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INDUSTRY

 The term denotes


“earnest or constant
application to work
or business’’, or a
special branch of
work, or the capital
or workers
employed in it.
Industrial
 This is defined as the pertaining to or
engaged in industry. The word
industrial may also mean: of industry
or relating to, used in, created by
industry; and/or of industry’s
workforce or relating to or involving
workers in industry.
SECURITY

 a state or condition of being secured;


 there is freedom from fear, harm,
danger, loss, destruction or damages.
FACTORS THAT BRING ABOUT
UNSECURED CONDITIONS
 THREATS
- an activity that could lead to a loss
 HAZARDS
- a condition that could lead to a loss
 VULNERABILITY
- a weakness that can be used to gain
access to an asset
 RISK
- a potential loss or damage
NECESSITY OF SECURITY

 Security measures are inevitable or


necessary for the attainment of
goals and objectives when an
individual or organization is
exposed to hazards, their
productivity is adversely affected.
SECURITY VS. SAFETY
 state of being “safe”, the condition
of being protected against physical,
social, spiritual, financial, political,
emotional, etc.
MANAGEMENT
 The skillful use of
means in order to
attain a purpose.
Industrial Security
 Security measures applied to
business industries; or the business
of providing security and protection
to private individuals business
enterprises, or government and
non government industries.
WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL SECURITY
MANAGEMENT?
❑ “the skillful
handling of the
security and safety
measures of
business
enterprises and
industrial
establishments.”
PHILOSOPHY OF SECURITY
MANAGEMENT
 Management tool that is protective in
nature;
 A shared responsibilities;
 Effective and efficient use of resources.
 Security practitioners protect assets and
prevent or minimize business
interruptions; and
 A need for management and technical
skills.
HISTORY OF THE SECURITY
PROFESSION
 Ancient time, villages have
established owned security force
(able-bodied men)
 1950s SG under the Mayor
 June 13, 1969 “PSA Law” was
approved making PC as the sole
authority to supervise PSA, CGF and
their SG thru Cong. Teodulo Natividad
What is PSA LAW?

 R.A. 5487
“AN ACT TO REGULATE THE
ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF
PRIVATE DETECTIVE, WATCHMAN OR
SECURITY AGENCIES”
Creation of Supervisory Unit

 Aug. 4, 1969, PCSIASO- Security


and Investigation Agency Supervisory
Office was organized with 8 officers
and 8 enlisted personnel under C3
Division.
 On Oct. 21, 1969, HPC General Staff
issued a Memo No. 8 renaming
PCSIASO to PCSOSIA later PC SUSIA
pursuant to G.O. No. 404 dated on
June 29, 1970.
ARE THERE AMENDMENTS OF
R.A. 5487?
 Oct. 30, 1972 P.D. 11 amending certain
sections particularly Sec. 4- who may
organize PSA.
 Jan. 17, 1973 P.D. 100– Sec.3,4,5,8 and 9 were
amended for the improvement of PC to
deputize SG in cases of emergency or
disaster. Sec 11- PSA to be granted license to
operate
 April 28, 1984 P.D. 1919 – Sec.3, 8, 16 and 18
provide definition of SG, power of C/PC,
exception of GSU for LTO
andminimum/maximum number of SG.
Supervisory Unit

 HPC G.O. 213 and GHQS No. 9 dated


on Jan. 10, 1988 organized PC Civil
Security Force Command, later
changed to PC/INPCSF.
 Jan. 1, 1991, PNP was organized
renaming PCSOSIA to PNPSOSIA
 June 1, 1995, SUSIA to SAGSD
becoming one of the two major
divisions of CSG.
LAWS RELATED TO
SECURITY MANAGEMENT

R.A. No. 5487 – approved June 13, 1969,


known as Private Security Agency Law

R.A. 6975 – The law authorizing the PNP the


control and supervision of the security
agencies in the Philippines. Approved into law
December 13, 1990.

WDC
NECESSITY OF SECURITY

❑ Security measures are inevitable or


necessary for the attainment of
goals and objectives.
❑ When an individual or organization is
exposed to hazards, their
productivity is adversely affected.
PROBLEMS IN SECURITY
MANAGEMENT

1. Human hazards
2. Natural hazards

WDC
Human hazards
 The act or condition affecting the safe
operation of the facility caused by
human action, accidental or
intentional. It includes sabotage,
espionage, pilferage and theft,
disloyalty, disaffection and subversive
activities.
Natural Hazards
 Those caused by natural
phenomena like flood, typhoon,
earthquake, etc. that caused
damage, disturbance and problems
of the normal functioning activities
including security.
WHAT ARE HAZARDS?

❑ conditions that may cause damage to


property, injury, or loss of life.
❑ “exposure to the chance of loss or
injury.
SECURITY AND SAFETY
MEASURES
❑ Active measures
➢ physical barriers, security lightings,
safes and vaults, locks and other
devices.
❑ Passive measures
➢ deter mans from committing acts for
fear of being caught.
➢ Ex: Security education programs, security
investigation, fire prevention seminars,
safety drills, etc.
TYPES OF SECURITY
 Physical Security – It is the broadest
branch of security which is concerned
with the physical measures adopted to
prevent unauthorized access to
equipment, facilities, materials, and
documents, and to safeguard them
against espionage, sabotage damage
and theft.
PHYSICAL SECURITY
CONCEPTS
9Ds
 Define
 Deny
 Delay
 Direct
 Detect
 Detain
 Deter
 Disseminate
 Defend
Communication Security

 It is the protection
resulting from the
application of various
measures that prevent
or delay the enemy or
unauthorized persons
in gaining information
through the
communication
system. This includes:
Communication Security

1. Transmission Security – A
component of communication
security that results from all
measures designed to protect
transmission from the
interception, traffic analysis, and
imitative deception.
Communication Security

2.Cryptographic Security – Result


from the provisions of technically
sound crypto-systems and their
proper use.
Communication Security

3. Physical Security – Providing of


safeguards to equipment and
materials from access by
unauthorized persons.
Hotel Security
 It refers to the protection of assets,
guests, personal effects and other
properties in hotels, inns, and other
similar establishments.
Bank Security
 A specialized type of the physical
security protecting the assets,
personnel, and operation of a
banking with special emphasis on
the precaution and measures to
safeguard the cash and assets
while the storage, in transit, and
during transaction.
Document Security
 It is the physical security involving
the protection of documents and
classified papers from loss access
by unauthorized persons, damage,
theft and compromise though
disclosure.
Personal Security
 This involves the protection of
personnel especially ranking
officials from any harm, kidnap,
and other acts. Very Important
People (VIP) security is a type of
personal security.
Crisis Security
 This is a part of the VIP security
involved in hostage kidnapping
VIPs.
Industrial Security
 This is applied to business groups
engaged in industries like manufacturing
, assembling research development,
processing , warehousing and even
agriculture. Uses protective barriers,
security lightings, personnel movement
control, lock and key management,
guard forces, communications and
electronic hardware are essential aside
from fire prevention and control
programs, emergency plans, industrial
safety, and security education
programs.
Operational Security
 This is a type of security that deals
primarily with the protection of
processes, formula, patents and
other industrial and manufacturing
activities from espionage,
infiltration, loss, compromise, and
photocopying.
Other Special Types of Security

 Air Cargo Security – This is


applied to minimize, not prevent,
losses of cargo during in transit,
storage or transfer.
 School Security – This is applied
in response to the increase of
violent crimes committed against
students and school personnel, and
school properties.
 Supermarket Security – This is
applied in response to the
mushrooming of bazaars, marts,
supermalls, and the like.
 Personnel Security – This is
involved in the background checks of
the individuals commensurate with
the security requirements of their
work. This also includes , measures
designed to protect employees of an
organization or business
establishment.
Legal Basis of Industrial
Security in the Philippines
 Natural Authority – The highest law
is the law of self-preservation. By
instinct of man, man naturally reacts
in order to protect himself, his family,
his honor, freedom, liberty and
property from danger, threat or
hazard. He does it personally or
through the help of others.
Constitutional Authority
 The prime duty of the government is
to serve and protect the people. The
government may call upon the people
to defend the state and, in the
fulfilment thereof, all citizens may be
required under conditions provided by
law, or to render personal military
service (Article II, Section 4 of the
1987 Philippine Constitution).
Statutory Authority
 The Revised Penal Code
( Act. No. 3815)
 Private Security Agency Law
(RA 5487)
THREE MAJOR DIVISIONS OF
INDUSTRIAL SECURITY

1. Physical Security
➢ measures taken to prevent physical access or
entry to an installation or area by unauthorized
personnel.
2. Personnel Security
➢ measures applied to ensure suitability for
appointment or access to classified matter as
well as the protection of company personnel
against potential harmful acts or conditions.
3. Document and Information Security
➢ measures designed to safeguard company
documents from unauthorized disclosure of the
information
“The Physical Security”
COMPONENTS OF PHYSICAL
SECURITY

1. Perimeter Barriers
2. Protective Lightings
3. Protective Alarms
4. Protective Locks and Key Control and
5. Protective Cabinets
6. Guard Force and Guard Systems
7. Personnel Identification & Movement
Control
Principles of Physical Security
 Enemy Agents Must Access –
Acquisition of information is the ultimate
results, and the means and form in
which the information is obtained.
 There is No Impenetrable Barrier –
For the unfriendly government or
organization, they are willing to devote
enough time, money, personnel,
material, and imagination in passing
barriers. So physical security attempts
to build defense by using a certain
barrier.
 Defense in depth means barrier
after barrier - In order that barrier
could prevent unauthorized access
and serve its purpose very well,
there should be an integration of all
barriers adopted in the installation.
 Surreptitious vs. Non-
Surreptitious – Surreptitious
entry means not observable while
non-surreptitious entry is
observable. Observable or not,
intruders usually find the right
place and right opportunity to gain
access. Physical security then
needed to detect or deny
unauthorized entries.
 Each Installation is Different –
Since each installation is different,
each will have different problems
overcome. The security procedures
will not adequate for all
installations.
PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL
SECURITY Defense in depth
means barrier
after barrier
Surreptitious
versus Non-
Surreptitious Entry

Each Installation is
Different

There is No
Impenetrable
Barrier

Enemy Agents
Must Access
WHAT ARE BARRIERS?

❑ any physical
structure
whether natural
or man made.
❑ capable of
restricting,
delaying or
preventing
unauthorized
access
2 General Types of Physical
Security
 Natural Barriers - These are
offered by nature which could
obstruct or delay the passage way of
potential intruders . These also refer
to natural structures that serve as
deterrents or obstructions to
intruders such as high cliff, canyon,
desert, or bodies of water.
2 General Types of Physical
Security
 Man-made Barriers – These are
structural constructions like
fences, walls, floors, roofs, grills,
bars, roadblocks, other physical
means to deter or impede
penetration.
LINE OF PHYSICAL DEFENSE

helps
delay or • First Line - perimeter barriers;
stop
intruders

• Second Line - building exteriors

• Third Line - includes those


. internal control measures
CONCEPT OF PERIMETER
BARRIERS

❑ medium of structure which defines the


physical limits.
❑ restrict or impede access.
❑ any physical barrier used to supplement the
protection of an inside or outside perimeter.
PERIMETER BARRIER
OPENINGS

1. Gates and doors should also be guarded or locked;


2. Windows and similar openings should also be
guarded or grills should be installed;
3. Sidewalks elevators should be locked and guarded;
4. Utilities openings such as sewers, air intakes,
exhaust tunnels should be protected by bars, grills,
etc.;
5. Clear Zone is an unobstructed area maintained on
both sides of the perimeter barrier.
❑ A clear zone of 20 ft. or more is desirable between the
barrier and extension structures and natural covers
which may provide concealment or assistance to a
person seeking unauthorized entry.
TYPES OF PERIMETER
BARRIERS
1. FENCES - control physical and visual
access between outside areas.
➢ Solid -visual access is denied.
➢ Full-View - visual access is permitted
TYPES OF PERIMETER BARRIERS
2. BUILDING WALLS include walls,
floor, roofs or their combinations
serve also as barriers and they
should be of such constructions to
provide uniform protection just like
wire-fencing.
3. BODIES OF WATER like river,
lake, cataract, sea, pond or any
bodies of water forming part of the
wall, building or fencing should not
be considered an adequate
perimeter barrier.
CHAIN LINK FENCE
 Must be constructed of 7-feet material
excluding top guard.
 Must be of 9-gauge or heavier.
 Mesh openings are not to be larger than 2” per
side.
 Should be a twisted and barbed salvage at top
and bottom.
 Must be securely fastened to rigid metal or
reinforced concrete.
 Must reach within 2” of hard ground or paving.
 On soft ground, must reach below surface deep
enough to compensate for shifting soil or sand.
BARBED WIRE FENCE
 Standard barbed wire is twisted, double
strand,12 ga. wire with 4 point barbs
spaced an equal distant apart.
 Barbed wire fencing should not be less
than 7 feet high, excluding top guard.
 Barbed wire fencing must be firmly affixed
to posts not more than 6 feet apart.
 The distance between strands must not
exceed 6” and at least one wire will be
interlaced vertically and midway between
posts.
ADDITIONAL PROTECTIVE
MEASURES

1. Top Guard
➢ additional overhang of barbed wire placed on vertical
perimeter fences facing upward and outward with a 45-
degree angle with three to four strands of barbed wires
spaced 6-inches apart.
2. Guard Control Stations
➢ provided at main perimeter entrance to secure areas
located out of doors,
3. Towers or “Guard towers”
➢ are house-like structures above the perimeter barriers.
ADDITIONAL PROTECTIVE
MEASURES…
4. Barrier Maintenance
➢ Fencing barriers and protective walls should always be
regularly inspected by security.
5. Protection in Depth
➢ In large open areas or ground where fencing or walling is
impractical and expensive, warning signs should be
conspicuously placed.
6. Signs and Notices or “Control signs”
➢ controls unauthorized ingress, and preclude accidental
entry.
Perimeter Guards
 Fixed Post – Security Guard are
assigned in a particular place of the
compound to guard and watch the
area and surrounding; and
 Patrol (Roving) – In this system,
the security guard is required to
walk and go around regularly
around the company premises.
PROTECTIVE LIGHTINGS

❑ provides a means of illumination


❑ a degree of protection maintained during
daylight hours.
❑ deterrent to thieves and vandals
❑ an essential element of an integrated
physical security program.
TYPES OF SECURITY
LIGHTINGS
1. Stationary Luminary (Continuous)
2. Stand-by Lighting
3. Movable Lighting
4. Emergency Lighting
TYPES OF SECURITY
LIGHTINGS
1. Stationary Luminary (Continuous)
➢ fixed luminous to flood a given area
continuously with overlap.

a. Glare–projection type
➢ focused to the intruder while the guard remains in
the dark.
b. Controlled lighting
➢ focused on a pile of items rather than on the
background.
TYPES OF SECURITY
LIGHTINGS…
2. Stand-by Lighting
➢ similar to continuous lighting but
turned on manually or by other
automatic means.
TYPES OF SECURITY
LIGHTINGS…

3. Movable Lighting
➢ stationary or manually operated search
lights

4. Emergency Lighting
➢ used in the event of electrical failure
GENERAL TYPES OF
LIGHTING SOURCES
1. Incandescent Lamp
2. Mercury Vapour Lamp
3. Metal Halide
4. Fluorescent Lamp
5. High-Sodium Vapour Lamp
INCANDESCENT LIGHTS

have low initial cost


Mercury Vapor lamps
 emit a purplish-
white color gas.
More efficient
in exterior
lighting.
Metal Halide
 similar in physical
appearance to
mercury vapor,
 but provides a light
source of higher
luminous efficiency
and better color
rendition.
Fluorescent Lamp
 good color
rendition.
 cannot project
light over long
distances
 not desirable as
flood type lights.
High-pressure Sodium Vapor
 exterior lighting of parking areas,
roadways, buildings, and industrial and
commercial installation.
 It emits golden white to pink color.
Low-Pressure Sodium Vapor
 This type of light produces yellow
color.
Quartz Lamps
 This type of lamp produces very
bright light.
Types of Lighting Equipment
 Floodlights are used for outdoor
security lighting including the
illumination of boundaries, fences,
and buildings.
Types of Lighting Equipment
 Street lights
produce diffused
light rather than
directional beam.
They are widely
used in parking
areas.
Types of Lighting Equipment
 Searchlights are incandescent lights
that provide a type of crime-related
lighting system.
Lighting Application/Lighting
Systems
 Fenced Perimeter Lighting is used
to illuminate the fence itself and the
area beyond it “the detection zone”.
Its objective is to reveal an intruder’s
approach and produce glare towards
him, thus reducing his ability to see
in the site. However, it can be difficult
to apply because it may create
nuisance or hazards.
Lighting Application/Lighting
Systems
 Area Lighting is used in a building face
perimeters consist of faces of building
on or within 20 ft. of the property or
area line to be protected and where the
public may approach the building.
Guards may be stationed inside or
outside the building. Doorways or other
insets in the building‘s face should
receive special attention for lighting to
eliminate shadows.
Lighting Application/Lighting
Systems

 Flood Lighting is used to cast a


strong light on the walls of
building so that intruders are
visible either in silhouette
(outline) or by the shadows
which they cast.
Lighting Application/Lighting
Systems

 Gate House Lighting is installed


on active entranced pedestrians
and vehicles to facilitate
complete inspection of
passengers, cars, trucks and
freight cars as well as their
contents and passengers.
Lighting Application/Lighting
Systems

 Topping-up Lights is used to


illuminate dark area not adequately
lit by area or flood lighting. Areas
and structures within the
installation property lines consist of
yards, storage, spaces, large open
working areas, piers, docks, and
other sensitive areas.
PROTECTIVE ALARMS

❑ Another safeguard that


complement if not to
supplement physical
security
❑ Alerts security
personnel to
consummated or
attempted intrusion
THREE PARTS OF AN ALARM
SYSTEM
1. Sensor or trigger device
➢ It detects the aural or visual signals or
both.
2. Transmission line
➢ a circuit which transmit the message to
the signaling apparatus.
3. Enunciator
➢ it is the signaling system that activates
the alarm.
TYPES OF ALARM DETECTION SYSTEM

1. Central Station System – monitor of the


central station is located outside the
installation.
2. Proprietary System – functions in the same
way as the central system except that it is
owned and leased by the subscriber.
3. Local Alarm System – ringing up a visual or
audible alarm near the object to be protected.
4. Auxiliary System – installation circuits are
led into local police or fire department.
Data Gathering Panel

Alarm Annunciation Alarm Assessment


CAS
(Central Alarm Station)

Alarm Sensor Alarm Sensor Alarm Sensor

104
Kinds of Alarms

1. Audio Detection Device- detect sound


caused by attempted force entry.
Kinds of Alarms
2.Vibration Detection Device-
detect any vibration.
Kinds of Alarms
3. Metallic foil or wire- it will detect any
action that moves the foil or wire.
Kinds of Alarms
4. Laser Beam Alarm- a laser
emitter floods a wall or fencing
with a beam. If the beam is
disturbed, an alarm is activated.
Kinds of Alarms
5. Photoelectric or Electric Eye Device-
an invisible/visible beam is emitted.
WHAT IS PERIMETER INTRUDER
DETECTION SYSTEM (PIDS)?

 These are electronic devices that


detects entry or attempted entry
across the external perimeter of a key
point or vital point and signaling an
alarm.
PROTECTIVE LOCKS AND
KEY CONTROL
What is Lock?
❑ a mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or
electronic device to prevent entry
into a building, room, container or
hiding place

❑ What is a Key?
◼ a metal bar with notches or grooves that,
when inserted into a lock and turned,
operates the lock’s mechanism; or
◼ door or lock opener: a device such as a
plastic card with an encoded magnetic
strip that operates a door or lock
TYPES OF LOCKS
1. Key-operated Lock
2. Padlock
3. Combination lock
4. Code Operated Lock
5. Card-coded Lock
6. Electrical Lock
7. Electromagnetic Lock
Key-operated mechanical lock
 it uses some sort of arrangement of internal
physical barriers (wards tumblers) which
prevent the lock from operating unless they
are properly aligned.
 The key is the device used to align these
internal barriers so that the lock may be
operated.
Types of
Key-operated Lock

1. Warded Lock
2. Disc or wafer tumbler mechanism
3. Pin tumbler mechanism
4. Lever tumbler mechanism
Warded lock
Disc tumbler (wafer) lock
Lever Tumbler Lock
Pin Tumbler Lock
Padlock
 a portable and
detachable lock
having a sliding hasp
which passes through
a staple ring and is
then made fasten or
secured.
Combination Locks
it uses numbers,
letters or other
symbols as
reference point
which enable an
operator to align
them manually.
Code Operated Locks
❑ can be opened by
pressing the series
of numbered
button in the
proper sequence.
Electrical lock
 a type of lock
that can be
opened and
closed remotely
by electrical
means.
Electromagnetic Locks
❑ devices holding a
door by
magnetism.
❑ when the power is
secured on the
door, it will resist
pressure of up to
1000 pounds.
TYPES OF KEYS

1. Change Key - a specific key, which


operates the lock and has a particular
combination of cuts, or biting, which match
the tumblers in the lock.
2. Sub-Master Key - could open all the lock
within a particular grouping in a facility.
3. Master Key - capable of opening a series of
locks.
4. Grand Master Key - open everything in a
system involving two or more master key
groups.
Change Key (One level)
A key to a single lock within a master keyed
system.
Master Key (Two level)
All levels operated by change key and master
key Master key operates all locks generally of
one building.
Grand Master Key (Three level)
All locks operated by change key, master key
and grand master key.
Great Grand Master Key (Four level)
All locks operated by change key, master key,
grand master key and great grand master
key.
Great Great Grand Master Key (Five level)
All locks operated by change key, master key,
grand master key, great grand master key
and great great grand master key.
PROTECTIVE CONTAINERS
(CABINETS)

❑ The final line of defense


where papers, records, plans
or cashable instrument,
precious metals or other
especially valuable assets are
protected.
❑ These security containers will
be of a size and quantity,
which the nature of the
business dictates.
❑ These could be: SAFE, VAULT
OR A FILE ROOM
SAFE
➢ a metallic container used
for the safekeeping of
documents or small items
➢ robbery or burglary
resistance
➢ must be at least 750 lbs.
➢ anchored to a building
structure
➢ body should at least one
inch thick steel.
VAULT
➢ a heavily constructed fire and burglar
resistance container
➢ part of the building structure
➢ bigger than safe
➢ door should be made of steel at least
6 inches
➢ walls, ceiling, floor reinforce concrete
at least 12 inches
➢ must be resistive to fire up to 6
hours.
FILE ROOM
➢ cubicle in a building
constructed a little
lighter than vault
➢ 12 feet high
➢ watertight door
➢ fire proof for one hour.
GUARD FORCE AND GUARD
SYSTEMS
Security Guard
 sometimes called private security
guard or watchman shall include any
person who offers or renders personal
service to watch or secure either a
residence or business establishment
or both for hire or compensation,
 and with a license to exercise security
profession.
GUARD FORCE

❑ Group of selected men, trained or


grouped into functional unit in order to
protect operational processes from those
disruption which would impede efficiency
or halt operation.
TYPES OF GUARD FORCES
1. Private Security Agency (PSA)
➢ contracts, recruits, trains, and post security
guard to a business firms
2. Company Security Force (CSF)
➢ maintained and operated by any private
company or corporation
3. Government Security Unit (GSU)
➢ operated by any government entity other than
military and / a police
WHAT IS PADPAO?
❑ THE PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF
DETECTIVE AND PROTECTIVE
AGENCY OPERATORS, INC (PADPAO)
- the national association of all licensed security
agencies and company security forces.
- Established as early as 1958 purposely for the self-
regulation of all security agencies.
WHAT IS LTO?
❑ LICENSE TO OPERATE

❑ document issued by the CPNP or his


duly authorized representative
authorizing a person to engage in
security business
REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PSA
❑ New Applicants for PSA license shall
obtain:

✓ Capital (minimum) – P1,000,000


✓ Bank Deposit – P500,000

❑ Where to file?
✓ To the Office of the C/PNP thru the C/PNP-SOSIA
(SAGSD) using the SAGSD Form 01-94 and
SAGSD Form 02-94.
REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PSA
❑ Application Form for license to operate
shall contain the following:
◼ full name of the applicant;
◼ his age, civil status; and
◼ residence and location of his business.
REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PSA
❑ In case of corporation, association
or partnership copies of the
following shall be appended:
◼ Certificate of Registration with the
SEC; and
◼ BY-Laws and Articles of
incorporation.
REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PSA
➢ Graduated Scale of License to
Operate
▪ PSAs with temporary LTO having 200
or more but not exceeding 1000 shall
be issued a regular LTO good for 2
years.
▪ New PSA shall be issued a temporary
LTO good for 1 year.
REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PSA
➢ Graduated Scale of License to Operate
▪ PSAs with temporary LTO having posted
100 guards or more but less than 200
shall upon expiration of such LTO shall be
issued an extension period of 6 mos.
However, upon expiration of the extension
period, no extension shall be granted unless
the PSA shall submit a certification for
additional 50 guards posted for a 150
guards total.
REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PSA
➢ Graduated Scale of License to Operate
▪ PSAs with temporary LTO having posted
100 guards or more but less than 200
shall upon expiration of such LTO shall be
issued an extension period of 6 mos.
However, upon expiration of the extension
period, no extension shall be granted unless
the PSA shall submit a certification for
additional 50 guards posted for a 150
guards total.
REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PSA
➢ Graduated Scale of License to
Operate
▪ LTO of PSA with less than 100 guards
after 1 year shall not be renewed.
REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PSA
➢ Graduated Scale of License to
Operate
▪ PSAs with temporary LTOs, upon
expiration still fail to comply with 200
guards requirement shall be granted
another 6 mos. period. However, failure
to comply shall serve a basis for the
issuance of cease to operate order.
Graduated Scale of License to
Operate

➢ PSAs with cancelled/revoked LTOs shall cease


to operate and within 7 days after having
been duly notified of such cease to operate
order, shall immediately deposit all its firearms
with the FED which shall be receipted, copy
furnished, CPNP SOSIA (SAGSD). Otherwise,
the PSA concerned, shall be liable under PD
1866 (RA 8249).
Who may organize and
maintain a PSA?
❑ Any Filipino citizen
or corporation,
association,
partnership,
❑ 100% owned and
controlled by
Filipino citizens.
Basic Requirement of an Operator
or Manager of agency

✓ Filipino citizen
✓ At least 25 years old
✓ College graduate and/or
✓ A commissioned officer in the inactive service or
✓ Retired from AFP or PNP or
Graduated/taken course in concepts and methods in
industrial Security and Security Management and/or
✓ Must have and adequate training or experience in
security business
✓ Good moral character - not having been convicted of any
crime involving moral turpitude; and
Disqualifications
◼ dishonorably discharged from AFP/PNP or separated
for cause from any government entity or government
owned or controlled corporation;
◼ Being mentally incompetent;
◼ Being physically unfit;
◼ Addicted to the use of narcotic and/or prohibited drugs
and/or substances;
◼ Habitual drunkard and alcoholic;
◼ Dummy of any foreigner; and
◼ Elective or appointive government officials and
employees
Basic requisites for security
guards
✓ Filipino citizen;
✓ High school graduate;
✓ Physically and mentally fit;
✓ At least 18 years old but not more
than 50 years old;
✓ Has undergone pre-licensing
training course; and
✓ Must not possess any of the
disqualifications.
Who are exempted from Pre-
Licensing

1. Veterans and retired or honorably


discharged military/police personnel
possessing all the qualifications
mentioned in the preceding section.
2. ROTC advance/basic graduates,
and/or its equivalent in the AFP, PNP,
CAFGU/CHDF.
Private Detective
✓ Holder of baccalaureate degree or
Bachelor of Laws; or
✓ B.S. Criminology graduate; or
✓ Graduate of Criminal Investigation
Course offered by the then PC/INP or
the PNP or the NBI or any police
training school or detective training with
authorized/recognized training center
for security guard; or
✓ Advance Reserve Officers Training
Course or Citizen Military Training
(ROTC/CMT) graduate.
Security Officer
❑ Filipino citizen;
❑ Holder of Baccalaureate Degree;
❑ Physically and mentally fit;
❑ Has graduated from a Security Officer
Training Course;
❑ Retired personnel of the PNP/AFP; and
❑ Must not possess any of the disqualification
enumerated in Sec. 2, Rule II.
Security Consultant
❑ Holder of a Masters degree in either
Criminology, Public Administration, MNSA,
Industrial Administration or Law; or
❑ Must have at least 10 years experience in
the operation and management of security
business.
❑ Other Exemptions - Any officer or enlisted
man of the AFP or a uniform member of
the PNP honorably discharged/separated or
retired from the service are exempted from
the requirements.
USE OF FIREARMS AND EQUIPMENT

 After complying all the


requirements, PSAs are
entitled to possess firearms of
any of the ff:
◼ shotguns, not higher than 12
gauge;
◼ low-power rifle or revolvers, cal.
.22;
◼ cal. .38 pistols or revolvers not
exceeding one (1) FA for every
two (2) security guard in its
employ.
❑ PSA with 100 guards - at least 30 pieces of
licensed firearms. However, after operating
6 mos., the PSA can procure firearms in
proportion to the number of posted guards.
❑ For regular License to Operate (LTO)
application - at least 70 pieces of firearms.
❑ Use of firearms for Private Detective
Agency shall be OPTIONAL.
Restrictions
 The total number of the prescribed high-powered
firearms shall not exceed ten (10) percent of the
total numbers of guards employed.
 Private Security Agencies are not allowed to possess
high caliber guns/firearms such as: carbine; M16; Cal
45; center fire magnum cal .41 and .44; and high
caliber firearms, except: when such private PSA/CSF
is operating in areas where there is an upsurge of
lawlessness and criminality.
 Exception is granted by CPNP or Regional Director of
Regional Police Office under the following conditions:
Limitations
1. During his tour of duty when in proper
uniform within the compound of the
establishment, where he is assigned; and
2. Except, when he is escorting big amount of
cash or valuables, and upon prior
coordination with the nearest PNP
units/stations.
✓ Duty Detail Order or DDO – security personnel
on duties under the circumstances mentioned in
the preceding section must have DDO (SAGSD
Form No. 12-94).
Confiscation of firearms

1. about to be used in the commission of a crime;


2. actually being used in the commission of crime;
3. has just been used in the commission of a crime;
4. is being carried by the SG is unlicensed or not
authorized by law and regulation for his use;
5. confiscated by order of the court;
6. used or carried outside the AOR of the SG without
proper authority; or
7. the SG is unlicensed
Disposition of confiscated FA
❑ The law enforcement officer who
confiscated the FA shall inform the CPNP
thru CSG within 24 hours after such
confiscation.
❑ The firearm shall be turned over
immediately to the nearest PNP
Unit/Station who shall immediately turn
over the same to the CSG District Office.
❑ When the confiscation is by order of the
court, the same shall be turned over to the
court concerned.
Revocation of license to
possess FAs

1. Failure to submit any issued FA for verification as


required by Sec. 897 of RAC;
2. Carrying of FAs by security personnel w/out
appropriate DDO;
3. When its serial number (SN) is duplicated or using
the SN for more than one firearm (FA);
4. Carrying of FAs outside the place stated in the permit
as required by E.O. or carrying FA in places
prohibited under the law;
5. Conviction of the operator or manager of the agency
of any crime involving moral turpitude; or
6. When the firearm was reported lost.
Stocking of ammunitions
 limited and reasonable
quantity that suits the need
of the Agency
 not exceed fifty (50) rounds
of ammunitions per unit of
duly licensed Fas.
 Individual issue to security
guard shall be limited to
twenty-five (25) rounds per
SG.
UNIFORM, EQUIPMENT AND
PARAPHERNALIA

 males - Headgear; service


shirt; service trousers;
service belt; and footwear.

➢ Light blue and/or white


service shirts for internal
guards for PSA;
➢ Light gray for company
security force; and
➢ White for government
security unit.
RANKS AND POSITIONS
 Security Management Staff
➢ Security Director (SD) - Agency Manager/Chief Security
Officer.
➢ Security Executive Director (SED) - Asst. Agency
Manager/asst. Chief Security Officer.
➢ Security Staff Director (SSD) - Staff Director for Operation
and Staff
➢ Director for Administration.
 Line Leadership Staff
➢ Security Supervisor 3 - Detachment Commanders
➢ Security Supervisor 2 - Chief Inspector
➢ Security Supervisor 1 – Inspector
 Security Guard
➢ Security Guard 1 - watchman/guard
➢ Security Guard 2 - Shift-in-charge
➢ Security Guard 3 - Post-in-charge
PERSONNEL IDENTIFICATION AND
MOVEMENT CONTROL

 In every installation, the use of protective


barriers, security lighting, communication and
electronic hardware provides physical
safeguards but these are insufficient to
maximize the effort of the guard force.
 A control point must be established for positive
personnel identification and check system.
 This is to insure that only those persons who
have the right and authority will be given the
necessary access to the area.
 Two (2) Types of Personnel Identification
1. Personal recognition – familiarity of the person’s
characteristics.
2. Artificial recognition- identification cards, passes,
passwords, etc.
◼ Use of Pass System
➢ Single pass system - the badge or pass coded for
authorization to enter specific areas is issued to an
employee who keeps it in his possession until his
authorization is terminates.
➢ Pass exchange system - an exchange takes place at
the entrance of each controlled area. Upon leaving the
personnel surrenders his badge or passes and retrieve
back his basic identification.
➢ Multiple pass system - this provides an extra
measure of security by requiring that an exchange take
place at the entrance of each restricted area.
PERSONNEL SECURITY
 designed to prevent unsuitable
individuals from gaining access to
classified matter or to any security
facility, and to prevent appointment,
or retention
Scope of Personnel Security

1. Personnel Security Investigation


(PSI)
2. Security Education
WHAT IS PERSONNEL
SECURITY INVESTIGATION?

 an inquiry into the


character, moral,
reputation, integrity,
discretion and loyalty of
individual in order to
determine a person’s
suitability to be given
security clearance.
Types of Personnel Security
Investigation (PSI)

1. National Agency Check (NAC). – made upon the basis


of written information supplied by him in response to
official inquiry, and by reference to appropriate
national agencies. Ex:NICA, NBI, ISAFP or CIDG etc.

2. Local Agency Check (LAC) – written inquiries sent to


appropriate local government agencies, former
employees, references and schools listed by the
person under investigation. The local agencies
normally check besides the past employment,
schools and references
General Techniques of PSI
1. Background Investigation (BI)- this technique is
very expensive but necessary in personnel security. It
serves to verify information on the application form and
to obtain other information pertinent to the decision to
employ.
2. Positive Vetting- is the process of inspecting or
examining with careful thoroughness. The essence of
vetting that it is a personal interview conducted under
stress. It is based on information previously given by the
applicant. Other information issued during the interview,
such as those discovered in the BI, which confirms or
denies this given by the applicant.
3. Profiling- is the process whereby a subject’s reaction in
a future critical situation is predicted by observing his
behavior, or by interviewing him, or analyzing his
responses to a questionnaire, such as an honesty test.
The Reid Report is an example of honesty test.
4. Deception Detection Techniques- this a process of
using devices in detecting deception during the interview
stage. This includes the use of a Polygraph, Psychological
Stress Evaluator and Voice Analyzer.
5. Financial and Lifestyle Inquiry- this type of
investigation seeks to gather information on income and
mode of living, sometimes referred to as the earning-to-
debt ratio.
6. Undercover Investigation- this is the
placement of an agent in a role in which the
agent’s true identity and role remains
unknown, in order to obtain information for
criminal prosecution or for recovery or
limitation of asset losses.

7. Exit Interview- this is a valuable tool because


it gives departing employees an opportunity to
list grievances.
SECURITY EDUCATION

❑ develop security
awareness among
employees of the
company.
❑ should cover all
regardless of rank
or position.
Phases of Security
Education Program

1. Initial interview- first contact wherein the


interviewer determine the suitability of the
applicant
2. Orientation and Training- detailed
presentation of personnel security policy
3. Refresher Conference- remind
responsibilities, review guidelines and
policies, introduction of new policies
4. Security Reminders- indirect approach of
educating the employees
5. Security Promotion – emphasizing the
importance and role of security
DOCUMENT AND INFORMATION
SECURITY

❑ plays a significant role


in the daily operations
and activities of an
installation.
❑ Once the contents of a
company’s document
and information are
divulged the operational
stability is at stake.
DOCUMENT/ INFORMATION CYCLE

1. Creation
2. Classification
3. Storage
4. Retrieval
5. Retention/Purging
6. Transfer
7. Disposition
PERTINENT DEFINITON OF
TERMS
 Classified Information- this includes all
information concerning document,
cryptographic devices developed projects and
materials following on the categories of Top
Secret, Confidential or Restricted.

 Classified Matter- any information or material


in any form or of any nature, the safeguarding
of which is necessary in the interest of security
and which is classified for such purpose by the
responsible classifying authority.
 Classify- this refers to the assigning of
information or material, one of the four
security categories after determination has
been made that the information requires the
security protection as provided.
 Declassify- the act of removing the security
classification from classified information or
matter.
 Reclassifying or Regarding- refers to the act
of changing the assigned classification from
classified information or matter.
 Upgrading- refers to the act of assigning the
information or matter to the higher
classification than that previously assigned to
it.

 Compartmentation- refers to the grant of


access to the classified matter only to properly
cleared person when such classified
information is required in the performance of
their official duties.
 Need to know- is the dissemination of classified
information or matter to be limited strictly to those
person whose duties requires knowledge or possession
thereof.
 Unauthorized- refers to person not authorized to have
access on classified matters.
 Compromise- this takes place through the loss of
security, which results from unauthorized persons
obtaining knowledge of classified matters.
 Damage to National Security- refers to the prejudice,
embarrassment or injury to the country resulting from
act or omission.
Purpose of Protecting
Classified Materials

1. Deter and impede potential spy


2. Assist in security investigations by
keeping accurate records of the
moments of classified materials.
3. Enforce the use of “Need to Know”
principle
 Three (3) Security Concepts
1. Personnel are the weakest link in the
security chain.
2. Training is important to make
security personnel conscious and
realize the value of document.
3. Training is necessary for the practice
of “Need to Know” principle.
Four (4) Types of Classified
Matters

1. TOP SECRET (green color code) – is any


information and materials, the unauthorized
disclosure of it would cause exceptionally grave
damage to the nation, politically, economically
and military operation.
2. SECRET (red color) – is any information and
material, the unauthorized disclosure of it
would endanger national security, causes
serious injury to the interest and prestige of
the nation of any government activity, or of
great advantage to a foreign country.
3. CONFIDENTIAL (blue color code) – is any
information or material, the unauthorized
disclosure of it would be prejudicial to the
interest and prestige of the national or
governmental activity or would cause
administrative embarrassment or unwanted
injury to and be of advantage to a foreign
country.
4. RESTRICTED (white or no color) - is any
information and material which requires special
protection other than those determines
confidential, secret and top secret.
TYPES OF BUSINESS RECORDS

1. Class I (Vital Records) – liable records of which


reproduction does not have the same value as the original,
records needed to recover cash to replace buildings,
equipment, raw materials, finished products and records
needed to avoid delay in restoration of production, sales and
services.
2. Class II (Useful Records) - loss might cause inconvenience
but could be readily replaced and which would not in the
meantime present an insurmountable obstacle to the prompt
restoration of the business.
3. Class III (Important Records) – reproduction of which will
involve considerable expense and labor, or considerable delay.
Operating and statistical records belong to this class as well as
those to maintain check on efficiencies, operating costs, etc.
4. Class IV (Non-Essential Records) – These are the daily
files, routine in nature so that even if lost or destroyed, will
not affect operation or administration.
Rules for Classification of Documents

1. Documents shall be classified according to their


content.
2. The overall classification of a file or of a group
of physically connected therein. Pages,
paragraphs, sections or components thereof
may bear different classifications. Documents
separated from file or group shall be handled in
accordance with their individual classification.
3. Transmittal of documents or endorsements
which do not contain classified information or
which contain information classified lower than
that of the preceding element or enclosure
shall include a notation for automatic
downgrading.
4. Correspondence, Indexes, receipts, reports of
possession transfer or destruction, catalogs, or
accession list shall not be classify if any
reference to classified matter does not
disclosed classified information.
5. Classified matter obtained from other
department shall retain the same original
WHAT IS SECURITY
CLEARANCE?

❑ certification by a responsible authority that


the person described is cleared for access
to classified matter the appropriate level
❑ the administrative determination that an
individual is eligible for access to classified
matter.
❑ Need-to-know is the principle whereby
access to classified matter may only be
only given to those persons to whom it is
necessary for the fulfillment of their duties.
PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE
INFORMATION

 Proprietary information is information that in


some special way relates to the status or
activities of the possessor and over which the
possessor asserts ownership. In the business
community, proprietary information relates to
the structure, products or business methods of
the organization. It is usually protected in
some way against causal or general disclosure.
Types of Proprietary
Information

1. Trade Secrets- this consist of any formula, pattern,


device or compilation of information which is used in
one’s business and which gives him an opportunity to
gain an advantage over competitors who do not know or
use it. It may be a formula for a chemical compound, a
process of manufacturing, treating or preserving
materials, a pattern for machine or device, or a list of
customers. It differs from other secret information as to
single or ephemeral events. A trade secret is a process
or device for continuous use in the protection of the
business.

2. Patents- this is a grant made by the government to an


inventor, conveying or securing to him the exclusive
right to make, use, or sell his invention for term of
years.
RISKS ANALYSIS AND
SECURITY HAZARDS
What is Risk Analysis?
 the analysis of risk which includes
examinations of the vulnerability,
probability and criticality of potential
threats and include natural and man made
risk.
◼ Risk - potential damage or loss of an asset
◼ Vulnerability - weaknesses
◼ Probability - chance or likelihood that a loss will
take place.
◼ Criticality - impact of a loss as measured in
financial terms.
What is Security Hazard?
 act or condition which may result in
the compromise of information, loss
of life, loss or destruction of property
or disruption of the objective of the
installation.
 act or condition affecting the safe
operation of the facility caused by
human action accidental or
intentional.
What is Risk Management?
❑ a process of selecting and
implementing security
countermeasures to achieve an
acceptable level of risk at an
acceptable cost.
◼ Countermeasures - An action taken or a
physical security used to reduce or
eliminate one or more vulnerabilities.
RELATIVITY OF RISK AND SECURITY

 The extent and degree of risks to security is


dependent on the following:
➢ Relative criticality of operation – importance of
the firm with reference to the natural economy and
security. Ex: gasoline depots, communication
transmission lines, and power plants.
➢ Relative vulnerability – susceptibility of the plant
or establishment to damage, loss or disruption of
operation due to various hazards. A good example is
the location of the building; the machines; or
presence of possible poisons.
RISK MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES AND
STRATEGIES

1. Risk Avoidance – removing the risk totally from the


business. Ex: proper disposal of inflammable substances.
2. Risk Reduction – minimizing the probability of the
potential loss. Ex: construction of fences and similar
physical barriers.
3. Risk Spreading – spreading the risk through
decentralization to limit the impact (criticality) of the
potential loss. Ex: use of vaults or safes
4. Risk Transfer – moving the financial impact of the
potential loss-over to an insurance company. This is done
by availing of property and life insurances. Hiring security
agencies is also a good example of this.
5. Risk Self-assumption – planned assumption and
acceptance of the potential risk by making a deliberate
managerial decision of doing nothing about the threat, or
setting aside resources for use in case of loss
Pilferage as a Business
Hazard

 Pilferage is one of the most annoying and


common human hazards which security has to
deal with. This activity if uncontrolled can
become financial drain if not a menace to
smooth and orderly operation.
 Failure to detect shortage and inaccurate
inventories will cause inventory losses, which
may be labeled as pilferage.
Types of Pilferers

1. Casual Pilferer- one who steals due to his inability to


resist the unexpected opportunity and has little fear of
detection is no plan or premeditation and he is usually a
“loner” on the job. The temptation to pick up the article
is basically due to poor security measure. The
implication of causal pilfering is the big cumulative cost if
it remains unchecked.
2. Systematic Pilferer- one who steals with preconceived
plans and takes away any or all types of items or
supplies for economic gain. Pilferers of this kind can be
employees or outsiders of the establishment.
SECURITY SURVEY AND INSPECTION
 SECURITY SYSTEM – This is the set of policies,
procedures and rules and regulations designed to
reduce to an absolute minimum the possibility of
espionage, sabotage and compromise of classified
information of an office or a whole establishment.

 SECURITY SURVEY – This is also known as security


audit which is actually a fact-finding probe to
determine a plant’s adequacy and deficiency in all
aspects of security, with the corresponding
recommendations.
SECURITY INSPECTION
 – This is a check of how well existing
security measures and regulations
are being carried out within a
detachment or establishment. A
security inspection may also include
an investigation of alleged or
suspected security violations.
TYPES OF SECURITY
INSPECTIONS
1. Continuous Inspection-an on-going and
never ending activity.
2. Formal or Informal
◼ Formal Inspection - preceded by an
announcement
◼ Informal Inspection - understood by all and
accepted as part of the organizational life.
3. Structured or Unstructured Inspection
◼ Structured Inspection is one that moves
systematically from one area to the next and so
on.
◼ Unstructured inspection is conducted in a
random manner.