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Steel has a high strength/weight ratio. Thus, the dead weight of steel structures is relatively small. This property
makes steel a very attractive structural material for
a. High-rise buildings
b. Long-span bridges
c. Structures located on soft ground
d. Structures located in highly seismic areas where forces acting on the structure due to an earthquake are in
general proportional to the weight of the structure.

As discussed in the previous section, steel can undergo large plastic deformation before failure, thus providing
large reserve strength. This property is referred to as ductility. Properly designed steel structures can have high
ductility, which is an important characteristic for resisting shock loading such as blasts or earthquakes. A ductile
structure has energy-absorbing capacity and will not incur sudden failure. It usually shows large visible
deflections before failure or collapse.


Properties of steel can be predicted with a high degree of certainty. Steel in fact shows elastic behavior up to a
relatively high and usually well-defined stress level. Also, in contrast to reinforced concrete, steel properties do
not change considerably with time.

Speed of erection: Steel structures can be erected quite rapidly. This normally results in quicker economic
Quality of construction: Steel structures can be built with high-quality workmanship and narrow tolerances.

Ease of repair: Steel structures in general can be repaired quickly and easily.
Adaptation of prefabrication: Steel is highly suitable for prefabrication and mass production.

Repetitive use: Steel can be reused after a structure is disassembled.

Expanding existing structures: Steel buildings can be easily expanded by adding new bays or wings. Steel
bridges may be widened.

Fatigue strength: Steel structures have relatively good fatigue strength.

The following may be considered as disadvantages of steel in certain cases:
General cost: Steel structures may be more costly than other types of structures, and other materials are cheap
from steel. Therefore more cost of steel is disadvantages of steel.

Fireproofing: The strength of steel is reduced substantially when heated at temperatures commonly observed in
building fire. Also, steel conducts and transmits heat from a burning portion of the building quite fast.

Consequently: steel frames in buildings must have adequate fireproofing.

Maintenance: Steel structures exposed to air and water, such as bridges, are susceptible to corrosion and
should be painted regularly. Application of weathering and corrosion-resistant steels may eliminate this problem.

Susceptibility to buckling: Due to high strength/weight ratio, steel compression members is in general more
slender and consequently more susceptible to buckling than, say, reinforced concrete compression members.
As a result, considerable materials may have to be used just to improve the buckling resistance of slender steel
compression members.
 Eliminates the need for redundant formwork as  It cannot be use for
only shuttering required on the edges. multi-storey building.
LIFT SLAB  Reduce handling and hoisting of materials and Only up to 15- 16
supplies that can simply be placed on top of the storey building.
slabs and lifted with them.  No large span slabs
 Employed with ribbed slabs not only flat slabs with are constructed in
some compromise of ease of casting. this type of
 The size or dimensions of structural members are  The unit cost of high
reduced, which may increase the clearances or strength materials
SPAN STRESS reduce storey heights. being used is higher.
SYSTEM  It permits the use of large spans (greater than 30 m)  Extra initial cost is
with shallow members, even when heavy load are incurred due to use of
encountered. prestressing
 In addition to general advantages, such as excellent equipment and its
fire resistance, low maintenance costs, elegance, installation.
high corrosion-resistance, adaptability etc, the  Extra labour cost for
prestressed concrete is found to sustain the effects prestressing is also
of impact or shock and vibrations. there.
 Because of smaller loads due to smaller dimensions  Prestressing is
being used, there is considerable saving cost of uneconomical for
supporting members and foundations. short spans and light
 The prestressing technique has eliminated the loads.
weakness of concrete in tension and hence crack
free members of structure are obtained.
 Because of better material (i.e. controlled concrete
and high tension steel) being used and nullifying
the effect of dead loads, smaller deflections are

 Safety The slipform setup provides a safe and  It Requires complex

protected work environment for your crew. supervision
SLIP FORM  No Rebar Bolsters Unlike in standard wall  Setting rate of the
SYSTEM construction with panel forms, slipforming does concrete had to be
not require lost rebar bolsters in every pour to constantly monitored
control the rebar cover. In slipform construction. to ensure that it is
 Height This technology becomes very competitive matched with the
starting at about 60 ft of height and continues to speed at which the
improve with increasing height thereafter. forms are raised.
 Early Assembly The slipform setup is very compact  Standby plant and
and can be pre- assembled ahead of time. equipment should be
 Monolithic Construction No cold-joints are available through cold
necessary. jointing may
 Continuous Process Slipforming is a continuous occasionally be
extrusion process. necessary.
 Quality Finish Slipforming provides a superior  It is not advisable to
concrete finish with no form fins to clean up and use for buildings
without horizontal joints. under 15 meters high
 Easy To Stop The slipform operation can be
stopped and resumed at will, to suit the
contractor’s schedule.
 Speed of Construction Speeds of between 7 ft and
30 ft per 24 hours are possible.
 No Form Ties No ties are required because the
limited concrete pressure is taken by the slipform
yoke directly.
 Flexibility A slipform is of low overall height and
very compact.
 Standard Concrete Mix No special concrete is
needed for a typical slipform project.