\342\226\240:
<v
Signals
r
and
Systems
Second Edition
Simon Haykin
INTERNATIONAL EDITION
RESTRICTED
Not for sale in North America
EXECUTIVE EDITOR Bill Zobrist
SENIOR MARKETING MANAGER Katherme Hepburn
SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR Caroline Sieg
SENIOR DESIGNER Maddy Lesure
ILLUSTRATION COORDINATOR Gene Aiello
COVER PHOTO Erich Ziller/Eastman's West
This book was set in Sabon Roman by Prepare Inc. and printed and bound by Hamilton Printing Company.
The cover was printed by Brady Palmer.
Copyright \302\251
2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
(978) 6468600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the
Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ill River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030,
(201)7486011,
fax (201) 7486008.
ISBN(Domestic) 0471164747
ISBN(WIE) 0471378518
10 9 8 7 6 5 4
Preface
A course on \"signals and systems\" is fundamental to the study of the many fields that
constitute the everexpanding discipline of electrical engineering.Signals systems serves as and
This course is usually offered at the sophomoreor junior level and assumes the student has
a backgroundin calculusand introductory physics.
fundamentals of signals and systems in an effectivemanner. This book has been written with
The second edition builds on the first edition's success at providing a balanced and
integrated treatment of continuous and discretetime forms of signals and systems. This
approach has the pedagogicaladvantage of helping the student see the fundamental
second is that the compelling nature of our approachbecomesvery apparent in Chapter 4 with
the coverage of sampling continuoustime signals, reconstruction of continuoustime
signals from samples, and other applications involving mixtures of different signal classes.
The integrated approach is also very efficient in covering the large range of topics that are
typically required in a signals and systems course. F or example, properties
the of all four
Fourier representations are coveredsidebyside in Chapter 3. Great care has beentaken
in the presentation of the integrated approachto enhanceunderstanding and avoid
confusion. As an example of this, the four Fourier representations are treated in Chapter 3 as
similar, yet distinct representations that apply to distinct signal classes. Only after the
student has mastered them individually is the possibility of using Fourier representations to
cross the boundariesbetween signal classes introduced in Chapter 4.
Given the mathematical nature of signal representation and system analysis,it is
rather easy for the reader to lose sight of their practical application. Chapters 5, 8, and 9
deal with applications drawn from the fields of communication systems, design of filters,
and control systems in order to provide motivation for the reader.In addition,
considerableeffort has been expended in the second edition to provide an application focus
throughout the tooloriented chaptersby including an abundance of applicationoriented
examples. A set of six theme examples, introduced in Chapter1 and revisited throughout
the remaining chapters, is usedto show how different signal representation and system
analysis tools provide different perspectives on the same underlying problem. The theme
examples have been selected to sample the broad range of applications for signals and
systems concepts.
The text has beenwritten with the aim of offering maximum teaching flexibility in
both coverage and order of presentation, subject to our philosophy of truly integrating
continuous and discretetime concepts. When continuous and discretetime concepts are
introduced sequentially, such as with convolution in Chapter 2 and Fourier
in Chapter
representations 3, the corresponding sections have been written so that the instructor may
present either the continuous or discretetime viewpoint first. Similarly, the order of
Chapters 6 and 7 may be reversed. A twosemester course sequence would likely cover most, if
not all, of the topics in the book. A onesemester course can be taught in a variety of ways,
A variety of features have been incorporatedinto the second edition to facilitate and
reinforce the learning process. We have endeavored to write in a clear, easy to follow, yet
precise manner. The layout and format has beenchosento emphasize important concepts. For
example, key equations and proceduresare enclosedin boxes and each example is titled.
The choiceand layout of figures has been designed to presentkey signals and systems
concepts graphically, reinforcing the words and equations in the text.
A large number of examples are included in each chapter to illustrate application of
the correspondingtheory. Each concept in the text is demonstratedby examples that em
New to the Second Edition of the Book v
phasize the sequence of mathematical steps needed to correctly apply the theory and by
problems, some important changes have been made to the book. In addition to the layout and
format improvements noted above, long sections in the first edition have been broken up
into smallerunits.The significant changes to each chapter are summarized as follows:
\342\226\272
Chapter 1: Two new sections, one on Theme Examplesand the other on electrical
noise, have been added.The Theme Examples, six in number, illustrate the broad
rangeof problems to which signals and systems conceptsapply and provide a sense
of continuity in subsequent chapters of the book by showing different perspectives on
the same problem. Two new subsections,oneon MicroElectroMechanical Systems
(MEMS) and the other on derivatives of the unitimpulse function, have also been
added.
\342\226\272
Chapter 2: The of discreteand continuoustime
treatment convolution has been
reorganized into separate, yet parallel sections. The material introducing the
response
frequency of LTI systems has been removed and incorporated into Chapter 3. The
treatment of differential and difference equations has been expandedto clarify
several subtle issues.
\342\226\272
Chapter 3: The chapter has been written with increased emphasis on applications of
Fourier representationsfor signals through the introduction of new examples,
incorporation of filtering concepts contained in Chapter 4 of the first edition, and
\342\226\272
Chapter 4: The focus has been tightened as reflected by the new title. Material on
frequency response of LTI systems has been moved to Chapter 3 and advanced
on
material interpolation, decimation, and fast convolution has been removed and
\342\226\272
Chapter 6: The definition of the unilateral Laplace transform has been modified to
include impulsesand discontinuities at t = 0 and the material on Bode diagrams in
\342\226\272
Appendix F: This new appendix presents a tutorial introduction to MATLAB.
I Supplements
study of signals and systems. Although the SAR image corresponds to a different view of
Mount Shasta, it embodies the power of signals and systemsconcepts for obtaining different
perspectives of the same problem. We trust that motivation for the study of signalsand
systems begins with the cover.
I Acknowledgments
In writing the second edition, we have benefitedenormously from insightful suggestions and
constructive input received many instructors and students that used the first edition, anony
Acknowledgments vii
We are grateful to them all for helping us in their own individual ways shapethe
second edition into its final form.
Barry Van Veen is indebted to his colleagues at the University of Wisconsin for the
opportunity to regularly teach the Signals and Systems class. Simon Haykin thanks his
students, past and present, for the pleasure of teaching them and conducting research with
them.
We thankthe many students at both McMasterand Wisconsin, whose suggestions and
questions have helped us over the years to refine and in some cases rethink the
of the material
presentation in the book. In particular, we thank Chris Swickhamer and Kris Huber
for their invaluable help in preparing some of the computer experiments, the Introduction
to MATLAB, the solutions manual, and in reviewing page proofs.
Bill Zobrist, Executive Editor of Electrical Engineeringtexts,has skillfully guided the
second edition from conception to completion.We are grateful for his strong support,
encouragement, constructive input, and persistence. We thank Caroline Sieg for dexterously
managing the productionprocessunder a very tight schedule, and Katherine Hepburn
(Senior Marketing for her creative promotion of the book.
Manager)
We are Fran Daniele and her staff of Prepare
indebted to Inc. for their magnificent
job in the timely production of the book; it was a pleasure to work with them.
Lastly, Simon Haykin thanks his wife Nancy, and Barry Van Veen thanks his wife
Kathy and children Emily, David, and Jonathan for their support and understanding
Simon Haykin
Barry Van Veen
To God
who created the universe
and gives meaning to our lives
through His love
Contents
Notation xv
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.9 Noise 68
1.10 Theme Examples 71
1.11 Exploring Concepts with MATLAB 80
1.12 Summary 86
Further Reading 86
Additional Problems 88
Invariant Systems 97
2.1 Introduction 97
2.2 The Convolution Sum 98
2.3 Convolution Sum Evaluation Procedure 102
2.4 The Convolution Integral 115
2.5 Convolution Integral Evaluation Procedure 116
2.6 Interconnections of LTI Systems 127
2.7 Relations between LTI System Properties and the Impulse Response 133
2.8 Step Response 139
2.9 Differential and Difference Equation Representationsof LTI Systems 141
4.7 DiscreteTime
Processing of ContinuousTime Signals 382
4.8 Fourier Series Representations of FiniteDuration Nonperiodic Signals 389
4.9 The DiscreteTimeFourier Series Approximation to the Fourier Transform 396
4.10 Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating the DTFS 404
4.11 Exploring Concepts with MATLAB 408
4.12 Summary 411
Representations 767
B.2 PartialFraction Expansions of DiscreteTime
Representation 770
Index 793
Notation
indicates
[\342\200\242] discrete valued independent variable, e.g. x[n]
indicates
(\342\200\242) continuous valued independent variable, e.g. x(t)
\342\226\272
Complex numbers
c* complex conjugate of c
Lower
\342\226\272 case functions denote timedomain quantities, e.g.x(t), w[n]
\342\226\272
Uppercase functions denote frequency or transformdomain quantities
Sans
\342\226\272 serif type indicates MATLAB variables or commands,e.g., X =
fft(x,n)
is defined
\342\226\272
0\302\260 as 1 for convenience
arctan
\342\226\272 refers to the four quadrant inverse tangent function and produces a value
between \342\200\224
ir and ir radians
Principal Symbols
\342\200\224
/ square root of 1
DTFT
discretetime Fourier transform pair
FT
Fourier transform pair
C
Laplace transform pair
cu
unilateral Laplace transform pair
z
ztransform pair
< = \342\226\272
unilateral ztransform pair
sin(7r\302\253)
sinc(\302\253)
ITU
n intersection
Abbreviations
FS Fourier series
FT Fourier transform
H Henries (units for inductance)
Hz Hertz
IIR infiniteduration impulse response
LTI linear timeinvariant (system)
MEMS microelectricalmechanical
system
RF radio frequency
ROC region of convergence
rad radian(s)
s second(s)
SSB single sidebandmodulation
Sill shorttime Fourier transform
TDM timedivision multiplexing
V volts (units for electric potential)
VLSI very large scale integration
VSB vestigial sideband modulation
Wl wavelet transform
Introduction
Signals, in one form or another, constitute a basicingredient of our daily lives. For
example, a common form of human communication takes placethrough the use of speech
their own ways, represent signals that convey information on how the shares in a
particular
company or corporation are doing. On the basis of this information, decisions are made
regardingwhether to venture into new investments or selloff old ones.
A probe exploring outer spacesends valuable information about a faraway planet back
to a station on Earth. The information may take the form of radar images representing surface
profiles of the planet, infrared images conveying information on how hot the planet is, or
optical images revealing the presence of clouds around the planet. By studying these images,our
knowledge of the unique characteristics of the planet question
in is enhanced significantly.
Indeed, the list of what constitutes a signal is almost endless.
A signal is formally defined as a function of one or more variables that conveys
horizontal and vertical coordinates of the image representing the two dimensions.
In an
\342\226\272 automatic system, the input signal is a speech (voice)
speaker recognition
signal, the
system computer, and the output
is a signal is the identity of the speaker.
In a communication
\342\226\272
system, the input signal couldbe a speechsignal or computer
data, the system itself is made up of die combination of a transmitter, channel, and
receiver, and the output signal is an estimate of the information contained in the
original message.
In an aircraft
\342\226\272
landing system, the input signal is the desired position of the aircraft
relativeto the runway, the system is the aircraft, and the output signal is a correction
to the lateral position of the aircraft.
Estimate
Message Transmitted Received of message
signal signal signal signal
\342\226\272
Transmitter \342\226\272
Channel \342\226\272
Receiver \342\226\272
Figure 1.2 Elements of a communication system. The transmitter changes the message signal
into a form suitable for transmission over the channel.The receiver processes the channel output
(i.e., the received signal) to produce an estimate of the message signal.
1.3.1
\342\226\240 Communication Systems
As depicted in Fig. 1.2, there are three basic elementsto every communication system: the
transmitter, the channel, and the receiver. T he transmitter is located at one point in space,
the receiver is located at someother point separatefrom the transmitter^ and the channel
is the physical medium that connects the two together. Each of these three elements may
be viewed as a system with associated signals of its own. The purpose of the transmitter is
to convert the message signal producedby a source of information into a form suitable for
transmission over the channel. The message signal couldbe a speech signal, a television
(video) signal, or computer data. The channelmay be an optical fiber, a coaxial cable,a
satellite channel, mobile radio channel; each of
or a these channels has its specific area of
application.
As the transmitted propagates over the channel, it is distorted
signal due to the
physical characteristics channel. Moreover, noiseand interfering
of the signals (originating from
other sources) contaminate the channel output, with the result that the received signal is a
corrupted version of the transmitted signal. The function of the receiver is to operate on
the received signal so as to reconstruct a recognizable form (i.e., produce an estimate) of the
original message signal and deliver it to its destination. The signalprocessing role of the
receiver is thus the reverse of that of the transmitter; in addition, the receiver reverses the
effects of the channel.
Details of the operationsperformed in the transmitter and receiver depend on the type
of communication system being considered. The communication system can be of an
analog or digital type. In signalprocessing terms, the designof an analogcommunication
system is relatively simple. consistsof a modulator and the receiver
Specifically, the transmitter
consists of a demodulator. Modulation is the process of converting the message signal into
a form that is compatible with the transmission characteristics of the channel. Ordinarily,
the transmitted signal is represented as amplitude, phase,or frequency variations of a
sinusoidal carrier wave. We thus speak of amplitude modulation, phase modulation, or
message signal is producedat the receiver output. Each one of these analog modulation
demodulation techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages.
In contrast,a digital communication system, as described below, is considerably more
complex. message signal
If the is of analog form, as in speech and video signals, the
\342\226\272
Quantization, which involves representing each number producedby the sampler to
the nearest levelselectedfrom a finite number of discrete amplitude levels.For example,
we may represent each sample as a 16bit number, in which case there are 216
amplitude levels. After the combination of sampling and quantization, we have a
representation of the messagesignal that is discrete in both time and amplitude.
\342\226\272
Coding, the purpose of which is to representeachquantized sample by a code word
made up of a finite number of symbols. For example,in a binary code, the symbols
during the course of the signal's transmission through the channel. Finally, the coded signal is
modulated onto a carrier wave (usually sinusoidal) for transmission over the channel.
At the receiver, the operations of coding and sampling are reversed (i.e., the roles of
their individual input and output signals are interchanged) in that order, producing an
estimate of the original message signal, which is then delivered to its intended destination.
Becausequantization is irreversible, it has no counterpart in the receiver.
It is apparent from this discussion that the use of digital communications may
require a considerable amount of electronic circuitry. This isnot a significant problem, since
the electronics are relatively inexpensive,due to the everincreasing availability of very
large scale integrated (VLSI)circuits in the form of silicon chips. Indeed, with continuing
improvements in the semiconductor industry, digital communications are often more cost
effective than analog communications.
There are two basicmodesof communication:
1. Broadcasting, which involves the use of a single powerful transmitter and numerous
receivers that are relatively cheap to build. Here,informationbearing signals flow only
in one direction.
2. .Pointtopointcommunication, in which the communication process takes placeover
a link between a single transmitter and a single receiver.In this case,there is usually
a bidirectional flow of informationbearing signals,with a transmitter and a
at each
receiver end of the link.
provides the means for one form of pointtopoint communication. Note, however, that in
this case the link is part of a highly complex telephone network designedto accommodate
a largenumber of users on demand.
Another example of pointtopoint communication is the deepspace communication
link between an Earth station and a robot navigating the surface of a distant planet.
Unlike telephonic communication, the composition of the messagesignal depends on the di
1.3 Overview of SpecificSystems 5
rection of the communication process. The messagesignal may be in the form of computer
generated instructions transmitted from an Earth station that commands the robot to
perform
specific maneuvers, or it may contain valuable information about the chemical
composition of the soilon the planet that is sent back to Earth for analysis. In order to
communicate reliably over such great distances, it is necessary to use digital communications.
Figure 1.3(a) showsa photograph of the Pathfinder robot, which landed on MarsonJuly 4,
1997, a historic day in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's)
scientific investigation of the solar system. Figure 1.3(b) showsa photograph of the high
precision, 70meter antenna locatedat Canberra, A ustralia. The antenna is an integral part
 * \"\342\226\240
 *
<
 \342\226\240 * '
f^i \"\\ V.
\" \342\200\242
\342\200\242
s   
*\342\200\242:\342\226\240.\".**\"
^ k 
(a)
.!
\342\200\242i
'*k
^IML.
\342\226\240T
'r^
Jk/
(b)
FIGURE 1.3 (a) Snapshot of Pathfinder exploring the surface of Mars, (b) The 70meter (230foot)
diameter antenna is located at Canberra,Australia. The surface of the 70meter reflectormust
remain accurate within a fraction of the signal's wavelength. (Courtesy of Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
6 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
images and new scientific information collected by them. The successfuluse of DSN for
planetary exploration represents a triumph of communication theory and technology over
the challenges presented by the unavoidable presence of noise.
Unfortunately, every communication system suffers from the presenceof channel
noise in the received signal. Noiseplacessevere limits on the quality of received messages.
For example,owing to the enormous distance between our own planet Earth and Mars, the
average power of the informationbearing component of the received signal, at either end
of the link, is relatively small comparedwith the average power of the noise component.
Reliable operationof the link is achieved through the combined use of (1) large antennas
as part of the DSNand (2) error control. For a parabolicreflector antenna (i.e., the type
of antenna portrayed in Fig. 1.3(b)), the effective area of the antenna is generally between
50% and 65% of the physical area of the antenna. The received power available at the
terminals of the antenna is equal to the effective area times the power per unit area carried
by the incident electromagnetic wave. Clearly, the larger the antenna, the larger the
received signal power will be and hence the use of large antennas in DSN.
Error control involves the use of a channel encoderat the transmitter and a channel
decoder at the receiver. The channel encoder accepts message bits and adds redundancy
according to a prescribed rule, thereby producing encodeddata at a higher bit rate. The
redundant bits are added for the purpose of protectionagainst channel noise. The channel
decoder exploits the redundancy to decide which message bits were actually sent. The
combined goal of the channel encoder and decoderis to minimize the effect of channel noise;
that is, the number of errors between the channel encoderinput (derived from the source
of information) and the encoder output (delivered to the user by the receiver) is minimized,
on average.
1.3.2
\342\226\240 Control Systems
environmental conditions.
attainment
The of these desirable propertiesusually requires the use of feedback, as
in Fig. 1.4. The system shown is referred
illustrated to as a closedloop control system or
feedback control
system. For example, in an aircraft landing system, the plant is
represented by the aircraft's body and actuator, the sensorsare used by the pilot to determine
the lateral positionof the aircraft, and the controller is a digital computer.
1.3 Overview of Specific Systems 7
Disturbance
*t)
Feedback signal
rit) Sensons
In any event, the plant isdescribedby mathematical operations that generate the
output y(t)
in response to the plant input v(t) and external disturbance v(t). The sensor
included in the feedback loop measures the plant output y(t) and converts it into another
form, usually electrical. The sensor output r(t) constitutes the feedbacksignal and is
compared with the reference input x(t) to producea difference or error signal e(t). This latter
signal is applied to a controller, which, in turn, generates the actuating signal v(t) that
performs the controlling action on the plant. A control system with a single input and single
output, as illustrated in Fig. 1.4, is referred to as a singleinput, singleoutput (SISO)
system. When the number of plant inputs or outputs is morethan one, the system is referred
to as a multipleinput, multipleoutput (MIMO) system.
In either case, the controller may be in the form of a digital computer or
microprocessor, in which case we speak of a digital controlsystem. The use of digital control
accuracy afforded by the use of a digital computer as the controller. By its very nature, a
digital control system involves the operations of sampling, quantization, and coding described
previously.
Figure 1.5 showsa photograph of a NASA space shuttle launch, which relieson the
useof a digital computer for its control.
133
\342\226\240 MlCROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS
computers of the 1960s. Digital signal processors, b uilt on silicon chips, are integral parts
of digital wireless communication systems and digital cameras, among many other
applications. Microfabrication techniques have led to the creationof miniature silicon sensors
such as optical detector arrays, which, in their own ways, are revolutionizing photography.
In addition to purely electricalcircuits,it is now feasible to build microelectro
mechanical systems(MEMS) that merge mechanical systems with microelectronic control
on a silicon chip.The result
circuits is a new generation of smaller,more powerful, and less
noisy \"smart\" sensors and actuators that have a broad range of applications, including
health care, biotechnology, automotive, and navigation systems. MEMS are fabricated by
means of surface micromachining techniques similar to those used in the fabrication of
electrical silicon chips. From a manufacturing perspective, the rapid development of MEMS
is due largely to two factors:
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
.^
._.<? .\342\200\242\"
\342\200\242t^.,,*': 1 r
h V
 A
!'V \302\243/
~ y ~  ^ ~
'_l \"\"ill
.
\"\342\200\242
'\342\226\240 *
., \"...
An
\342\226\272
improved understanding of the mechanical properties of thin films\342\200\224particularly
polysilicon\342\200\224thatare basic to building deviceswith freely moving parts.
The
\342\226\272
development and utilization of reactive ionetching techniques to define features
and spacing preciselyin the thin films that are deposited.
a number of moving sense fingers that are attached to the proof mass, which is suspended
in a manner that allows it to move relative to the substrate. The moving sense fingers are
interleaved with fixed fingers attached to the supporting structure.The interdigitization of
Acceleration
Suspension Anchors  Acceleration
4
&*<* Mass
^
Conductive
'
Electrode
Suspension
FIGURE 1.6 (a) Structure of lateral capacitive accelerometer. Part (b) of the figure is on the next
page. (Courtesy of Navid Yazdi, Farroh Ayazi, and Khalil Najafi. Micromachined Inertial Sensors,
Proc. IEEE, vol. 86, No. 8, August 1998. \302\2511998 IEEE.)
1.3 Overview of Specific Systems 9
Figure 1.6 (Continued) (b) SEM view of Analog Device's ADXL05 surfacemicromachined poly
silicon accelerometer. (Courtesyof IEEE and Analog Devices.)
these fingers createsa sensecapacitance, the value of which depends on the position of the
proof mass.Acceleration displaces the proof mass, thereby changing the capacitanceof
the device.The changein capacitance is detected by the microelectroniccontrol circuitry,
which, in turn, is used to determine the value of acceleration. The sense direction of
motion is in the proofmass plane\342\200\224hence the designation \"lateral.\"
The accelerometer of Fig. 1.6(a)lends itself to micromachming, whereby the sensor
and electroniccontrolcircuits are integrated single chip. Figure 1.6(b)shows
on a a
momentum, a remarkable thing happens: Both the chair and the personsitting on it turn
in the direction oppositethat of the spin of the wheel.
In the MEMSversion of a gyroscope, two adjacent proof massesareused.A voltage
is applied across the interdigitizedfingers, causingthe proof massesto vibrate in antiphase
at the resonant frequency of the structure, which may range from 1 kHz to 700 kHz.An
external rotation due to motion introduces an apparent force calledthe Coriolis force,
which causes the proof massesto be displaced vertically. The displacement is then measured
by capacitive sensorslocatedunder the proof mass and is used to determine the motion of
the object of interest.
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
1.3.4
\342\226\240 Remote Sensing
Remote sensing is defined as the process of acquiring information about an objectof
interest without in physical contact with
being it. Basically, the acquisition of information is
accomplished by detecting and measuring the changes that the object imposes on the field
surrounding it. The field can be electromagnetic, acoustic, magnetic, or gravitational,
depending on the application of interest. The acquisitionof information can be performed in
a passive manner by listening to the field (signal)that is naturally emitted by the object and
or
processingit, in an active manner, by purposely illuminating the object with a well
defined field (signal) and processingthe echo (i.e., signal returned) from the object.
This definition of remote sensing is rather broad, in that it applies to every possible
field. In practice,however the term \"remote sensing\" is commonly usedin the of context
electromagnetic fields, with the techniques used for information acquisition covering the
whole electromagnetic spectrum.It is this specialized form of remote sensing that we are
concernedwith here.
The scope of remote sensing has expanded enormously since the 1960s, due to both
the advent planetary probes as spaceplatforms
of satellites and for the sensors and the
Radar
\342\226\272 sensors to provide information on the surface physical properties of the
planet(e.g., its topography, roughness, moisture, and dielectricconstant)
\342\226\272
Infrared sensors to measure the nearsurface thermal properties of the planet
Visible
\342\226\272 and nearinfrared sensors to provide information about the surface chemical
composition of the planet
\342\226\272
Xray sensors to provide information on radioactive materials contained in the planet
The data gatheredby these highly diverse sensors are processed on a computer to
generatea set of images that can be usedcollectively to increase our scientific knowledge of the
planet's surface.
Among electromagnetic sensors, a specialtype of radar known as syntheticaperture
radar (SAR) stands out as a unique imaging system in remote sensing.SAR offers the
\342\226\272
Satisfactory operation day and night and under all weather conditions
A
\342\226\272
highresolution imaging capability that is independent of the sensor'saltitude
or wavelength
1.3 Overview of SpecificSystems 11
Figure 1.7 Perspectival view of Mount Shasta (California), derived from a pair of stereo radar images
acquired from orbit with the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIRB).(Courtesy of Jet Propulsion Laboratory.)
The realization of a highresolution image with radar requires the use of an antenna with
a large aperture. From a practicalperspective, however, there is a physical limit on the size
of an antenna that can be accommodated on an airborne or spacebome platform.
In a SAR
system, a large aperture is synthesized by signalprocessing means\342\200\224hence the name
\"syntheticaperture radar.\" The key idea behind SAR is that an array of antenna elements
equally spaced along a straight line is equivalent to a single antenna moving along the array
line at a uniform speed. This is true, provided that we satisfy the following requirement:
The signalsreceived by the single antenna at equally spacedpoints along the array line are
coherently recorded; t hat is, amplitude and phase relationships among the receivedsignals
are maintained. Coherent recording ensures that signals received from the single antenna
correspond to signals receivedfrom the individual elements of an equivalent array of
antennas. In order to obtain a highresolution image from the singleantenna signals, highly
sophisticated signalprocessingoperationsare necessary. A central operation in this signal
processing is the Fourier transform, which is implemented efficientlyon a digital
computer
using an algorithm known as the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Fourier
of signals
analysis is one of the main focal points of this book.
The photographin Fig.1.7shows a perspectival view of Mt. Shasta (California),
which was derived from a stereo pair of SAR images acquired from Earth orbit with the
Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIRB). The photographon the front cover of the book presents the
characteristicsof the samemountain as seen from a different elevation in the visible
portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
13.5
\342\226\240 Biomedical Signal Processing
The goal of biomedical signal processing is to extract information from a biological signal.
The information then helps us to improve our understanding of basic mechanisms of
biological functioning or aids us in the diagnosis or treatment of a medical condition. The
generation of many biological signals found in the human body is tracedto the electrical
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
FIGURE 1.8 Morphological types of nerve cells (neurons) identifiable in a monkey's cerebral cortex,
based on studies of primary somatic sensory and motor cortices. (Reproduced from E. R. Kan del, J. H.
Schwartz, and T. M. Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed., 1991; courtesy of Appleton and Lange.)
activity of large groupsof nerve cells or muscle cells. Nerve cellsin the brain are commonly
referred to as neurons.Figure 1.8 shows morphological types of neurons that are
identifiablein a monkey's cerebral cortex, based on studiesof the monkey's primary somatic
sensory and motor cortices. The figure illustrates the many different shapes and sizesof neurons.
artifact is that part of a signal producedby events that are extraneous to the biologicalevent
of interest. Artifacts arise in a biological signal at different of
stages processingand in many
different ways. Among the various kinds of artifacts are the following:
Instrumental
\342\226\272
artifacts, generated by the use of an instrument. An example of an
instrumental artifact is the 60Hz interference picked up by recording instruments from
an electrical main's power supply.
\342\226\272
Biological artifacts, in which one biological signal contaminates or interferes with
another. An example of a biologicalartifact is the shift in electrical potential that
\302\273VWYWVvWvVVYVV\"
0s Time \342\226\272 2 s
FIGURE 1.9 The traces shown in (a), (b), and (c) are three examples of EEG signals recorded from
the hippocampus of a rat. Neurobiological studies suggest that the hippocampus plays a key role in
certain aspects of learning and memory.
Analysis artifacts are, in a way, controllable. For example, roundoff errors due to the
quantization of signal samples, which arise from the use of digital signal processing, can
bemadenondiscernible for all practical purposes by setting the number of discrete
amplitude levels in the quantizer large enough.
What about instrumental and biological artifacts? A common method of reducing
their effects is through the use of filtering. A filter is a system that passes signals
frequencies
containing in one frequency range, termed the filter passband, and removes signals
containing frequencies in other frequency ranges. Assuming that we have a priori
knowledgeabout
the signal of interest, we may estimate the range of frequencies inside which the
significant components of the desired signal are located. Then, by designing a filter whose
passband correspondsto the frequencies of the desired signal, artifacts with frequency
components outside this passband are removed by the filter. The assumption made here is
that the desired signal and the artifacts contaminating it occupy essentially nonoverlap
ping frequency bands. If, however, the frequency bands overlap each other, then the
filteringproblem becomes more difficult and requires a solution that is beyond the scope of the
presentbook.
1.3.6
\342\226\240 Auditory System
For our last exampleof a system, we turn to the mammalian auditory system, the
of which
function is to discriminate and recognizecomplex
sounds on the basis of their
frequency content.
The
\342\226\272 outer ear aids in the collection of sounds.
The
\342\226\272 middle ear provides an acousticimpedancematch between the air and the cochlear
fluids, thereby conveying the vibrations of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) that are
due to the incoming soundsto the inner ear in an efficient manner.
The
\342\226\272 inner ear converts the mechanical vibrations from the middle ear to an
\"electrochemical\" or \"neural\" signal for transmission to the brain.
wave along the length of the basilar membrane, starting from the oval window to the apex
at the far end of the cochlea. The wave propagatesalongthe basilar membrane, much as
the snapping of a rope tied at one end causesa wave to propagate along the rope from the
snappedendto the fixed end. As illustrated in Fig. 1.10, the wave attains its peak
amplitude at a specific location along the basilarmembrane that depends on the frequency of the
incoming sound. Thus, although the wave itself travels along the basilar membrane, the
envelope of the wave is \"stationary\" for a given frequency. The peak displacements for high
frequencies occur toward the base (where the basilarmembrane is narrowest and stiffest).
The peak displacements for low frequencies occur toward the apex (wherethe basilar
membrane is widest and most flexible). That is, as the wave propagates along the basilar
Apex:
flexible region
Figure 1.10 (a) In this diagram, the basilar membrane in the cochlea is depicted as if it were
uncoiled and stretched out flat; the \"base\" and \"apex\" refer to the cochlea, but the remarks \"stiff region\"
and \"flexible region\" refer to the basilar membrane, (b) This diagram illustrates the travelling waves
along the basilar membrane, showing their envelopes induced by incoming sound at three different
frequencies.
1.3 Overview of Specific Systems 15
electrochemical signals by hair cells that rest on the basilar membrane in an orderly fashion.There
are two main types of hair cells: inner hair cellsand outer hair cells, the latter by far the
more numerous. The outer hair cellsare motile elements; that is, they are capable of altering
their length, and perhaps other mechanical characteristics, a property that is believedto be
responsible for the compressive nonlinear effect seen in the basilar membrane vibrations.
There is alsoevidence that the outer hair cells contribute to the sharpening of tuning curves
from the basilar membrane on up the system.However, the inner hair cells are the main
sites of auditory transduction. By means of its terminals, a neuron transmits information
about its own activity to the receptive surfacesof other neurons or cells in the brain; the
point of contact iscalleda synapse. Thus, each auditory neuron synapses (i.e., establishes
contact)with an inner hair cell at a particular location on the basilar membrane. The
neurons that synapse with inner hair cells near the base of the basilar membrane are found in
the periphery of the auditory nerve bundle, and there is an orderly progression toward
synapsing at the apex end of the basilar membrane, with movement toward the center of
the bundle.The tonotopicorganization of the basilar membrane is therefore
preserved
anatomically in the auditory nerve. The inner hair cellsalso perform rectification and
recognize complex sounds, despite the enormousdifferences in intensity levels that can
arise in practice.
1.3.7
\342\226\240 Analog Versus Digital Signal Processing
The signalprocessing operations involved in building communication systems,control
systems, microelectromechanical systems, instruments for remote sensing, and instruments
for the processing of biological signals,among the many applications of signal processing,
can be implemented in two different ways: (1) an analog, or continuoustime,
fundamentally
approach and
digital, or
(2) a discretetime,approach.The analog approach to signal
processing was dominant for many years, and it remains a viable option for many applications.
As the name implies, analog signalprocessing relieson the use of analog circuit elements
suchas resistors,capacitors, inductors, transistor amplifiers, and diodes. Digital signal
16 Chapter1 Introduction
\342\226\240
For a given signalprocessing operation, however we usually find that the use of a
digital approach requires a more complex circuit than does an analog approach. This was an
issueof major concernin years past, but it no longer is. As remarked earlier, the ever
increasing availability of VLSIcircuits in the form of silicon chips has made digital
electronics relatively cheap. now ableto build digital signal processors
Consequently, we are
that are cost competitive respect to their
analog counterparts over a wide frequency
with
range that includes both speech and video signals. In the final analysis, however the choice
of an analog or digital approach for the solution of a signalprocessing problem can be
determined only by the application of interest, the resources available, and the cost involved
in building the system.Note that the vast majority of systems built in practice are mixed
in nature, combining the desirablefeatures of both analog and digital approaches to
signal processing.

1#4 Classification of Signals
In this book, we will restrict our attention to onedimensionalsignals defined as single
valued functions of time. \"Single valued\" means that for every instant of time, there is a
unique function. This value may be a
value of the real number, in which case we speakof
a realvalued signal, or it may be a complex number, in which case we speakof a complex
valued signal. In either case, the independentvariable, namely, time, is real valued.
The most useful method for representing a signal in a given situation hinges on the
particular type of signal beingconsidered.
Five methods of classifying signals, based on
different features, are common:
In this context, a signal x(t) is said to be a continuoustime signal if it is defined for all time t.
1.4 Classification of Signals 17
yields a sample with the value x(nTs). For convenience of presentation,we write
x[n]
=
x(nTs), n = 0, \302\2611,\302\2612,.... (1.1)
x[n]. The latter notation is used throughout this book. Figure 1.12 illustrates the
x[n]
???? il ll
(b)
Figure 1.12 (a) Continuoustime signal x(t). (b) Representationof x(i) as a discretetime
signal x[n].
18 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
,.
x(t)
= J\342\204\242(?\\
< \\TJ9
T^t^T
{ 0, otherwise
= < TJ
x(t) V
\\ 0, otherwise
0, otherwise
= x(t) for all t,
xe(t) = xe(t)
and
=
x0(t) x0(t)
Putting t = \342\200\224
t in the expression for x(t), we may write
= 
xe(t) x0(t).
Solving for xe(t) and x0(f), we thus obtain
and
= \"
*o(0
2 W) *(')]\342\200\242 (1.5)
Example 1.2 Another Example of Even and Odd Signals Find the even and odd
components of the signal
x(t) = e~2tcost.
Hence, applying Eqs. (1.4) and (1.5)to the problem at hand, we get
xe(t) = (e\"2rcos*
4
e2tcost)
and
xQ(t) = (e\"2rcos*
 e2tcost)
= sinh cos *,
(2t)
where cosh (2t) and sinh (2t) respectively denote the hyperbolic cosineand sine of time t.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.1 Find the even and odd components of each of the following signals:
(a) x(t) = cos(t) 4
sin(f) 4 sin(f) cos(f)
(b) x(t) = 1 t 4 4 3t2 4 5t3 4 9t4
= 1 + tcos(t) + t3
(c) x(t) 4
^sin^) sin(t) cos(t)
(d) *(*) = (1 + t3)cos3(10t)
Answers:
= (1.6)
x(t) **(*),
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
**(') =

*<*) Mt).
Problem
\342\226\272 1.2 The signals xx(t) and x2(t) shown in Figs. 1.13(a) and (b) constitute
the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of a complexvaluedsignal x(t). What form of
symmetry does x(t) have?
Answer: The signal x(t) is conjugate symmetric. M
is also satisfied for T = 27J, 37J,47J>, smallest value of T that satisfies Eq. (1.7)
The
\342\200\224
'4 (1.8)
The frequency f is measured in hertz (Hz), or cycles per second.The angular frequencyr,
measured in radians per second, is defined by
a) =
lirf = \342\200\224, (1.9)
xxit) x2it)
A
(a) (b)
Figure 1.13 (a) One example of continuoustime signal, (b) Another example of a continuoustime
signal.
1.4 Classification of Signals 21
m m
\\ \\A
... o
1 \342\226\240
1
0
(a) (b)
FIGURE 1.14 (a) Square wave with amplitude A = 1 and periodT = 0.2s.(b) Rectangular pulse
of amplitude A and duration Tx.
since there are 27r radians in one complete cycle. To simplify terminology, oi is often referred
to simply as the frequency.
Any signal x(t) for which no value of T satisfiesthe conditionof Eq. (1.7) is called
an aperiodic, or nonperiodic,signal.
Figures 1.14(a) and examples of periodicand nonperiodicsignals,respectively.
(b) present
The periodic signal represents a square wave of amplitude A = 1 and periodT = 0.2s, and
the nonperiodic signal represents a singlerectangular pulse of amplitude A and duration 7^.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.3 Figure 1.15 shows a triangular wave. What is the fundamental
frequency of this wave? Express the fundamental frequency in units of Hz and rad/s.
Answer: 5 Hz, or lOirrad/s. M
The classificationof signals into periodic and nonperiodicsignals presented thus far
x[n]
=
x[n + N] for integer w, (1.10)
where N is a positive integer. The smallestintegerN for which Eq. (1.10) is satisfied is
calledthe fundamental period of the discretetime signalx[n]. The fundamental angular
(1.11)
x[n]
9999 1y9 9 9 999
66 o o o oH\342\200\2241
&AAA
x[n]
9 1?
43210 1 2 3 4
Two examplesof discretetime signals are shown in Figs. 1.16 and 1.17;the signal of
Problem
\342\226\272 1.4 Determine the fundamental frequencyof the discretetime square wave
shown in Fig. 1.16.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.5 For each of the following signals,determine whether it is periodic, and
if it is, find the fundamental period:
(a) x(t) = cos2(2irt)
=
(b) x(t) sin3(2f)
(c) x(t) = e~2tcos(2irt)
=
(d) x[n] (1)\"
(e) x[n] = (if
=
(f) x[n] cos(2\302\253)
=
(g) x[n] cos(2tt\302\253)
Answers:
or, equivalently,
=
p(t) Ri2(t). (1.13)
In both cases, the instantaneous powerp(t) is proportional to the square of the amplitude
of the signal.Furthermore, for a resistance R of 1 ohm, Eqs. (1.12)and (1.13) take on the
same mathematical form. Accordingly, in signal analysis, it is customary to define power
in terms of a 1ohm resistor,so that, regardless of whether a given signal x(t) represents a
x\\t) dt
/T/2 T'2
(1.15)
x\\t)dt
f J<x
24 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
=
1 fT/2
P
liin/ x2(t)dt. (1.16)
From Eq. (1.16),we readily see that the timeaveraged power of a periodic signal x(t) of
fundamental period T is given by
1 rT/2
? = /i x2(0<fc. (1.17)
JT/2
The square root of the average powerP iscalledthe root meansquare (rms) value of the
periodicsignal x(t).
In the case of a discretetimesignal x[n]9 the integrals in Eqs. (1.15) and (1.16)are
replaced by corresponding sums. Thus, the total energy of x[n] is defined by
oo
E = 2 A\302\273l d18)
n=oo
Here again, from Eq. (1.19), the average power in a periodic signal x[n] with
fundamental
period N is given by
A signal is referred to as an energy signal if and only if the total energy of the signal
satisfies the condition
signals, whereas signals that are both deterministic and nonperiodic are usually viewed as
energy signals.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.6
(a) What is the total energy of the rectangular pulse shown in Fig. 1.14(b)?
(b) What is the average powerof the square wave shown in Fig. 1.14(a)?
Answers: (a) A2T,. (b) 1 <
Problem
\342\226\272 1.7 Determine the average power of the triangular wave shown in Fig. 1.15.
Answer: 1/3 M
1.5 Basic Operations on Signals 25
Problem
\342\226\272 1.8 Detennine the total energyof the discretetime signal shown in Fig. 1.17.
Answer: 3 M
Problem
\342\226\272 1.9 Categorize each of the following signalsasan energy signal or a power
signal, and find the energy or timeaveraged power of the signal:
( t, < 10 < t
(a) x(t) = < 2

*, 1 < * < 2
( 0, otherwise
f h, 0 < n < 5
(b) x[n] = < 10

n, 5 < n < 10
\\ 0, otherwise
sin(777i), 4 ^ n ^ 4
=
(f) *[\302\253]
0, otherwise
cos(777f), 4 ^ n ^ 4
=
(g) *[\302\273]
0, otherwise
cos(7th), ^
\302\273 0
=
(h) *[\302\273]
0, otherwise
Answers:
(c) Powersignal,power = 13
(d) Energy signal, energy
= 25
(e) = 12.5
Energy signal, energy
1.5.1
\342\226\240 Operations Performed on Dependent Variables
Amplitude scaling. Let x(i) denote a continuoustime signal.Thenthe signal y(t)
resultingfrom amplitude scaling applied to x(t) is defined by
= (1.21)
y(t) \302\253(*),
multiplying the
corresponding the scalarc for each instant of time t. A
value of x(t) by
physicalexample of a device that performs amplitude scalingisan electronic amplifier. A resistor
also performs amplitude scalingwhen x(t) is a current, c is the resistance of the resistor, and
y(t) isthe output voltage.
In a manner similar to Eq. (1.21),for discretetime signals, we write
y[n] = cx[n].
Addition. Let xx{i) and x2(t) denote a pair of continuoustime signals. Then the
signal y(t) obtained by the addition of x^(t) and x2(t) is defined by
=
y[n] Xl[n] + x2[n}.
Multiplication. Let xx{i)and x2(t) denote a pair of continuoustime signals.Then
the signal y(t) resulting from the multiplication of x^(t) by x2(t) is defined by
y(t) = Xl(t)x2(t). (1.23)
That is, for each prescribed time t, the value of y(t) is given by the product of the
corresponding values of xx{t) and x2(t). A physical example of y(t) is an AM radio signal, in
which Xi(t) consists of an audio signal plus a dc componentand x2(t) consists of a
sinusoidal signal called a carrier wave.
In a manner similar to Eq. (1.23), for discretetimesignals,we write
=
y[n] x1[n]x2[n].
Differentiation. Let x(t) denotea continuoustime signal. Then the derivative of x(t)
with respectto time is defined by
=
y(t) (1.24)
jtx(t).
For example, an inductor performs differentiation. Let i(t) denote the current flowing
through an inductor of inductance L, as shown in Fig. 1.18. Then the voltage v(t)
developed across the inductor is defined by
= (1.25)
v(t)
Ljti(t).
Kt)t
O I
+ L
vif) <L
FIGURE 1.18 Inductor with current i(f), inducing voltage v(t) acrossits terminals.
1.5 Basic Operations an Signals 27
i(f)
v{t) Z^C
Integration. Let x(t) denotea continuoustime signal. Then the integral of x(t) with
where r isthe integration variable. For example, a capacitor performs integration. Let i(t)
denote the current flowing through a capacitor of capacitance C, asshown in Fig. 1.19. Then
the voltage v(t) developed across the capacitoris defined by
= (1.27)
vW
J:j_J(T>>dT'
1.5.2
\342\226\240 Operations Performed on the Independent Variable
Time scaling. Let x(t) denote a continuoustime signal.Then the signal y(t) obtained by
scaling the independentvariable, time *, by a factor a is defined by
=
y(t) x(at).
lia > 1, the signal y(t) is a compressed version of x(t). If 0 < a < 1,the signal y(t) is an
expanded (stretched) version of x{i). These two operations are illustrated in Fig. 1.20.
In the discretetime case, we write
x(t) yit)
= x{2t)
**'*&)
A^, JL.
1 0 1
2 2
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1.20 limescaling operation:(a) continuoustime signal x(t)9 (b) version of x(t)
compressed by a factor of 2, and (c) version of x(i) expanded by a factor of 2.
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
imimim.
65^3210123456 1 0
(a) (b)
Figure 1.21 Effect of time scalingon a discretetime signal: (a) discretetime signal x[n] and
(b) version of x[n] compressedby a factor of 2, with some values of the original x[n] lost as a result
of the compression.
which is defined only for integer values of k. If k > 1, then some values of the discretetime
signal y[n] are lost, as illustrated in Fig. 1.21 for k = 2. The samplesx[n] for n =
\302\2611,
Problem
\342\226\272 1.10 Let
for n odd
*w =
{; otherwise\"
Reflection. Let x(t) denote a continuoustime signal.Let y(t) denote the signal
\342\200\224
obtained by replacing time t with t; that is,
y(t) = x(t)
The signal y(t) representsa reflected version of x(t) about t = 0.
The following two cases are of special interest:
Even
\342\226\272 signals, for which we have x(\342\200\224t)= x(t) for all t; that is, an even signal is the
same as its reflected version.
Odd
\342\226\272
signals, for which we have x(\342\200\224t)= \342\200\224
x(t) for all t; that is, an odd signal is the
Example 1.3 Reflection Considerthe triangular pulse x(t) shown in Fig. 1.22(a).
Find the reflected version of x(i) about the amplitude axis (i.e.,the origin).
Solution: Replacing the independent variable t in x(t) with we get
\342\200\224t9 y(t)
= as
x(\342\200\224t)9
shown in the figure.
yit)
= x{t)
i
T, 0 T,
(b)
Figure 1.22 Operation of reflection: (a) continuoustime signal x(t) and (b) reflectedversion of
y{t)
= 0 fort > 7;and* < T2.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.11 The discretetime signal
( 1, n=1
x[n)
= < 1, n = 1
[ 0, h = 0 and h > 1
Find the composite signal
y[n]
= x[n] + x[n].
= 0 for all
Answer:
y[n] integer values of n.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.12 Repeat Problem 1.11 for
= and n = 1
J 1>
w \342\200\2241
*L\"J \"
r i _
=
\302\253 > 1\"
\\0, 0andH
n = \342\200\224
landw = 1
Answer. * r \" J 2,
yW =
if
\\0, 0andif>l'
Time shifting. Let x(t) denote a continuoustime signal. Then the timeshifted version
of x(t) is defined by
y{t) = x(t  <b),
where t$ is the time shift. If to > 0, the waveform of y(t) is obtained by shifting x(t)
toward the right, relative to the time axis. If ^ < 0, x(t) is shifted to the left.
Example 1.4 Time Shifting Figure 1.23(a) showsa rectangularpulse x{t) of unit
J 0 1 13 2 5
2 2 2 2
(a) (b)
Figure 1.23 Timeshifting operation: (a) continuoustime signal in the form of a rectangular pulse
of amplitude 1 and duration 1, symmetric about the origin; and (b) timeshifted version of x(t) by 2
time units.
30 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
Problem
\342\226\272 1.13 The discretetime signal
1, \302\273=1,2
x[n]
= I 1, n = 1,2
[ 0, n = 0 and \\n\\
> 2
=
1, \302\273 1,2
= =
Answer:
y[n] < 1, \302\273 4,5
L 0, ii = 3,n < 5, and if > 1
1.5.3
\342\226\240 Precedence Rule for Time Shifting and TimeScaling
Let y(t) denote a continuoustime signal that is derived from another continuoustime
signal x(t) through a combination of time shifting and time scaling; that is,
= (1.29)
y(0) x(b)
and
*(0), (1.30)
\342\226\2400
To obtain y{i) from x(f), the timeshifting and timescaling operations must be
performed in the correct orden The proper orderis based on the fact that the scaling operation
always replaces t by at, while the timeshifting operation always replaces t by t \342\200\224
b. Hence,
= x(at  b).
1.5 Basic Operations an Signals 31
x(t) to the left by 3 time units relative to the amplitude axis gives the intermediate pulse
y(t) = v(t + 3)
=
x(2(t 4 3)) * x(2t 4 3)
44 m.
l o l _4 _3 _2 l 0 3 2 1 0
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1.24 The proper order in which the operations of time scaling and time shifting should
be applied in the case of the continuoustime signal of Example 1.5. (a) Rectangular pulse x(t) of
amplitude 1.0 and duration 2.0, symmetric about the origin, (b) Intermediate pulse v(t),
a timeshifted
representing version of x(t). (c) Desiredsignal y(t), resulting from the compression of v(i) by
a factor of 2.
IL iIE
1 0 1 3 2 1 0
1 0 1
Problem
\342\226\272 1.14 A triangular pulse signal x(t) is depicted in Fig. 1.26. Sketch each of
the following signals derived from x(t):
(a) x(3t) (d) x(2(r + 2))
(b) x(3t + 2) (e) x(2(r  2))
 + x(3r + 2)
(c) x(2t 1) (f) x(3r)
Answers:
(a) (d)
jc(l(f2)) = x(2f4)
H 1 h H h
(b) (e)
(0
1.5 Basic Operationson Signals 33
Example 1.5 clearly illustrates that if y(t) is defined in terms by Eq. (1.28),
of x(t)
then y(t) can correctly be obtained from x(t) only by adhering to the precedence rule for
time shifting and time scaling. Similar remarksapply to the case of discretetime signals,
as illustrated next.
1, =
\302\273 1,2
x[n]
= <[ \342\200\2241, n
= \342\200\2242
\342\200\2241,
=
\302\253
I 0, 0andrt>2
y[n]
=
v\\2n\\ the nonzero samples of v[n] at n
= 5 and n = \342\200\224
1 (i.e., those contained
in the original signal at n = and
\342\200\2242 n = 2) are lost. \342\226\240
Problem
\342\226\272 1.15 Consider a discretetime signal
2 < n < 2
M>2
Find y[n] = x[3n \342\200\224
2].
. . fl, ii = 0,1
Answer: 71
r
y[w] J
= < ^ , .
(0, otherwise
x[\302\253l + 3]
i4\302\253]=x[\302\253
9 ? 1\"
_5 ^ _3 _2 1 5 ^1
^ 0 0 <> o \302\273\342\200\224\302\273 6\342\200\2240<> o 0 n
h\342\200\224
12 3 4 5 3 2 10 12 3 4 5
6 A_l 1 +
(a) (b)
y[n] = v[2n]
9 li
5 A 3 1 0 3 4 5
't
(c)
FIGURE 1.27 The proper order of applying the operations of time scaling and time shifting for the
case of a discretetime signal, (a) Discretetime signal *[\302\253],antisymmetric about the origin, (b)
Intermediate signal v(n) obtained by shifting x[n] to the left by 3 samples, (c) Discretetime signal
y[n] resulting from the compression of v[n] by a factor of 2, as a result of which two samples of the
original x[n]9 located at n = \342\200\2242,
+2, are lost.
34 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
1.6.1
\342\226\240 Exponential Signals
\342\226\272
Decaying exponential, for which a < 0
\342\226\272
Growing exponential, for which a > 0
Thesetwo of an exponential
forms signal are illustrated in Fig. 1.28. Part (a) of the figure
was generated using a = 6 and B = 5. Part (b) of the figure was generated using a = 5
and B = 1. If a = 0, the signal x(t) reducesto a dc signal equal to the constant B.
For a physical exampleof an exponential signal, consider a socalled lossycapacitor
asdepicted in Fig. 1.29. The capacitor has capacitanceC, and the loss is represented by shunt
resistance R. The capacitor is charged by connecting a battery across it, and then the
battery is removed at time t = 0. Let V0 denote the initial value of the voltage developed across
the capacitor. From the figure, we readily seethat the operation of the capacitor for \302\243
> 0
is described by
x(t)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Timer Timer
(a) (b)
Figure 1.28 (a) Decayingexponential form of continuoustime signal, (b) Growing exponential
form of continuoustime signal.
1.6 Elementary Signals 35
i(t) = C\302\261ttt)
t*t) ^zC
where v(t) is the voltage measured across the capacitor at time t. Equation (1.32) is a
differential equation of order one. Its solution is given by
=
\342\200\236(r) V0e'\302\253RC\\ (1.33)
where the product term RC playsthe of a time role constant. Equation (1.33) shows that
the voltage across the capacitor decays exponentially with time at a rate determined by the
time constant RC. The larger the resistor R (i.e., the less lossy the capacitor), the slower will
be the rate of decayof v(t) with time.
The discussion thus far has beenin the context of continuous time. In discrete time,
it is common practice to write a real exponentialsignal as
= Brn.
x[n] (1.34)
6 4.5
4
o i
3.5I\342\200\224
o
9 II
I I
4 3
I I I
II? 9
2.5
x[n] I ?
3 I\342\200\224I \342\200\224I I ? I I I I
x[n]
I I I I o I 2 _ ? I I I 1\342\200\2241
II III? I 9 I I I I I I
2 r~l     9
I
~~i
1.5 I\342\200\224
I
9 I
9 I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I\342\200\224J
I I
I 1 I 1 I I I 9 I 0 I I I I I I I I I
I I I j I I I I o J 1\342\200\224 ? I I I I I I I I H
1
0.5
rllllllllliiiTitT99.1 KiiiiitlllllllllllH
^io 8642 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
Timew Timen
(a) (b)
FIGURE 1.30 (a) Decaying exponential form of discretetime signal, (b) Growing exponential form
of discretetime signal.
36 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
The signals shown in Figs. 1.28 and 1.30 are all real valued. It is
exponential
possiblefor signal to be complexvalued.
an exponential The mathematical forms of complex
exponentialsignals are the same as those shown in Eqs. (1.31) and (1.34), with the following
differences: In the continuoustime case, in Eq. (1.30), the parameter B, the parameter j,
or both assume complex values. Similarly, in the discretetimecase,in Eq. (1.34), the
parameter B, the parameter r, or both assumecomplex values. Two commonly encountered
examples of complex exponentialsignals are e** and e/ftn.
1.6.2
\342\226\240 Sinusoidal Signals
The continuoustimeversion of a sinusoidal signal, in its most general form, may be written as
= +
x(t) Acos(a)t <\302\243), (1.35)
where A is the amplitude, a) is the in radians per second, and <f> is the
frequency phase angle
in radians. Figure 1.31(a) presents the waveform of a sinusoidalsignal for A = 4 and
<f>
=
+7r/6. A sinusoidal signal is an exampleof a periodicsignal, the period of which is
2*
^T = \342\200\224.
CO
We may readily show that this is the period for the sinusoidal signal of Eq. (1.35) by writing
= A cos(a)t + <f>)
=
*w,
5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time*
FVWWWWli I , 1 I I I I 1 i I
_5l
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time*
(b)
Figure 1.31 (a) Sinusoidal signal Acos(cot + <f>) with phase <f>
=
+7r/6 radians, (b) Sinusoidal
i(t) =
Cjtv(t)
Figure 1.32 Parallel LC circuit, assuming that the inductor L and capacitor C are both ideal.
consisting ofand a
an inductor
capacitor connected in Itis
parallel. assumed that the losses in
both components of the circuit are small enough for them to be considered \"ideal.\" The
voltage developedacrossthe capacitor at time t = 0 is equal to V0. The operation of the
circuit for t ^ 0 isdescribed
by
+ \"(') = 0, (1.36)
LC^\"(0
where
v{i) is thevoltage across the capacitorat time t, C is the capacitance of the
and
capacitor, L is the inductance of the inductor. Equation (1.36) is a differential equation of order
two.Its solution is given by
v{t)
= V0cos(co0*)> t > 0, (1.37)
where
\302\273o

^ (1.38)
is the natural angular frequency of oscillation of the circuit. Equation (1.37) describes a
sinusoidal signal of amplitude A = V0, frequency a) = o>0, and zero phaseangle.
Consider next the discretetime version of a sinusoidalsignal,written as
= +
*[*] Acos(iln <f>). (1.39)
This discretetime signal may or may not be periodic. For it to be periodic with a period
of, say, N samples,it must satisfy Eq. (1.10) for all integer n and someintegerN.
Substituting n + N for n in Eq. (1.39) yields
x[n + N] = Acos(ft\302\253
+ ftN + <f>).
UN = lirm radians,
or
= \342\200\224\342\200\224
ft radians/cycle, integer m,N. (1.40)
N
The important point to note here is that, unlike continuoustime sinusoidal signals, not all
discretetime sinusoidal systems with arbitrary values of ft are periodic. Specifically, for the
discretetime sinusoidal signal describedin Eq. (1.39)to beperiodic,
the angular frequency
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
l 1 1 1 1 1 till
9 9
0.8
0.6
<
r 9 1 1 9 i
0.4
0.2
x[n) 0
0.2
0.4
6 1 1 1 & 6 1 1 1 6
0.6r~ 1 1 1 III
0.8 o 1 6 6 1 A i
1 1 j, 1 1 1 1 1 J 1 1
riO 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
Timew
Figure 1.33 Discretetime sinusoidal signal.
ft must be a rational multiple of 27r, as indicated in Eq. (1.40). Figure 1.33 illustrates a
discretetime sinusoidal signal given by Eq. (1.39) for A
=
1, <f>
=
0, and N
= 12.
Note alsothat, since ftN represents an angle, it is measured in radians. Moreover since
N is the number of samples contained in a singlecycle of x[n], it follows that ft is
x2[n] = V3cos[57th].
(a) Both X\\\\n\\ and x2[n] are periodic. Find their common fundamental period.
(b) Express the compositesinusoidal signal
=
y[n] xx[n] + x2[n]
in the form y[n]
= A
cos(ft\302\253
+ and
<\302\243), evaluate the amplitude A and phase <\302\243.
Solution:
ft = Sir radians/cycle.
Solving Eq. (1.40) for the period N, we get
2irm
N=
ft
2irm
Sir
2m
\"
5
1.6 Elementary Signals 39
For Xi[n] and x2[n] to be periodic,N must be an integer. This can be so only for
m \342\200\224
5, 10, 15,..., which results in N = 2,4, 6,
(b) Recall the trigonometric identity
Acos(ftrt + <f>)
= A cos(dn) cos(<f>)
 Asin(ftrt)sin(<\302\243).
Hence,
sin(<\302\243) amplitude of Xi[n]
=
tan(<\302\243)
cos(<\302\243) amplitude of x2[n]
1
A =
Vsin(f)
= 2.
Accordingly, we may express y[n] as
Problem
\342\226\272 1.16 Determine the fundamental period of the sinusoidal signal
/47T 7r\\
X[n]
= +
10cos[n ).
Answer: N = 31 samples. M
Problem
\342\226\272 1.17 Consider the following sinusoidal signals:
(a) x[n] = 5 sin[2rt]
(b)
=
x[n] 5cos[0.2tt\302\253]
(c)
=
x[n] 5cos[67r\302\253]
=
(d) x[n] 5sin[67r\302\253/35]
Determine whether each x(n) is periodic,and if it is, find its fundamental period.
Answers: (a) Nonperiodic.
(b) Periodic, fundamental period
= 10. (c) Periodic,
fundamental period
= 1. (d) Periodic, fundamental period = 35. M
Problem
\342\226\272 1.18 Find the smallest angular frequencies for which discretetime
sinusoidal signals with the following fundamental periods would be periodic:(a) N =
8,
(b) N = 32, (c)N = 64, and (d) N
= 128.
Answers: (a) ft =
w/4. (b) ft = <ir/16.(c) ft =
tt/32. (d) ft = tt/64. <
40 Chapter1 Introduction
\342\226\240
1.6.3
\342\226\240 Relation Between Sinusoidal and Complex
Exponential Signals
Consider the complex exponential ete. Using Euler's identity, we may expand this term as
This result indicatesthat we may express the continuoustime sinusoidalsignal of Eq. (1.35)
as the real part of the complex exponential signal Be**, where
B= Ae>* (1.42)
Acos(a)t + (/>)
=
Re{JW*} (1.43)
where Re{ } denotesthe real part of the complex quantity enclosed inside the braces. We
may readily prove Eq. (1.43)by noting that
Be\"\" = Ae'V*
Equation (1.43) follows immediately. The sinusoidal signal of Eq. (1.35) is defined in terms
of a cosinefunction. Of course, we may also definea continuoustime sinusoidal signal in
terms of a sinefunction, such as
x(t)
= Asin(arf + <\302\243), (1.44)
which is represented by the imaginary part of the complex exponential signal Be\"**. That
Asin(<ot + (/>)
=
Im{B^W}5 U4^)
quantity enclosed inside The sinusoidal signal of Eq. (1.44) differs from that of
the braces.
Eq. (1.35)by a phase angle of 90\302\260.That is, the sinusoidal signal A cos(<ot + <f>) lags behind
the sinusoidal signal A sin(a)t + <\302\243),
as illustrated in Fig. 1.31 for <f> = 7r/6.
Similarly, in the discretetime case, we may write
+ =
Acos(ft* <f>) Re{B^ftw} (1.46)
and
Asin(ft* + <f>)
=
hn{B^n), (1.47)
where B is defined in terms of A and <f> by Eq. (1.42). Figure 1.34 shows the twodimensional
representation of the complex exponential c,ftn for ft = 7r/4 and n = The 0,1,..., 7.
projection of each value on the real axis is while cos(ftw),
the projection on the imaginary axis
is sin(ftrt).
1.6 Elementary Signals 41
 Imaginary axis
Unit circle
FIGURE 1.34 Complex plane, showing eight points uniformly distributed on the unit circle. The
projection of the points on the real axis is cos(7r/4\302\253), while the projection on the imaginary axis is
=
sin(7r/4\302\253);\302\253 0,1, ...,7.
1.6.4
\342\226\240 Exponentially Damped Sinusoidal Signals
The multiplication of a sinusoidal signal by a realvalued decaying exponential signal
results in a new signal referred to as an exponentially damped sinusoidal signal.
multiplying
Specifically, the continuoustime sinusoidal signal A sin(atf + <f>) by the exponential e~at
results in the exponentially damped sinusoidal signal
Figure 1.35 Exponentially damped sinusoidal signal Ae0* sin(wr), with A = 60 and a = 6.
42 Chapter1 Introduction
\342\226\240
i cl
v(T)dT
^J
Ldt* at
R
v{t) 1L 7*ZC
FIGURE 1.36 Parallel LRC circuit, with inductor L, capacitor C, and resistor R all assumed to be
ideal.
+ + = \302\260' (1A9)
CJtV{t) JV{t) lf_O0V(T)dT
v(t)
=
V0e'/(2CR)cos(a>oO, *^ 0 (1.50)
where
= (L51)
^
>te~4^tf\"
For the signal of Eq. (1.52)to decay exponentially with time, the parameter r must lie in
the range 0 < \\r\\
< 1.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.19 Equation (1.51) assumes that the resistanceR > VL/(4C). What
happens to the waveform v(t) of Eq. (1.50) if this condition is not satisfied\342\200\224that is, if
R < VL/(4C)?
Answer: If R < VL/(4C), then the signal v(t) consistsof the sum of two damped
exponentials with different time constants, one equal to 2CR/( 1 + Vl  and the
Vl 
4R2C/L)
Problem
\342\226\272 1.20 Consider the complexvalued exponential signal
x(t) = Ae\"*1\"*, a > 0.
Evaluate the real and imaginary components of x(t) for the following cases:
(a) a real,a =
ax
Answers:
(a) Re{x(*)}
=
Aea^cos((ot);lm{x(t)} = Aea^sm(a)t)
(b) Re{x(*)}= Acosfat+ <ot); Im{x(*)} =
Asin^f + <ot)
(c) Re{x(*)} = Ae^'cosfat + <ot);lm{x(t)}
=
Ae^'sinfat + art) <*
Problem
\342\226\272 1.21 Consider the pair of exponentially dampedsinusoidal signals
*i(f)
= Ae\"
cos(<ot)9 t > 0
and
x2(t)
=
Atfsiniwt), *> 0.
Assume that A, a, and oi are all real numbers;the exponential damping factor a is negative
and the frequency of oscillation o> is positive; the amplitude A can be positive or negative.
(a) Derivethe complexvalued signal x(t) whose real part is xx{i)and imaginary part is x2(t).
(b) The formula
= + 4(t)
a(t) Vx](t)
defines the envelope of the complex signal x(t). Determine a(t) for the x(t) defined
in part (a).
(c) How doesthe envelope a(t) vary with time t}
Answers:
(a) x(t) = Ae5*, t ^ 0, where s = a + j<o
= t > 0
(b) a(t) \\A\\e<\302\253,
(c) At t = 0, a(0) = A, and then a(t) decreases exponentially as time t increases; as t
approachesinfinity, a(t) approaches zero M
1.6.5
\342\226\240 Step Function
The discretetimeversion of the unitstep function is defined by
(1.53)
_4 _3 _2 1 0 1 2 3 4
Figure 1.37 Discretetime version of step function of unit amplitude.
44 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
u{t)
\\\\\342\200\224
(1.54)
Figure 1.38 depicts the unitstep function u{i). It is said to exhibit a discontinuity at t = 0,
Example 1.8 Rectangular Pulse Consider the rectangular pulse x(t) shown in
Fig. 1.39(a).This pulse has an amplitude A and duration of 1 second. Express x(t) as a
weighted sum of two step functions.
x(t) *i(r)
A~
\342\226\240+*
1 0.5 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.5
(a) (b)
x2(t)
1 0.5 0 0.5
(c)
FIGURE 1.39 (a) Rectangular pulse x(t) of amplitude A and duration of 1 s, symmetric about the
origin, (b) Step function of amplitude A, shifted to the right by 0.5s. (c) Step function of amplitude
where \\t\\ denotes the magnitude of time t. The rectangular pulse x(t) is represented as the
difference of two timeshifted step functions, xx(t) and x2(t), which are defined in
Figs.1.39(b)and 1.39(c), respectively. On the basis of this figure, we may express x(i) as
x(t) = Au(t +  
(1.56)
) Au(t ),
voltage source V0 to the RC circuit is closed. Find the voltage v(t) across the capacitor for *
> 0.
i/(0) = 0.
For t = oo,the capacitor becomes fully charged; hence,
f(oo) = V0.
Recognizing that the voltage across the capacitorincreases
exponentially with a time
constant RC, we may thus express v(t) as
i/(0 = V0(l

e^RC))u(t). (1.57) \342\226\240
Problem
\342\226\272 1.22 A discretetime signal
0< n< 9
X[f'\\ 11 n
/v 1
\"{l: otherwise
Close
switch
' =0 R R
AAA 1  W\\r
dc
voltage C^fc
+
source Vo\302\253(f)( ) C^v(t)
\302\243
(a) (b)
FIGURE 1.40 (a) Series RC circuit with a switch that is closed at time t = 0, thereby energizing
the voltage source, (b) Equivalent circuit, using a step function to replace the action of the switch.
46 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
\302\253M
1 n
0\342\200\224
_4 _3 _2 1 0 1 2 3 4
Figure 1.41 Discretetime form of the unit impulse.
1.6.6
\342\226\240 Impulse Function
(1.58)
S(t)dt= 1. (1.60)
J<x
Equation (1.59) says that the impulse S(t) is zeroeverywhere except at the origin.
Equation (1.60) says that the total area under the unit impulse is unity. The impulse S(t) is also
referred to as the Dirac delta function.
A graphical description of the unitimpulse S[n] for discrete time is straightforward,
as shown in Fig.1.41.In contrast, visualization of the unit impulse S(t) for continuous time
requires moredetailed attention. One way to visualize S(t) isto view it as the limiting form
of a rectangular pulse of unit area, as illustrated in Fig. 1.42(a). Specifically, the duration
of the pulse is decreased,and its amplitude is increased, such that the area under the pulse
is maintained constant at unity. As the duration decreases, the rectangular pulse
approximates the impulse more closely. Indeed, we may generalize this assertion by stating that
where x\302\261(t) is any pulse that is an even function of time t with duration A and unit area.
The area under the pulse defines the strength of the impulse.Thus, when we speak of the
, Area= 1
Strength a
Area= 1 Strength
= 1
Area= 1 Area = a
\\ 1/A
/ atA
Figure 1.42 (a) Evolution of a rectangular pulse of unit area into animpulse of unit strength (i.e.,
unit impulse), (b) Graphical symbol for unit impulse, (c) Representation impulse of strength
of an a that
results from allowing the duration A of a rectangular pulse of area a to approach zero.
1.6 Elementary Signals 47
impulse function 8(t), in effect, we aresaying that its strength is unity. The graphical
symbol for theunit impulse is depicted in Fig. 1.42(b). An impulse of strength a is written as
aS(t); such an impulse results from allowing the duration A of a rectangular pulse of
constant area zero, as illustrated in Fig. 1.42(c).
a to approach
The impulse unitstep function u(t) are relatedto eachother
S(t) and the in that if
we are given either one, we can uniquely determine the other. Specifically, S(t) is the
derivative of u(t) with respect to time t, or
Fig. 1.43, in which the capacitoris initially uncharged and the switch connecting it to the
dc voltage source V0 is suddenly closed at time t = 0. (This circuit is the sameas that of
the RC circuit in Fig. 1.40, exceptthat we now have zero resistance.) Determine the
current i(t) that flows through the capacitor for t ^ 0.
Solution: The switching operationis equivalent to connecting the voltage source V0u(t)
across the capacitor, as shown in Fig. 1.43(b).We may thus express the voltage across the
capacitoras
v(t) = V0u(t).
=
CV08(t),
where, in the second line, we have used Eq. (1.62). That is, the current that flows through
the capacitor C in Fig. 1.43(b)isan impulsive current of strength CV0. \342\226\240
Switch is
closed
atf = 0
\342\226\272
i: +
C p{t) V#i{t) ( ) C 4^ tit)
(a) (b)
FIGURE 1.43 (a) Seriescircuit consisting of a capacitor, a dc voltage source, and a switch; the
switch is closed at time t = 0. (b) Equivalent circuit, replacing the action of the switch with a step
function u(t).
48 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
From the defining equation (1.61), it immediately follows that the unit impulse S(t)
is an even function of time t; that is,
It is assumed that x(t) is continuous at time t = t0, where the unit impulse is located.
The operationindicated on the lefthand side of Eq. (1.65) sifts out the value x(t0)
of the function x(t) at time t
= t0. Accordingly, Eq. (1.65) is referred to as the sifting
property of the unit impulse. This property is sometimes used as the definition of a unit impulse;
in effect, it incorporates Eqs. (1.59) and (1.60)into a single relation.
Another useful property of the unit impulse S(t) is the timescaling property, described by
ax^t)
xA(t) x\302\261{at) L/A
11/A ll/A
Area= 1 Area= \342\226\240 Area= 1
\342\200\224
t
0 0 0
A hA/jH A/a
(a) (b) (c)
FIGURE 1.44 Steps involved proving in the timescaling property of the unit impulse, (a)
Rectangularpulse x\302\261(t)of
amplitude 1/A and duration A, symmetric about the origin, (b) Pulse x\302\261(t)
compressed by factor a. (c) Amplitude scaling of the compressed pulse, restoring it to unit area.
1.6 Elementary Signals 49
i
(a) (b)
Having defined what a unit impulse is and describedits properties,we have one more
question that needs to be addressed: What is the practical use of a unit impulse? We
cannot generate a physical impulse function, since that would correspond to a signal of
infinite amplitude at t = 0 and zeroamplitude elsewhere. However, the impulse function serves
a mathematical purpose by providing an approximation to a physicalsignal of extremely
short duration and high amplitude. The response of a system to suchan input reveals much
about the character of the system. For example, consider the parallel LRC circuit of
Fig. 1.36, assumed to be initially at rest. Suppose that a current signal approximating an
impulse function is applied across the circuit at t = 0. Let I(fi(t) denote the weighted
representation of this impulsive current signal, as indicatedin Fig.1.45(a). At time t = 0, the
inductor actsas an opencircuit,whereasthe capacitoractsasa short circuit.
the
Accordingly, entire impulsive current signal I(f>(t) flows through the capacitor, thereby causing
the voltage across the capacitor at time t = 0+to suddenlyriseto the new value
*h\302\243
(1.69)
= k
C
Here,t = 0+ and t = 0~ refer to zero time from the positive and negative sides
approached
of the time axis.
Thereafter, the circuit
operates without additional input. The resulting
value of the voltage v(t) across the capacitoris defined by Eq. (1.50). The response v(t) is
called the transient response of the circuit, the evaluation of which is facilitated by the
application of an impulse function as the test signal.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.23 The parallel LRC circuit of Fig. 1.45(a) and the series LRC circuit of
Fig. 1.45(b) constitute a pair of dual circuits, in that their descriptionsin terms of the
Answers:
=
(a) J0 V0/L
(b) + =0
Ljti(t) Ri(t)+\302\261joJ(T)dT
Chapter1 Introduction
\342\226\240
1.6.7
\342\226\240 Derivatives of the Impulse
In systemsanalysis, we sometimesthe problem of having
encounter to determine the first
and higher order derivatives of
impulse S(t); thethis issue requires careful attention.
From Fig. 1.42(a), we recall that the impulse 8(t) is the limiting form of a
rectangular
pulse of duration A and amplitude 1/A. On this basis, we may view the first derivative
of S(t) as the limiting form of the first derivative of the same rectangular pulse.
Next, from Example 1.8, we recognize that this rectangular pulse is equal to the step
function (1/A)u(t + A/2) minus the step function (1/A)\302\253(t
\342\200\224
A/2). Equation (1.62)
indicates that the derivative of a unitstep function is a unit impulse, so differentiating the
As the duration A of the pulseis allowed to approach zero, two things happen. First, the
two impulses resulting from the differentiation move toward each other; in the limit, they
become practically coincident at the origin. Second, the strengths of the two impulses
approach the limiting values of +oo and \342\200\224 <x>, respectively. We thus conclude that the first
derivative of the impulse S(t) consists of a pair of impulses, one of positive infinite strength
at time t = 0~and a secondof negative infinite strength at t = 0+,where,as before,0~and
0+ denote zero time approached from the negative and positive sides, respectively. The first
derivative of the unit impulse is termed a doublet,which is denoted by 8{1)(t). The doublet
may be interpreted as the output of a system that performs differentiation, such as the
inductor in Eq. (1.25), in response to a unitimpulse input.
As with the unit impulse, the doublet has mathematical meaning only as a factor in
the integrand of an integral with respect to time, and then, strictly speaking, only when the
other factor in the integrand has a continuous derivative at the time at which the doublet
occurs. The propertiesof the doublet follow from its description as a limit of two
and
impulses the properties of the impulse. For example,writing
&1\\t)dt = 0; (1.71)
/
J<x
f(t)8V\\tto)dt = (1.72)
fJ<x jtf(t)\\t=t0.
In Eq. (1.72), f{i) is a continuous function of time with a continuous derivative at t = t0.
The property exhibited by Eq. (1.72) is analogous to the sifting property of the impulse.
We may also use Eq. (1.70) to determine higher order derivatives of the unit
impulse.
In particular, the second derivative of the unit impulse is the first derivative of the
doublet. That is,
(1.73)
= $V(t + A/2)  5(1>(f

A/2)
lim
A\342\200\2240 A
1.6 Elementary Signals 51
Equation (1.73)may be generalized to define the nth derivative of the unit impulse, which
we denoteby S(n)(t).
Problem
\342\226\272 1.24
(b) Generalize your result to describethe sifting property of the nth derivative of the
unit impulse.
Answers:
(a) =
J^f(t)^\\tt<i)dt ^f{t)\\t..ti
j_
/OO
1.6.8
\342\226\240 Ramp Function
The impulse function S(t) is the derivative of the step function u(t) with respect to time.
By the same token, the integral of the step function u(t) is a ramp function of unit slope.
This latter test signal is formally defined as
=
\302\253) Vn d74)
\342\226\240Is
j<J
Time*
0
r[n)
a
0 5
or, equivalently,
=
i(t) I0u(t).
We may thus replace the circuit of Fig. 1.48(a)with the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 1.48(b).
By definition, the capacitor voltage v(t) is related to the current i(t) by the formula
*\302\253)
\302\243\302\243\302\253'>*\342\200\242
m
+
L
Switch
is opened
au = 0
(a)
\342\226\272
W*)(t' C^iv{t)
(b)
Figure 1.48 (a) Parallel circuit consisting of a current source, switch, and capacitor: the
capacitoris initially assumed to be uncharged, and the switch is opened at time t = 0. (b) Equivalent
circuit replacing the action of opening the switch with the step function u(t).
1.7 Systems Viewed as Interconnections of Operations 53
v(t)=\302\261j\\\302\273(T)dT
0 forf<0
h.tt forr>0
(C
That is, the voltage across the capacitor is a ramp function with slope Jo/C.
?[\302\253]
=
j(*[\302\253]
+ x[n

1] + x[n  2]).
Such a system is referred to as a movingaverage system, for two reasons. First, y[n] isthe
averageof the samplevalues x[n], x[n
\342\200\224
1], and x[n
\342\200\224
2]. Second, the value of y[n]
changesas n moves along the discretetime axis. Formulate the operatorH for this system;
hence, develop a block diagram representationfor it.
(a) (b)
FIGURE 1.49 Blockdiagram representation of operator H for (a) continuous time and (b) discretetime.
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
Figure 1.50 Discretetimeshift operator 5*, operating on the discretetime signal x[n] to
\342\200\224
produce x[n k].
Solution: Let the operator Sk denote a that shifts the input by k time
 k], system x[n] units
H = S2)
+ S+
(1
Two different implementations of H (i.e., the movingaverage system) that suggest
themselves are presented in Fig. 1.51. The implementation shown in part (a) of the figure uses
the cascadeconnectionof two identical unity time shifters, namely, S1 = S.By contrast, the
implementation shown in part (b) of the figure uses two different time shifters, S and S2,
connectedin parallel. In both cases, the movingaveragesystem is made up of an
interconnection of three functional blocks, namely, two time shifters and an adder, connected
Problem
\342\226\272 1.25 Express the operator that describesthe inputoutput relation
y[n]
= + 1] + x[n] + x[n  1])
j(x[n
in terms of the timeshift operator S.
Answer: H = \\(S~l + 1 + S1) <
In the interconnectedsystemsshown in Figs. 1.51(a) and (b), the signal flows through
each one of them in the forward directiononly. Another way of combining systems is
through the use of feedback connections. Figure 1.4 showsan exampleof a feedback
system that is characterized by two paths. The forward path involves the cascade connection
of the controller and plant. The feedback path is made possible through the use of a
sensor connected to the output of the system at one end and the input at the other end. The
useof feedback has many desirable benefits, but gives rise to problemsof its own that
require special attention; the subject of feedback is discussed in Chapter 9.
2]
x[n] \\.
r;t >'[\302\253]
(b)
(a)
Figure 1.51 Two different (but equivalent)implementations of the movingaverage system: (a)
cascade form of implementation and (b) parallel form of implementation.
1.8 Properties of Systems 55
1.8.1
\342\226\240 Stability
\\y(t)\\ My
< OO for all t (1.80)
whenever the input signals x(t) satisfy the condition
\\x(t)\\
<
M, < oo for all t. (1.81)
Both Mx and My represent some finite positive numbers. We may describe the condition for
the BIBO stability of a discretetime system in a similar manner.
system
movingaverage described in Example 1.12 is BIBOstable.
Solution: Assume that
y[\302\253]
= + *[\302\253i]+ *[\"2]
jl*[\"]
* + 
1] +

2])
j(*Ml \\x[n \\x[n
< + M, + M,)
yfM,
Hence, the absolute value of the output signal y[n] is always less than the maximum
absolute value of the input signal x[n] for all n, which shows that the movingaverage
system is stable. \342\226\240
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
Figure 1.52 Dramatic photographs showing the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows suspension
bridge on November 7, 1940.(a) Photograph showing the twisting motion of the bridge's center span
just before failure, (b) A few minutes after the first piece of concrete fell, this second photograph shows
a 600ft section of the bridge breaking out of the suspension span and turning upside down as it
crashed in Puget Sound, Washington. Note the car in the top righthand corner of the photograph.
(Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.)
1.8 Properties of Systems 57
Problem
\342\226\272 1.26 The inputoutput relation of a discretetimesystem is described by
y[n]= ^pkx[nk].
k=0
1.8.2
\342\226\240 Memory
A system is saidto possess memory if its output signal depends on past or future values of the
input signal. The temporal extent of past or future values on which the output depends defines
how far the memory of the system extends into the past or future. In contrast, a system is said
to be memoryless if its output signal depends only on the present value of the input signal.
For example, a resistor is memoryless, sincethecurrenti(t) flowing through it in
through an inductor at time t dependson all past values of the voltage v(t); the memory
of an inductor extends into the infinite past.
The movingaverage system of Example 1.12describedby the inputoutput relation
y[n]
= + x[n  1] 4
x[n

2])
j(x[n]
has memory, sincethe value of the output signal y[n] at time n depends on the present and
on two past values of the input signal x[n]. In contrast, a system described by the
inputoutput relation
J[n]
= An]
58 Chapter1 Introduction
\342\226\240
is memoryless, since the value of the output signal y[n] at time n depends only on the
present value of the input signal x[n],
Problem
\342\226\272 1.27 How far does the memory of the movingaverage system described by
the inputoutput relation
Problem
\342\226\272 1.28 The inputoutput relation of a semiconductor
diode is represented by
where v{i) is the applied voltage, i(t) is the current flowing through the diode, and a0,
tfi, #3,... are constants. Does this diode have memory?
Answer: No. ^
Problem
\342\226\272 1.29 The inputoutput relation of a capacitoris described by
1.83
\342\226\240 Causality
A system is saidto be causalif the present value of the output signal dependsonly on the
present or past values of the input signal. In contrast, the output signal of a noncausal
system depends on one or more future values of the input signal.
For example,the movingaverage system described by
y[n]
= 4
x[n

1] 4 x[n
 2])
j(*[ii]
is causal. By contrast, the movingaverage system described by
= + + + 
y[\"] i] *[\302\273] *[\302\253 i])
}(*[\302\253
is noncausal, since the output signal y[n] depends on a future value of the input
signal, namely, x[n + 1].
The important point to note here is that causality is required for a system to be
capable of operating in real time. Thus, in the first movingaverage system just described,
the output y[n] is determined once the present sample x[n] is received,thereby permitting
realtime operation of the system for all n. By contrast, the second movingaveragesystem
hasto wait for the future sample x[n + 1] to arrive before it can produce the output y[n];
thus, this second system can only operate in a nonrealtime fashion.
Problem
\342\226\272 130 Considerthe RC circuit shown in Fig. 1.53 with input voltage vx(t)
and output voltage v2(t). Is this system causalor noncausal?
Answer: Causal. <
1.8 Properties of Systems 59
\302\261:C v2{t)
Input Output
Figure 1.53 SeriesRCcircuit driven from an ideal voltage source vx{t), producing output voltage
v2(t).
Problem
\342\226\272 1.31 Suppose k in the operator of Fig. 1.50is replaced
by k. Is the
resulting system causalor noncausal for positive &?
Answer: Noncausal. M
1.8.4
\342\226\240 iNVERTIBILnY
A system is saidto be invertible if the input of the system can be recoveredfrom the
output. Wemay view the set of operations neededto recoverthe input as a second system
connected in cascade with the given system, such that the output signal of the second
system is equal to the input signal applied to the given system.To put the notion of invertibility
on a formal basis, let the operator H represent a continuoustime system, with the input
signal x(t) producing the output signal y(t). Let the output signal y(t) be applied to a
secondcontinuoustime system represented by the operator Hinv, as illustrated in Fig. 1.54.
Then the output signal of the second system is defined by
=
H*\302\273{y(t)} H^{H{x(t)}}
=
H\342\204\242H{x(t)},
where we have made use of the fact that two operators H and Hinv connected in cascade
are equivalent to a singleoperatorfT^H.Forthis output signal to equal the original input
signal x(t)9 we require that
H^W = /, (1.82)
where the identity operator. The output
/ denotes of a system described by the identity
operator is exactly
equal to the input. Equation (1.82) the condition the new expresses
operator Hinv must satisfy in relation to the given operator H in order for die original input signal
x(t) to be recovered from y(t). The operator Hinv is called the inverse operator, and the
associated system is called system. In general,the problemof finding
the inverse the inverse
inputs applied to the system produce distinct outputs. That is, there must be a onetoone
mapping between input and output signals for a system to be invertible. Identical
*(*) \342\226\240
yit) x(t)
H H1\"
\342\226\272 \342\226\272
FIGURE 1.54 The notion of system invertibility. operator Hinv is the inverse of the first
The second
operator H. Hence, the input x(t) is passed through the cascade connectionof H and H\342\204\242
completely unchanged.
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
Example 1.15 Inverseof System Consider the timeshift system described by the
inputoutput relation
y(t) = x(t  t0)
=
S>o{x(t)},
where the operator S*0 represents a time shift of tQ seconds. Find the inverse of this system.
Solution: For this example, the inverse of a time shift of t0 seconds is a time shift of \342\200\224
tQ
seconds. We may represent the time shift of t0 by the
operator S~'\302\260,
which is the inverse
of 5r\302\260.
Thus, applying to
S~'\302\260 the output signal of the given timeshift system, we get
F\"{y(t)} = r*{S?o{x(t)}}
=
r'os<o{*(')}
For this output signal to equal the original input signal x(t), we require that
S'oS'o= J,
which is in perfect accord with the condition for invertibility described in Eq. (1.82). \342\226\240
Problem
\342\226\272 132 An inductor is describedby the inputoutput relation
Answer: x(t)
 L\342\200\224y(t)
y(t) = **(*)
is not invertible.
Solution: Note that the squarelaw system violates a necessary condition for
namely,
invertibility, that distinct inputs must produce distinct outputs.Specifically, the distinct
\342\200\224
inputs x(t) and x(t) produce the same output y(t). Accordingly,the squarelaw system is
not invertible. \342\226\240
1.8.5
\342\226\240 Time Invariance
A system is said to be time invariant if a time delay or time advance of the input signal leads
to an identical time shift in the output signal. This impliesthat a timeinvariant system
responds identically no matter when the input signal is applied. Put another way, the char
1.8 Properties of Systems 61
X2(f)
=
S'\302\260 H
\342\226\272 H
\342\226\272 S* \342\226\272
(a) (b)
Suppose the input signal xx(t) is shifted intime by t0 seconds, resulting in the new input
x^t\342\200\224to). Consistently with the notation introduced in Fig. 1.50,this operation may be
described by writing
x2(t)
= xx{t  t0)
=
&{Xl(t)}9
Example 1.17 Inductor Use the voltage v(i) across an ordinary inductor to represent
the input signal xx(t) and the current i(t) flowing through the inductor to represent the
output signal yi(t). Thus, the inductor is describedby the inputoutput relation
\342\200\224
Solution: Let the input xx(t) be shifted by t0 seconds, yielding xx(t t0). The response
y2(t) of the inductor to xx{t t0) is
Vi(t *o)
=ll
xx{r)dr.

Although at first examination y2(t) and yx{t t0) look different, they are in fact equal, as
shown by a simple change in the variable of integration. Let
1 f''o
yi{t) = Xl{T')dT'>
hL
terms, is identical to that an
\342\200\224
which, in mathematical yx{t t0). It follows ordinary
inductoris time invariant. \342\226\240
Example 1.18 Thermistor A thermistor has a resistancethat varies with time due to
temperature changes.Let R(t) denote the resistance of the thermistor, expressed as a
function of time. Associating the input signal xx(t) with the voltage applied acrossthe thermistor
and the output signal y\\(t) with the current flowing through the thermistor, we may express
the inputoutput relation of the device as
*(') =
R(t)
Show that the thermistor so described is time variant.
Solution: Let y2(t) denote the response of the thermistor produced by a timeshifted
\342\200\224
version Xi(t t0) of the original input signal. We may then write
*(*) = \"
R(t)
Next, let yi(t  denote the original output of the thermistor due to the input x^t),
t0)
shifted in time by t0\\ that is,
*i(* \" h)
t0) =
~ \342\200\242
J\\{t 
R(t t0)
 * yi(t) for*0*0.
yi(* to)
Problem
\342\226\272 133 Is a discretetime system describedby the inputoutput relation
y(n) = r\"x(n)
time invariant?
Answer: No M
1.8.6
\342\226\240 Linearity
A system is saidto be linearin terms of the system input (excitation) x(t) and the system
output (response) y(t) if it satisfies the following two properties of superposition and
homogeneity:
1. Superposition. Consider a system that is initially at rest. Let the system be subjectedto
an input x(t)
=
x^t), producing an output y(t)
=
y\\{i). Suppose next that the same
system is subjected to a different input x(t)
=
x2(t), producing a corresponding
y2{t). Then for the system to be linear
= it is necessary that the composite input
output y(t)
x(t)
=
xx{t) + x2(t) produce the corresponding output y(t)
= yx(t) + y2(t).What
we have described here is a statement of the principle of superposition in its simplest
form.
2. Homogeneity. Consider again a system that is initially at rest, and suppose an input
x(t) results y(t). Then the system is said to exhibit the property of
in an output
homogeneity if, whenever the input x(t) is scaledby a constant factor tf, the output y(t)
is scaledby exactly the same constant factor a.
When a system violates either the principle of superpositionor the property of
where xx(t), x2(t),..., xN(t) denote a set of input signals and a\\, a2,..., ax denotethe
corresponding weighting factors. The resulting output signal is written as
=
y(t) H{x(t)}
= (1.87)
h{ J>(*((')}.
If the system is linear, then, in accordance with the principle of superposition and the
property of homogeneity, we may express the output signal of the system as
where y^t) is the output of the system in response to the input *,(*) acting alone\342\200\224that is, where
= i=l,2,...,N. (1.89)
yi(t) H{Xi(t)h
The weighted sum of Eq. (1.88), describing the output signal y(t), is of the same
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
y,(r>
*i(0 tiH a
ax
N Witt)
^aiXi(t) Output Output
rT y#) a2y2(t)
\"2 I \342\200\224\342\226\272
H \342\226\272>(*)
1 x2(t) H a2 \342\226\272
*')
\342\226\272+\302\243
Inputs
*Ny\\<*)
as [ xN(t) H aN
(a) (b)
Figure 1.56 The linearity property of a system, (a) The combined operation of amplitude scaling
and summation precedes the operator H for multiple inputs, (b) The operator H precedes amplitude
scaling for each input; the resulting outputs are summed to producethe overall output y(t). If these
two configurations produce the same output y(t), the operator H is linear.
mathematical form as that of Eq.(1.86), describing the input signal x(t). For Eqs. (1.87)
and (1.88)to yield exactly the same output signal y(t), we require the following:

\302\243*,H{*,(*)}
1=1 (1.90)
i=l
In words, the systemoperation describedby H must commute with the summation and
amplitude scaling, as illustrated in Fig. 1.56. The commutation can only be justified if the
operator H is linear.
For a linear discretetimesystem, an equation similar to Eq. (1.90) holds, as
illustrated in Example 1.19.
i=i
i=i
N
1.8 Properties of Systems 65
where
=
yi[n] nxt[n]
is the output due to eachinput acting independently. We thus see that the given system
satisfies both superposition and homogeneity and is therefore linear. \342\226\240
Correspondingly, the output signal of the system is given by the double summation
y(t) = S^)2#i)
i=l ;=1
N N
i=l ;=1
The form of this equation is radically different from that describing the input signal x(t).
That is, here we cannot write y(t)
=
^i=\\aiyi(t). Thus, the system violates the principle of
superposition and is therefore nonlinear. \342\226\240
Problem
\342\226\272 134 Show that the movingaverage system describedby
y[n]
= + x[n  1] + x[n  2])
j(x[n]
is a linear system.
Problem
\342\226\272 135 Is it possible for a linear system to be noncausal?
Answer: Yes.
Problem
\342\226\272 136 The hard limiter is a memorylessdevice whose output y is related to
the input x by
(l, x>0
y x < 0*
\\0,
Is the hard limiter linear?
Answer: No ^
Example1.21ImpulseResponse
of RC Circuit In this example, we use linearity,
time invariance, and the representation of an impulse asthe limiting form of a pulse to
obtain the impulse response of the series circuit shown in Fig. 1.57. This circuit was discussed
in Example 1.9, in light of which the step responseof the circuit [i.e., the voltage y(t)
acrossthe capacitor] is written as
R
vvr
x(t)\\ yit)
FiguRE 1.57 RC circuit for Example 1.20, in which we are given the capacitor voltage y(t) in
u(t) and the requirement is to find y(t) in response
to the step = to the
response input x(t)
x(t)
= 8(t).
unitimpulse input
concepts: the
properties and time invariance discussedin Section
of linearity 1.8, the
definition
graphical impulse depicted in Fig. 1.42, and the definition of the derivative
of an of a
continuous function of time.
Following the discussion presented in Section 1.6.6, we proceedby expressing the
*iM
= +
}\302\253(' f)
and
*2(0 =

{\302\273{t A).
Let y\\(t) and y2(\302\243)be the responses of the RC circuit to the step functions xx(t) and x2(t),
respectively.Then, applying the timeinvariance property to Eq. (1.91), we have
=  x(t) =
yi(t) 1(1 + Xl(t),
e\302\253+^>/<RC>)\302\253(* ),
and
=  _ =
xAt)
y2(t) 1(1 e(<W(KC))M(, 0 x{t)
we invoke the property of linearity to express the corresponding response of the RC circuit as
xA(t)
1/A
A/2 0 A/2
Figure 1.58 Rectangular pulse of unit area, which, in the limit, approaches a unit impulse as
A\342\200\2240.
1.8 Properties of Systems 67
yA(0
=  +  
\\{i ei'+iM\302\253Rv)u(t
f) j(i <r<'A/2>/<RC>)\302\253/*
1)
4(\302\253(f)0!))
All that remains for us to do isto determine the limiting form of Eq. (1.92) as the duration
A of the pulse approaches zero.Toward that end, we invoke the followingtwo definitions:
1. Representation of an impulse as the limiting form of the pulse xA(t):
S(t) = lim*A(*).
2. The derivative of a continuous function of time, say, z(t):
*wto{K\302\253M)<*))}\342\226\240
Applying these two definitions to the last line of Eq. (1.92) with the duration A of the
pulse approaching zero, we obtain the desiredimpulse response:
= lim
y(t) yA(0
A\342\200\224*U
= \"
*(*)
Jt(e,/{RC)u(t))
= 8(t)  
e'iwjutt) \302\253(*)(e'/(RC))
=  + = S(t).
S(t) e\302\253W8(t) x(t)
j^e\302\253Wu(t),
Note that in the second line we applied the rule for differentiating the product of two time
functions u(t) and e\"'/(RC). Finally, since S(t) is confined to the origin and e~* {RC) = 1 at
t = 0, the terms S(t) and e~f^RC)S(t) cancel each other, and the expressionfor the impulse
response of the RC circuit simplifiesto
=
*(*> \302\253\302\253\342\226\240 (1.93)
yto'Tc6'*\342\204\242''\302\256'
Problem
\342\226\272 1.37 LR Circuit Figure 1.59 showsthe circuit diagram of a series
inductanceresistance (LR) circuit. Given the step response of the circuit,
find the impulse response of the circuit\342\200\224that is, the voltage across the resistor, y(t), in
= 8(t).
responseto the unitimpulse input voltage x(t)
R
Answer: \342\200\224e
Rt/Lu(t)
interference lying inside the operating frequency range for which the system is designed.
Internal
\342\226\272 sources of noise, which include an important type of noise that arises from
40 50 60
Time (microseconds)
Figure 1.60 Sample waveform of electricalnoise generated by a thermionic diode with a heated
cathode. Note that the timeaveraged value of the noise voltage displayed is approximately zero.
1.9 Noise 69
1.9.1
\342\226\240 Thermal Noise
A ubiquitous form of electrical noise is thermal noise, which arises from the random motion
of electrons in a conductor. Let v(t) denotethe thermal noise voltage appearing across the
terminals of a resistor. Then the noise so generatedhasthe following two characteristics:
A
\342\226\272
timeaveraged value, defined by
i rT
v = lim (1.94)
2T//(')A'
T\342\200\224\302\273oo
where 2T is the total interval over which the noise voltagev(t) is observed. In the limit,
the timeaveraged value v approaches zero as T approaches infinity. This result is
justified on the grounds that the number of electronsin a resistoris typically very large
and their random motions insidethe resistor produce positive and negative valuesof
the noise voltage v(t) that average to zero in the course of time. (See, e.g., Fig.1.60.)
A
\342\226\272
timeaveragesquared value, defined by
(1.95)
T\302\253.2Ty_TV r ) (1.97)
= 4kTibsGAf amps2,
where G =
1/R is the conductance in Siemens.
Chapter1 Introduction
\342\226\240
Noiseless
resistance
R
AA/V
Noiseless
**>(?) *) t conductance
(a) (b)
FIGURE 1.61 (a) Thevenin equivalent circuit of a noisy resistor, (b) Norton equivalent circuit of
the same resistor.
Noise calculationsinvolve of power, so we find that the use of the maximum
the transfer
power transfer theorem to such calculations. This theorem states that the
is applicable
maximum possible power is transferred from a source of internal resistance R to a loadof
resistanceR/ when R/ = R. Under this matched condition,the power producedby the
source is divided equally between the internal resistance of the source and the load
resistance, and the power delivered to the loadis referred to as the available power. Applying
the maximumpower transfer theorem to the Thevenin equivalent circuit of Fig. 1.61(a) or
the Norton equivalent circuit of Fig. 1.61(b), we find that a noisy resistor produces an
available noise power equal to &Tabs A/\" watts. There are therefore two operating factors that
affect the available noise power:
1. The temperature at which the resistor is maintained.
2. The width of the frequency band over which the noise voltage across the resistor
is measured.
1.9.2
\342\226\240 Other Sources of Electrical Noise
Another common source of electrical noise is shot noise,which arises in electronic devices
such as diodesand transistors because of the discrete nature of current flow in those
devices. For photodetector circuit, a pulseof current
example, in a is generated every time an
electronis emitted cathode due to incident light
by the from a source of constant intensity.
The electrons are naturally emitted at random times denotedby rfc, where oo < k < oo.
\342\200\224
Here, it is assumed that the random emissions of electrons have been going on for a long
time; that is, the device is in a steady state. Thus, the total current flowing through the
photodetector may be modeledas an infinite sum of current pulses as shown by
=
K*
 rk), (1.98)
*(*) I)
k=\302\260o
Finally, the type of electrical noisecalled\\/f noise is always present when an electric
current is flowing. This noise is so named because the timeaveraged power at a given
frequency is inversely proportional to the frequency; \\/f noiseis observed in all
semiconductor devices that are used to amplify and detect signals of interest at low frequencies.
1.10 Theme Examples 71
To obtain
\342\226\272 different perspectives on the operation or application of interest,
on
depending the tools used to analyze it.
1.10.1
\342\226\240 Differentiation and Integration: RC Circuits
The operationsof differentiation and integration are basic to the study of linear time
invariant systems. The need for differentiation arises when the sharpening of a pulse is
required. Let x(t) and y(t) denote the input and output signals of a differentiator,
respectively. Ideally, the differentiator is defined by
A 1 A
+ = (L1\302\2600)
JtPl{t) ~RCVlit) JtvM'
Provided that the time constant RC is small enough for the lefthand side of Eq. (1.100)to
be dominated by the second term, (l/(RC))v2(t), over the time interval of interest [i.e., if
RC is small relative to the rate of change of the input signal fi(*)], we may approximate
Eq. (1.100) as
Jc^Jt^'
or
v2{t)
w
RCjvr(t) forRCsmall. (1.101)
=
Comparing Eqs. (1.99)and (1.101), we see that the input x(t) RCv^t) and the output
y(t) = v2(t).
+
vx{t) R v2(t)
FiGLRE 1.62 Simple RC circuit with small time constant, used to approximate a differentiator.
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
R
A/W
FIGURE 1.63 Simple RC circuit with large time constant used to approximate an integrator.
For an approximate realization of the integrator, we may use the simple RC circuit rearranged
as shown in Fig. 1.63. The inputoutput relation of this second RC circuit is given by
or, equivalently,
RCv2(t) +
/ v2(r)dT= J vx{r)dr. (1.103)
Joo Joo
Provided that, this time, the time constant RCis chosenlarge enough so that the integral
on the lefthand side is dominated by the term RCv2(t) [i.e.,if RC is large relative to the
average value of the output signal v2(t) over the time interval of interest], we may
approximate Eq. (1.103) as
RCv2(t)* / !/,(T)<fr,
Jot
or
TC^
and (1.104), we see that = and
Comparing Eqs. (1.102) the input x(t) [l/(RC)i/1(t)]
the output y{t) = v2{t).
From Eqs. (1.101) and (1.104), we also seethat the more closely the RC circuits of
Figs. 1.62 and 1.63 approximate an idealdifferentiator and ideal integrator, respectively,
the smaller will be their outputs. The RC circuits usedto implement differentiators and
integrators will be studied throughout Chapters 2 through 4. In later chapters of the book,
we study more advanced methods of implementing differentiators and integrators.
1.10.2
\342\226\240 MEMS ACCELEROMETER
In Section seeFig.
1.3.3, we describeda microaccelerometer; 1.6. We may model this device
by a secondordermassdamperspring system as shown in Fig. 1.64. As a result of
externalacceleration, the support frame is displacedrelative to the proof mass. This displacement,
in turn, produces a corresponding change in the internal stress in the suspension spring.
1.10 Theme Examples 73
k y\302\273 Damping
factor
Displacement of
proof mass
Let M denotethe proof mass, K the effective spring constant, and D the damping
factor affecting the dynamic movement of the proof mass.Let x(t) denote the external
acceleration and y(t) denote the displacement
due to motion of the proof mass. The net force
on the proof mass must sum to zero. The inertial force of the proof mass is Md1y(t)/dtl9
the damping force is Ddy(t)/dt, and the spring force is Ky(t). Equating the sum of these
threeforcesto the forcedueto externalacceleration,
Mx(t), gives
Mx(t)
=
Mg^df + D^ + Ky(t),
dt
or, equivalently,
K
Sy{t)
+ Ddy(t) + =
x{t)' (1.105)
~dF WW My{t)
=
(*n (1.106)
M'
The mass M is measured in grams, and the spring constant K is measuredin grams
per second squared. Accordingly, the natural frequency o>\342\200\236
is measured in radians
per second.
2. The quality factor of the accelerometer:
Vkm
Q = (1.107)
With the mass M measured in grams, the spring constant K in grams per second
squared, and the damping factor D in grams per second, it follows that the quality
factor Q is dimensionless.
Using the definitions of Eqs. (1.106) and (1.107)in Eq. (1.105), we may rewrite the second
order differential equation in terms of the two parameterso>\342\200\236
and Q as
+ =
w2\342\200\236y(t) *(*). (1.108)
<& Q dt
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
From Eq. (1.106), we see that the natural frequency a>n can be increased by increasing the
spring constant K and
decreasing the proof mass
Eq. (1.107), M. From we see that the
quality factor Q can be increased by increasing the spring constant K and proof mass M
and by reducing the damping factor D. In particular, a low value of Q\342\200\224unity or
the accelerometer
less\342\200\224permits to respond to a broadclassof input signals.
The MEMS accelerometer is an example of a system described by a secondorder
differential equation. Electrical circuits containing two energy storageelements (capacitors or
inductors) and other mechanical springmassdampersystems are also described by
secondorder differential equations of the same form as that of Eq. (1.108). Problem 1.79
discusses a series LRC circuit, which may be viewed as the electrical analog of the MEMS
accelerometer.
1.10.3
\342\226\240 Radar Range Measurement
In Section 1.3.4,we discussed radar as an imaging
the use of system for remote sensing. For
our third theme example, another important application of radar: the
we consider
measurement of how far away a target (e.g.,an aircraft) is from the radar site.
Figure 1.65 showsa commonly used radar signal for measuring the range of a
target. The signal consists of a periodic sequenceof radio frequency (RF) pulses. Each pulse
has a duration of T0 in the order of microseconds and repeats regularly at a rate equal to
1/T pulses per second. More specifically, the RF pulse is made up of a sinusoidalsignal
whose frequency, denoted by /\"c, is on the order of megahertz or gigahertz, depending on
the application of interest. In effect, the sinusoidal signal acts as a carrier,facilitating the
transmission of the radar signal and the reception of the echo from the radar target.
Supposethe radar target is at a range d9 measured in meters from the radar. The
roundtrip time is equal to the time taken by a radar pulse to reach the target and for the
echo from the target to come back to the radar. Thus, denoting the roundtrip time by r,
we may write
r = (1.109)
^,
where c is the speed of light, measured in meters per second. Insofar as measuring the range
is concerned, there are two issuesof concern:
\342\226\272
Range resolution. The duration T0 of the pulse places a lower limit on the shortest
roundtrip delay time that the radar can measure. Correspondingly, the smallest
target range that the radarcan measure reliably is dmin = cT0/2 meters. (Note that we
have ignored the presence of electrical noiseat the front end of the radar receiver.)
Timer
Figure 1.65 Periodic train of rectangular RF pulses used for measuring the range of a target.
1.10 Theme Examples 4 75
\342\226\272
Range ambiguity. The interpulse period T placesan upper limit on the largest target
range that the radar can measure, since the echo from one pulse must return before the
next pulseis transmitted, or else there will be ambiguity range estimate.
in the
Correspondingly, the largest target range that the radar can measureunambiguously is
=
^max cT/2.
The radar signal of Fig. 1.65 provides an insightful setting for spectral analysis and
its different facets, as demonstrated in subsequent chapters.
Similar range measurement methodsare employed with sound (sonar), ultrasound
(biomedical remote sensing),and infrared (automaticfocusing cameras) and at optical
frequencies (laser range finders). In each case, the roundtrip travel time of a pulse and its
1.10.4
\342\226\240 MovingAverage Systems
An
important application of discretetime systems is the enhancement of some feature in
a data set, suchas identifying the underlying trend in data that are fluctuating. Moving
average systems, like the one introducedin Example 1.12, are often used for this purpose.
Treating the data x[n] as the input signal, we may express the output of an Npoint moving
average system as
The value N determinesthe degreeto which the system smooths the input data. Consider,
for example, the weekly closingstock price of Intel over a threeyear period, as depicted
in Fig.1.66(a).
The fluctuations in this data set highlight the volatile nature of Intel stock
(a)
FIGURE 1.66 (a) Fluctuations in the closing stock priceof Intel over a threeyear period.
76 Chapter 1 \342\226\240
Introductipn
o
July 1998 July 1999 July 2000 July 2001
(b)
0
July 1998 July 1999 July 2000 Julv 2001
(c)
and the stock market in general.Figures 1.66(b) and (c) illustrate the effect of passing the
= 4 and N =
data through movingaverage systems with N 8,
respectively. Note that the
movingaverage systems significantly reduce the shortterm fluctuations in the data, and
the system with the larger value of N produces a smootheroutput. The challenge with
=
y[n] 2 ***[\302\273*]. (1.111)
In such a system, the weights ak are chosen to extract a particular aspectof the data, such
as fluctuations of a certain frequency, while eliminating other aspects, such as the time
averaged value. Specific methods for choosing the weights to accomplish such effects are
describedin Chapter 8; however various aspects of movingaverage systems will be
exploredthroughout the chapters that follow.
1.10.5
\342\226\240 Mulupath Communication Channels
In Sections 1.3.1 and 1.9, we mentioned channel noise as a sourcethat degrades the
performance of a communication system. Another major source of degradation is the
nature
dispersive of the communication channel itself\342\200\224that is, the fact that die channelhas memory.
In wireless communication systems, dispersive characteristicsresult from multipath
presence
propagation\342\200\224die of more than one propagation path between die transmitter and receive^
as illustrated in Fig. 1.67. Multipath propagation resultsfrom die scattering of the transmitted
signal from multiple objects. In the context of a digital communication system, multipath
propagation manifests itselfin the form of intersymbol interference (ISI), a term that refers
to the residual effects at the receiver of symbols transmitted before and after the symbol of
interest. A symbol isthe waveform that represents a given set of bits in a binary representation
Another building
Building
Mobile unit
FIGURE 1.67 Example of multiple propagation paths in a wireless communication environment.
Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
Input
signal x(tTm) x(t2Tm) x{tFTm)
^ ^ff \" \342\226\272
TcWf *1
f\342\200\224\342\226\272\"twr'
\342\200\224\342\200\224T
I T
Output
\342\226\240
\342\226\272
signal
yit)
of the message signal. To mitigate the ISI problem, the receiver incorporates an equalizer
whosefunction is to
compensate for dispersion in the channel.
It is desirable to have a model for the multipath propagation channel in order to
understand and compensate for dispersive effects. The transmitted signal typically involves
some form of modulation, the primary purpose of which is to shift the frequency band of
the signal so that it coincides with the usable frequency bandof the channel. For the
output of the model, which represents the receivedsignal,is expressed in terms of the input as
p
y(t) = 5><*C 'Tdiff), (i.ii2)
j=0
channel by sampling the baseband modelof Eq. (1.112) at intervals of Tdiff to obtain
y[n]
=
x[n) + ax[n  1]. (1.114)
1.10.6
\342\226\240 Recursive DiscreteTime Computation
A particular form of computation known as recursive discretetime computation is
pervasivein its practical applications. of computation, expressedin the most
In this form
general terms, the current the output signal resulting
value of from the computation depends
on two setsof quantities: (1) the current and past values of the input signal and (2) the past
values of the output signal itself.The term recursive signifies the dependence of the output
signal on its own past values.
We illustrate this computation by introducing the and highly
simple meaningful
example of a firstorder reci rsive discretetimefilter. Let x[ /]denote the input signal and y[ ]
denote the output signal of the filter, both measured at time i. We may express the
relationship between y[n] and x[n] for the filter by the linear constantcoefficient difference
equation of order one,written as
= (1.115)
y[j] x[n}+py[n 1],
wherep is a constant.The recursive equation (1.115) is a special case of a linear difference
equation in that it is void of past values of the input signal. Figure 1.69 showsa block
diagram representation of the filter, where the block labeledS denotes the discretetime time
shift operator. The structure describedin the figure is an example of a linear discretetime
feedback system, with the coefficient p being responsible for the presence of feedback in the
system. In other words, the use of feedback in a discretetime system is relatedto recursive
computation.
The solution of Eq. (1.115) is given by
Svstematic procedures for arriving at this solution are presentedin Chapters 2 and . For
now, we may demonstrate the validity of Eq. (1.116) by proceeding as follows: Isolating
the term corresponding to k = 0, we write
Input signal
x[n] +
\342\226\272
Lj y > Output signal
>'[n]
*t Discretetime
Feedback
timeshift
coefficient
operator
y[n\\]
FIGURE 1.69 Block diagram of firstorder recursive discretetime filter. The operator 5 shifts the
k =
\342\200\224 = / + 1 in Eq.
Next, setting 1 /, or, equivalently, k (1.117) yields
y[\302\273]=*[\302\253]+ i pl+1[nll]
'\"\"eo (1.118)
= +
*w p\302\243^\302\273i/].
/=o
In light of Eq. (1.116), we readily see that the summation term on the righthand side
of Eq. (1.118)is equal to y[n
\342\200\224
1]. Accordingly, we may rewrite Eq. (1.118)in the
simplified form
y[n]
=
x[n] + py[n  1],
which we immediately recognize to be the original firstorder recursive equation (1.115) of
which Eq. (1.116)is the solution.
Depending on the value assignedto the constant p in the solution given by Eq. (1.116),
we may identify three special cases:
3. p > 1, in which case successivecontributions of past values of the input signal x[n]
to the output signal y[n] are amplified in absolute value as time goes on.
Fromthis discussion, it isapparent that in case 2 the firstorder recursive filter of Fig. 1.69
is stable in the BIBO sense, and it is unstable in the BIBO sense in both cases1 and 3; see
Problem 1.26.
In subsequent chapters, we discuss applications of the firstorder recursive filter of
Fig. 1.69 in such diverse fields as digital signal processing, financial computations, and
the generation of some of the elementary signals described in previous sections. The
exploration of systems and more advanced signals is deferred to subsequent chapters.
The MATLAB Signal ProcessingToolboxhas a large variety of functions for
generating signals, most of which require that we begin with the vector representation of time t
or n. To generatea vector t of time values with a sampling interval Ts of 1 ms on the
interval from 0 to Is, for example, weusethe command
t = 0:.001:1;
1.11 Exploring Conceptswiih MATLAB 81
This vector encompasses 1000 time samples each second, or a sampling rate of 1000 Hz.
To generate a vector n of time values for discretetime signals,say, from n = 0 to n = 1000,
we use the command
=
n 0:1000;
1.11.1
\342\226\240 Periodic Signals
A*square(w0*t , rho);
The square wave shown in Fig. 1.14(a) was generatedwith the following complete set
of commands:
\302\273 A = 1;
\302\273 wO = 10*pi;
\302\273 rho = 0.5;
\302\273 t = 0:.001:1;
>> sq = A*square(w0*t , rho);
\302\273
plot(t, sq)
\302\273 axisCCO 11.11.13)
In the secondcommand, pi isa builtin MATLAB function that returns the floatingpoint
number closestto it. The plot command is used to view the square wave. The command
plot draws lines connecting the successive values of the signal and thus gives the
frequency wO (measured in radians per second), and width W. Let the period of the wave be
T, with the first maximum value occurring at t = WT. The basic command for
generating this second periodic signal is
A*sawtooth(w0*t , W);
Thus, to generatethe symmetric triangular wave shown in Fig. 1.15, we used the
commands:
following
82 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
\302\273 A = 1;
\302\273 wO = 10*pi;
\302\273 W =
0.5;
\302\273 t = 0:0.001:1;
\302\273 tri = A*sawtooth(wO*t , W);
\302\273 pLot(t, tri)
Problem
\342\226\272 138 Use the MATLAB code given at the top of this page to generate the
triangular wave depicted in Fig. 1.15. <
1.11.2
\342\226\240 Exponential Signals
B*exp(a*t);
To generate a growing exponential, we use the command
B*exp(a*t);
In both cases, the exponential parameter a is positive.The following commands were used
to generate the decaying exponentialsignal shown in Fig. 1.28(a):
\302\273 B = 5;
\302\273 a = 6;
\302\273 t = 0:.001:1;
>> x = B*exp(a*t); % decaying exponential
\302\273
pLot(t, x)
The growing exponential signal shown in Figure 1.28(b) was generated with these commands:
\302\273 B = 1;
\302\273 a = 5;
\302\273 t = 0:0.001:1;
>> x = B*exp(a*t); X growing exponential
\302\273 plot(t, x)
1.11 Exploring Concepts with MATLAB 83
Consider next the exponential sequence defined in Eq. (1.34). The decaying form of
this exponentialis shown in Fig. 1.30(a), generated with the following commands:
\302\273 B = 1;
\302\273 r = 0.85
\302\273 n = 10:10;
>> x = B*r.An; X decaying exponential
>> stemCn, x)
Note that, in this example, the base r is a scalar,but the exponent is a vector\342\200\224hence the
symbol .
A
use of the to denote elementbyelement powers.
Problem
\342\226\272 139 Use MATLAB to generate the growing exponentialsequence
in
depicted Fig. 1.30(b). <
1.11.3
\342\226\240 Sinusoidal Signals
A*cos(w0*t + phi);
Alternatively, we may use the sine function to generate a sinusoidal signal with the command
A*sin(w0*t + phi);
These two commands were used as the basisfor generating the sinusoidal signals shown
in Fig. 1.31.For example,
for the cosine signal shown in Fig. 1.31(a), we usedthe
commands:
following
\302\273 A = 4;
\302\273 wO = 20*pi;
>> phi = pi/6;
\302\273 t = 0:.001 :1;
>> cosine = A*cos(w0*t + phi);
>> plot(t, cosine)
Problem
\342\226\272 1.40 Use MATLAB to generate the sine signal shown in Fig. 1.31(b). M
Consider next the discretetime sinusoidal signal definedin Eq. (1.39).This periodic
signal is plotted in Fig. 1.33, generatedwith the use of the following commands:
\302\273 A = 1;
>> omega = 2*pi/12; X angular frequency
\302\273 n = 10:10;
\302\273 y
= A*cos(onega*n);
>> ste\302\273(n, y)
1.11.4
\342\226\240 Exponentially Damped Sinusoidal Signals
In all of the MATLAB just described, we have generated
signalgeneration commands, the
desired amplitude by multiplying a vector a
representing unitamplitude
a scalar A by
signal (e.g., sin(w0*t + phi)). This operation is described by using an asterisk. We next
considerthe generation of a signal that requires the elementbyelementmultiplication of
two vectors.
84 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
is
A*sin(wO*t + phi).*exp(a*t);
For a decaying exponential,a is positive. This command was used in the generation of the
waveform shown in Fig. 1.35. The completesetof commands is as follows:
\302\273 A = 60;
\302\273 wO = 20*pi;
\302\273 phi
= 0;
\302\273 a = 6;
\302\273 t = 0:.001:1;
>> expsin = A*sin(w0*t + phi).*exp(a*t);
>> plotCt, expsin)
Consider next the exponentially damped sinusoidal sequence depicted in Fig. 1.70.
This sequence is obtained by multiplying the sinusoidal sequence x[n] of Fig. 1.33 by the
decaying exponential sequence y[n] of Fig. B oth sequences 1.30(a).
are defined for n =
10:10. Thus, letting z[n] denote this product sequence, we may use the following
commands to generate and visualize it:
already included in the commands for both x and y, which are defined on page 83.
Problem
\342\226\272 1.41 Use MATLAB to generate a signal defined as the product of the
growingexponential of Fig. 1.30(b) and the sinusoidal signal of Fig. 1.33. M
i r \"i r
x[n) ill!
TTTT
J L J 1 L
110 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time*
Figure 1.70 Exponentially damped sinusoidal sequence.
1.11 Exploring Concepts with MATLAB 85
1.11.5
\342\226\240 Step, Impulse, and Ramp Functions
InMATLAB, ones (H, N) is an MbyNmatrix of ones, and zeros (M, N) is
an MbyNmatrix of zeros. We may use these two matrices to generate two commonly
used signals:
\342\226\272
Step function. A unitamplitude step function is generatedby writing
ramp = 0:.1:10
In Fig. 1.39, we illustrated a pair of step functions
how shifted in time relative to
each other may be used a rectangular pulse.In light
to produce of the
procedure
illustrated
therein, we may formulate the following set of commands for generating a rectangular
pulse centeredon the origin:
\302\273 t = 1:1/500:1;
\302\273 u1 = Czerosd, 250), onesd, 75DD;
\302\273 u2 = Czerosd, 751), onesd, 250)D;
>> u = u1 
u2;
The first command defines
1 second from
to 1 second in increments
time running \342\200\224
of 2
milliseconds. The second command generatesa step function u 1 of unit amplitude,
beginning at time t = 0.5 second. The third command generates a second step function
u2, beginning at time t = 0.5 second. The fourth command subtracts u2 from u1 to
a
produce rectangular pulse of unit amplitude and unit duration centered on the origin.
1.11.6
\342\226\240 UserDefined Function
1. It beginswith a statement defining the function name, its input arguments, and its
output arguments.
Consider,for example, the generation of the rectangular pulse depictedin Fig. 1.39(a).
Suppose we wish to generate the pulse with the use of an Mfile.The pulse is to have unit
amplitude and unit duration. To generate it, we create a file called r e c t. m containing
the following statements:
>> function g = rect(x)
>> g =
zeros(size(x));
\302\273 setl = find(abs(x)<= 0.5);
>> g(set1) =
ones(size(setl));
86 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
In the last three statements of this Mfile, we have introduced two useful functions:
1. The function size returns a twoelement vector containing the row and column
dimensions of a matrix.
2. The function find returns the indices of a vector or matrix that satisfy a prescribed
relation.For the example at hand, find(abs(x)<= T) returns the indices of
the vector x, where the absolute value of x is less than or equal to T.
\302\273 t = 1:1/500:1;
\302\273 pLot(t, rect(t));
I 1*12 Summary
In this chapter we presented an overview of signalsand systems, setting the stage for the
rest of the book. A particular theme that stands out in the discussion presented herein is
that signals may be of the continuoustime or discretetimevariety, and likewise for systems:
A continuoustime
\342\226\272
signal is defined for all values of time. In contrast, a discretetime
signal is defined only for instants of time.
discrete
A continuoustime
\342\226\272
system is described by an operator that changes a continuous
time input signal into a continuoustime output signal. In contrast, a discretetime
system is described by an operator that changes a discretetimeinput signal into a
discretetime output signal.
In practice, many systems and discretetime components. Analyzing
mix continuoustime
mixed systems is an
important part of the material presented in Chapters 4, 5, 8, and 9.
In discussing the various properties of signals and systems, we took special care in
treating the two classes of signals and systems by side side. In so doing, much is gained by
emphasizing their similarities and differences. This practice is followed in later chapters, too,
as is appropriate.
Another noteworthy point is that, in the study of systems, particular attention is given
to the analysis of linear timeinvariant systems. A linear system obeys both the principle of
superpositionand the property of homogeneity. The characteristicsof a timeinvariant
system do not change with time. By invoking two properties, the analysis of systems
these
becomes mathematically tractable. Indeed, a rich set of tools has been developed for analyzing
linear timeinvariant systems, providing direct motivation for much of the material on
system analysis presented in the book.
In this chapter we alsoexploredthe use of MATLAB for generating elementary
waveforms representing continuoustime and discretetime signals. MATLAB provides a
powerful environment for exploring concepts and testing system designs,as will be illustrated
in subsequent chapters.
I Further Reading
1. For a readable account of signals, their representations, and their use in communication
systems, see
\342\226\272
Pierce, J. R., and A. M. Noll, Signals:The Science of Telecommunications (Scientific
American Library, 1990)
Further Reading 87
\342\226\272
Phillips, C. L., and R. D. HarborFeedback Control Systems, 3rd ed. (PrenticeHall, 1996)
3. Fora general discussion of remote sensing, see
\342\226\272
Hord, R. M., Remote Sensing: Methodsand Applications (Wiley, 1986)
For material on the use of spaceborne radar for remote sensing, see
\342\226\272
Elachi, C, Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing (Wiley, 1987)
For a detailed description of synthetic aperture radar and the role of signal processing in its
implementation, see
\342\226\272
Curlandei; J. C, and R. N. McDonough,Synthetic Aperture Radar: Systems and
Signal Processing (Wiley, 1991)
For an introductory treatment of radai; see
\342\226\272
Skolnik, M. I., Introduction to Radar Systems,3rd ed. (McGrawHill, 2001)
\342\226\272
Yazdi, D., F. Ayazi, and K. Najafi, \"Micromachined Inertial Sensors,\" Proceedings of
the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, vol. 86, pp. 16401659, August
1998
Additional Problems
1.42 Determine whether the following signals are (d) x[n] = (1)\"
If
periodic. they are periodic, find the fundamental period. (e) x[n] = (1)\"2
(a) x(t) = (cos(27r*))2
(f) x[n] depicted in Fig. P1.42f.
=  in
(b) x(t) 2,Sk=5w(t 2k) for w(t) depicted
in Fig.
Fig. P1.42b.
(g) x(t) depicted P1.42g.
=
(c) x(t) = *2\342\204\242=oow(t

3k) iorw(t) depicted in (h) x[n] cos(2\302\253)
PI .42b. (i)
=
Fig. x[n] cos(27r\302\253)
w{t) x[n]
2k JliXJOJlUUli
H\342\200\224ooO
1 0 5 1
(b) (f)
xit)
1+
0
a
1
(g)
Figure PI.42
1.43 The sinusoidal signal 1.45 The angular frequency il of the sinusoidal signal
= 3cos(200* = Acos(ft\302\253
x(t) + n/6) x[n] + 0)
x(t)
= A cos(a>t + <(>).
ir/w
1.47 The trapezoidal pulse x(t) shown in Fig. P1.47 is (c) x(t + l)y(t  2)
defined by
(d) x(t)y(l t)
0, otherwise
Determinethe total energy of x(t). y(t)
xit)
jm
2
IV'
1
(a) (b)
H h Figure PI.52
_5 _4 3 2
Figure PI.47 1.53 Figure PI.53(a) shows a staircaselike signal x(t) that
may be viewed as the superposition of four
rectangular pulses. Starting with a compressed versionof
1.48 The trapezoidal of Fig. P1.47 is appliedto the rectangular pulse g(t) shown in Fig. PI.53(b),
pulse x(t)
a differentiator, defined by
construct the waveform of Fig.P1.53(a),and express
x(t) in terms of g(t).
y(t)
=
jt*(t).
X (')
(a) Determinethe resulting output y(t) of the
\"
differentiator. 4
J*. \302\273s'sr 1 , i t
= i i
x(t)
0, otherwise i i i
i
V i r\342\204\242
The pulse x(f) is applied to an integrator definedby 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 1
(a) (b)
= I x(t) dr.
y(t) Figure 1PK53
Jo
Find the total energy of the output y(t).
1.54 Sketch the waveforms of the following signals:
1.50 The trapezoidal pulse x(t) of Fig. PI.47 is time
(a) x{t)
 u(t  2)
= u{t)
scaled, producingthe equation
=  2u(t) + u(t 
(b) x(t) u(t + 1) 1)
=
y(t) x(at). (c) x(t) = u(t + 3) + 2u(t + 1)
Sketch y(t) a = 5 and (b) a = 0.2.
1) +
for (a)
2u(t u(t 3)
1.51 Sketch the trapezoidal pulse y(t) related to that of (d) y(t)
=
r(t + 1)
 r(t) + r(t  2)
Fig. PI.47 as follows:
(e) y(t)
=
r(t + 2)
 r(t + 1)
y(t) = x(10t  5) r(fl)+r(f2)
1.52 Let x(t) and y(t) be given in Figs. P1.52(a) and (b), 1.55 Figure P1.55(a) shows a pulse x(t) that may be
< *i
1.61 Consider the continuoustime signal
3
+ 0.5, A/2 < t <
A/2
( \302\273
2 <\342\200\242 1, t > A/2
{*/A 0, * < A/2
y[n\\
a triangular pulse x(t) of duration A and amplitude
(c) What is the total area under the differentiator (k) y(f)
= x(t/2)
output y(t) for all A? Justify your answer.
(1) y[\302\253]=2xJ2\302\273]
Based on your findings in parts
(a) through (c), 1.65 The output of a discretetime is related to its
system
describe in succinct terms the result of differentiating as follows:
input x[n]
a0x[n] + axx[n
a unit
y[n] = 1]
impulse.
\342\200\224 
+
a2x[n 2] + a3x[n 3].
Let the operator 5* denote a system that shifts the
input x[n] by k time units to produce x[n \342\200\224
k].
Formulate the operator H for the system relating
y[n] to x[n]. Then develop a block diagram
representation for H, (a) cascade
using implementation
and (b) parallel implementation.
1.66 Show that the system described in Problem 1.65 is
Figure PI.62 BIBOstable for aHa09al,a29 and a3.
1.63 A system consists of several subsystems connected 1.67 How far does the memory of the discretetime system
as shown in P1.63. Find the operator H relating described in Problem 1.65 extend into the past?
Fig.
x(t) to y(t) for the following subsystem operators:
1.68 Is it possible for a noncausal system to possess
=  memory? Justify your answer.
\302\253i:yi(0 *i(0*i(* i);
1.69 The output discretetime system
Hiviit) = MOl; signal y[n] of a is
= 1 +
related to its input signal x[n] as follows:
y[n] = x[n] + x[n  1]+ x[n  2].
H3:y3(0 2x3(0;
H4:y4(t) = cos(x4(*)).
Let the operatorS denote a system that shifts its input
*i(f) Jxit) by one time unit.
Ht
(a) Formulate the operator H for the system
relatingy[n] to x[n].
(e)
= + vx{t) v2{t)
y[n] 2J__\302\273*[* 2]
(f)
y(0=^*(0
Figure P1.71
(g) y[\302\253]
=
cos(2Trx[n + 1]) + x[n]
=
1.72 Show that a pth powerlaw device defined by the
(h) y(0
^{^(O) inputoutput relation
1.73 A linear timeinvariant system may be causal or non 1.75 A system H has its inputoutput pairs given. Deter
causal. Give an exampleof each of these possibilities. mine whether the system could be memoryless,
1.74 Figure 1.56 shows two equivalent system causal, linear, and time invariant for (a) signals
configurations on condition that the system operator H is depicted in Fig. PI.75(a), and (b) signals depictedin
linear. Which of these configurations is simpler to Fig. P1.75(b). For all cases, justify your answers.
x\\ w nW
1
H
'Y\\
0 1I
x2(t)
yiit)
0
1 + i + *$*
x3(t)
l\\\342\200\224
H
(a)
*,(*)
I
2
H
y\\.
1 0
y2(t)
H
4\342\200\224! t H H
0 12 3 4 12 3 4
x3(t)
WW
i
H 1
\"
N 2
H t 1 f 1, V ,
12 3 4 1_ _1 I 2 3
2
xA{t)
y4 (t)
1+ l
H
t J
ol 1 2 3 0 i 2 :\\ 4
Figure PI.75
(b)
Additional Problems 93
1.76 A linear system H has the inputoutput pairs (b) Could this system be time invariant?
depicted in Fig. PI.76(a). Answer the following (c) Could this system be memory less?
questions, and explain your answers: (d) What is the output for the input depicted in
(a) Could this system be causal? Fig. P1.76(b)?
*i(f)
11
H
0 1
*2 it)
1
H
\342\200\242
0 1 2 3
x3(t) y3(0
1 i +
H
 t ^O
0 1i : \\ 1 2 3
(a)
Figure PI.76
Figure PK77
94 Chapter1 Introduction
\342\226\240
Advanced Problems
1.78 (a) An arbitrary realvalued continuoustime signal (b) Determine whether the limiting form of the pulse
may be expressedas so obtained satisfies all the properties of the unit
discussed in Section 1.6.6.
x(t) = xe(t)+
impulse
Xo(t),
where xe(t) and x0(t) are, respectively, the even
and odd components of x(t). The signal x(t)
occupies the entire interval co < t < oo.
Showthat the energy of the signal x(t) is equal
to the sum of the energy of the even component
xe(t) and the energy of the odd component
x0(t). That is, show that
A/2 0 1/A
DC
x2{t)dt= / x*(t)dt+
J\342\200\224OC
/
JDC
xl{t)dt. FIGURE PI.80
(b) Show that an arbitrary realvalued discretetime 1.81 Consider a linear timeinvariant denoted b>
system
signal x[n] satisfies a relationship similar to that the operator H, as indicated in Fig. P1.81. The input
satisfied the continuous in Part (a).
by signal signal x(t) applied to the system is periodicwith
That is, show that period T. Show that the corresponding responseof the
OC OO DC
system, y(t), is also periodicwith the same period T.
= oo
\302\253 n = oo n=:x
where xe[n] and x0[n] are, respectively, the even x(t). H \342\226\272>\342\200\242(*)
><t)\\\\ C\302\261z
5(f)
= lim x\302\261(t).
Figure PI.79
*A\302\253
functions. =
approximate y(t) x\\t).
(c) Use the examples of Figs.P1.83(a)and P1.83(b) Let the input
in support of the explanation in part (a) of the =
x(t) ^1cos(w1f + <f)A)
+ A1cos{io1t + <\302\2432)\302\253
problem.
Determine the corresponding output y(t). Showthat
y(t) contains new components with the following
frequencies: 0, 2o>l5 2(o29 a>\\ T w2. What are their
x(t) _ respective amplitudes and phase shifts?
y(t) =
<*i
+
r\302\260'' \342\200\224
e~a*' =
\302\253(0, x(t) S(t),
y(t) = cosf 2irfct + k I x(t) dr J, where ax = a \342\200\224
an and a2 = oc t
96 Chapter 1 Introduction
\342\226\240
1.89 Figure P1.89 shows the blockdiagram of a firstorder where Ts denotes the sampling interval. For the
recursive discretetime filter. This filter differs from second derivative d2z/dt2, apply the approximation
that of Fig. 1.69 in that the output y[n] also requires twice.
knowledge of the past input
\342\200\224
1 ] for its 1.91 Typically,
x[n the signal of a radar or
received
on the solution given in Eq. (1.116),
evaluation. Building communication receiver by additive noise. To
is corrupted
derive an expression for the output y[n] in terms of combat the degrading effect of the noise, the signal
the input x[n]. processing operation performedat the front end of
the receiver usually involves some form of
Computer Experiments
1.93 (a) The solution of a linear differential equation (a) Squarewave of amplitude 5 volts, fundamental
Using MATLAB, plot x(t) versus t for t = Plot five cycles of each of these two waveforms.
0:0.01 :5. 1.96 A raisedcosine is defined
sequence by
the following
approximating continuoustime periodic waveforms: (b) AnMfile.
TimeDomain Representations
of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
2
fy
^^^^^^^ ^
2*1 Introduction
In this chapter, we examine severalmethods for describing the relationship between the input
and output signals of linear timeinvariant (LTI) systems. The focus here is on system
descriptions that relate the output signal to the input signal when both are represented as
functions of time\342\200\224hence the terminology time domain in the chapter's title. Methodsfor
relating system outputs and inputs in domains other than time are developed in later
chapters. The descriptions developed herein are useful for analyzing and predicting the
behaviorof LTI systems and for implementing discretetime systemson a computer.
We begin by characterizing an LTI system in terms of its impulse response, defined
as the output of an LTI system due to a unit impulse signal input applied at time t
= 0 or
n = 0. The impulse response completelycharacterizesthe behavior of any LTI system. This
may seem surprising, but it is a basic propertyof all LTI systems. The impulse response is
often determined from knowledge of the system configuration and dynamics or, in the case
of an unknown system, it can be measured by applying an approximateimpulse to the
system input. The impulse response of a discretetime system is usually easily obtained by
setting the input equal to the impulse S[n], In the continuoustime case, a true impulse signal
having zero width and infinite amplitude cannot physically be generated and is usually
approximated by a pulse of large amplitude and brief duration.Thus, the impulse response
may be interpreted as the system behavior in response to a highenergy input of
brief
extremely duration. Given the impulse response, we determine the output due to an arbitrary
The final timedomain system representation discussed in this chapter is the state
variable description\342\200\224a series of coupled firstorder differential or difference equations that
represent the behavior of the system's\"state\" and an equation that relates that state to the
output of the system. The state isa set of variables associated with energy storage or
memory devices in the system.
All four of these system representations are equivalent
timedomain in the sense that
identical outputs result from input. However, each representation relatesthe input
a given
to the output in a different manner. Different representations offer distinct views of the
Understanding how different representations are relatedand determining which offers the
most insight and the most straightforward solution in a particular problem are important
skills to develop.
=
x[n]S[n] *[0]6[\302\273].
This relationship may be generalized to the productof x[n] and a timeshifted impulse
sequence, to obtain
*] = x[k]S[n *],
x[n]S[n

where n represents the time index; hence, x[n] denotesthe entire signal, while x[k]
represents a specific value of the signal x[n] at time k. We see that multiplication of a signal by
a timeshifted impulse results in a timeshifted impulse with amplitude given by the value
of the signal at the time the impulse occurs.This property allows us to express x[n] as the
following weighted sum of timeshifted impulses:
x[n] = \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
+ x[2]8[n + 2] 4 x[l]8[n + 1] + x[0]8[n]
+ x[l]8[n 1] +
x[2]8[n

2] +
\342\200\242
\342\200\242\342\200\242.
=
y[n) H{x[n)}
2.2 The Convolution Sum 99
x[2]8[n + 2]
h> 0 1 0 >
x[mn+\\]
0 0 0 0 0 0 n
0\342\200\224
A

*[U
*[0]5[\302\253l]
*[0]i
0 0 0 0 ! 0 0 0 0 >n
0
x[l\\8[nl)
x[l]
h> 0 0 0 <\342\226\272
x[2\\8[n2)
x[2] +
0\342\200\224\302\273
<>\342\200\2240\342\200\224b\342\200\224<>\342\200\224J
<\342\226\272\342\200\224<>
*[\"]
Figure 2.1 Graphical example illustrating the representation of a signal x[n] as a weighted sum
of timeshifted impulses.
Now we use the linearity property to interchange the system operator H with the
summationand obtain
y[n]
=
f) H{x[k)S[n
 k]}.
*=oo
Since n is the time index, the quantity x[k] is a constant with respect to the system
operatorH. Using linearity again, we interchange H with x[k] to obtain
y[n] = 2 x[k]H{8[n
 k]}. (2.2)
*=00
100 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
Equation (2.2) indicates that the system output is a weighted sum of the response of the
system to timeshifted impulses. This response completely characterizesthe system's input
H{S[n 

k]} =
h[n k]9 (2.3)
where h[n] = H{S[h]}is the impulse response of the LTI system H. The responseof the
system to each basis function in Eq. (2.1)is determined by the system impulse response.
Substituting Eq. (2.3) into Eq. (2.2), we may rewrite the output as
y[n] =
\"
2
fc=oo
*[*M\302\273 *]\342\200\242 (2.4)
responses. This is a direct consequence of expressing the input as a weighted sum of time
shifted impulse basis functions. The sum in Eq. (2.4)is termed the convolution sum and is
denoted by the symbol *; that is,
x[n]
* h[n] =
2 x[k]h[n
 *].
fc=oo
The convolution process is illustrated in Fig. 2.2. In Fig.2.2(a)an LTI system with
impulse response h[n] and input x[n] is shown, while in Fig. 2.2(b) the input is decomposed
as a sum of weighted and timeshifted unit impulses, with the \302\243th
input component given
by x[fc]S[fl
 k]. The output of the system associated with the fcth impulse input is
represented in the right half of the figure as
H{x[k]8[n

k]} = x[k]h[n  k].
This output component is obtained by shifting the impulse response k units in time and
multiplying by x[k]. The total output y[n] in response to the input x[n] is obtained by
summing all the individual outputs:
y[n] =
\"
f
*=oo
*[*]*[\302\273 *]\342\200\242
T*
^
x[n) h[n\\
**~t
0 0 n
O\342\200\224  :.l,
I
\302\260
\342\226\272yW
\"2
1
LTI System
(a)
FIGURE 2.2 Illustration of the convolution sum. (a) LTI system with impulse response h[n] and
input x[n]9 producing the output y[n] to be determined.
2.2 The Conxolution Sum 101
\342\200\242
k=\\ x[l]8[n+l] x[l]h[n+\\] * = l
1 \342\200\224
w
,'f, 2
\342\200\224O\342\200\224
\342\200\2240\342\200\224
1 2 3 4 r 3 4 5 6
'l: LTI
{ .1/2 1/2+ o 2
\342\200\224
n 0 0 T > ?
1 1 2 3 4 1/2  1
A
3 4 5 6
1 LTI
= 1
\302\243 x[\\]S[nl] x[l]A[\302\273l] * = 1
1 1
1 3
;i \342\200\224
n h[n] \342\200\224 , ? ! T
1 i 2 3 4 2 A 4 5 6
1 LTI 1
= 2
\302\243 x[2] 8[n  2] x[2]h[n2] k =2
1
1 2 1/2 2 3 5
\342\200\224
n ?
*
1/2  l A 3 4 1/2 1
&
A 4 6
LTI
\342\200\242 \342\200\242
z z
*[\"] = \302\243
x[k]8[n k] k]
1 1
1 < 2 1 2 3 5
6.on6
' [i \342\200\224
n 0 9 \"
\342\226\240 1
1 A 3 4 A [1
> 1 4
LTI 1
L\\
FIGURE 2.2 (b) The decomposition of the input x[n] into a weighted sum of timeshifted
results
impulses in an output y[n] given by a weighted sum of timeshifted impulse responses.
That is, for each value of w, we sum the outputs associated with each weighted and
timeshifted
impulse input from k = \342\200\224
oo to & = oo. The
following example illustrates this process.
h[ ]
= <
I =i \342\200\242
^ 0, otherwise
102 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
2, = 2
\302\253
0, otherwise
y[n]
=
2h[n] + 4h[n  1]  2*[\302\273

2].
=
=
5, \302\253 1
y[\302\273] S = 2
0, \302\253
1, =
\302\273 3
1 o, \302\273\302\2434
In Example2.1,we found the output corresponding to each timeshifted impulse and then
summed each weighted, timeshifted impulse response to determine y[n]. This approach
illustrates the principles that underlie convolution and is effective when the input is of brief
duration so that only a small number of timeshifted impulse responses need to be summed.
When the input is of long duration, the procedure can be cumbersome, so we usea slight
change in perspective to obtain an alternative approach to evaluating the convolution sum
in Eq. (2.4).
Recallthat the convolution sum is expressed as
y[n] =

2
k=oo
x[k]h[n k].
wn[k]
= x[k]h[n  k] (2.5)
as the product of x[k] and h[n \342\200\224
k]. In this definition, k is the independent variable and
we explicitly indicate that n is treated as a constant by writing n as a subscript on w. Now,
h[n k]

h[(k =  n)]
is a reflected (because of k) and timeshifted (by version
\342\200\224n)
\342\200\224
of h[k]. Hence, if n is negative, then h[n k] is obtained by time shifting to
h[\342\200\224k] the left,
2.3 Convolution Sum Evaluation Procedure 103
Note that now we need only determine one signal, wn[k], for each time n at which we
desire to evaluate the output.
=
h[n]
(f )\"\302\253[\"]\342\200\242
Solution: Here, response and input are of infinite duration, so the procedure
the impulse
followed in Example2.1 would require summing a large number of timeshifted impulse
responses to determine y[n] for each n. By using Eq. (2.6), we form only one signal,wn[k],
for each n of interest. Figure 2.3(a) depictsx[k] superimposed on the reflected and time
shifted impulse responseh[n  k].We see that
k < n
h[n k] = {&\" '
I 0, otherwise
x[k)
20246
h[nk)
3V* 1 1+
(l)v
0 n 2024
(a) (b)
\342\226\240*\302\253 fiol*]
(If 3\\10i
(i)1
'Uii
0 2 4 0 2 4 6 8 10
(c) (d)
The intermediate signal wn[k] is now easily obtained by means of Eq. (2.5). Figures 2.3(b),
(c),and (d) depict wn[k] for n = 5, n = 5, and n = 10, respectively. We have
ws[k] = 0,
and thus Eq. (2.6) gives y[\342\200\2245]
= 0. For n = 5, we have
0 < k < 5
w5[k] = /Br.
I 0, otherwise
so Eq. (2.6)gives
which represents the sum of the nonzero values of the intermediate signal ws[k] shown in
Fig. 2.3(c). We then factor () from the sum and apply the formula for the sum of a finite
geometric series (seeAppendix A.3) to obtain
r<k < 10
\"'lot*] 5
l 0, oi
otherwise
\342\226\240ari^r\342\200\224
Note that in this example wn[k] has only two different mathematical representations.
For n < 0, we have wn[k]
=
0, since there is no overlap between the nonzero portions of
x[k] and h[n k]. When n ^ 0, the nonzero portionsof
\342\200\224 \342\200\224
x[k] and h[n k] overlap on
the interval 0 ^ ife < \302\253,
and we may write
Hence, we may determine the output for an arbitrary n by using the appropriate
mathematical representation for wn[k] in Eq. (2.6). \342\226\240
The example
preceding suggests that, in general, we may determine y[n] for all n
without Eq. (2.6) at an infinite
evaluating number of distinct shifts n. This is accomplished
determine h[n
\342\200\224
k], first reflect h[k] about k = 0 to obtain h[k]. Then shift by h.
6. For each interval of time shifts, sum all the values of the correspondingwn[k] to
obtain y[n] on that interval.
response are applied in the correct order.This illustrates why the impulse response is
reflected in the reflectandshift convolution sum evaluation procedure.The output of the
assembly line at each position n is the sum of the products of the impulse response values and
the corresponding input signal values.
The impulse responseh[n] of this system is obtained by letting x[n] = 8[n], which yields
=  
h[n] 4]),
\302\253[\302\253
\\{u[n)
106 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
li
L
i\342\200\224oo~\302\253
0 2 4 6 8
(b)
x[k]
1 6 o o o
11
4 6 8
h[nk]
1/4 1/4
???t
n3 n 0 n 4
(c) (d)
\"\342\200\236[\302\253 \"\342\200\236[*]
yM
iiillHlflllt
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
10 1
(g)
FIGURE 2.4 Evaluation of the convolution sum for Example 2.3. (a) The system impulse response
h[n]. (b) The input signal x[n]. (c) The input above the reflected and timeshifted impulse response
h[n \342\200\224
k], depicted as a function The product signal
of k. (d) wn[k] for the interval of shifts
as depicted in Fig. 2.4(a). Determine the output of the system when the input is the
x[n]
= u[n]  u[n

10]
and shown in Fig. 2.4(b).
Solution: First, we graph x[k] and h[n \342\200\224
k]9 treating n as a constant and k as the
independent variable, as depicted in Fig. 2.4(c). Next, we identify intervals of time shifts on
which the intermediate signal w\342\200\236[k]
=
x[k]h[n
\342\200\224
k] does not change its mathematical
representation. We begin with n large and negative,in which case w\342\200\236[k] =
0, because there
is no overlap in the nonzero portions of x[k] and h[n
\342\200\224
k]. By increasing h, we see that
wn[k]
=
0, provided that n < 0. Hence,the first interval of shifts is n < 0.
2.3 Convolution Sum Evaluation Procedure 107
For n = 1,
= /l/4, * = 0,1
wt[k]
1\302\260.
otherwise'
In general,for n so, we may write the mathematical representation for \302\253a*]
as
= fl/4,
<
w\342\200\236[k]
1 o, otherwise
^]=l0, ot
otherwise
as depicted in Fig. 2.4(e).This representation holds until n = 9, sinceat that value of h, the
Thus, our third
\342\200\224
right edge of h[n k] slides past the right edge of x[k]. interval of shifts
is 3 < n < 9.
Next, for n > 9, the mathematical representation of wn[k] is given by
=
 3 <& < 9
^] ot
otherwise
\\0,
as depictedin Fig.2.4(f).This 9, or h = 12, since,for
=
\342\200\224
representation holds until h 3
h > 12, the left edge of h[n \342\200\224
k] lies to the right of x[k], and the mathematical
representation for wn[k] again changes. Hence, the fourth interval of shifts is 9 < n ^ 12.
Forall values of n > 12, we see that = 0.
w\342\200\236[k] Thus, the last interval of time shifts
in thisproblem 12. is n >
The output of the system on each interval n is obtained by summing the values of
the corresponding w\342\200\236[k]
according to Eq. (2.6). Evaluation of the sumsis simplified by
noting that
X^
=
c(N M + 1).
k=M
y[n)= \302\2611/4
n+ 1
108 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
=  
i(\302\253 (\342\200\236 3) + 1)
= 1.
For 9 < n <
12, Eq. (2.6) yields
=
y[\302\253] 2 V4
k = n3
= + l)
\302\261(9(*3)
13  *
y[n]

py[n

1] = x[n].
Let the input be given by
x[n] = bnu[n
+ 4].
We use convolution to find the output of this system, assuming that b * p and that the
system is causal.
Solution: First we find the impulse response of this system by setting x[n]
=
S[n] so
that y[n] correspondsto the impulse response h[n]. Thus, we may write
= 
h[n] ph[n 1] 4 S[n]. (2.7)
Since the system is causal,the impulse response cannot begin before the impulse is applied,
and we have
h[n]
= 0 for n < 0. Evaluating Eq. (2.7) for n  0, 1, 2,..., we find that
h[0]
=
l,h[l] = p,h[2] = p\\...or
=
h[n] pnu[n]. (2.8)
. ^ , 4 <
'\"\342\200\242 k
x[k]
otherwise
\342\226\240R
and
k < n
\302\253.

*i

ft; otherwise\"
Now we identify intervals of time shifts for which the mathematical representation of wn[k]
is the same. We begin by consideringn largeand negative. We see that, for n < 4,
= 0, since there are no values that x[k] and h[n \342\200\224 nonzero.
Wn[k] k such k] are both
Hence, the first interval is n < \342\200\2244.
2.3 Convolution Sum Evaluation Procedure 109
x[k]
\\b+
+1
wn[k\\
2024
h[nk]
'\"?fflll
n
(a) (b)
Figure 2.5 Evaluation of the convolution sum for Example 2.4. (a) The input signal x[k] depicted
above thereflected and timeshifted impulse response h[n
\342\200\224
k]. (b) The product signal for
u/\342\200\236[k]
4 < n.
=
y[n] 2= bkpnk.
k 4
*\342\226\240>'\302\243(?)'\342\200\242
We may write the sum in a standard form by changing the variable of summation.
Let m = k + 4; then
/L\\m4
\302\253+4
m=o \\P/
Next, we apply the formula for summing a geometric series of n + 5 terms to obtain
i  er
110 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
(c)
Figure 2.5 (c) The output y[n] assuming that p = 0.9 and b = 0.8.
Combining the solutions for eachinterval of time shifts gives the system output:
0, n < 4,
=
< _., pn+s
 bn+s\"
y[n]
Figure 2.5(c) depicts the output y[n]9 assuming that p = 0.9 and b = 0.8.
y[n] = py[n
 1] 4
x[n].
We use convolution to find the value of an investment earning 8% per year if $1000 is
deposited at the start of each year for 10 years and then $1500 is withdrawn at the start of
each year for 7 years.
Solution: We expect the account balanceto grow for the first 10 years, due to the deposits
and accumulated interest. The value of the account will likely decrease during the next 7
years, however becauseof the withdrawals, and afterwards the value will continue
growingdue to interest accrued. We may quantify these predictions by using the reflectandshift
convolution sum evaluation procedure to evaluate y[n]
= x[n] * h[n] where x[n] is
depicted in Figure 2.6 and h[n] = pnu[n] is as shown in Example 2.4 with p
= 1.08.
2.3 Convolution Sum Evaluation Procedure ill
10001
II 10 12 14 16
iii i i i
2 4
1500+ 6 6 6 6 6 6 0
Figure 2.6 Cash flow into an investment. Deposits of $ 1000are made at the start of each of the
first 10 years, while withdrawals of $ 1500are made at the start of each of the next 7 years.
...
= (1000(1.08)*\"*, 0<*<*
w\302\273[k]
\\ o, otherwise
x[k]
iooo i
10 12 14 16
2 4 6 8
1500+ 6 6 0 0 II
0 6 0
\"\342\200\236[*]
h[nk) 1000(1.08)'
o 0 0 (1.08)**
nun
n
(a) (b)
\"\342\200\236[*] \"\342\200\236[*]
1000(1.08)\"\"* 1000(1.08)*\"*
/
TIlffiTTfy. \342\226\240?\342\200\224\302\273
2 4 6 8
\302\260
15000.08)** \342\200\224^6 o 1500(1.08)**
(c) (d)
Figure 2.7 Evaluation of the convolution sum for Example 2.5. (a) The
input signal x[k] depicted
above the reflected and timeshifted impulse response h[n
\342\200\224
k]. (b) The
product signal for
w\342\200\236[k]
0 < n < 9. (c)TTie product signal wn[k] for 10 < <
\302\253 16. (d)TTie product signal wn[k] for 17 < n.
112 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
=
y[n] 21000(1.08)\"*
*=o
=
1000(1
08).(th)'
=
y[n] 1000(1.08)\"
1 _^_To!
 1),
= 12,500((1.08)\"+1 0< n < 9.
wn[k\\
=
1500(1.08)\"*, 10 < k <
n,
0, otherwise
9 n

y[n]
=
2
*=o
1000(1.08)\"* 2 1500(1.08)\"\"*
*=io
\\n n10 / a
=
1000(1.08)\"
 1500(1.08)
J) (j^) m=0 \\1.U5/
Note that in the second sum we changed the index of summation torn = k \342\200\224
lOin order
to write the sum in the standard form. Now we apply the formula for summing geometric
series to both sums and write
i  1 \\n9
=  1500(1.08) n10 (m)
y[n] 1000(1.08)\"( _ ~j^
V 1 1.08 / 1 \"\"
T08
=
7246.89(1.08)\"
  1),
18,750((1.08)\"\"9 10< n < 16.
o i
20,000  O
~
o I I I
I 9 I I I I
15,0001\342\200\224 9 I I I IJ
r ?9o ? In
I
?
I
I I I I I T
I
I
??9
I I I I I I I
1 I
o I I
9 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I\342\200\224I
10,000I\342\200\224
9 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I 9 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
9 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
5000I
rtiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin
10 15 20 25
Year
(e)
FIGURE 2.7 (e) The output y[n] representing the value of the investment in U.S. dollars
after
immediately the deposit or withdrawal at the start of year n.
= Q(1.08)101  % ^(l.OS)7 1
y[n]
1000(1.08r9V1()8; _^ 1500(1.08)\"\"V
10g'_1
= 17 < n.
3,340.17(1.08)w,
Figure 2.7(e) depictsy[n]9 the value of the investment at the start of each period, by
combining the results for each of the four intervals. \342\226\240
Problem
\342\226\272 2.1 Repeat the convolution in Example 2.1, using the convolution sum
evaluation procedure.
Answer: SeeExample 2.1. ^
Problem
\342\226\272 2.2 Evaluate the following discretetimeconvolution sums:
(a) y[n]
=
u[n] * u[n
 3]
=
(b) y[n] (l/2yu[n2]*u[n]
(c) y[n]= cf{u[n  2]  u[n  13]} * 2{u[n + 2]  u[n  12]}
(d) y[n] = {u[n] + 2u[n 3] u[n
  
6]) * (u[n + 1]
 u[n  10])

(e) y[n] \342\200\224
u[n 2] * h[n], where
h[n]~U, \302\253*o,hl<i
(f) y[n]
=
x[n] * h[n]9 wherex[n] and h[n] are shown in Fig. 2.8.
Answers:
(a)
3
71 J 
2, n > 3
[n
114 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
4 t>
p
oooojl 2 o
4 2 T
1
4 i 2 4
6 2
<>
<> 4
(b)
0, <
\302\253 2
=
y[\302\273]  (1/2)\", \302\273S2
{ 1/2
(c)
o, M < 0
 (a) 1n
2a\"
+2 1 < < 10
1  azj\342\200\224, 0 \302\253
\"
\342\200\2361 (\302\253)\"\"
= 2a12 11 < <
\302\253 13
y[\302\253] \\
1  a
\342\200\224ZT,
2a 12i(\302\253r24
, 14 < <
\302\253 23
la\"1
o, n s24
(d)
o, <
\302\253 1
(\302\273
+ 2), ls\302\253sl
\302\2734, 2 < <
\302\253 4
= 5^\302\273s9
y[\302\273] < 0,
\302\2739, 10 s <
\302\253 11
15  12 s < 14
\302\253
\302\253,
0, n > 14
(e) .,\302\273!
<
\302\253 2
yl'
=
1 \"
y[\302\253]
1 7,\"\"1
>
\302\253 2
\342\200\224 \342\200\224,
,y 1 1 t;
(f)
=
10 + (n + 5)(\302\253
+ 4)/2, 8 s < S
\302\273
y[\302\253]
s < '
+
5(\302\253 2), 4 \302\273 0
10  n(n 
l)/2, 1< <
\302\253 4
2.4 The Convolution Integral 115
x(t)
=
x(T)8(t
 t) dr. (2.9)
/
Joo
Here, the superposition is an integral instead of a sum, and the time shifts are given by the
continuous variable r. The weights x(t) dr are derived from the value of the signal x(t) at
the time t at which each impulse occurs. Recall that Eq. (2.9) is a statement of the sifting
y(t) = H{x(t)}
=
h{
/ x(r)8(t t) dr\\.
Using the linearity property of the system, we may interchange the order of the operator
H and integration to obtain
y(t)
f
x(T)H{8(t T)}dT. (2.10)
As in the discretetime case, the response of a continuoustime linear system to timeshifted
impulses completely describesthe inputoutput characteristics of the system.
Next, we define the impulse response h(t) = H{8(t)} as the output of the system in
response to a unit impulse input. If the system is also time invariant, then
impulse response output, as shown in Fig. 2.9. Hence, substituting this result into Eq. (2.10),
h(t)
1
A r\\ t
X
S^
(a)
x(r)8(t r) X(T)h(tT)
*(r)
\342\200\224
Kf)
Ll n
'1 A \342\200\236
Kb)
Figure 2.9 (a) Impulse response of an LTI system H. (b) The output of an LTI system to a time
shifted and amplitudescaled impulse is a timeshifted and amplitudescaled impulse response.
116 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
we seethat the output of an LTI systemin response to an input of the form of Eq. (2.9)may
be expressed as
y(t)
=
/ X(T)h(t~ T) dT. (2.12)
Joo
x(t) *
h(t)
=
x(T)h(t
 r) dr.
/
Joo
As with the convolution sum, the procedure for evaluating the convolution integral is based
on defining an intermediate signal that simplifies the evaluation of the integral. The
convolution integral of Eq. (2.12) is expressed as
y(t)
=
f x(r)h(t r)dr. (2.13)
Jot
wt(r) = x(T)h(t 
r).
=
y(t) f wt(r)dT. (2.14)
Jcx
Thus, the system output at any time t is the area under the signal wt{r).
In general, the mathematical representation of wt{r) depends on the value of t. As in
the discretetime case, we avoid evaluating Eq. (2.14)at an infinite number of values of t
by identifying intervals of t on which wt(r) does not change its mathematical
We
representation. then need only to evaluate Eq. (2.14), using the wt{r) associated with each interval.
Often, it is helpful to graph both x(t) and h(t \342\200\224
r) in determining wt(r) and identifying
the appropriate set of shifts. This procedureis summarized as follows:
2.5 Convolution Integral Evaluation Procedure U7
end of the current set of shifts and the beginning of a new set.
5. Let t be in the new set. Repeat steps3 and 4 until all sets of shifts t and the
corresponding representations of wt(r) are identified. This usually implies increasing t
to a large positive value.
6. For each set of shifts t, integrate wt(r) from r = ootOT=ooto obtain y(t).
past
h(\342\200\224r) x(t)left to right. Transitions in the sets of t associated
from with the same
form of wt{r) generally occur when a transition in h(r) slides through a transition in
t) beneath x(t). Note
\342\200\224
x(t). Identification of these intervals is simplified by graphing h(t
that we can integrate wt(r) as each set of shifts is identified (i.e., after Step 4) rather than
waiting until all sets are identified. Integration of wt{r)corresponds to finding the signed
area under wt{r). The next three examplesillustrate this procedure for evaluating the
convolution integral.
convolution
integral for a system with input x(t) and impulse response h(t)9 respectively, given by
x(t)
= u(tl)u(t3)
and
h(t) = u(t) 
u(t
 2),
x(t) Ht)
ll l
0 12 3 0 12
Figure 2.10 Input signal and LTI system impulse response for Example 2.6.
118 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
X(T)
1
0 1 2 3
Wt{T)
HtT)
a
t2 t i t
(a) (b)
li
0 t2 3
(c)
FIGURE 2.11 Evaluation of the convolution integral for Example 2.6. (a) The input x(r) depicted
above the reflected and timeshifted impulse response b(t \342\200\224
t), depicted as a function of r. (b) The
product signal wt(r) for 1 ^ t < 3. (c) The product signal wt(T) for 3 ^ t < 5. (d) The system
output y(f).
[0, otherwise
This representationfor wt{r) is depicted in Fig. 2.11(b). It does not change until t > 3, at
which point both edgesof h(t \342\200\224
r) pass through the edges of x(t). Thesecondinterval of
For
\342\226\272 t < 1 and t > 5, we have y(t)
= 0, since wt{r) is zero.
For
\342\226\272 the second interval, 1^ t < 3, the area under wt{r) shown in Fig. 2.11(b) is
y{t) = tl.
For
\342\226\272 3 ^ t < 5, the area under wt{r) shown in Fig. 2.11(c) is y(t) = 3 \342\200\224
(t
\342\200\224
2).
2.5 Convolntio Integral Evaluatiot Procedure 119
Combining the solutions for each interval of time shifts gi\\es the output
0, t < 1
t'  1, 1 < t < 3
5  t,
=
y{t) <
3 < f < 5'
0, t > 5
as shown in Fig. 2.11(d).
Example 2.7 RC Circuit Output Consider the RC circuit depicted in Fig. 2.12, and
assume that the circuit's time constant is RC = Is. Example 1.21 shows that the impulse
response of this circuit is
h(t)
= e'u(t).
Useconvolution to determine the voltage across the capacitor, y(t), resulting from an input
analysis indicates that the capacitor should charge toward the supply voltage in an
exponential fashion beginning at time t = 0 wThen the voltage source is turned on, and then, at
time t = the voltage sourceis turned
2, when off, start to discharge exponentially.
To
verify intuition using the convolution integral, we first graph
our x(r) and h(t \342\200\224
t)
as functions of the independent\\ariable t. We see from Fig. 2.13(a) that
fl, 0<7
'n
[0, otherwise
otherv
and
lV(r~T) t < t
v ' v ;
[ 0, otherw
othen ise\"
Now we identify the intervals of time shifts t for which the mathematical
representationof wt(T) does not change. Begin with t large and negative. Provided that t < 0, we
have wt(r) = 0, since there are no values t for which x(t) and h(t
\342\200\224
t) are both
nonzero.Hence, the first interval of shifts is t < 0.
Note that at t = 0 the right edge of h(t  t) intersects the left edge of x(r). For t > 0,
0<7<t
= le~{'~T)>
t(T)
(T)
otherwise
\"
\\ 0,
This representation for wt(r) is depicted in Fig. 2.13(b). It does not change its
mathematical
representation until t > 2, at which point the right edge of h(t
\342\200\224
r) passes through the
right edge of x(t). The second interval of shifts t is thus 0 ^ t < 2.
^C y(t)
FlGLRE 2.12 RC circuit s\\stem with the voltage source x(t) as input and the voltage measured
across the capacitor, y(t), as output.
120 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
*<T)
1
H\342\200\224
0' 1 2 Wt(T)
HtT)
fi\\t~T)
H
t
(a) (b)
m/jCt)
0.86
(c)
FIGURE 2.13 Evaluation of the convolution integral for Example 2.7. (a) The input x(t)
superimposed over the reflected and timeshifted impulse responseh(t \342\200\224
t), depicted as a function of r.
(b) The product signal wt(r) for 0 ^ t < 2. (c) The product signal wt(r) for t ^ 2. (d) The system
output y(\302\243).
t \\ /e('\"T)'
0 < t < 2
otherwise
Figure 2.13(c) depicts w,(t) for this third interval of time shifts, t s 2.
We now determine the output y(t) for eachof the three intervals of time shifts by
= \342\226\240><*r
y(0
/'^('_t:
= e~'(e%)
= 1 e~'.
=
e~\\e%)
= 
(e2 l)e.
Combining the solutions for the three intervals of time shifts gives the output
t< 0
1e', 0^t<2,
(0,
{<?\\)e~\\ *>2
as depicted in Fig. 2.13(d). This result agrees with our intuition from circuit analysis.
2.5 Convolution Integral Evaluation Procedure 121
input x(t) and impulse responseh(t) of an LTI system are, respectively, given by
x(t)
=
(t

l)[\302\273(t

1)
 u(t  3)]
and
h(t)
=
w(* + 1)
 2u(t 2).
Find the output of this system.
Solution: Graphx(t) and h(t in Fig. 2.14(a). From thesegraphical
\342\200\224
r) as shown
representations, we determine of time shifts, t, on which the mathematical
the intervals
representation of wt(r) does not change. We begin with t large and negative.For t + 1 < 1
ort < 0, the right edge r) is to the left of the nonzero portion of x(r),
of h(t \342\200\224 and
= 0.
consequently, wt{r)
For t > 0, the right edge of h(t \342\200\224
r) overlaps with the nonzero portion of x(r),
and we have
2+
h(tT)
H h
t2 r+l 1 r+l
l
(a) (b)
2i
fl/^T)
t2
\\
f
f\342\200\224
2+
(d) (e)
Figure 2.14 Evaluation of the convolution integral for Example 2.8. (a) The input x(t)
superimposed on the reflected and timeshifted impulse responseb(t \342\200\224 t), depicted as a function of t.
(b) The product signal wt{r) for 0 ^ t < 2. (c) The product signal wt(T) for 2 ^ f < 3. (d) The
product signal wt(r) for 3 ^ t < 5. (e) The product signal wr(T) for f ^ 5. (f) The system output y(t).
122 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
\"^ '
\\ 0, otherwise
/r+i (rl)dr
tV lr+1\\
\342\200\224
T
2*
For 2 ^ ^< 3, the area under wt(r) is y(t) = 2. On the next interval, 3 ^ t < 5, we have
= \"
y(0
/ (rl)dr+ J (rl)dr
= t2 + 6t7.
for t ^ 5, the area under \302\253/r(r) is y(t) = \342\200\2242. the for the
Finally, Combining outputs
different intervals of time shifts gives the result
o, t< o
0< t< 2
y,
y(t)
=
{ 2, 2<f<3>
 3 f < 5
t2 + 6t 7, =\302\243
2, U5
as depicted in Fig. 2.14(f).
2.5 Convolution Integral Evaluation Procedure 123
Problem
\342\226\272 23 Let the impulse responseof an LTI system be h(i) = e rw(*) Find Ae
=
output y(t) if the input is x(t) u(t).
Answer:
= I \302\243T2('+1VT,
OO < T < t + 1
wt{r)
0, otherwise
so
y(') = f *'+1.
and
y(,)
= ee+D 
je2('+1>.
Problem
\342\226\272 2.5 Let the input x(f) to an LTI system with impulse response h(t) be given
in Fig. 2.15. Find the output y(t).
Answer:
f
0, t<4,t>2
(l/2)t2 + At + 8, 4 f <
\302\243 3
t + 7/2, 3 < * < 2
 t+ 2SK1.
y(t) i = <
(1/2)*2 3/2,

(1/2)*2 f + 3/2, 1SK0
3/2
 f, 0 t <
\302\243 1
[ (1/2)*2
 2t + 2, 1 f <
=\302\243 2
*< t) h [t)
i r 1
r /,
r i f, \\ i
i 0 1 3 21 0 1
FIGURE 2.15 Signals for Problem 2.5.
124 Chapter 2 TimeDomain
\342\226\240 Representations of Linear TimeInvariant Systems
Problem
\342\226\272 2.6 Let the impulse response of an LTI system be given by
=
output of this system in response to the
\342\200\224\342\200\224 \342\200\224
h(t) u(t 1) u(t 4). Find the input
= + u{t
x(t) u(t) 1) 2u(t2).
Answer:
o, t < 1
t1, 1 < t<2
It 3, 2sk3
y(t)
=
< 3, 3sk4.
7t, 4 s* < 5
0, U 6
system impulse response insight into the operation of the system. We shall
provides
developthis insight in the next section and in subsequentchapters. Topave the way for our
development, consider the following example.
radiofrequency (RF) pulse and determining the roundtrip time delay for the echo of the
pulse to return to the radar. In this we
example, identify an LTI system describing the
propagation of the pulse. Let the transmitted RF pulse be given by
sin(wct), 0s(<To
x(t) otherwise
\342\226\240{ 0,
as shown in Fig.2.16(a).
Suppose we transmit an impulse from the radar to determinethe impulse responseof
the roundtrip propagation to the target. The impulse is delayed in time and attenuated in
= a8(t
amplitude, which results in the impulse
\342\200\224
response h(t) /3), where a represents the
attenuation factor and j3 the roundtrip time delay. Use the convolution of x(t) with h(t)
to verify this result.
r)
h(\342\200\224
=
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