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Molienda y tamizado

Molienda y tamizado

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- Ball, Tube and Rod Mills, Rose and Sullivan, Publication year 1958
- Effect of Circulating Load
- Procedure for Determination of Ball Bond Work Index in the Commercial Operations
- ball mill
- Nordberg Grinding Mills II
- Lab 5
- Teoria de Bond
- mill ball
- A Procedure for Rapid Determination of the Bond
- FCBond_BallMill
- JLRB-JKMRC SC 20 Simulation jKsimet
- International Journal of Mineral Processing Volume 44-45 issue none 1996 [doi 10.1016_0301-7516(95)00068-2] A. Cordonnier -- A new grinding process- HOROMILL®
- SAGDesign-Mill-Throughput-Calculation-Tool.xlsx
- Optimization of Continuous Ball Mills
- Closed Circuit Ball Mill – Basics Revisited
- 153120567-MARCY-Grinding-Mills.pdf
- Ball Milling_final Final
- Ball Mill Sizing
- Grinding Calculation Memory
- Ball Size Media Optimization

Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Group 4 – Subgroup A

Stalin José Manjarrez Castro1 Daniela Alejandra Romero Garzón2 Edwin Ricardo Sánchez Vargas3 Leidy Katherine Serrato Triviño4

Alberto Tovar Cuellar5

General Objective1

• Ball Mill (Siemens). It works with spherical rocks,

Compare the results obtained from the grinding of coffee three-phase connection and one rotation speed (fig-

grains in two different equipment: rotary ball grinding mill ure 2).

and hammer mill, varying the operation conditions to eval-

uate the case in which the highest reduction is achieved.

Specific Objectives

products.

● Determine the work index of coffee.

● Elaborate the differential analysis of the products, re-

porting the sphere's equivalent average diameter and Figure 2. Ball mill. Source: adapted from [2]

the Sauter`s diameter.

• Planetary Ball Mill (Intercer). It works with spherical

Materials and Equipment rocks, 4 grinding containers and variable rotation

speed (figure 3).

Mills

teristics:

• Hammer mill. It has rotating hammers, three-phase

Figure 3. Planetary Ball mill. Source: adapted from

connection and one rotation speed (figure 1).

[2]

The hammer mill and the ball mill do not share a power

source, but they do share a voltage and current meter.

Magnitudes that must be measured for each mill sepa-

rately.

As previously mentioned, there is a voltage and current

measurement board, to which the hammer mill and the

ball mill can be connected (Figure 5).

niería Química y Ambiental {1sjmanjarrezc, 2daaromerogar, 3ersanchezv, 4lkserra-

tot, 5altovarcu }@unal.edu.co

1

Grinding and sieving

and hammer mills. Each test was carried out with a load

of 200 grams of dry corn.

Table 2. Data of the grinding of dry corn with the ball mill

Voltage Amperage Power

Time [s]

[V] [A] [W]

20 207,7 1,22 253,81

40 207,6 1,22 253,69

60 207,3 1,22 253,32

80 207,3 1,22 253,32

100 207,6 1,22 253,69

120 207,6 1,22 253,69

Figure 4. Measurement board of voltage and current

140 207,3 1,22 253,32

consumed, Chemical Engineering Laboratory of the Na- 160 207,5 1,22 253,57

tional University of Colombia. 180 207,3 1,22 253,32

200 207,5 1,22 253,57

Sieving Equipment 220 207,4 1,22 253,44

240 207,1 1,22 253,08

The screening equipment (Sieve Shaker) has 6 Tyler series 260 207,2 1,22 253,20

sieves number 8, 10, 14, 18, 20 and 50 (figure 5). 280 207,7 1,22 253,81

300 207,5 1,22 253,57

Average 207,4 1,22 253,08

Mill without Corn 206,4 1,2 247,68

Used Power 5,40

mill.

Time [s] Voltage [V] Amperage [A] Power [W]

10 206,7 1,66 343,12

20 206,0 1,70 350,20

30 206,3 1,72 354,84

40 206,5 1,70 351,05

50 206,6 1,68 347,09

Figure 5. Sieving Equipment. 60 206,5 1,68 346,92

70 206,7 1,70 351,39

To perform the corn grinding process, the hammer mill 80 206,4 1,67 344,69

90 206,5 1,71 353,12

and the ball mill will be used. the procedures are shown 100 206,2 1,71 352,60

in the annexes, as well as the steps to follow in the sieving. 110 206,5 1,69 348,99

120 206,4 1,68 346,75

Average 206,4 1,69 349,2

Data Tables Mill without Corn 206,2 1,50 309,30

To determine the particle size of the corn used, a charac- Used Power 39,93

terization of 10 different corn seeds was carried out. This

was done by measuring the diameter from three different Finally, the sieving results are shown in Tables 4 and 5.

positions (table 1). This process was carried out for 8 minutes.

Table 1. Characterization of corn used for grinding. Table 4. Data of the sieving of dry corn with the ball mill.

Diameter 1 Diameter 2 Diameter 3 Average Diam-

Seed Mesh Mesh Diameter Particle Diameter

[cm] [cm] [cm] eter [cm] Mass [g]

1 1,540 1,000 0,720 1,087

Number [mm] [mm]

2 1,500 1,000 0,610 1,037 6 3,36 3,68 88,1

3 1,450 0,940 0,865 1,085 8 2,38 2,87 9

4 1,000 0,960 0,600 0,853 14 1,41 1,90 0,7

5 1,435 1,140 0,600 1,058 20 0,84 1,13 1

6 1,370 1,225 0,910 1,168 25 0,71 0,78 0,2

7 0,930 0,840 0,805 0,858 35 0,5 0,61 0,2

8 1,055 0,925 0,600 0,860 Bottoms <0,5 0,25 0,6

9 1,440 0,930 0,665 1,012

10 1,180 1,100 0,610 0,963

2

MANJARREZ, ROMERO, SÁNCHEZ, SERRATO, TOVAR

Table 5. Data of the sieving of dry corn with the Hammer Power

mill.

Mesh Mesh Particle In the time of 10 seconds for the mentioned hammer mill:

Mass [g]

Number Diameter [mm] Diameter [mm]

8 2,38 2,61 51,9 𝑃 =𝑉∗𝐴 (6)

14 1,41 1,90 11,4

25 0,71 1,06 18,6 P =1.66*206.7=343,12 W

35 0,5 0,61 3,9 Since it is a continuous system, the average power of the

60 0,25 0,38 6,7 equipment is determined by finding the area under the

100 0,149 0,20 2,6 curve (Potency vs. Time) and dividing it by the elapsed

Bottoms <0,149 0,07 3 time. Because the power did not vary almost nothing in

each measurement, the medium power is equal to the av-

erage power, 349,2 W for the hammer mill. The energy

consumption for grinding is calculated with the subtrac-

tion between the average power and the power of the no-

Sample of Calculations load mill:

𝑃𝐶 = 349,2 − 309,3 = 39,93𝑊

Differential and cumulative analysis

Bond Work Index

To perform the sample of calculations, the data obtained

during the milling of 200 g of corn, using a hammer mill, To calculate Bond's Work Index, equation 7 was used.

will be taken. The sieving tests were done with 100 g, alt-

hough this is not the total mass at the end since mass is 1 1

𝐸 = 10𝑊 [ − ] (7)

lost when weighing the material. √𝑋2 √𝑋1

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = ∑ 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑖 (1) Where, E is the required energy [kWh/ton], 𝑋2 is the di-

ameter of 80% of the product [μm], 𝑋1 is the diameter of

= 51,9 + 11,4 + 18,6 + 3,9 + 6,7 + 2,6 + 3 = 98,1𝑔

80% of the food [μm] and W the Bond work index, de-

𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑖 fined as the energy required to reduce a mass unit of a

∆ϕ𝑖 = (2) material from an infinite particle size to a size such that

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

80% passes through a 100 μm sieve.

51,9𝑔

∆𝜙𝑖(𝑆𝑖𝑒𝑣𝑒 8) = = 0.529

98,1𝑔

39,93𝑘𝑤/0,2𝑘𝑔

𝜙𝑖 = ∆𝜙𝑖 + 𝜙𝑖−1 (3) 𝑊= = 347,7𝐾𝑤ℎ/𝑡𝑜𝑛

1 1

10 (√ −√ )

0,22 × 103 10 × 103

∆𝛟𝒊 is used for the differential analysis and 𝝓𝒊 for the cu-

mulative.

Diameters Results and discussion

In this section the Sauter (𝐷𝑆𝑉 ) and the arithmetic medium Figure 6 shows the cumulative particle size profiles for the

diameters (𝐷𝐴𝑀 ) are calculated. The first thing to consider milled samples; in the ball mill and the hammer mill, while

is that the particle diameter (𝐷𝑝𝑖 ) was calculated as an av- the differential profiles are shown in figure 7. The hammer

erage, between the diameter the mesh that retains the mill offers finer particles than the mill balls. Being more

particle and the diameter of the previous mesh. accurate, the average particle size for the sample

grounded with the ball mill is 3.54 mm and for the hammer

∑(∆ϕ𝑖 ∗ 𝐷3𝑝𝑖 )

𝐷𝑆𝑉 = (4) mill is 1.86 mm. It is important to know that having small

∑(∆ϕ𝑖 ∗ 𝐷2𝑝𝑖 ) particles since certain size can be dangerous for healthy

because the smaller particles can remain forever in the

0,529 ∙ 2,613 + ⋯ + 0,027 ∙ 0,23 lungs.

𝐷𝑆𝑉 = = 2,45𝑚𝑚

0,529 ∙ 2,612 + ⋯ + 0,027 ∙ 0,22 As shown in figure 6 the hammer mill worked better than

the ball mill, this is due to the type of ground material. the

𝐷𝐴𝑀 = ∑(∆ϕ𝑖 ∗ 𝐷𝑝𝑖 ) (5) dried corn that was milled has a fibrous structure, which

is difficult to be affected by the blow of the ball mill. The

mills use different types of forces for their work, the ball

𝐷𝐴𝑀 = 0,529 ∙ 2,61 + ⋯ + 0,2 ∙ 0,027 = 1,85𝑚𝑚 mill uses impact force while the hammer mill applies rub-

bing or shearing force.

3

Grinding and sieving

because it represents which mill will increase more the

energy consumption if the sample load is increased.

Table 6. Energetic results for both mills.

ball mill hammer mill

F80 [um] 10000 10000

P80 [um] 3680 220,21

E [Kwh/ton] 26,98 199,645

Wi 416,1 347,9

was greater for the hammer mill. This behavior was ex-

pected since such consumption is directly related to the

reduction in particle size, as indicated by Bond's law (equa-

tion 7).

The work coefficient (Wi) is directly related to the reduc-

Figure 6. Cumulative particle size profile for samples grounded tion in particle size, this is different for each system, in-

with both mills. cluding type of mill and material. With this in mind, and

observing the results obtained for the ball mill (w =) and

Impact mills are used to obtain solids of course, medium the hammer mill (w =), it can be concluded that it would

and fine sizes, while mills that apply shear are used in the be more economically to use a hammer mill, to reduce a

production of fine particles. The greatest use of ball mills group of particles up to a size of 100 microns (80% of the

is in minerals, since these types of particles are quite brit- initial content). The previous result is because although

tle, although this mill can also be used in paintings, pyro- the hammer mill used more energy (8 times more), it also

technics and ceramics. That is, materials such as carbon reduced the size of the particles of the material used (dry

and pigments. These mills have the advantage of having a corn) much more.

low cost of installation and operation. On the other hand,

the hammer mill is used to reduce the size of fibrous par- In order to appreciate how the energy consumption

ticles, such as vegetables, spices and corn. changed throughout the milling, the voltage and amperage

data were taken over time, as shown in Tables 1, 2 and 3.

but the results were not as expected, since the consump-

tion remained almost constant throughout the grinding. It

is believed that this behavior is since the used load of corn

(200 g) was very small, which did not represent a strong

work for the power consumption of the instrument. The

fact that the energy consumed will not change considera-

bly, may be a sign that the milling process carried out for

5 minutes in the ball mill and for 2 minutes in the hammer

mill was excessive. This means that with less time the

same results would be obtained.

presented in table 7. Additionally, this table contains the

average diameters, in order to appreciate the differences

and similitudes more easily.

Figure 7. Differential Particle size profile for samples grounded ball mill hammer mill

with both mills. Sauter Diameter [mm] 3,63 2,45

Average diameter [mm] 3,54 1,86

To find the energy consumption of the mill, Bond's law is Sauter diameter is defined as the diameter of a sphere that

used, the results can be seen in table 6. The table shows has the same proportion of volume / surface area as a par-

that the hammer mill consumes less energy that the ball ticle of interest. consequently, the values in Table 7 indi-

mill. However, this result shows the total consume, if we cate that the ball mill expelled particles that have a size

subtract the energy consumption of the empty mills, we very close to the sphericity, contrary to the results ob-

can see that the ball mill expends less energy exclusive to tained with the hammer mill.

4

MANJARREZ, ROMERO, SÁNCHEZ, SERRATO, TOVAR

to add more balls of smaller diameter to the process. but

the result was not the desired one, since the milling car-

ried out particles of the same original size, so it was not

considered necessary to do the sieving process. This re-

sult allows us to infer that it is better to use balls of the

same diameter in a ball mill.

Recommendations

It is advisable to use a material that can be ground to a

greater extent by the two types of mills available in the

laboratory. In this way, better grinding results would be

obtained, which would better meet the objectives of the

practice.

In order to find the minimum time for which the product

is already ground, it is prudent to perform several tests

varying this parameter, verifying the size reduction of the

particles by sieving each one.

Conclusions

• For fibrous materials such as corn, the use of the

hammer mill is better than the ball mill.

• The hammer mill needs a smaller amount of energy

to reduce the size of the corn particles, compared to

the ball mill. This is seen looking at the Bond index is

higher for the ball mill (table 6).

• It is very important in grinding tests, to know what is

the optimum time for which the process has already

finished. This saves energy and therefore money in

the process.

References

[1] Unit Operations in Food Processing - R. L. Earle. (n.d.).

Retrieved June 9, 2019, from https://nzifst.org.nz/re-

sources/unitoperations/mechseparation6.htm

technol-ogy. Australia: Wiley.

[3] Ortega,E. (2012) Unit operations of particulate solids.

Boca Raton: CRC Press.

[4] J.S.Tumulurua, L.G.TabilbY. SongcK.L.IrobabV. Medab

Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and

ham-mer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.10.011

5

Grinding and sieving

Annexes

A. Hammer mill handling B. Ball mill handling

1

This measure is done to know the energy that the mill

uses to move its own weight.

2

The balls must be of the same weight since it is this that

generates the reduction in size when falling on the parti-

cle.

6

MANJARREZ, ROMERO, SÁNCHEZ, SERRATO, TOVAR

C. Sieving

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