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Solid Geometry

What is solid geometry?


Solid geometry is concerned with three-dimensional shapes. Some examples of
three-dimensional shapes are cubes, rectangular
solids, prisms, cylinders, spheres, cones and pyramids. We will look at the
volume formulas and surface area formulas of the solids. We will also discuss
some nets of solids.

The following figures show some examples of shapes in solid geometry. Scroll down
the page for more examples, explanations and worksheets for each shape.

The following table gives the volume formulas and surface area formulas for the
following solid shapes: Cube, Rectangular Prism, Prism, Cylinder, Sphere, Cone, and
Pyramid.
Cubes

A cube is a three-dimensional figure with six matching square sides.

The figure above shows a cube. The dotted lines indicate edges hidden from
your view.
If s is the length of one of its sides, then the volume of the cube is s × s × s

Volume of the cube = s3

The area of each side of a cube is s2. Since a cube has six square-shape sides,
its total surface area is 6 times s2.

Surface area of a cube = 6s2

Rectangular Prisms or Cuboids

A rectangular prism is also called a rectangular solid or a cuboid.

In a rectangular prism, the length, width and height may be of different lengths.

The volume of the above rectangular prism would be the product of the length,
width and height that is

Volume of rectangular prism = lwh

Total area of top and bottom surfaces is lw + lw = 2lw


Total area of front and back surfaces is lh + lh = 2lh
Total area of the two side surfaces is wh + wh = 2wh

Surface area of rectangular prism = 2lw + 2lh + 2wh = 2(lw + lh + wh)

Prisms
A prism is a solid that has two congruent parallel bases that are polygons. The
polygons form the bases of the prism and the length of the edge joining the
two bases is called the height.

Triangle-shaped base Pentagon-shaped base

The above diagrams show two prisms: one with a triangle-shaped base called a
triangular prism and another with a pentagon-shaped base called a pentagonal
prism.

A rectangular solid is a prism with a rectangle-shaped base and can be called a


rectangular prism.

The volume of a prism is given by the product of the area of its base and its
height.

Volume of prism = area of base × height

The surface area of a prism is equal to 2 times area of base plus perimeter of
base times height.

Surface area of prism = 2 × area of base + perimeter of base × height

Cylinders

A cylinder is a solid with two congruent circles joined by a curved surface.


In the above figure, the radius of the circular base is r and the height is h. The
volume of the cylinder is the area of the base × height.The net of a
solid cylinder consists of 2 circles and one rectangle. The curved surface opens
up to form a rectangle.

The net of a solid cylinder consists of 2 circles and one rectangle. The curved surface opens up
to form a rectangle.

Surface area = 2 × area of circle + area of rectangle

Surface area of cylinder = 2πr2 + 2πrh = 2πr (r + h)

Spheres

A sphere is a solid with all its points the same distance from the center.

Cones

A circular cone has a circular base, which is connected by a curved surface to its
vertex. A cone is called a right circular cone, if the line from the vertex of the
cone to the center of its base is perpendicular to the base.
The net of a solid cone consists of a small circle and a sector of a larger circle.
The arc of the sector has the same length as the circumference of the smaller
circle.

Surface area of cone = Area of sector + area of circle

= πrs + πr2 = πr(r

Pyramids

A pyramid is a solid with a polygon base and connected by triangular faces to


its vertex. A pyramid is a regular pyramid if its base is a regular polygon and
the triangular faces are all congruent isosceles triangles.
Submitted by:
Marissa Bensay
Submitted to:
Rex A. Tanlawan