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The cell, it's structure and functions

1. The forms of cellular organisms are:


+ prenuclear
+ prokaryotes
+ nuclear, prokaryotes
+ eukaryotes
- viruses

2. The features of prokaryotic cells are:


+ the lack of the arranged nuclear
+ the lack of chromosomes
+ the existence of the centrosome
- the reproduction by mitosis
- the existence of the membrane organelles

3. The organelles of prokaryotic cells are:


- the cell membrane
- the nuclear
- chromosomes
+ ribosomes
+ mesosomes

4. The ways of prokaryotic cell division are:


+ amitosis
- meiosis
- politene
- endomitosis
- schizogony

5. The group of prokaryotes include:


- viruses
+ bacteria
- fungi
+ cyanobacteria
- animals

6. The theories of the eukaryotic cells’ origin are:


+ symbiotic
- matrix
+ invagination
+ cloning
- viral
7. The peculiarities of eukaryotic cells are:
+ have an organized nuclear
- do not have an organized nuclear
+ are divided by mitosis
- the existence of mesosomes
+ the existence of the membrane organelles

8. The eukaryotic cell includes:


+ the plasmalemma
+ the cytoplasm
+ the karyoplasm
- nucleic acids
- proteins, fats, carbohydrates

9. The basis for the plasmolemma consists of:


- one layer of lipid molecules
+ two layers of lipid molecules
- two layers of protein molecules
+ a layer of proteins
- three layers of protein

10. The functions of the plasmolemma are:


+ demarkational
- synthetic
+ receptor
+ protective
- excretory

11. The cytoplasm consists of:


- the nuclear
- the karyoplasm
+ the hyaloplasm
+ the organelles
+ the inclusions

12. The functions of the hyaloplasm are:


+ transportation
- the synthesis of ATP
- the protein synthesis
+ homeostatic
+ metabolic

13. The organelles:


- are non-permanent components of the cell
+ are permanent specialized components of cells
+ have a certain structure
- do not have a certain structure
+ fulfil certain functions

14. The membranous organelles include:


- ribosomes, spherosomes
- microfilaments, peroxisomes
+ mitochondria
+ Golgi apparatus
+ engoplasmic reticulum, the lysosomes

15. The non-membranous organelles are:


+ ribosomes, the centrosome
- the cell center, mitochondria
+ the microfilaments, microtubules, microfibrils
- the karyolemma
+ the cell center

16. The organelles for general purpose of the cell cytoplasm are: (The organelles are present in all
cells:)
- cilia, flagella
- myofibrils, neurofilaments
+ mitochondria, engoplasmic reticulum
+ Golgi apparatus
+ ribosomes

17. The organelles for special purpose of the cell cytoplasm are: (The organelles are present in
all cells:)
- mitochondria
+ flagella
- Golgi apparatus
- peroxisomes
+ cilia

18. The types of engoplasmic reticulum are:


+ smooth
+ sarcoplasmic
+ rough
- villous
- folded

19. The functions of engoplasmic reticulum are:


+ transportation
+ synthetic
+ dividing
- protective
- signalling
20. The functions of the smooth engoplasmic reticulum are:
- the synthesis of ATP
- protective
- protein synthesis
+ the synthesis of carbohydrates
+ the synthesis of lipids

21. The function of the rough engoplasmic reticulum is:


- the synthesis of ATP
- signalling
+ protein synthesis
- synthesis of carbohydrates
- the synthesis of lipids

22. The structural units of Golgi apparatus are:


- the ribosome
- the mesosoma
- the peroxisome
+ the dictyosome
+ a stack of 3-12 flattened membrane-enclosed disks (cisternae)

23. The functions of Golgi apparatus are:


+ concentration
+ synthetic
+ dehydration and sealing substances
+ the formation of primary lysosomes
- receptor

24. The lysosome is the organelle that:


+ has a single membrane
- has a double membrane
+ contains hydrolytic enzymes
- is involved in the synthesis of t-RNA, R-RNA
- contains peroxidase

25. The spherosome is the organelle which:


- provides for the concentration and dehydration of the intracellular substance
- is oval-shaped with a double membrane
+ is oval-shaped with a single membrane
+ ensures the accumulation and the fat synthesis in plants
+ is found in the cells of plants and animals

26. The mitochondria is the organelle that:


- has an internal smooth membrane
+ has an inner membrane with cristae
+ has a smooth outer membrane
- consists of vesicles, tubules
- consists of dictyosomes

27. The functions of the mitochondria are:


+ the oxidation of substances
- synthesis of ADP
- lipid synthesis
+ the synthesis of ATP
+ the synthesis of mitochondrial proteins

28. The types of vacuoles are:


+ digestive
+ contractile
+ excretory
- respiratory
- lysing

29. The vacuoles cells are formed from:


+ the vesicles of Golgi apparatus
- the mitochondria
+ tubules of engoplasmic reticulum
- the spheresomes
+ the plasmolemma

30. The vacuoles of plant cells contain:


+ water, vitamins
+ tannins, pigments
- fats
+ proteins
- nucleic acids

31. The functions of the contractile vacuoles are:


- the synthesis of protein
- the synthesis of vegetable oil
+ osmoregulation
+ waste release
- the synthesis of ATP

32. The plastids are:


- the organelles of the majority of animal cells
+ the organelles of some protozoa
+ the organelles of plant cells
- the inclusions of plant cells
- the inclusions of animal cells
33. The types of plastids are:
+ chloroplasts
+ chromoplasts
- mycoplasts
+ leucoplasts
- elioplasts

34. The functions of the plastids are:


+ the synthesis of carbohydrates and proteins
+ the accumulation of starch
+ the accumulation of fats and proteins
- the synthesis of R-RNA
- the synthesis of t-RNA

35. The centrosome:


- consists of a single centriole
+ consists of two centrioles
- consists of three centrioles
+ is formed by microtubules
- is formed by microfilaments

36. The inclusions:


+ are non-permanent components of the cell
- are permanent specialized components of the cell
+ have a certain structure
- do not have a definite structure
+ fulfil certain functions

37. The groups of inclusions are:


+ mineral, pigment
+ secretory, excretory
- vitamin, hormonal
+ trophic, vitamin
- enzyme

38. The cell nucleus consists of:


- the hyaloplasm
+ the nuclear envelope
+ the karyolymph (nuclear juice)
+ the nucleoli
+ the chromatin

39. The karyolemma consists of:


+ two membranes
- one membrane
+ the perinuclear space
- the karyolymph (nuclear juice)
- the chromatin

40. The functions of the karyolemma are:


- secretory
- excretory
+ demarcational
+ transportation
- receptor

41. The nucleolus:


+ is formed at the nucleolar organizers
+ is formed at the extrachromosomal copies of the nucleolar organizer
+ is the organelle of the nucleus
- is the organelle of the cytoplasm
- is surrounded by a membrane

42. The functions of nucleolus are:


- the mitotic spindle formation
+ the synthesis of t-RNA, R-RNA
- the synthesis of t-RNA, and m-RNA
+ the synthesis of components of ribosomes
- the synthesis of ATP

43. The chromatin is:


- a lipoprotein fibre
+ the despiralized DNA with proteins
+ a nucleoprotein fibre
- a segment of the chromosome
+ the DNA with a complex of histone and nonhistone proteins

44. The chromosome:


+ is the spiralized DNA in combination with histones
+ is the organelle of the nucleus
+ consists of genes
- is the organelle of the cytoplasm
- is a component of the nucleolus

45. The metaphase chromosome:


- is formed by means of one chromatid
+ is formed by two chromatids
+ has a centromere
+ is maximum spiralized
- consists of 8 half-chromatids

46. The features of the chromosomes:


- the information storage
+ a douplet structure
+ individuality
- the information transference
+ a constant number of each type

47. The functions of the chromosomes are:


+ the genetic code storage
+ a douplet structure
- individuality
+ the transeference of genetic information during the cell division
+ the implementation of genetic information during the protein biosynthesis

48. According to the centromere location chromosomes are classified into:


+ metacentric
+ submetacentric
+ acrocentric
- polycentric
- monocentric

49. The theory of the cell was formulated in:


- 1809
+ 1839
- 1860
- 1900
- 1901

50. The theory of the cell was proclaimed by:


+ T.Schwann
- Robert Hooke
- R. Virchow
- A. Leeuwenhoek
- M. V. Volkenstein

51. The main concepts of Schwann’s cell theory are:


- a cell originates from a cell
+ a cell is a structural and a functional unit of plants and animals
+ the formation of cells leads to their growth and development
- the cells of multi-celled organisms form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form the systems
of organs, which together comprise the body
- cells are divided by means of mitosis

52. The main points of the modern cell theory are:


- the main manifestations of the cell’s life are all the characteristics of living organisms
+ a cell is the basic structural and the functional unit of all living things
+ the cells of single-celled and multi-celled organisms are similar in structure, their chemical
composition and in essential manifestations of life
+ the cells of multi-celled organisms form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form organ
systems, which together comprise the body
+ a cell originates from a cell

53. The term "cell from cell" was proposed by:


- T.Schwann
- M. Schleiden
- Robert Hooke
+ R. Virchow
- A. Leeuwenhoek