1 m2
MYTHS & GHOST STORIES
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Infiltration is Bad Air
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ.
– Can be a robust and cost-effective
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
contributor to whole-house rate
Ø Unbalanced Ventilation Will Rot Walls
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END

Back
– Not if indoor humidity controlled
through ventilation (cold climates)
– Not at minimum rates
vUnless envelope is too tight!
SYSTEM TYPES
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Balanced System
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST – Can have HRV
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT Ø Exhaust System
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
– E.g. Bath Fan Upgrade
END
– Care in Humid Climates‡
Back

Ø Supply System
– E.g. Integrated with Air Handler
– Care in Cold Climates ‡
‡Only if Excessive
LOCAL VENTILATION
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Intended to Exhaust Contaminants
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST Ø For Rooms with Known Sources
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE – Kitchen, Bathroom
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END
Ø Normally Requires Exhaust Fan
Back – Intermittent Preferred
– Windows Restricted
Ø Also Rooms Have Natural Ventilation
KITCHENS AND BATHS
OVERVIEW Ø Kitchens Ø Bathrooms
COMPLIANCE
WHOLE-HOUSE – 100 cfm (50 l/s) – 50 cfm (25 l/s)
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ. range hood or capacity or
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
– 5 (kitchen) ACH – 20 cfm (10 l/s)
STATUS
– Exhaust only continuous
END

Back
– Exhaust only
OTHER REQUIREMENTS
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Transfer Air
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Ø Labeling
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT Ø Source Control
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø Natural Ventilation
STATUS
END
– Beyond Minimum
Back
Ø Ventilation Openings
SOURCE REQUIREMENTS
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Clothes Dryers: Exhausted to Outside
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST Ø Combustion Appliances: Test for
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
Backdraft in Conditioned Space
– When sufficient exhaust fans
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END

Back
– Unless Exhaust Fans Compensated
Ø Air Handlers in Garages Must Meet
Tightness Spec.
Ø Particle Filtration
SOURCES & PRESSURES
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Clothes Dryers Ø Outdoor Air
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Ø Combustion – Regional
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
Appliances – Transient
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø Garages
STATUS
END
– Cars
Back
– Chemical
Storage
VENTILATION CAPACITY
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Normally Satisfied By Windows
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ.
– Fans like Bathroom if No Window
Ø Not Required in Toilets and Laundries
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END

Back
VENTILATION OPENINGS
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Should Not Allow
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
(Re) entrainment
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
Ø Separation from
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
Flues, Cars, etc.
STATUS
END
– 2 to 10 ft
Back Ø Natural Ventilation
Openings Must Be
Accessible
PARTICLE FILTRATION
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
WHOLE-HOUSE
Ø On Ducts > 10 ft. 100
ASHRAE Proposed Std 52.2

LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ.
Ø 60% for 3 micron 90

80

– MERV 6
EQUIPMENT 70

REFERENCE 60

Efficiency (%)
MERV 15 (95% Dust Spot)
SOURCE IMPACTS
Primarily to Keep
50

Ø
MERV 14 (90% Dust Spot)
STATUS 40 MERV 12 (80% Dust Spot)

Supply Air Clean


END 30
MERV 11 (60% Dust Spot)

MERV 8 (45% Dust Spot)


20
MERV 6 (30% Dust Spot)
Back

– System as
10 FURNACE

0.1 1.0 10.0

Source Particle Diameter (um)

Ø Pressure Concerns
AIR MOVING EQUIPMENT
OVERVIEW Ø Must be Rated for
COMPLIANCE
WHOLE-HOUSE Continuous Use
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ. Ø Must Deliver Air Flow
Dampers in Multi-family
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
Ø
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
Ø Control System
END
Ø Must be Quiet
Back
– 1 Sone (continuous)
– 3 Sone (intermittent)
– Downdraft kitchen
exhaust is “special”
REFERENCES
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Standard 119, 136
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Ø Standard 52.2
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT – Filtration (MERV)
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø Cold/Humid Climates
STATUS
END
Ø HVI 920
Back
– Fan Performance
Ø AMCA & NFGC
CLIMATE
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE Supply
Ventilation
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ. Limited
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END

Back

Exhaust
Ventilation
Limited
COMBUSTION SAFETY
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
APPENDIX A: TEST METHOD
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ.
Ø Only as Relates to Ventilation Std
– Not required when 2 biggest fans
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END
are small enough or if compensated
Back Ø All Naturally Aspirated Combustion
Appliances inside Pressure Boundary
Ø Uses Industry-Approved Method
OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
REQUIRED RECOMMENDED
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST Ø Design for Appendix B
Operation
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
Ø Design Parameters
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø Labeling of System Ø Ventilation Equip
STATUS
END
Ø Instructions to Ø Passive Operation
Back Owner/Occupant
Ø Controls
Ø Building Envelope
Ø O&M Form
HVAC SYSTEM GUIDANCE
OVERVIEW APPENDIX C
COMPLIANCE
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Ø Design Issues Ø System Selection
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
– Climate – Sizing
– Combustion – Central vs. local
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END – Envelope – Bal. vs. Supply
Back – Pressures vs. Exhaust
– Energy
– O&M
SOURCES AND 62.2P
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Radon Ø Combustion
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Ø Particulates Ø Garages
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT Ø Lead & Asbestos Ø VOCs
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø Allergens Ø Outdoor Air
STATUS
END
Ø Moisture Ø Occupant Activities
Back
RADON AND SOIL GAS
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Base Rates Cover
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Most Houses
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
Ø Ventilation Can
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
Make Bad Problem
STATUS
END
Worse
Back
Ø Problem Locations
Need Remediation
Ø Radon Resistant
Designs Available
RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Std Requires Some
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
“Good” Filtration
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
– For equipment
Consider the Source
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø
STATUS
END – System Type
Back
– Supplemental
Filtration
– Removal
Ø Usually OK
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Normally not a
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Problem
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
Ø Lead & Asbestos
Poor Response to
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø
STATUS
END – Ventilation
Back
– Filtration
Ø Source Removal or
Encapsulation
ALLERGENS
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Identify Source
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Ø Supplement Filtration
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT – Pollen, Yes
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS – Pets, No
STATUS
END
– Biologicals, No
Back
Ø Not Ventilation
Ø Moisture Control =
Biological Control
Ø 62.2 Helps
MOISTURE AS POLLUTANT
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Envelope Effects
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
– Molds
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT – Dust Mites
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS – Building Damage
STATUS
END
Ø 62.2 Considers
Back
Moisture Control
Ø Excess Sources
Can be a Problem
– Inc Intrusion
VOCs IN HOUSEHOLD
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Volatile Organic
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
Compounds
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT
– Materials
– Furnishings
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END – Products
Back
Ø Base Rates Cannot
Control High
Emission Rates
Ø Ventilation Capacity
EXTERNAL SOURCES
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Outdoor Pollutants
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
– Ozone/Exhaust
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT – Pesticides
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS – Toxic Releases
STATUS
END
Ø No Air Cleaning
Back
Ø Short-term Rate
Reduction
(UN)USUAL ACTIVITIES
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Pollutants From
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
– Combustion
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT – Hobby
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS – Home-Office
STATUS
END
Ø May not be
Back
Handled by Std
Ø Occupant
Responsibility
Ø Guidance from 62.2
STATUS OF 62.2
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Published by ASHRAE
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
– ANSI Approved
OTHER REQ.
EQUIPMENT Ø Users Manual RFP
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS Ø Developing Guideline
STATUS
END Document
Back
Ø Addenda?
– Backdrafting
– Garage, CO, …
–?
GUIDELINE 24
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Supplement to “Minimum” Standard
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ.
– How to do better; resolve comments
Ø Topics Not Covered in Standards
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END
– Sources, control, mitigation
Back – Unusual situations, populations
Ø Effort Initiated June, 2002
– Working outline
– First chapter drafts in 2003
Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality
in Low-Rise Residential Buildings
OVERVIEW 1 PURPOSE
COMPLIANCE
WHOLE-HOUSE
1.1 This guideline provides information on achieving good
LOCAL EXHAUST indoor air quality, which may go beyond minimum
OTHER REQ. requirements.
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS 1.2 This guideline provides information relevant to
STATUS ventilation and indoor air quality on envelope and system
END
design, material selection, commissioning and
Back
installation, and operation and maintenance.

2 SCOPE
This guideline primarily applies to ventilation and indoor
air quality for human occupancy in residential buildings 3
stories or fewer in height above grade, including
manufactured and modular houses.
62.2 USER’S MANUAL
OVERVIEW
COMPLIANCE
Ø Companion to “Minimum” Standard
WHOLE-HOUSE
LOCAL EXHAUST
OTHER REQ.
– How to meet the standard
Ø Implementation of Std Topics
EQUIPMENT
REFERENCE
SOURCE IMPACTS
STATUS
END
– Nothing new just options
Back Ø Done by Outside Contractor
– SPC reviews work
Ø Intended For Sale With Standard
VENTILATION AND ACCEPTABLE
INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN LOW-RISE
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
1: PURPOSE
2: SCOPE
3: DEFINITIONS A: BACKDRAFTING
4: WHOLE BLDG VENT B: OPERATIONS
5: LOCAL VENT. C: SYSTEMS
6: OTHER REQ.
7: EQUIPMENT GUIDELINE
8: REF. & CLIMATE