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VIVIAN

AGYEI – LAV ALVERNE – FENESIA


1ST SEM AY 2016-2017
MAPPING AND MAP OVERLAY ANALYSIS
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
1.0 Defini?on of Key Terms
2.0 Mapping Essen?als
2.1 Brief History of Maps
2.2 Types of Maps
2.3 Quali?es of a good map
2.4 Uses of maps
3.0 Map Overlay Analysis in Land Use Planning
3.1 Importance and Value in Land Use Planning
3.2 Need to perform Overlay Analysis
3.3 Procedure in Overlay Analysis
3.4 Issues in Overlay Analysis
4.0 Map Overlay Analysis using GIS: A Case Example in Determining
Disaster-Prone Areas
5.0 Summary and Conclusion
1. DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
1. DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS

MAP
A map is reduced and simplified model of reality containing geographical
informa?on. Such model is very useful because the real world is too big and too
complex. It is easier to see spa?al pa\erns and structures if certain spa?al
characteris?cs are selected and made visible on a smaller scale.
(Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board - HLURB, 1996)


OVERLAY ANALYSIS
•  A group of methodologies applied in op?mal site selec?on of suitability
modeling.
•  A technique for applying a common scale of values to diverse and dissimilar
inputs to create an integrated analysis. (ArcGIS Pro)



2. MAPPING ESSENTIALS
2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF MAPS
IN THE BEGINNING – BABYLONIAN

Ø  More than 5,000 years ago
Ø  Characteris?cs:
§  Depicted of small areas (city, trade
r o u t e , h u n ? n g g r o u n d , m i l i t a r y
campaign)
§  Pictorial in nature
§  No rules relaBng to orientaBon
§  Features on the map and the reality on
the Earth is not always accurate
§  Work of art
Ø  Examples:
§  Sketches on clay tablets by Babylonians
§  Property boundaries by Egyp?ans
§  Delicate maps on silk from China

Source: ICSM, 2016


2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF MAPS
PTOLEMY

Ø  T h e G r e e k s a n d R o m a n s
con?nued to refine the art of
map making
Ø  Created by Claudius Ptolemaeus
Ø  H e w a s a g e o g r a p h e r ,
mathema?cian, and astronomer
Ø  Published in 150 AD, with ?tle
‘Geographia’
Ø  C o n t a i n e d t h o u s a n d s o f
references and maps of various
parts of the world, with
longitude and laBtude lines
Ø  Imposed mathema?cal rules to
the composi?on of maps

Source: ICSM, 2016


2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF MAPS
THE MIDDLE AGES

Ø  The adop?on of the principle of
having Jerusalem in the center of
the ‘world’ map and the Orient
(Asia) at the top of the map
Ø  Heavily decorated, for religious and
a r ? s ? c r e a s o n s ( a n g e l s a n d
imaginary monsters)
Ø  Advance progress in Islamic Map
Ø  Al-Idrisi, an Arab scholar, produced a
number of outstanding ‘world’ maps
and geographical books in 1154. The
first book was ‘The Amusement of
him who desires to traverse the
Earth’

Source: ICSM, 2016


2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF MAPS
AFTER THE MIDDLE AGES

Ø  In Europe, the Renaissance period
brought significant changes:
Ø  Inven?on of the prin?ng press by
Johannes Gutenberg in 1440
Ø  Discovery of the Americas and expanded
contact with the Orient
Ø  The growth of major publishing houses
which produced the maps that were
accessible to all – not just the wealthy
Ø  The growth in public learning, brought
the thirst for knowledge, including the
improvement of mapping and naviga?on
Ø  Massive expansion in geographic knowledge and mapping. Earlier
maps is black and white which showed coastlines, country borders,
mountains, rivers, place names. Some are hand painted.
Ø  In the late 1700s, themaBc maps were created to record parBcular
event.
Source: ICSM, 2016
2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF MAPS
THE MODERN ERA

Ø  During the 17th, 18th, and 19th
centuries, the map is advancing with
the applicaBon of scienBfic method
Ø  Use modern satellite systems and
surveying techniques (combina?on
of ground observa?ons and remote
sensing)
Ø  High precision and consistency

Ø  Geographic InformaBon Systems (GIS) emerged in the 1970-80s


Ø  In tradi?onal cartography, the map was both the database and the
display of geographic informa?on
Ø  For GIS, the database, analysis, and display are physically and
conceptually separate aspects of handling geographic data
Source: ICSM, 2016
2.2 TYPES OF MAPS
CLASSIFICATION

Ø  GENERAL – show a complex of physical and cultural features

Ø  THEMATIC – simple outline map depic?ng one single feature or


represen?ng a single theme or subject

Ø  ANALYTICAL – show the derived results on an analysis and synthesis of


two or more variable factors according to desired output
2.2 TYPES OF MAPS
GENERAL MAPS
Ø  BASE MAP – drawn using appropriate scales
Ø  Contain Informa?on:
The boundaries of the area of study
The permanent physical features on the study area such as roads, harbors, etc
Other per?nent informa?on, such as map orienta?on, scale, project ?tles, symbols
Ø  VICINITY MAP
Ø  The geographic loca?on of the study area in
rela?on to the province/region.
2.2 TYPES OF MAPS
THEMATIC MAPS

Ø  TOPOGRAPHIC MAP
Ø  CLIMATE MAP
Ø  HYDROGEOLOGIC MAP
Ø  SLOPE MAP
Ø  SOIL MAP
Ø  LAND CLASSIFICATION MAP
Ø  INFRASTRUCTURE MAP
Ø  CADASTRAL MAP
Ø  LAND VALUES MAP
Ø  LAND USE MAP
Ø  POPULATION DENSITY MAP
2.2 TYPES OF MAPS
ANALYTICAL MAPS

Ø  EROSION POTENTIAL
Ø  FLOODING HAZARD MAP
Ø  LAND CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION MAP
Ø  SOIL SUITABILITY MAP
Ø  DEVELOPMENT CONSTRAINTS MAP

Mul?ple Climate Hazard Risks


2.3 QUALITIES OF A GOOD MAP
THE CONTENTS OF THE MAP SHOULD CLEARLY RELATE TO THE PURPOSE
AND USE OF THE MAPS.

PRIMARY CONTENT:
The actual subject of the map, such as land use, geology, geomorphology,
popula?on density.

SECONDARY CONTENT:
Includes coastlines and boundaries of municipali?es and province.
For thema?c maps, this is the topographic base.

SUPPORTIVE CONTENT:
Relates to marginal informa?on, such as:
•  map ?tle
•  legend column
•  scale
•  area coverage
2.4 USES OF MAPS
Base map: as a working sheet for the preparaBon of various maps.
Different types of informa?on may be reflected and overlaid in the base
map

Vicinity map: used to pinpoint specific locaBon of the study area. As a tool
for analysis on the influence and limita?on of the planning area.

Thema?c map: provide important informaBon related to the specific
theme.
Topographic map – presents informa?on on physical features, land form, eleva?on,
gradients.
Hydrogeologic map – shows the availability and loca?on of ground water
Soil map – essen?al in determining land use suitability

Analy?cal map: use for determining the area for parBcular purposes by
applying staBsBcal analysis or analyBc techniques to data.
Addi?onal
(source: Prof. Rye Material)
Based on the “big picture” of development, Land Use
Planning is working out the details of:

1) What should happen on a given area of land
given inherent qualiBes and locaBonal advantages;
2) How much land should be allocated for each
given use (in hectares) based on analysis of
land supply-land demand;
3) What should be preserved or protected due
to ecological / environmental consideraBons.

DATA AND INFORMATION ARE VISUALLY
PRESENTED THROUGH MAPS
12-STEP HLURB LAND USE PLANNING
Recommended Policies
Output No 3:
PROCESS Concept /
Structure Plan
OpBons

–  The CLWUP shall take into considera?on the fault lines and
ground rupture lines delineated by PHIVOLCS on the ground;

–  LGU policies on what to do in areas within the influence of


ground rupture lines and or fault lines will guide formula?on
Output No 1:
of land use strategies; Trends, Output No 2:
Development
Developments, and
SituaBon Analyses Framework

–  The upda?ng should include hazards and vulnerabili?es in
the planning analysis; focusing on floods and earthquakes.

–  Public policies to be transformed into land use strategies;


find physical transla?on in the use/alloca?on of land

Output No 4:
Output No 5: Land Use Plan
Output No 6: Drad Zoning (drad)
Approved Land Use Plan Ordinance
PREPARING THE PROFILE and SITUATION
ANALYSIS

DATA GATHERING

SECONDARY PRIMARY
DATA DATA
e.g., 2016 Exis?ng Land Use Map
e.g., Slope Map; Soil Map
DATA PROCESSING
(ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS)
e.g., Soil Suitability Map; Flood
Suscep?bility Map; Flood Risk Map
Tables/Graphs/
Maps and Text
Figures

PROFILE
e.g., all Thema?c and Analy?cal Maps with brief
narra?ve to reveal their implica?on to future land
use planning
ACTIVITIES
1.  Data Gathering
a.  Iden?fica?on of data requirements
b.  Iden?fica?on of data sources
c.  Planning for gathering data
d.  Gathering/collec?on of data
3.  Evalua?on and Integra?on of Data
a.  Assessment of available data and informa?on
b.  Analysis and integra?on of data
4.  Wri?ng/Mapping the data/informa?on gathered
a.  Prepara?on of maps, charts, tables, and figures
b.  Wri?ng the profile
c.  Packaging the report
PREPARING THE PROFILE and SITUATION ANALYSIS

•  Mapped data and informa?on are the outputs of


site inventory and assessment.
•  Mapped data and informa?on on the site are
essen?als map overlay analysis. Cau?on should
be taken in planning data requirements
es?ma?ng the ?me and resources needed to
acquire and use each item during the land use
planning process (Steps 4 – 6 of the HLURB LUP).
•  Level of detail varies between descrip?ve phase
and decision phase of the land use planning
process
•  Mapped data and informa?on are presented in
the Profile and Situa?on Analysis of the Planning
Area
SAMPLE
SAMPLE THEMATIC MAPS BASE MAP
THEMATIC
MAPS
LAND USE MAP
LAND COVER MAP
SLOPE MAP
LOCATION OF ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES

.
3. MAP OVERLAY ANALYSIS IN LUP
Map and Overlay Analysis
•  Involves a thorough assessment of the natural environment
and the associated physical characterisBcs of the planning
area (PA) and its surrounding areas.
•  This include factors found above, below, and on the
ground; understand the nature of the PA;
•  Through mapping and map overlay analysis, land use
determinants or factors that influence future land use and
their their interrela?onships define constraints (or
mpediments to development) and opportuni?es (for future
development ).
•  Such factors serve as land use determinants, influencing the
restructuring of the exis?ng land use pa\ern.
Map and Overlay Analysis

•  Through map overlay, one can make an


assessment of the physical characteris?cs
together with one’s analysis of the
environment required by land uses or
ac?vi?es, in order to decide (a) which parts
of the planning area (PA) can stay the same,
(b) which parts will need to be changed, and
(c) what those changes should aim to
achieve.
3.1 IMPORTANCE AND VALUE IN LUP

Provide a comprehensive mul?-disciplinary


approach for iden?fying the planning
requirements of the case study.

The method is useful in reaching a
comprehensive descrip?on and consensus
about the planning issues.

Source: APB-LRIS, 1991


3.2 NEED TO PERFORM OVERLAY ANALYSIS

A TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE SUITABILITY MODELS WHICH


IDENTIFY THE MOST PREFERRED LOCATIONS FOR A SPECIFIC
PHENOMENON.


Type of problems addressed by suitability analysis:
-  Where to site a new housing development
-  Which sites are be\er for deer habitat
-  Where economic growth is most likely to occur
-  Where the loca?ons are the most suscep?ble to mudslides
3.3 PROCEDURE IN OVERLAY ANALYSIS

1.  DEFINE THE PROBLEM


2.  BREAK THE PROBLEM INTO SUBMODELS
3.  DETERMINE SIGNIFICANT LAYERS
4.  RECLASSIFY OR TRANSFORM THE DATA WITHIN A LAYER
5.  WEIGHT THE INPUT LAYER
6.  ADD OR COMBINE THE LAYERS
7.  SELECT THE BEST LOCATIONS
8.  ANALYZE

3.4 ISSUES IN OVERLAY ANALYSIS

The main problems are the DATA PROBLEMS.



SCALES OF MEASUREMENT
The opera?ons between different types of measurement
(nominal, ordinal, interval, and ra?o) some?mes are not
working.

SCALE AND OVERLAY ANALYSIS
Overlay analysis can be implemented on any pair of inputs if
they cover the same spa?al extent. Many analysts ignore the
consequences of combining data of different scales.

Source: GISknowledge, 1995
Addi?onal
(source: Prof. Rye Material)
Map and Overlay Analysis

•  Mapping and map overlay analysis provide


knowledge on constraints to future land
development that can be miBgated to
minimize potenBal risks, prevent loss of life
or damage to property (adverse effects);
•  K n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s a n d
opportuni?es can clarify, reveal or enhance
understanding of the site or planning area;
and this can be facilitated through mapping
and map overlay analysis.
Map Overlay Analysis – layers of mapped data are overlaid two at the Bme to generate
more informaBon of the site or planning area. Through GIS, overlay analysis can involve
mulBple layers of mapped data to generate mulB-dimensional analysis.


SAMPLE ANALYTICAL SOIL EROSION
MAPS
MAP
Low to Moderate
SuscepBbility to Flooding

High SuscepBbility to Flooding


High SuscepBbility to Landslide

Moderate SuscepBbility
to Landslide
Low SuscepBbility to Landslide
Moderate to High SuscepBbility to Landslide and Flooding= 4,584.42 has.
•  For planners, it provides informa?on on
–  the status and characteris?cs of the various
aspects of the environment which are indica?ve of
the poten?als and weaknesses of a par?cular area.

–  For decision makers, the Profile provides


informa?on on the environment needed in the
formula?on of policies, strategies or business
decisions pertaining to specific areas within the PA
or to the environment in general.
4. MAP OVERLAY ANALYSIS USING GIS
FOREST AREAS
WATERSHED AREA
STEEP SLOPES
FAULT LINES (BUFFERED)
5. SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
4.1 CONCLUSION

•  Map Overlay Analysis – layers of mapped data are overlaid


two at the ?me to generate more informa?on of the site
or planning area. Through GIS, overlay analysis can involve
mul?ple layers of mapped data to generate mul?-
dimensional analysis.

•  The versa?lity, cost efficiency, and fast compu?ng power


of GIS plasorms can be important tools in planning,
managing, and decision making.

•  Not all the ‘graphic’ informa?on found in the CLUP can be


defined in a GIS. There are, for example, graphs based on
tables that will simply facilitate the reading of the report

References
•  Aber, James S. (2016). Brief History of Maps and Cartography. In website
h\p://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/map/h_map/h_map.htm, accessed on 16th Oct 2016
•  APB-LRIS. (1991). Map Analysis Techniques for Land Use Planning (MALUP). Final Report Alberta Planning
Board LRIS Pilot Project. In the website h\p://ags.aer.ca/document/INF/INF_113.PDF, accessed on 23rd Oct
2016
•  ArcGIS Pro. Understanding overlay analysis. Overlay toolset concepts. In website
h\p://pro.arcgis.com/en/pro-app/tool-reference/spa?al-analyst/understanding-overlay-analysis.htm,
accessed on 23rd Oct 2016
•  GISknowledge. (2005). Overlay Analysis: Areas and Surfaces. In website
h\p://gisknowledge.net/topic/spa?al_opera?ons/trodd_overlay_areas_and_surfaces.pdf, accessed on 23rd
Oct 2016
•  HLURB. (1996). Mapping. Guidelines for the Formula?on/Revision of Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Volume
VII. Rules and Standards Development Group Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board.
•  ICSM. (2016). Fundamentals of Mapping. Anzlic Commi\ee on Surveying and Mapping. Commonwealth of
Australia 2016. In website h\p://www.icsm.gov.au/mapping/history.html, accessed on 16th Oct 2016
•  Merriam, D.F. (1996). Kansas 19th Century Geologic Maps. Kansas Academy of Science, Transac?ons 99, p.
95-114
•  ACRS. (2015)
h\p://www.a-a-r-s.org/acrs/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publica?ons/TU1-1-2.pdf,
accessed on 25th Oct 2016
•  PROJECT NOAH.
h\p://blog.noah.dost.gov.ph/2013/10/20/magnitude-7-2-temblor-rocks-bohol-philippines-ini?al-
assessment/, accessed on 25th Oct 2106
Picture References
•  Slide 1: h\p://www.edc.uri.edu/nrs/classes/nrs410/assignments/fancymap.htm
•  Slide 13: Author’s data. Copyright by Grandcity Balikpapan, Sinarmas Land
•  Slide 14:
h\ps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/Philippines_Popula?on_Density_Map.svg
•  Slide 15: h\p://www.preven?onweb.net/english/professional/maps/v.php?id=7872