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Delay actual note taking until preliminary reading on the topic has been done.

1. Keep notes on a flexible form (index cards)
2. Use uniformed sizes
3. Store cards in a portable case
4. Use only on side of the card (a) to take in data at only one glance and (b) to avoid frustration of
looking for a lost item
5. Write 1 entry per card

Steps in Note taking:

1. Read over the material without taking a single note
2. Pick out relevant sections
3. Determine what kind of note is suitable
4. Observe the mechanics of note taking

Kinds of Notes:
1. Paraphrase
2. Outline
3. Direct Quotation
4. Summary
5. Photocopy
6. Combination

1. Word for word – verbatim, get it and claim as yours
2. Paraphrase Plagiarism – when you change the pattern and use the same words, or change the
words and use the same pattern, then claim as your own
3. Mosaic – when you get different ideas and put them together
4. False Citation (?) – citing the original source, even if you haven’t seen it
5. Incomplete Citation – when you copy the entire quotation, but only acknowledge a part as being
someone else’s

How to start on your term paper:

1. Reread your notes
2. Arrange your pattern according to your outline
3. Write in uniform loose leafed sheets.
4. Do not write on the back.
5. Write in white heat, revise in cold blood. (a) disregard grammar temporarily (b) don’t worry
about length or style (c) don’t go back to any section
6. Revise from reader’s point of view (a) read from start to finish (b) Do I make sense? Did I
discuss important matters well? Do I have clarity of expression and adequate information? (c)
revise using a different colored pen

Writing the introduction:

1. State as clearly and briefly as possible (a) Statement of the problem (b) Methodology (c)
2. Must be original
3. State the specific topic (ex. Cancer – breast cancer)

1. Write research paper as you would write an extended essay.
2. Provide transitional markers
3. Avoid writing a series of brief paragraphs that mention but do not discuss
4. Explain any technical concepts and terms through footnotes
5. Maintain an objective tone, avoid personal references such as you and I

1. Restate the thesis of your entire paper – summarize main points developed, or your own findings

Introduce with:
1. facts
2. quotations
3. statistics
4. dispense with the opposition
5. contemporary events
6. justification – prove that you are qualified to write on your subject
7. direct statement
8. “Why write” approach – Why am I writing about it? Importance of the study

Writinga draft:
1. Write a draft during a single stretch of time
2. Have all materials ready
3. Write on a loose sheet of paper (uniform size)
4. same color of ink
5. write only on one side
6. When actually writing (a) Past tense except for universal truth (b) write as rapidly as you can (c)
leave if for at least 24 hours
7. Do not use you or I
8. Unity, coherence, emphasis

Parts and their purposes

1. Title – suggests the subject of the paper
2. Intro – captures attention, provides necessary background, contains and supports the thesis
statement with info drawn from research, series of well developed paragraphs
3. Conclusion – brings the report to a close, provides thesis statement

Kinds of headings:
1. Centered head
- 3 spaces above and below
- Introduces a major division
- If it is more than four inches, single spaces between lines, inverted pyramid
- Margin, then 3 spaces, then centered head

2. Free-standing side head

- flushed to the left hand margin
- introduces a sub division begun under the centered head
- 3 space above, double space below
- Major words are capitalized
- No end punctuation
- If more than 2 ½ spaces between margins, use double space after indention

3. Paragraph Side head

- subdivision subordinate to the centered head and the free standing
- 3 spaces above, 1st word capitalized, heading followed by a period
- Text continues on the same line.

Format for “normal pages (?)”:

1. double space
2. margin 1 inch except left: 1 ½
3. footnote above margin
4. page # - 5 spaces above or below
5. indention, 6 or 8 spaces