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Psychological Behavior

THE BEHAVIOURAL THEORY IS A PERSPECTIVE ON MANAGEMENT THAT EMPHASISES THE IMPORTANCE


OF ATTEMPTING TO UNDERSTAND THE VARIOUS FACTORS THAT AFFECT HUMAN BEHAVIOUR IN
ORGANISATIONS”. THE EMPLOYEES BEHAVIOR WAS NOT AFFECTED BY JOB CONDITIONS ALONE, THERE
WERE INTERNAL REACTIONS TO THE JOB SITUATION ALSO THAT AFFECT THEIR BEHAVIOUR.

behaviorist principles can be broadly applied to change behaviors. Given that our goal
is to encourage the use of better study strategies, any mechanism that can change
behavior is worth considering.

BF skinner

BF Skinner (a radical behavorist, famous for his assertion that there is no such thing
as free will) pioneered research on a different form of learning - operant conditioning.
In operant conditioning, the organism behaves in order to elicit a reward
(reinforcement) or stops behaving to avoid a punishment. There are four different
possible consequences to behavior in operant conditioning. The behavior can be
rewarded (causing it to be repeated) or punished (making it less likely to be repeated).
We can either give something to the organism (called "positive" because we are
adding a stimulus) or we can take something away (called "negative" because we are
subtracting a stimulus). Thus, our four consequences are positive and negative
reinforcement and positive and negative punishment. Here are some examples:

Let's say I want to increase the frequency that my teenage daughter cleans her room. This means I
need a reinforcement. I can give her something she likes (e.g. cash, more screen time) each time she
cleans her room - positive reinforcement. I could also take something away that she doesn't like (e.g.
doing dishes) - negative reinforcement.

Let's say I want to decrease the frequency that she says swear words. This means I need a
punishment. I can give her something she doesn't like (e.g. shame, soap in her mouth) - positive
punishment. I could instead take away something she does like (e.g. her phone) - negative
punishment.

Credits:

www.funderstanding.com/theory/behaviorism/
http://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2017/8/10-1

https://www.simplypsychology.org/edward-thorndike.html