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FACULTAD DE INGENIERÌA

ESCUELA DE INGENIERÌA CIVIL

TEMA

DISEÑO DE UNA ZAPATA CENTRICA

ASIGNATURA

CONCRETO ARMADO II

DOCENTE TUTOR
MGTR. JOHANNA DEL CARMEN SOTELO

INTEGRANTES

MORENO CHAVEZ JUNIOR JOSE


SALDAÑA MURILLO MILLER
VARGAS SALDAÑA EVER
VILLANUEVA NAVARRO JHON

CHIMBOTE – PERÚ

2017
METRADO
DE CARGAS
PRIMER PISO

 Losa Aligerada 20 cm 300 kg/m2


 Viga Principal (0.20 x 0.40) m2
 Viga Secundaria (0.20 x 0.40) m2
 Columna 𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟 2= 𝜋𝜋(0.20)2 0.126m2
 Sobrecarga 200 kg/m2
 Ladrillo 100 kg/m2
 Altura Columna 2.85m
Carga Muerta
• Peso Losa: 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍=AT x 300 kg/m2
AT = (1.91x1.24) + (1.115x1.91) + (1.80x1.115) + (1.8x1.24) AT = 8.737 m2
𝑃𝑃𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 = 8.737x 300 kg/m2 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍= 2621.1 kg
• Peso Viga Principal: Pvp = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pvp = (0.2 x 0.40)𝑚𝑚2 x (1.91+1.8) m x 2400 Pvp = 712.32 kg
𝑚𝑚3

• Peso Viga Secundaria: Pvs = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pvs = (0.2 x 0.40)𝑚𝑚2 x (1.24+1.115) m x 2400 Pvs = 452.16 kg
𝑚𝑚3

• Peso Columna: Pc = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪


𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pc = (0.126 𝑚𝑚2 ) x (2.85) x 2400 Pc = 861.84 kg
𝑚𝑚3

• Sobrecarga: SC = AT x S
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
S = [(1.91 + 0.40 + 1.8) x (1.24 + 0.40 + 1.115) ]𝑚𝑚2 x 200
𝑚𝑚2
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
S = 11.323 𝑚𝑚2 x 200
𝑚𝑚2

S = 2264.4 kg
• Ladrillo: Lad. = AT x 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Lad. = 11.3233 𝑚𝑚2 x 100 Lad. = 1132.3 kg
𝑚𝑚2

Carga muerta total del Primer Piso:

CM = 8044.32 kg 8.04 ton

Carga Viva

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶1°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = (AT-AC) x 200
𝑚𝑚2
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶1°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝= (11.323 – 0.126) 𝑚𝑚2 x 200 2239.4 kg = 2.24 ton
𝑚𝑚2

SEGUNDO PISO

 Losa Aligerada 20 cm 300 kg/m2


 Viga Principal (0.20 x 0.40) m2
 Viga Secundaria (0.20 x 0.40) m2
 Columna 𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟 2= 𝜋𝜋(0.20)2 0.126m2
 Sobrecarga 200 kg/m2
 Ladrillo 100 kg/m2
 Altura Columna 2.85m

• Peso Losa: 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍=AT x 300 kg/m2


AT = (1.91x1.24) + (1.115x1.91) + (1.80x1.115) + (1.8x1.24) AT = 8.737 m2
𝑃𝑃𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 = 8.737x 300 kg/m2 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍= 2621.1 kg
• Peso Viga Principal: Pvp = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pvp = (0.2 x 0.40)𝑚𝑚2 x (1.91+1.8) m x 2400 Pvp = 712.32 kg
𝑚𝑚3

• Peso Viga Secundaria: Pvs = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pvs = (0.2 x 0.40)𝑚𝑚2 x (1.24+1.115) m x 2400 Pvs = 452.16 kg
𝑚𝑚3

• Peso Columna: Pc = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪


𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pc = (0.126 𝑚𝑚2 ) x (2.85) x 2400 Pc = 861.84 kg
𝑚𝑚3
• Sobrecarga: SC = AT x S
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
S = [(1.91 + 0.40 + 1.8) x (1.24 + 0.40 + 1.115) ]𝑚𝑚2 x 200
𝑚𝑚2
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
S = 11.323 𝑚𝑚2 x 200
𝑚𝑚2

S = 2264.4 kg
• Ladrillo: Lad. = AT x 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Lad. = 11.3233 𝑚𝑚2 x 100 Lad. = 1132.3 kg
𝑚𝑚2

Carga muerta total del Segundo Piso:

CM = 8044.32 kg 8.04 ton

Carga Viva

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶2°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = (AT-AC) x 200
𝑚𝑚2
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶2°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = (11.323 – 0.126) 𝑚𝑚2 x 200 2239.4 kg = 2.24 ton
𝑚𝑚2

TERCER PISO

 Losa Aligerada 20 cm 300 kg/m2


 Viga Principal (0.20 x 0.40) m2
 Viga Secundaria (0.20 x 0.40) m2
 Columna 𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟 2= 𝜋𝜋(0.20)2 0.126m2
 Sobrecarga 200 kg/m2
 Ladrillo 100 kg/m2
 Altura Columna 2.55m

• Peso Losa: 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍=AT x 300 kg/m2


AT = (1.91x1.24) + (1.115x1.91) + (1.80x1.115) + (1.8x1.24) AT = 8.737 m2
𝑃𝑃𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 = 8.737x 300 kg/m2 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍= 2621.1 kg
• Peso Viga Principal: Pvp = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pvp = (0.2 x 0.40)𝑚𝑚2 x (1.91+1.8) m x 2400 Pvp = 712.32 kg
𝑚𝑚3

• Peso Viga Secundaria: Pvs = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pvs = (0.2 x 0.40)𝑚𝑚2 x (1.24+1.115) m x 2400 Pvs = 452.16 kg
𝑚𝑚3
• Peso Columna: Pc = A x L x 𝜸𝜸𝑪𝑪
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Pc = (0.126 𝑚𝑚2 ) x (2.55) x 2400 Pc = 771.12 kg
𝑚𝑚3

• Sobrecarga: SC = AT x S
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
S = [(1.91 + 0.40 + 1.8) x (1.24 + 0.40 + 1.115) ]𝑚𝑚2 x 200
𝑚𝑚2
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
S = 11.323 𝑚𝑚2 x 200
𝑚𝑚2

S = 2264.4 kg
• Ladrillo: Lad. = AT x 𝑷𝑷𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
Lad. = 11.3233 𝑚𝑚2 x 100 Lad. = 1132.3 kg
𝑚𝑚2

Carga muerta total del Tercer Piso:

CM = 7953.6 kg 7.95 ton

Carga Viva

𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶3°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = AT x 100
𝑚𝑚2
𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶3°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 11.323 𝑚𝑚2 x 100 1132.3 kg = 1.13 ton
𝑚𝑚2

CARGA MUERTA TOTAL:

 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶1°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 8.04 ton


 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶2°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 8.04 ton
 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶3°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 7.95 ton

CMT = 24.03 ton

CARGA VIVA TOTAL:

 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶1°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 2.24 ton


 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶2°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 2.24 ton
 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶3°𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 = 1.13 ton

CVT = 5.61 ton

CARGA TOTAL: CMT + CVT

CT = 24.03 + 5.61 ton

CT = 29.04 ton
Carga Total

𝐶𝐶𝑇𝑇 = 𝐶𝐶𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 (1.4) + 𝐶𝐶𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 (1.7)

𝐶𝐶𝑇𝑇 = 24.03 (1.4) + 5.61 (1.7) 𝐶𝐶𝑇𝑇 = 43.179 ton


𝝆𝝆 𝝆𝝆
• Esfuerzo Normal: 𝝈𝝈 = 𝑨𝑨 =
𝑨𝑨 𝝈𝝈
43.179 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 43179 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
A= A = 21590 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2
2 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘/𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2 2 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘/𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2

A = 𝑙𝑙 2 𝑙𝑙2 = 21590 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2 𝑙𝑙 = 146.94 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐


L = 1.5 m
Zapata 1.5m x 1.5m

𝒃𝒃
Comprobación al vuelco: (M + V x h) Fs < (N + P)
𝟐𝟐

 N = 43.179 ton
 M = 14.03 ton/m
 V = 6.5 ton P = a x b x c x 𝛾𝛾𝐶𝐶
𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡
 H = 1.4 m P = (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.4)𝑚𝑚3 x 2.4
𝑚𝑚3

 a = 1.50 m P = 7.56 ton


 b = 1.50 m
 Fs = 1.5
𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡
 𝛾𝛾𝐶𝐶 = 2.4
𝑚𝑚2
1.4
 [14.03 + (6.5 x 1.4)] 1.5 < (43.179 + 7.56)
2

34.695 < 35.52 “Si cumple”

Comprobación al desplazamiento: (N + P) tg 𝜽𝜽 (2/3) > Vfs

 (43.179 + 7.56) tg 45° x 2/3 > 6.5 x 1.5


29.29 > 9.75 “Si cumple”
DISEÑO DE
ZAPATA
CENTRICA
Diseño de Zapata Aislada

 Df = 1.5 m Columna circular: ∅ 40 cm


 𝜸𝜸𝒕𝒕 = 1.65 ton/m3
 𝒔𝒔/𝒄𝒄 = 0.2 ton/m2
 𝝈𝝈𝒕𝒕 = 1.2 kg/cm2 12 ton/m2
 PM = 24.03 ton
 PV = 5.61 ton

a) Esfuerzo Neto 𝝈𝝈𝒏𝒏 : 𝝈𝝈𝒏𝒏 = 𝝈𝝈𝒕𝒕 – 𝐬𝐬/𝐜𝐜 – (hf x 𝜸𝜸𝒕𝒕 )

𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡


𝜎𝜎𝑛𝑛 = 12 – 0.2 – (1.5 x 1.65)
𝑚𝑚2 𝑚𝑚2 𝑚𝑚2

𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡
𝜎𝜎𝑛𝑛 = 9.33
𝑚𝑚2

𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷+𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷+𝑷𝑷𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛.
b) Área de la zapata: Az = 𝝈𝝈𝒏𝒏

𝑷𝑷𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛. = (Pv + Pm) x 5% = (5.61 + 24.03) 0.05

𝑃𝑃𝑧𝑧𝑧𝑧𝑧𝑧. = 1.48

(𝟓𝟓.𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟔+𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐.𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎+𝟏𝟏.𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒)𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕
Az = 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 Az = 3.34 m2
𝟗𝟗.𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 𝟐𝟐
𝒎𝒎

𝑻𝑻𝟏𝟏 +𝑻𝑻𝟐𝟐
c) Hallando “T”: T = √𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨 + ( )
𝟐𝟐

𝑇𝑇1 = 0.4m

𝑇𝑇2 = 0.4m

𝟎𝟎.𝟒𝟒+𝟎𝟎.𝟒𝟒
T = √𝟑𝟑. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 + ( ) T = 1.83m
𝟐𝟐

𝑻𝑻𝟏𝟏 +𝑻𝑻𝟐𝟐
d) Hallando “S”: S = √𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨 - ( 𝟐𝟐
)

0.4+0.4
S = √3.34 - ( ) S = 1.83m
2

e) Comprobando: Az = S x T

S = 2m + 𝑇𝑇2 = 2m + 0.40

T = 2m + 𝑇𝑇1 = 2m + 0.40
Az = S x T

3.34 = (2m + 0.4) (2m + 0.4)

3.34 = 4𝑚𝑚2 + 0.8m + 0.8m + 0.16

4𝑚𝑚2 + 1.16m – 3.18 = 0

m = 0.72 ≈ 0.75

S = 2(0.75) + 0.4 = 1.90m

T = 2(0.75) + 0.4 = 1.90m

• Dimensionamiento del peralte “d” de la Zapata


1.2 WD + 1.6 WL A.C.I
Vc > Vact
∑ 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂
 Wu =
𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨
1.2(24.03)+1.6(5.61) 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡
Wu = ⇒ Wu = 10.47
1.9 𝑥𝑥 1.9 𝑚𝑚2
𝒎𝒎−𝒅𝒅
 Vact = Wu x ( )
𝒅𝒅
0.75−𝑑𝑑
Vact = 10.47 x ( )
𝑑𝑑

Cortante: ∅ = 0.85
* Vc = ∅ 𝑥𝑥 0.53 𝑥𝑥 √𝐹𝐹′𝐶𝐶
Vc = 0.85 x 0.53 x √210
𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡
Vc = 65.3
𝑚𝑚2

Se sabe: Vc ≥ Vact

Entonces procedemos a igualar:

0.75−𝑑𝑑
65.3 = 10.47 x ( )
𝑑𝑑

65.3 d = 7.85 – 10.47 d


75.77 d = 7.85
d = 0.10m
Diseño de cortante por Punzamiento: Escogeremos el menor valor de Vc

𝟒𝟒
a) Vc ≤ ∅ x 0.27 (2 + )√𝑭𝑭′𝑪𝑪
𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩
4
Vc ≤ 0.85 x 0.27 x (2 + ) √210 = 19.95 kg/cm2 =199.5 Tn/m2
1
𝜶𝜶𝜶𝜶
b) Vc ≤ ∅ x 0.27 x ( + 𝟐𝟐)√𝑭𝑭′𝑪𝑪
𝒃𝒃𝒃𝒃

c) Vc ≤ ∅ x 1.1 x √𝑭𝑭′𝑪𝑪
Vc ≤ 0.85 x 1.1 x √210 = 13.55 kg/cm2 = 135.5Tn/m2

Se escogerá: Vc = 13.55 kg/cm2

𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊 [𝑆𝑆 𝑥𝑥 𝑇𝑇−(𝑑𝑑+𝑇𝑇1)(𝑑𝑑+𝑇𝑇2)]


𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 = =
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴. 2𝑑𝑑(2𝑑𝑑+𝑇𝑇1+𝑇𝑇2)

Vc = Vact

10.47 [1.9 𝑥𝑥 1.9−(𝑑𝑑+0.4)(𝑑𝑑+0.4)]


135.5 ton/m2 = 2𝑑𝑑(2𝑑𝑑+0.4+0.4)

135.5 (4𝑑𝑑 2 + 1.6d) = 10.47 [3.61 – (𝑑𝑑 2 + 0.4d + 0.4d + 0.16)]

542 𝑑𝑑 2 + 216.8d = 37.80 – 10.47𝑑𝑑 2 – 8.38d – 1.68

552.47𝑑𝑑 2 + 225.18d – 36.12 = 0

D = 0.12m

Hay 2 valores de “d”:

 d = 0.10m
 d = 0.12m

Según el reglamento del ACI nos dice que el máximo a utilizar de peralte en una zapata
es 15cm; por tal motivo los datos obtenidos están en lo adecuado, pero procederemos a
utilizar a lo que se utiliza normalmente en Perú de 40 a 50 cm “altura de peralte”.

Comprobando:

Diseño de Corte por Flexión:

 Vc = 65.3 ton/m2
(𝒎𝒎−𝒅𝒅)
 Vact = Wu
𝒅𝒅
(𝟎𝟎.𝟕𝟕𝟕𝟕−𝟎𝟎.𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒)
Vact = 10.47 x = 9.16 ton/m2
𝟎𝟎.𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒
Vc > Vact 65.3 ton/m2 > 9.16 ton/m2 (SI CUMPLE)

Diseño de Corte por Punzamiento:

 bo = 2 x [2(0.4) + 0.40 + 0.40] = 3.2m


 Ap = bo x d = 3.2 x 0.4 = 1.28 m
 𝛼𝛼𝑠𝑠 = 40 Zapata Céntrica

Hallamos Vc:

4
a) Vc ≤ 0.85 x 0.27 x (2 + ) √210 x 320 x 40 = 255.41 ton
1
40 𝑥𝑥 40
b) Vc ≤ 0.85 x 0.27 x ( + 2) √210 x 320 x 40 = 297.99 ton
320

c) Vc ≤ 0.85 x 1.1 x √210 x 320 x 40 = 173.43 ton

Tomaremos el menor valor de Vc = 173.43ton.

Hallamos Vact:

Vact = Wu x [S x T – (d + T1) (d + T2)

Vact = 10.47 [1.9 x 1.9 – (0.4 + 0.4) (0.4 + 0.4)]

Vact = 31.09 ton

Vc > Vact 173.43 ton > 31.09 ton (SI CUMPLE)

Por último:

𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽
𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖 =
𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨

𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑.𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕


𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖 = ⇒ 24.28
𝟑𝟑.𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐.𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝒎𝒎 𝒎𝒎𝟐𝟐

Verificación por Cortante: (d = 0.4)

Vdv = (Wu x S) (m – d) ⇒ (10.47 x 1.90) (0.75 – 0.40)

Vdv = 6.963 ton

𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 6.963
 Vn = =
∅ 0.75

Vn = 9.28 ton
Vn = 0.53 �𝑭𝑭′𝒚𝒚 x S x d

0.53√210 x 1.90 x 0.40 x 10 = 58.37 ton

Vc > Vn ⇒ 58.37 > 9.28 (SI CUMPLE)

Chequeo por flexión:

𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 6.963
 Vn = =
∅ 0.75

Vn = 9.28 ton

Wu

M
m

𝑊𝑊𝑚𝑚2
Mmax = Wu x m x m/2 = 𝑥𝑥 𝑆𝑆
2

10.47 𝑥𝑥 0.752
Mmax = x 1.90 = 5.60 tn/m  5.60 x 105 kg/cm
2

𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 𝑥𝑥 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓


As = 𝑎𝑎 a=
∅ 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 (𝑑𝑑− ) 0.85 𝑥𝑥 𝑓𝑓′ 𝑐𝑐 𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏
2

5.60 𝑥𝑥 105
* As = 40 = 7.41 cm2
0.90 𝑥𝑥 4200 (40− )
2

7.41 𝑥𝑥 4200
*a= = 0.91 cm
0.85 𝑥𝑥 210 𝑥𝑥 190

Al realizar este paso por 3 veces, noté que el área del acero me disminuye, por lo tanto
mi número de varillas serán mínimas y recurriré a trabajar con el primer cálculo obtenido
del “As”
Verificación del acero mínimo:

Asmin = 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌 𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑 =0.0018 x 190 x 40 = 13.68 cm2

Trabajaremos con el As mínimo para obtener mayor cantidad de varillas.

Acero Longitudinal

Asumimos: ∅ = 1/2" A∅ = 1.27 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2

𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 13.68
N= ⇒ ⇒ 10.77 ≈ 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏 𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗
𝐴𝐴∅ 1.27

Espaciamiento:

𝒃𝒃−𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐− ∅ 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏−𝟐𝟐(𝟕𝟕.𝟓𝟓)−𝟏𝟏,𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐
S= ⇒ ⇒ 17.37 cm
𝒏𝒏−𝟏𝟏 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏−𝟏𝟏

Se usará: 11 ∅ ½” @ 17 cm

Acero Transversal:

1.90
 As = 13.68 x = 13.68 cm2
1.90
13.68
 N= ⇒ 10.77 ≈ 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏 𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗
1.27

 S = 17 cm

Se usará: 11 ∅ ½” @ 17 cm

Detalle de zapata en planta:


Detalle de zapata en corte:
Diseño de Zapata Aislada

 Df = 1.5 m Columna cuadrada: 30x60c𝒎𝒎𝟐𝟐


 𝜸𝜸𝒕𝒕 = 2.10 ton/m3
 𝑾𝑾𝑾𝑾/𝒄𝒄 = 0.5 ton/m2
 𝝈𝝈𝒕𝒕 = 3.5 kg/cm2 35 ton/m2
 𝑭𝑭𝑭𝑭 = 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 kg/cm2
 𝑭𝑭𝑭𝑭 = 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒 kg/cm2
 WD(CM) = 190 ton
 WL(CV) = 75 ton

1.-Determinando el Dimensionamiento en Planta

a) Esfuerzo Neto 𝝈𝝈𝒏𝒏 : 𝝈𝝈𝒏𝒏 = 𝝈𝝈𝒕𝒕 – 𝐖𝐖𝐖𝐖/𝐜𝐜 – (𝜸𝜸x 𝑫𝑫𝒇𝒇)

𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡


𝜎𝜎𝑛𝑛 = 35 – 0.5 – (2.10 x 1.5m)
𝑚𝑚2 𝑚𝑚2 𝑚𝑚3

𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡
𝜎𝜎𝑛𝑛 = 31.35
𝑚𝑚2

𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷+𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷+𝑷𝑷𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛.
b) Área de la zapata: Az = 𝝈𝝈𝒏𝒏

𝑷𝑷𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛𝒛. = (WD + WL) x 5% = (190 + 75) 0.05

𝑃𝑃𝑧𝑧𝑧𝑧𝑧𝑧. = 13.25

(𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏+𝟕𝟕𝟕𝟕+𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏.𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐)𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕
Az = 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 Az = 8.88 𝒎𝒎𝟐𝟐
𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑.𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 𝟐𝟐
𝒎𝒎

Az = S x T………..(1)

Comprobando: Az = S x T

S = 2m + b = 2(1.27 + 0.30) = 2.85m

T = 2m + 𝑡𝑡 = 2(1.27 + 0.60) = 3.15m

Az = S x T

8.88 = (2m + 0.30) (2m + 0.60)

8.88 = 4𝑚𝑚2 + 1.20m + 0.60m + 0.18

4𝑚𝑚2 + 1.80m – 8.70 = 0


+
-b √𝑏𝑏2 − 4𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

2a

m = 1.27 OK

m = -1.71

Ecuación(1):

Az = 2.85m x 3.15m

Az = 8.98 𝒎𝒎𝟐𝟐

2. Dimensionamiento del peralte: corte y flexión


1.2 WD + 1.6 WL A.C.I
Vact < 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉
d
d
d d
Wu

Wu=Carga
Ultima Mayora
d m-d
m

Carga Ultima Mayorada(Wu):

∑ 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂
 Wu =
𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨
1.2(190)+1.6(75) 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡
Wu = ⇒ Wu = 38.75
𝟖𝟖.𝟗𝟗𝟗𝟗 𝒎𝒎𝟐𝟐 𝑚𝑚2

Cortante Actuante:(Vact)

𝒎𝒎−𝒅𝒅
 Vact = Wu x ( )
𝒅𝒅
Cortante: ∅ = 0.85
* Vc = ∅ 𝑥𝑥 0.53 𝑥𝑥 √𝐹𝐹′𝐶𝐶
Vc = 0.85 x 0.53 x √210
𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾
Vc = 65.3 = 6.53
𝑚𝑚2 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2

Se sabe: Vact < 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉

Entonces igualando nos queda:

1.27−𝑑𝑑
65.3 = 38.75 x ( )
𝑑𝑑

65.3 d = 49.21 – 38.75 d


104.05 d = 49.21
d = 0.47m

3) CHEQUEO DE CORTE POR PUNZONAMIENTO:

Escogeremos el menor valor de Vc

𝟒𝟒
a) Vc ≤ ∅ x 0.27 (2 + )√𝑭𝑭′𝑪𝑪
𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩
4
Vc ≤ 0.85 x 0.27 x (2 + ) √210 = 13.30 kg/cm2 =133.3 Tn/𝑚𝑚2
2
𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚
Bc= ≤2
𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚
0.60
Bc= =2 OK
0.30
𝜶𝜶𝜶𝜶
b) Vc ≤ ∅ x 0.27 x ( + 𝟐𝟐)√𝑭𝑭′𝑪𝑪
𝒃𝒃𝒃𝒃

c) Vc ≤ ∅ x 1.1 x √𝑭𝑭′𝑪𝑪
Vc ≤ 0.85 x 1.1 x √210 = 13.55 kg/c𝑚𝑚2 =135.5 Tn/𝑚𝑚2

Se escogerá el menor: Vc = 13.30 kg/cm2 =133.3 Tn/𝑚𝑚2

𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊 [𝑆𝑆 𝑥𝑥 𝑇𝑇−(𝑑𝑑+𝑇𝑇1)(𝑑𝑑+𝑇𝑇2)]


𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 = =
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴. 2𝑑𝑑(2𝑑𝑑+𝑇𝑇1+𝑇𝑇2)

38.75 [2.85 𝑥𝑥 3.15−(𝑑𝑑+0.60)(𝑑𝑑+0.30)]


133.3 ton/m2 =
2𝑑𝑑(2𝑑𝑑+0.60+0.30)

133.3 (4𝑑𝑑 2 + 1.8d) = 38.75 [8.98 – (𝑑𝑑 2 + 0.3d + 0.6d + 0.18)]

533.2 𝑑𝑑 2 + 239.94d = 347.97 – 38.75𝑑𝑑 2 – 34.87d – 6.97

571.95𝑑𝑑 2 + 274.81d – 341 = 0


+
-b √𝑏𝑏2 − 4𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

2a

Hay 2 valores de “d”:


 d = 0.57m ok tomamos el mayor
 d = 0.47m

Comprobando:

Diseño de Corte por Flexión:

 Vc = 65.3 ton/m2
(𝒎𝒎−𝒅𝒅)
 Vact = Wu
𝒅𝒅
(𝟏𝟏.𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐−𝟎𝟎.𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓)
Vact = 38.75 x = 47.58 ton/m2
𝟎𝟎.𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓

Vact ≤ 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 47.58 ton/m2 < 65.3 ton/m2 (SI CUMPLE)

Diseño de Corte por Punzonamiento:

 bo = 2 x [2(0.57) + 0.60 + 0.30] = 4.08m


 Ap = bo x d = 4.08 x 0.57 = 2.33 m
 𝛼𝛼𝑠𝑠 = 40 Zapata Céntrica

Determinando Vc:

4
d) Vc ≤ 0.85 x 0.27 x (2 + ) √210 x 408 x 57 = 309.37 ton
2
40 𝑥𝑥 57
e) Vc ≤ 0.85 x 0.27 x ( + 2) √210 x 408 x 57 = 586.90 ton
408

f) Vc ≤ 0.85 x 1.1 x √210 x 408 x 57 = 315.10 ton

Tomaremos el menor valor de Vc = 309.37ton.

Hallamos Vact:

Vact = Wu x [S x T – (d + T1) (d + T2)

Vact = 38.75 [2.85 x 3.15 – (0.57 + 0.6) (0.57 + 0.3)]

Vact = 30.84 ton

Vc > Vact 309.37 ton > 30.84 ton (SI CUMPLE)


Por último:

𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽
𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖 =
𝒃𝒃𝒃𝒃𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙

𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑.𝟖𝟖𝟖𝟖 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕


𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝑽𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖 = ⇒ 13.26
𝟒𝟒.𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒎𝒎𝒎𝒎𝒎𝒎.𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓 𝒎𝒎𝟐𝟐

4.-Verificación por Cortante: (d = 0.57)

Vdu = (Wu x S) (m – d) ⇒ (38.75 x 2.85) (1.27 – 0.57)

Vdu = 77.30 ton

𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 77.30
 Vn = =
∅ 0.75

Vn = 103.07 ton OK

Vc = 0.53 √𝑭𝑭′𝒄𝒄 x S x d

0.53√210 x 2.85 x 0.57 = 12.477 Kg/cm2

Vc > Vn ⇒ 124.77 Tn > 103.07 Tn (SI CUMPLE)

5) Chequeo por flexión:

𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 77.30
 Vn = =
∅ 0.75

Vn = 103.07 ton Ok

Wu

M
m

𝑊𝑊𝑚𝑚2
Mmax = Wu x m x m/2 = 𝑥𝑥 𝑆𝑆
2

38.75 𝑥𝑥 1.272
Mmáx = x 2.85 = 89.06 tn/m  8.90 x 105 kg/cm
2
𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 𝑥𝑥 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
As = 𝑎𝑎 a=
∅ 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 (𝑑𝑑− ) 0.85 𝑥𝑥 𝑓𝑓′ 𝑐𝑐 𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏
2

a=d/5

d=0.57

a= 0.114m 11.4 cm

89.06 𝑥𝑥 105
* As = 11.4 = 45.93 cm2
0.90 𝑥𝑥 4200 (57− )
2

45.93 𝑥𝑥 4200
*a= = 3.79 cm
0.85 𝑥𝑥 210 𝑥𝑥 2.85

Repetimos el cálculo con los nuevos valores obtenidos:

89.06 𝑥𝑥 105
* As = 3.79 = 42.75 cm2
0.90 𝑥𝑥 4200 (57− )
2

42.75𝑥𝑥 4200
*a= = 3.52 cm
0.85 𝑥𝑥 210 𝑥𝑥 2.85

6.- Verificación del acero mínimo:

Asmin = 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌 𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑 =0.0018 x 285 x 57 = 29.24 cm2

Acero Longitudinal

Usamos As= 42.75 cm2

Asumimos: ∅ = 3/4" A∅ = 2.85 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2

𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 42.75
N= ⇒ ⇒ 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏 𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗
𝐴𝐴∅ 2.85

Calculamos el Espaciamiento:

𝒃𝒃−𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐− ∅ 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐−𝟐𝟐(𝟕𝟕.𝟓𝟓)−𝟏𝟏.𝟗𝟗𝟗𝟗
S= ⇒ ⇒ 17.89 cm
𝒏𝒏−𝟏𝟏 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏−𝟏𝟏

Se usará: 15 ∅ 3/4" @ 18 cm
Acero Transversal:

𝑇𝑇 3.15
 As = As x = 42.75 x = 47.25 cm2
𝑆𝑆 2.85

 Asmin = 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌 𝑥𝑥 𝑇𝑇 𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑 = 0.0018 𝑥𝑥 315 𝑥𝑥 57 = 32.32 cm2


𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 32.32
 N = 𝐴𝐴∅ ⇒ 2.85
= 11.34 ≈ 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏 𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗

Calculamos el Espaciamiento:

𝑻𝑻−𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐− ∅ 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑−𝟐𝟐(𝟕𝟕.𝟓𝟓)−𝟏𝟏.𝟗𝟗𝟗𝟗
S= ⇒ ⇒ 29.81 cm
𝒏𝒏−𝟏𝟏 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏−𝟏𝟏

Se usará: 11 ∅ 3/4" @ 30 cm

Detalle de zapata en planta:

11 ∅3/4"@𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑

15 ∅ 3/4" @ 18 cm

11 ∅3/4"@𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑

15 ∅ 3/4" @ 18 cm