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PANDUAN PRAKTIKUM

MEKANIKA

UNIVERSITAS MULAWARMAN

FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA

TAHUN AJARAN 2016/2017

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TATA TERTIB PRAKTIKUM MEKANIKA

1. Praktikan telah berada di dalam ruangan praktikum 15 menit sebelum praktikum dimulai.
2. Praktikan yang diperkenankan mengikuti praktikum adalah praktikan yang dinyatakan
telah lulus responsi dan dapat dibuktikan dengan terteranya nilai responsi dan tanda
tangan asisten pada kartu kontrol serta telah mengumpulkan tugas pendahuluan.
3. Praktikan diwajibkan memakai jas praktikum.
4. Praktikan tidak diperkenankan memakai sandal/sepatu sandal, baju kaos/kaos oblong,
celana/rok jeans, celana/rok ketat sebagaimana pada saat perkuliahan.
5. Praktikan dilarang makan, minum dan merokok pada saat praktikum berlangsung.
6. Kebersihan ruangan menjadi tanggung jawab praktikan sesuai piket yang berlaku pada
hari dilaksanakannya praktikum.
7. Kehilangan atau kerusakan alat praktikum menjadi tanggung jawab praktikan, yaitu
berupa penggantian alat dengan spesifikasi yang sama.
8. Siap melakukan praktikum dengan penuh tanggung jawab.

“PELANGGARAN ATAS PERATURAN DI ATAS, DIANGGAP


TIDAK BERSEDIA MENGIKUTI PRAKTIKUM”

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KATA PENGANTAR

Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.


Segala puji bagi Alloh Pencipta Semesta Alam yang tak terbatas, atas segala rahmat
dan hidayah-Nya kepada seluruh makhluk, sehingga pada kesempatan ini pula kami dapat
merampungkan buku penuntun praktikum Mekanika pada semester ini.
Buku Penuntun Praktikum Mekanika ini terdiri dari 4 unit percobaan. Teori yang
diberikan merupakan ringkasan, sehingga diharapkan bagi para pengguna penuntun ini agar
lebih mengkaji dari referensi-referensi yang ada dan yang berhubungan dengan unit-unit
percobaan.
Penuntun ini merupakan kelengkapan dari mata kuliah Mekanika, sebagai pedoman
dalam melakukan praktikum bagi mahasiswa yang memprogramkan mata kuliah tersebut
dalam ruang lingkup FKIP Universitas Mulawarman.
Akhirnya, kepada para asisten praktikum yang tergabung dalam Tim Mekanika kami
ucapkan terima kasih yang sebesar-besarnya.

Samarinda, September 2016

Tim Penyusun

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DAFTAR ISI

TATA TERTIB PRAKTIKUM ....................................................................... 2


KATA PENGANTAR ..................................................................................... 3
DAFTAR ISI.................................................................................................... 4
FORMAT PENULISAN LAPORAN .............................................................. 5
PERCOBAAN
1. Pengantar Metode Ilmiah ........................................................................ 5
2. Pengenalan Alat-alat Percobaan Mekanika ......................................... 12
3. Percobaan 1
Menguraikan Sebuah Gaya ................................................................... 14
4. Percobaan 2
Momen Inersia Benda ........................................................................... 20
5. Percobaan 3
Katrol (Puli) .......................................................................................... 28
6. Percobaan 4
Hukum Kekekalan Momentum ............................................................. 35

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PENGANTAR METODE ILMIAH

1. Apa itu ilmu pengetahuan ?


Ilmu pengetahuan tidak hanya ada disekolah. Ilmu adalah cara mempelajari dunia.
Ilmu berasal dari kata atau bahasa latin yang berarti pengetahuan. Ilmu adalah cara untuk
belajar atau menimba ilmu dengan mengamati dan menyelidiki.
Berikut seperangkat aturan alam. Aturan untuk memahami cara kerja tubuh manusia
yang rumit. Aturan untuk memahami pola berputar bumi sekali setip 24 jam pada sumbu
yang lebih sederhana. Ilmu adalah suatu pelajaran tentang aturan alam.

2. Kategori utama dari ilmu pengetahuan?


Ilmu mencakup banyak topik yang berbeda. Topik fisika termasuk dalam tiga
kategori utama. 1. Ilmu kehidupan 2.ilmu bumi 3.ilmu fisika. Ilmu kehidupan adalah
pelajaran tentang makhluk hidup. Ilmu bumi adalah pelajaran tentang bumi dan luar
angkasa. Ilmu fisika adalah pelajaran tentang materi dan energi.

3. Bagaimana ilmu pengetahuan menjelaskan alam?


Ilmu membantu kita memahami dunia alam. Para ilmuwan menggunakan
penyelidikan untuk mendapatkan informasi baru. Teknologi telah membantu para
ilmuwan mempelajari lebih banyak lagi tentang dunia. Kadang-kadang informasi baru ini
menyebabkan penjelasan ilmiah yang mendasari suatu perubahan.

4. Apa itu Fisika?


Apakah yang kamu pikirkan ketika kamu mendengar atau melihat kata Fisika?
Banyak orang yang akan membayangkan papan tulis yang penuh dengan rumus
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matematis seperti 𝐸 = 𝑚𝑐 2 atau 𝑆 = 𝑉𝑜 𝑡 + 2 𝑎𝑡 2 Mungkin kamu akan membayangkan
para ilmuan tua dengan jas putih seperti Albert Einstein. Bagi sebagian orang Fisika
berkonotasi dengan teknologi canggih yang kita gunakan sehati-hari seperti telepon
genggam dan laptop.
Fisika adalah cabang ilmu pengetahuan alam yang menyelediki dunia fisis, energi,
benda dan hubungan keduanya. Ahli Fisika meneliti gerakan elektron dan roket, energi
pada perambatan bunyi dan rangkaian elektronika, struktur proton hingga jagat raya.
Tujuan utama dari kegiatan laboratorium Fisika adalah mengenalkan dan membantu
memahami mengenai dunia Fisika.
Orang yang mempelajari Fisika selanjutnya akan berkarir di berbagai bidang.
Beberapa kemudian menjadi ahli Fisika di Universitas dan sebagian bekerja pada bidang
industri. Ada pula yang bekerja di bidang yang terkait seperti astronomi, teknik,
komputer, pembelajaran, pengobatan dan lainnya. Keterampilan yang didapat dari
memahami Fisika akan dapat digunakan pada berbagai disiplin ilmu.

5. Matematika dalam Fisika


Fisika menggunakan matematika sebagai bahasa yang memiliki kekuatan yang
besar. Dalam fenomena Fisika, persamaan matematis adalah alat yang sangat penting

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untuk memodelkan pengamatan dan untuk membuat prediksi. Fisikawan akan bergantung
pada pada teori dan percobaan dengan hasil yang berupa angka-angka untuk mendukung
kesimpulan yang dibuat.

6. Apa itu penyelidikan?


Ilmuwan mempelajari informasi baru dengan melakukan penyelidikan. Ada tiga
jenis penyelidikan: mengamati dan merekam, bereksperimen dan membangun model,
para ilmuwanmungkin menggunakan satu, dua atau tiga jenis untuk mendapatkan
informasi baru tentang cara kerja alam.

7. Apa itu variabel?


Pada sebuah percobaan mengenai gerak lurus berubah beraturan, suatu mobil-
mobilan ditarik menggunakan suatu beban. Dalam percobaan, ada dua variabel yang
diteliti. Variabel adalah suatu besaran yang dapat memiliki lebih dari satu nilai atau
nilainya dapat berubah-ubah. Massa beban adalah variabel karena dapat memiliki rentang
nilai misalnya digunakan beban dengan massa 10 gr, 20 gr, dst. Variabel diukur pada
akhir percobaan disebut variabel dependen karena tergantung pada apa yang terjadi dalam
percobaan. Waktu adalah variabel dependen karena itulah yang diukur pada akhir
percobaan. Beban merupakan variabel yang dikendalikan dan diubah oleh peneliti
sehingga disebut variabel independen. Dalam sebuah percobaan, harus ada hanya satu
variabel independen.

8. Kenapa konstan dan mengontrol penting?


Untuk menjaga dalam penyelidikan yang adil, semua faktor lainnya tetap sama
untuk setiap percobaan. Faktor yang tidak berubah dalam percobaan adalah konstan. Pada
percobaan GLBB, konstanta adalah jenis mobil-mobilan dan tali yang menghubungkan
mobil dengan beban. Semua konstanta ini disimpan sama untuk beberapa kali
pengulangan dalam percobaan. Dalam percobaan yang berbeda, para peneliti dapat pula
menggunakan kontrol untuk membandingkan terhadap hasil percobaan. Keadaan kontrol
dalam eksperimen biasanya digunakan sebagai pembanding apakah keadaan yang diberi
perlakukan akan berbeda dengan keadaan awal tanpa perlakuan khusus.

9. Metode ilmiah
Salah satu langkah-langkah yang digunakan dalam penyelidikan disebut metode
ilmiah. Berikut langkah-langkah seorang ilmuwan ketika melakukan penyelidikan.
Langkah-langkah ini memandu ilmuwan. Beberapa langkah dapat diulang. Langkah-
langkah lain dapat dilewati, bahkan jika langkah-langkah mengubah, ilmuwan masuk
menggunakan metode ilmiah. Diagram alur dibawah ini menunjukkan salah satu cara
untuk menggunakan metode ilmiah untuk memecahkan masalah. Panah menunjukkan
tempat untuk pergi setelah setiap langkah selesai.

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Menyatakan masalah
Bagaimana saya bisa merancang sebuah pesawat kertas
yang akan terbang 10 m?

Mengumpulkan informasi
Melakukan penelitian pada desain pesawat kertas, terutama tentang bagaimana desain
mempengaruhi jarak terbang.

Membuat Hipotesis
Hipotesis : dugaan sementara
Pemahaman teori dan hasil percobaan sebelumnya dapat membangun hipotesis yang baik.
“ Menambahkan klip kertas untuk sayap pesawat kertas akan membantu terbang lebih jauh karena
memberikan keseimbangan”.

Uji hipotesis
Membangun 2 pesawat yang sama dan menambahkan satu klip kertas. Uji terbang diruang
terbuka jauh dari orang.

Analisis data
Pesawat dengan klip kertas terbang 5 m sementara pesawat lain terbang 3m.

Menarik kesimpulan
Klip pesawat nampaknya membuat pesawat terbang lebih jauh

Hipotesis tidak diterima Hipotesis diterima


Perlu menguji desain lain untuk melihat apakah klip kertas juga
dapat membuat pesawat terbang lebih jauh untuk desain
tersebut.

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a. Menyatakan masalah
Banyak penyelidikan ilmiah dimulai ketika seseorang melihat sesuatu terjadi di
alam dan bertanya-tanya mengapa atau bagaimana hal itu terjadi. Masalahnya
dinyatakan sebagai pertanyaan “bagaimana” atau “mengapa”. Kadang-kadang
pertanyaan mungkin akan diminta karena suatu tidak terjadi, atau ilmuwan mencari
sesuatu yang akan bekerja lebih banyak. Misalnya, kita mungkin ingin merancang
sebuah pesawat kertas yang akan terbang 10 m. Kita dapat menyatakan sebagai
masalah “bagaimana saya bisa merancang sebuah pesawat kertas yang akan terbang
10 m?

b. Penelitian dan mengumpulkan informasi


Hal ini penting untuk mempelajari masalah sebelum pengujian apapun yang
dilakukan. Kadang-kadang, seorang telah memecahkan masalah yang sama. Untuk
masalah pesawat kertas, kita akan melakukan penelitian pada desain pesawat kertas.
Kita akan mencoba untuk menemukan informasi tentang bagaimana desain yang
berbeda telah mempengaruhi jarak pesawat kertas telah terbang.

c. Hipotesis
Penjelasan untuk pertanyaan atau masalah berdasarkan pada apa yang kita
ketahui dan apa yang kita amati atau teori yang sudah ada. Seorang ilmuwan harus
yakin bahwa hal itu dapat diuji. Dalam penelitian, kita telah menemukan bahwa
pesawat kertas yang seimbang terbang jarak yang lebih besar. Hipotesis kita mungkin
menambahkan klip kertas untuk sayap pesawat kertas akan membuatnya terbang lebih
jauh karena klip kertas member keseimbangan pesawat.

d. Menguji hipotesis
Beberapa hipotesis diuji dengan membuat pengamatan. Sebelum hipotesis diuji,
peneliti perlu menentukan variabel yang akan diteliti. Variabel dalam sebuah
penelitian akan terdiri dari 3 jenis:
1) Variabel independen (variabel bebas)
2) Variabel dependen (variabel yang terikat pada variabel bebas)
3) Variabel kontrol (variabel yang dijaga agar nilainya konstan)
Setelah variabel ditentukan kemudian perlu dibuat definisi operasional. Definisi ini
akan memberikan arahan kepada peneliti dalam melakukan percobaan.
Merancang sebuah percobaan artinya membuat langkah-langkah percobaan agar
hipotesis dapat dibuktikan. Percobaan melihat bagaimana satu hal mempengaruhi
yang lain dalam kondisi yang terkendali. Setelah rancangan percobaan siap,
percobaan dapat dilakukan dengan sistematis. Dalam melakukan percobaan, peneliti
perlu membuat tabulasi data berupa tabel data pengamatan.
Pada contoh percobaan pesawat tadi, kita bisa membangun dua pesawat yang
identik dan menambahkan klip kertas untuk salah satu dari mereka untuk menguji
hipotesis kita. Kemudian mengulang percobaan beberapa kali dan membuat tabel
pengamatan.

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e. Analisis data
Bagian penting dari percobaan apapun merekam pengamatan dan mengorganisir
informasi. Semua hasil dan pengamatan harus perekam selama dan eksperimen.
Banyak penemuan penting telah dibuat dari hasil yang tidak terduga. Hasil dari
percobaan mungkin bahwa pesawat dengan klip kertas terbang 5 m sementara
pesawat lain terbang 3 m. Informasi atau data harus diatur menjadi mudah untuk
membaca tabel atau grafik. Pembuatan grafik akan membantu memperjelas data.
Memahami apa data dan pengamatan berarti juga penting. Data harus diorganisir.
Data terorganisir dapat menyebabkan kesimpulan yang salah. Ilmuwan berbagai data
dengan orang lain melalui laporan dan pertemuan. Kadang-kadang orang lain tidak
setuju dengan kesimpulan yang berdasarkan.
f. Menarik kesimpulan
Para ilmuwan melihat data mereka dan memutuskan apakah data mendukung
hipotesis. Dari data yang persis sama setelah banyak percobaan, hipotesis didukung.
Jika data tidak didukung hipotesis ilmuwan dapat mengubah hipotesis atau mengubah
percobaan.

10. Mengapa ilmuwan harus objektif?


Ilmuwan harus berhati-hati untuk tidak memiliki bias. Bias terjadidalam percobaan
ketika ilmuwan mengharapkan sesuatu terjadi dan memungkinkan pengaruh ini
bagaimana hasil dipandang. Para ilmuwan mencoba untuk mengurangi bias setiap kali
mereka dapat. Mereka mengurangi bias dengan melakukan percobaan berkali-kali dan
menjaga catatan sangat berhati-hatitentang apa yang mereka amati. Mereka juga memiliki
ilmuwan lain untuk mengulang percobaan yang sama untuk melihat apakah mereka
mendapatkan hasil yang sama.

11. Contoh dalam penelitian


Misalkan dalam melakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh tegangan terhadap arus
yang mengalir pada rangkaian seri, maka langkah-langkah dalam melakukan penelitian
menggunakan metode ilmiah adalah sebagai berikut:
a. Rumusan masalah
Bagaimanakah hubungan tegangan dan arus pada rangkaian seri?
b. Hipotesis
Jika tegangan makin tinggi maka arus yang mengalir semakin tinggi
c. Pengujian hipotesis
1) Penentuan variabel
a) Variabel independen (variabel bebas) = tegangan (V)
b) Variabel dependen (variabel yang terikat pada variabel bebas) = arus listrik (I)
c) Variabel kontrol (variabel yang dijaga agar nilainya konstan) =hambatan
(Ohm)
2) Definisi operasional
Tegangan: Beda potensial yang terjadi antara ujung rangkaian yang
divariasi dari 0,5V; 1 V; 1,5 V; 2 V; 2,5 V

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Arus listrik: Besaran arus yang terbaca pada amperemeter
3) Alat dan bahan
a) Resistor 1 buah
b) Powersuply 1 buah
c) Projectboard 1 buah
d) Multimeter 2 buah
4) Prosedur percobaan
a) Merangkai rangkaian listrik sederhana yang terdiri dari power supply dan
resistor pada papan project.

b) Menambahkan amperemeter yang dipasang seri dalam rangkaian yang telah


disusun sebelumnya.
c) Menyalakan power supply dengan tegangan 0,5 volt kemudian mengukur arus
yang terbaca dalam amperemeter dan voltmeter.
d) Mematikan power supply.
e) Mengulang kembali langkah 3 dan 4 dengan mengubah tegangan hingga data
yang didapatkan memadai.
5) Data Pengamatan
R = 10 ohm
No V (Volt) I hasil pengukuran (Ampere)
1. 0,5
2. 1
3. 1,5
4. 2
5. 2,5

6) Analisis Data
Menghitung nilai I dengan menggunakan rumus
𝑉
𝐼=
𝑅

V (Volt) I hasil pengukuran I hasil perhitungan


No (Ampere) (Ampere)
1. 0,5
2. 1
3. 1,5
4. 2
5. 2,5

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Grafik hubungan antara V dan I hasil pengukuran

Grafik hubungan antara V dan I hasil perhitungan

7) Kesimpulan

Dapat diamati dari hasil perhitungan dan grafik yang dibuat bahwa hipotesis yang
ajukan sebelumnya terbukti benar, nilai tegangan sebanding dengan arus listrik.
Jika nilai tegangan naik maka nilai arus listrik akan naik pula dengan catatan dalam
percobaan digunakan resistor yang tetap sama.

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PENGENALAN ALAT-ALAT PERCOBAAN MEKANIKA

1. Papan Percobaan
Terbuat dari pelat setengah baja yang diberi cat putih,
papan ukuran 600 x 600 x 2 mm berdiri pada kaki-kaki. Papan
percobaan dapat juga dipasang pada rangka trainer panel system
(TIPS) atau digantung pada dinding menggunakan tali.

2. Dinamometer
Skala pembacaan: 0 - 5N x 0.1 N, dilengkapi dengan
magnet pemegang untuk menempelkan dinamometer pada
papan percobaan.

3. Beban Bercelah dan Penggantung Beban


Beban bercelah terdiri atas beban: 8x50 g, 4x20 g, 2x10 g,
dan penggantung beban: 3x50 g.

4. Tuas
Terbuat dari aluminium dengan ukuran 300 mm x 8 mm.
Digunakan untuk berbagai percobaan gaya dan tuas. Tuas
dilengkapi dengan tempat menggantung beban yang dapat
digeser sepanjang tuas. Tuas juga dilengkapi dengan 3 lubang,
satu di tengah tuas dan satu pada masing-masing ujung tuas.

5. Penumpu
Dilengkapi magnet pemegang sehingga dapat ditempel
pada papan percobaan. Sumbu penumpu digunakan untuk
penumpu tuas.

6. Benda Cincin
Digunakan sebagai benda "tidak berukuran" untuk
berbagai percobaan yang berkaitan dengan gaya yang bekerja
pada "satu titik". Ukurannya sangat kecil dibandingkan dengan
ukuran-ukuran lain. Massanya sangat kecil sehingga dapat
diabaikan terhadap massa benda-benda lain yang terlibat.

7. Busur Derajat
Dilengkapi magnet pemegang sehingga dapat ditempelkan
pada papan percobaan. Digunakan sebagai alat ukur sudut.
Sumbu di tengah busur derajat dapat digunakan sebagai acuan
posisi benda cincin.

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8. Puli (Katrol)
Dilengkapi magnet pemegang sehingga dapatditempelkan
pada papan percobaan. Terdiri atas 1 puli besar dan 2 puli kecil.

9. Blok puli (Blok katrol)


Terdiri atas puli kecil dan besar yang terpasang pada
rangka plastik.

10. Mistar
Terbuat dari stainless steel, panjang 50 cm.

11. Pegas Helik


Pegas terbuat dari baja, dilengkapi dengan pengait dan penggantung berbentuk
cincin.

12. Tali Nylon


Tali terbuat dari nylon. Digunakan untuk berbagai jenis percobaan.

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Lembar Kerja Praktikum Mekanika
“Menguraikan Sebuah Gaya”

Nama Mahasiswa : ......................................................

NIM : ......................................................

Kelompok :......................................................

1. Pendahuluan
Menguraikan gaya adalah kebalikan dari
menyusun gaya. Jika dalam “Menyusun Gaya” yang
dicari adalah resultan dari komponen-komponen
gaya, maka pada “Menguraikan Gaya” kita
Metode segittiga
menguraikan gaya menjadi komponen-komponen.
Dalam menguraikan gaya, kita dapat menggunakan
sistem jajaran genjang gaya maupun sistem segitiga
gaya, seperti dalam cara menyusun gaya.
Misalkan sebuah gaya P akan diuraikan Gambar 1.1 Penguraian Gaya
Metode jajaran genjang
menjadi dua komponen gaya P1dan P2 yang
mempunyai garis kerja a dan b yang berbeda
arahnya dan terletak pada satu bidang. Hasilnya Gambar 1.1. Penguraian gaya

diperlihatkan pada Gambar 1.1.


Suatu titik atau benda berada
dalam keadaan seimbang bila
gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada titik
atau benda itu saling meniadakan.
Atau dengan kata lain, gaya-gaya
tersebut akan membuat suatu
segibanyak gaya yang
1 cm = 4 kg
tertutup.Contoh gaya-gaya dalam
keadaan seimbang diperlihatkan Gambar 1.2. Gaya-gaya keadaan seimbang
pada Gambar 1.2.Titik A berada
dalam keadaan seimbang karena gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada titik tersebut membentuk
segibanyak gaya tertutup. Prinsip ini juga digunakan untuk mencari resultan gaya-gaya
yang bekerja pada suatu titik.Prinsip-prinsip penguraian gaya dan sistem segibanyak gaya
tertutup maupun sistem jajaran genjang gaya, umumnya digunakan untuk menyelesaikan
kontruksi-kontruksi rangka atau sejenisnya.
Percobaan ini dilakukan untuk mencari dua gaya yang bekerja saling tegak lurus yang
ekivalen dengan satu gaya yang ditentukan. Apakah dua gaya yang bekerja saling tegak
lurus tersebut benar-benar sama dengan gaya tunggal yang telah ditentukan?

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2. Persiapan
Rangkai alat percobaan seperti terlihat pada Gambar 2.1. Selama percobaan, Anda
akan mengatur dinamometer dan/atau puli sedemikian rupa sehingga bagian tali yang
merentang diantara puli (katrol) dan benda
cincin ada pada kedudukan horizontal, dan
benda cincin berpusat pada titik pusat busur
derajat. (Untuk mengatur sistem dalam posisi
horizontal atau vertikal, barangkali perlu
diggunakan bidang miring).
Pada keadaan tertentu, perlu dihilangkan
efek gesekan pada sistem dengan cara
mengetuk papan percobaan beberapa kali, atau
menarik salah satu beban dan kemudian
dilepaskan. Jika posisi beberapa alat berubah,
atur lagi sedemikian rupa sehingga kembali ke
keadaan awal.
Gaya -F Xyang bekerja pada benda cincin
padaGambar 1.3 dapat dibaca pada
dinamometer; gaya -Fy adalah gaya yang Gambar 1.3. Persiapan percobaan
bekerja pada benda cincin oleh beban m1; gaya
F adalah gaya yang diberikan oleh beban m2. Ketiga gaya tersebut dalam keadaan
setimbang, dan resultan gaya -F xdan -FY setimbang dengan gaya F.

3. Rumusan Masalah
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................

4. Hipotesis
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
5. Pengujian Hipotesis
 Penentuan Variabel
a. Variabel bebas : ....................................................................................................
b. Variabel terikat : ....................................................................................................
c. Variabel kontrol : ....................................................................................................
 Definisi Operasional
a. ....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

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 Alat dan Bahan
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 Prosedur Kerja
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 Tabel Pengamatan
%
No. 𝐹𝑥 𝐹𝑥2 𝐹𝑦 𝐹𝑦2 𝐹 𝜃 𝐹 cos 𝜃 𝐹 sin 𝜃 √𝐹𝑥2 + 𝐹𝑦2
Galat

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Catatan: Bandingkan nilai-nilai F dengan nilai-nilai F 2 x  F 2 y dengan menghitung

perbedaan persentasenya, yaitu menggunakan persamaan


F  F 2x  F 2y  100%
 F  F 2x  F 2y 
 
 2 
 
dan catat hasil yang didapatkan pada kolom yang sesuai pada tabel.

6. Analisis Data
 Perhitungan
Percobaan pertama :
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7. Kesimpulan
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19
Lembar Kerja Praktikum Mekanika
“Momen Inersia Benda”

Nama Mahasiswa : ......................................................

NIM : ......................................................

Kelompok :......................................................

1. Pendahuluan
Sebuah sistem yang terdiri dari tiga buah partikel
dengan massa m1, m2 dan m3membentuk suatu benda
tegar seperti tampak pada Gambar 2.1.
Apabila m1 berada pada posisi r1 dan bergerak rotasi
dengan kecepatan sudut ω, memiliki kecepatan linier v1
= ω×r1, momentum sudut partikel tersebut
𝐿1 = 𝑟1 𝑝1 = 𝑚1 𝑟1 𝑣1
𝐿1 = 𝑚1 𝑟1 (𝜔𝑟1 )
Gambar 2.1 Sistem benda tegar dengan
atau tiga partikel berputar dengan sumbu di
𝐿1 = 𝑚1 𝑟12 𝜔 ………………………………..(2.1) O.
dengan cara yang sama untuk m2dan m3
𝐿2 = 𝑚2 𝑟22 𝜔
𝐿3 = 𝑚3 𝑟32 𝜔
Besarnya momentum sudut total dapat dituliskan
𝐿 = 𝐿1 + 𝐿2 + 𝐿3
𝐿 = (𝑚1 𝑟12 + 𝑚2 𝑟22 + 𝑚3 𝑟32 )𝜔
𝐿 = 𝐼𝜔 ……...……………………………………(2.2)
dengan
𝐼 = 𝑚1 𝑟12 + 𝑚2 𝑟22 + 𝑚3 𝑟32 =∑3𝑖=1 𝑚𝑖 𝑟𝑖2
Persamaan (2.2) menunjukkan hubungan antara L. I dan 𝜔. Hubungan ini mirip dengan
hubungan antara momentum linier p, m dan v pada gerak translasi, p=mv. Jadi besaran I
identik dengan massa m pada gerak translasi dan disebut momen inersia benda tegar.
Untuk suatu sistem N partikel yang membentuk benda tegar, momen inersianya
adalah
𝐼 = ∑𝑁 2
𝑖=1 𝑚𝑖 𝑟𝑖 ……...……………….……………(2.2)
Untuk suatu benda tegar dengan distribusi massa yang kontinyu, suatu elemen massa Δm,
yang berjarak ri dari sumbu putar, momen inersia dapat dituliskan.
𝑁

𝐼 = ∑ 𝑟𝑖2 𝛥𝑚𝑖
𝑖=1
Apabila Δmi diambil sangat kecil, momen inersia dapat dituliskan
𝐼 = ∫ 𝑟 2 𝑑𝑚
Dengan dm adalah elemen massa.

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Dari persamaan momen inersia di atas, kita dapat menghitung momen inersia untuk berb
agi benda, seperti ditunjukkan pada tabel di bawah.

Table 2.1. Momen Inersia Benda


No Nama Benda Letak Sumbu Momen Inersia
1 Silinder pejal Pada sumbu silinder 𝑚𝑅 2
2
2 Silinder pejal Pada diameter pusat 𝑚𝑅 2 𝑚𝑙 2
+
4 12
3 Silinder berongga Pada sumbu silinder 𝑚 1
(𝑅1 + 𝑅22 )
2
4 Bola pejal Pada diameternya 2𝑚𝑅 2
5
5 Bola berongga Pada diameternya 2𝑚𝑅 2
3

Apabila sebuah benda dipasangkan pada Alat Momen Inersia, kemudian diosilasikan,
periode osilasinya adalah

4𝜋 2
𝑇2 = (𝐼 + 𝐼𝑜 ) … … … … … … … … … … … . . . . (2.4)
𝜅

dengan T adalah periode osilasi dan I adalah momen inersia benda. Sehingga momen
inersia benda yang terpasang pada alat Momen Inersia dapat diketahui juga dengan
persamaan:

𝑇2
𝐼 = ( 2 − 1)𝐼𝑜 … . … … … … … … … … … … … … . (2.5)
𝑇𝑜

2. Persiapan
Siapkan dan susun alat percobaan seperti pada Gambar 2.2 di bawah ini..

Gambar 2.2. Persiapan percobaan

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3. Rumusan Masalah
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4. Hipotesis
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5. Pengujian hipotesis
 Penentuan Variabel
a. Variabel bebas : ....................................................................................................
b. Variabel terikat : ....................................................................................................
c. Variabel kontrol : ....................................................................................................
 Definisi Operasional
a. ....................................................................................................................................
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 Alat dan Bahan
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 Tabel Pengamatan
Tabel dimensi dan momen inersia benda
Massa Dia. Luar Dia. Dalam Tinggi
No. Nama Benda
(kg) (m) (m) (m)
1

Tabel periode untuk setiap benda


Waktu 10 getaran (s)
Nama Benda T(s)
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5

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6. Analisis Data
 Perhitungan
Hitung momen inersia benda secara teori! Dengan persamaan (2.5) hitunglah momen
inersia untuk masing-masing benda! Hitung kesalahan relatif momen inersia teori dan
hasil eksperimen dengan persamaan
𝐼𝑡𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖 − 𝐼
𝐾𝑆𝑅 = | | × 100%
𝐼𝑡𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖
Periode diri, To= …
Momen inersia diri, Io=…
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 Pembahasan
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7. Kesimpulan
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27
Lembar Kerja Praktikum Mekanika
“Pesawat Sederhana: Puli (Katrol)

Nama Mahasiswa : ......................................................

NIM : ......................................................

Kelompok :......................................................

A. Pendahuluan
Puli (katrol) dapat dianggap sebuah tuas.
Gambar 3.1 memperlihatkan dua cara yang umum
dalam penggunaan puli, yaitu puli tetap dan puli
bebas. Cara kerja puli tetap ekivalen dengan cara
kerja tuas AB, dengan beban dan kuasa pada sisi
yang berlawanan terhadap titik penumpu.(umumnya
disebut tumpu). Perbandingan panjang lengan
adalah 1:1. Secara teoritis, keuntungan mekanisnya
adalah sama dengan 1. Cara kerja puli bebas
adalahekivalen dengan tuas AB dengan beban dan
kuasa pada sisi yang sama, beban
ditempatkandiantara tumpu dan kuasa.
Diketahuiperbandingan panjang lengannya adalah
2:1. Secara teoritis, keuntungan
mekanisnya sama dengan 2. Gambar 3.1. (a) puli bebas dan (b) puli tetap
Dua (atau lebih) puli dapat
dirangkai menjadi sistem puli seperti terlihat pada Gambar 3.2. Dalam
penggunaannya, satu sistem digunakan sebagai puli tetap, dan yang lain
sebagai puli bebas. Karena setiap puli bebas mempunyai keuntungan
mekanis sama dengan 2, dua puli bebas akan mempunyai keuntungan
mekanis sama dengan 4, yaitu perbandingan antara beban L dan kuasa
F, L/F adalah sama dengan 4.
Dalam percobaan ini kita akan menyelidiki keuntungan mekanis
sistem puli secara teori dan melalui percobaan, dan juga akan
memeriksa keabsahan hukum kekekalan energi (mekanis): pada waktu
Gambar 3.2. Sistem Puli
mengangkat sebuah beban, kerja yang harus dilakukan sama dengan
pertambahan energi potensial beban, atau WF = ∆UL.

B. Persiapan
1. Gunakan beban bercelah dan penggantung beban sebagai beban, misalkan, 0,5 kg,
yaitu rentang ukur maksimum dinamometer. Alasan menggunakan beban (massa) ini
ialah karena dinamometer memiliki rentang ukur hanya 5 N. Sistem puli yang kita

28
gunakan mempunyai berat yang cukup
berarti (cukup signifikan), sehingaa beratnya
harus diperhitungkan.
2. Gunakan dinamometer untuk mengukur berat
salah satu dari dua sistem puli. Catat berat wL
tersebut dalam tabel, dan tandai puli itu
sebagai puli yang akan dipakai sebagai puli
bebas, karena mungkin kedua puli
mempunyai berat yang berbeda!Bagian
pertama percobaan ini, digunakan puli tetap
tunggal.
3. Rangkailah sistem puli tetap (tunggal) seperti
terlihat pada di atas. Atur posisi alat
percobaan sedemikian rupa sehingga tersedia
ruang yang cukup untuk dinamometer
Gambar 3.3. Rangkaian percobaan puli tetap tunggal
berpindah beberapa cm ke atas ketika beban
diangkat.
4. Untuk rangkaian percobaan puli bebas tunggal dan puli bebas berganda diperlihatkan
pada Gambar 3.4 dan Gambar 3.5.

Gambar 3.4. Rangkaian percobaan puli bebas tunggal Gambar 3.5. Rangkaian percobaan puli bebas
berganda

C. Rumusan Masalah
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D. Hipotesis
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E. Pengujian Hipotesis
 Penentuan Variabel
a. Variabel bebas : ....................................................................................................
b. Variabel terikat : ....................................................................................................
c. Variabel kontrol : ....................................................................................................
 Definisi Operasional
a. ....................................................................................................................................
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 Tabel Pengamatan
Berat Berat
Perpindahan Gaya Perpindahan
Berat puli beban beban
Puli beban kuasa Gaya tarik
WL (N) bercelah total
dL (m) F (N) dE (m)
W (N) L (N)
Tetap
tunggal
Bebas
tunggal
Bebas
berganda

Tabel perubahan energi potensial dan kerja gaya tarik.


Perubahan energi Kerja gaya tarik Persentase perbedaan
Puli potensial WF(J) ΔULdan WF
ΔUL (J) (%)
Tetap tunggal
Bebas tunggal
Bebas berganda

Catatan: Persentase perbedaan ΔUL dan WFdiperoleh dengan menggunakan persamaan


|∆𝑈𝐿 − 𝑊𝐹 |
(∆𝑈𝐿 + 𝑊𝐹 )⁄2
× 100%

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Tabel perbandingan keuntungan mekanis hasil percobaan dan perhitungan.
Persentase
Perbedaan KM
Puli KM Percobaan (L/F) KM Teori (L/F)
Percobaan dan Teori
(%)
Tetap tunggal
Bebas tunggal
Bebas berganda

Catatan: Persentase Perbedaan keuntungan mekanis (KM)percobaan dan teori


𝐾.𝑀.𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑏𝑎𝑎𝑛 − 𝐾.𝑀.𝑡𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖
diperoleh dengan menggunakan persamaan (𝐾.𝑀. × 100%.
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑏𝑎𝑎𝑛 + 𝐾.𝑀.𝑡𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖 )/2

8. Analisis Data
 Perhitungan
Puli tetap tunggal :
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 Pembahasan
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9. Kesimpulan
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34
Lembar Kerja Praktikum Mekanika
“Hukum Kekekalan Momentum”

Nama Mahasiswa : ......................................................

NIM : ......................................................

Kelompok :......................................................

A. Pendahuluan
Kita tinjau tumbukan anatara dua bendayang bermassa mA dan mB seperti diperlihatkan
dalam gambar 4.1. Dalam selang tumbukan yang sangat singkat kedua benda saling
memberikan gaya pada yang lainnya. Menurut hukum III Newton, pada setiap saat gaya
FA yaitu gaya yang bekerj pada benda A oleh benda B sama besar dan berlawanan arah
dengan gaya FB yaitu gaya pada benda B oleh benda A.

Gambar 4.1
Perubahan momentum benda A akibat tumbukan ini adalah :
𝑡2

∆𝑃𝐴 = ∫ 𝐹𝐴 𝑑𝑡 = ̅̅̅
𝐹𝐴 ∆𝑡
𝑡1

dengan ̅̅̅
𝐹𝐴 adalah harga rata-rata gaya FA dalm selang waktu tumbukan ∆t = t2 – t1.
Perubahan momentum benda B akibat tumbukan adalah :
𝑡2

∆𝑃𝐵 = ∫ 𝐹𝐵 𝑑𝑡 = ̅̅̅
𝐹𝐵 ∆𝑡
𝑡1

Dengan ̅̅̅
𝐹𝐵 adalah harga rata-rata gaya FB dalm selang waktu tumbukan ∆t = t2 – t1.
Jika tidak ada gaya lain yang bekerja maka ∆pA dan ∆pB menyatakan perubahan
momentum total masing-masing benda. Tetapi telah kita ketahui bahwa pasa setiap FA
= -FB sehingga ∆pA = ∆pB.
Jika kedua benda kita anggap sebagai sebuah system terisolasi, maka momentum total
system adalah ∆p = ∆pA + ∆pB.= 0

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Jadi jika tidak ada gaya luar yang bekerja maka tumbukan tidak mengubah momentum
total system. Gaya impulsive yang bekerja selama tumbukan merupakan gaya internal,
karena itu tidak mempengaruhi momentum total system.
Misalkan dua buah benda (A dan B) dengan massa m A dan mB bergerak dengan
kecepatan Va dan Vb. Kecepatan benda setelah tumbukan V’a dan V’b. hokum kekekalan
momentum dapat kita tuliskan :
mA . mB + mB . vB = mA . v’A + mB . v’B ................................................................... (4.1)
jika kita dapat mengukur kecepatan kedua system sebelum dan sesudah tumbukan, massa
benda bisa kita ketahui, maka hokum kekekalan momentum dapat kita buktikan.
Percobaan ini kita lakukan untuk dua kasus yang berbeda :
1. Tumbukan Lenting Sempurna
Misalkan massa kedua benda saa besar mA=mB, dan benda A mula-mula diam vA = 0.
Benda B mendekati dan menumbuk benda A dengan kecepatan vB. Kita dapatkan
v’A=v’B dan v’B = 0. Artinya kedua benda bertukar kecepatan.
Untuk benda dengan massa berbeda dan benda A mula-mula diam persamaan (4.1)
menjadi;
mB . vB = mA . v’A + mB . v’B ............................................................................... (4.2)
2. Tumbukan Tidak Lenting Sama Sekali
Misalkan massa benda A dan B sama besar, benda A mula-mula diam dan benda B
bergerak dengan kecepatan v. Setelah tumbukan kecepatan kedua benda sama besar.
Mala kecepatan kedua benda setelah tumbukan menjadi v’ = ½ v
Jika kedua benda memiliki kecepatan mula-mula tetapi untuk arah yang sama maka
kecepatan benda setelah tumbukan menjadi v’ = ½ (vA + vB)
Jika massa kedua benda tidak sama maka persamaan (1) menjadi;
mB.vB = (mA + mB) ............................................................................................... (4.3)

B. Peralatan
1. Rel udara 1 set 5. Beban 1 set
2. Kereta 2 buah 6. Penghalang cahaya dua jari 3cm 1 buah
3. Pegas tumbuk 2 buah 7. Velcro 1 buah
4. Pewaktu pencacah 1 buah 8. Gerbang cahaya 2 buah

C. Persiapam Alat
1. Susunlah alat seperti gambar 4.1

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2. Nyalakan peniup
3. Periksalah kereta lintasan (cara : lihat buku petunjuk penggunaan alat)
4. Pasangkan penghalang cahaya dan pegas tumbuk pada 2 buah kereta yang bermassa
sama

Gambar 4.1
D. Rumusan Masalah
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E. Hipotesis
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F. Pengujian Hipotesis
 Penentuan Variabel
a. Variabel bebas : ....................................................................................................
b. Variabel terikat : ....................................................................................................
c. Variabel kontrol : ....................................................................................................

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 Definisi Operasional
a. ....................................................................................................................................
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b. ..................................................................................................................................
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 Prosedur Percobaan
Tumbukan Lenting Sempurna

Gambar 4.2
1. Atur agar pewaktu pada fungsi Collision
2. Letakkan kereta di atas rel
3. Kereta A dalam keadaan diam di antara 2 gerbang cahaya (lihat gambar 4.2)
4. Dorong kereta B sehingga bergerak denagn kecepatan vB yang besarnya dapat diukur
melalui gerbang cahaya G2
5. Tahan kereta sehingga hanya satu kali melewati gerbang cahaya
6. Amati waktu kereta melewati gerbang cahaya kemudian tekan tombol Change Over
untuk merubah menjadi data kecepatan, catat pada tabek 4.1
7. Ulangi percobaan di atas dengan mengubah massa kereta dengan menambahkan
beban tambahan. Catat hasilnya pada tabel 4.2
8. Lakukan untuk beberapa kali dengan dorongan yang berbeda-beda

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Tumbukan Tidak Lenting Sama Sekali

Gambar 4.3
1. Pasang Velcro pada kedua kereta dan penghalang cahaya hanya pada salah satu kereta
2. Letakkan kereta A di antara kedua gerbang cahaya
3. Dorong kereta B sehingga menumbuk kereta A (setelah tumbukan kedua kereta akan
bergerak bersama-sama)
4. Amati selang waktu kereta melewati gerbang cahaya sebelum dan sesudah tumbukan
pada penghitung waktu kemudian catat pada tabel 4.3
5. Ulangi langkah 2-4 dengan menambahkan beban tambahan pada kereta
6. Lakukan untuk beberapa dorongan yang berbeda-beda.

 Tabel Pengamatan
Tabel 4.1 Tumbukan elastic dengan mA = mB, dan VA = 0
Sebelum Tumbukan Setelah Tumbukan
No Benda A Benda B Benda A Benda B
VA pA VB PB V’A P’A V’B P’B
1
2
3
4
5

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Tabel 4.2 Tumbukan elastic dengan mA ≠ mB, dan VA = 0
Sebelum Tumbukan Setelah Tumbukan
No Benda A Benda B Benda A Benda B
VA pA VB PB V’A P’A V’B P’B
1
2
3
4
5

Tabel 4.3 Tumbukan tidak lenting sama sekali dengan mA = mB, dan VA = 0
Sebelum Tumbukan Setelah Tumbukan
No Benda A Benda B Benda A Benda B
VA pA VB PB V’A P’A V’B P’B
1
2
3
4
5

G. Analisis Data
 Perhitungan
Tumbukan elastic dengan mA = mB, dan VA = 0:
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 Tumbukan elastic dengan mA ≠ mB, dan VA = 0


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 Tumbukan tidak lenting sama sekali dengan mA = mB, dan VA = 0
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 Pembahasan
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H. Kesimpulan
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