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1.

5 DNA and RNA molecules


At the end of the lesson, students should be
able to:
a. State the structures of nucleotide as the
basic composition of nucleic acid (DNA and
RNA)
b. Illustrate structure of DNA based on the
Watson and Crick Model.
c. State the types and of RNA
d. Compare of DNA and RNA.
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1.5 DNA and RNA molecules
 Complex organic compound in
living cells
 Polymer that made of
monomer called nucleotides

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Structure of nucleotides
 A nucleotide is made up of THREE
components:
1. A pentose sugar (5C)
2. A nitrogenous base
3. A phosphate group

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Structure of nucleotides
Nitrogenous base

Phosphate group

Covalent bond

Phosphoester
bond

Pentose sugar
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Structure of nucleotides: Pentose sugar
Pentose sugar

Deoxyribose in DNA Ribose in RNA


C5H10O4 C5H10O5

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Structure of nucleotides: Nitrogenous base
• Nitrogenous bases is attached to the carbon
number 1 of pentose sugar
• Two types of nitrogen bases:
1) Purines (double ring)
E.g.: Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)

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Structure of nucleotides: Nitrogenous base
• 2) Pyrimidines (single ring)
E.g.: Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) and Uracil (U)

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Structure of nucleotides: Phosphate group

 Phosphate group (PO4) is attached to the sugar


at carbon number 5 with a phosphoester
bond.
 A phosphate group is linked between the
carbon atom 3 of one pentose sugar and
carbon atom 5 of the next pentose sugar
molecule
 Forming a phosphodiester bond

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Phosphoester bond

Phosphodiester
bond

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Nucleotide component
DNAWatson
structure-and Crick
Watson andModel
Crick Model
• It is a polymer consisting
of two strands of
polynucleotide
• Coiled in a spiral to form
a double helix.
• Sugar and phosphate
group is linked by
phosphodiester bond to
form sugar backbone.
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Watson and Crick Model

• There are four different


bases in DNA.
• Two purines are
adenine (A) and
guanine (G).
• Two pyrimidines are
cytosine (C) and
thymine (T).

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Watson and Crick Model

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Watson and Crick Model

• The two sugar phosphate


backbone are antiparallel.
• One strand runs 5’ to 3’
end.
• While the other strand runs
from 3’ to 5’ end.
• The two polynucleotide
strands of double helix are
complementary to each
other.

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Watson and Crick Model
• The base pairs are
arranged at the
distance of 3.4 Å/ 0.34
nm from each other.
• One complete turn of
the helix is made up of
10 pairs of nucleotides
and the distance is
34 Å/3.4nm.

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RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
 The THREE main types
of RNA are:
1. Messenger RNA
(mRNA)
2. Ribosomal RNA
(rRNA)
3. Transfer RNA
(tRNA)

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1. Messenger RNA (mRNA)

 Made up of a single strand


polynucleotide.
 It carries the genetic
information transcripted
from DNA in the nucleus
to the ribosomes in the
cytoplasm where protein
is synthesize.

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2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
 r RNA is contain in
ribosome.
 the most abundant
type of RNA in cell.
 Assist or involve in
protein synthesis

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3. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
 The smallest RNA
molecules containing
75-80 nucleotides
 Function of tRNA is
transfer or carry specific
amino acids to the
ribosomes for
polymerisation into
polypeptide chains
during translation.
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DNA &between
Comparison RNA compared
DNA and RNA

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Comparison between DNA and RNA
Similarities between DNA and RNA
• Both are nucleic acids.
• They are polymers containing
polynucleotide chain.
• Both have a sugar phosphate
backbone
• Both have four different types of
bases

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Differences between DNA & RNA

DNA RNA
consist of 2 long consists of a shorter single
polynucleotide strands polynucleotide strand

form double helix no double helix is formed

deoxyribose as pentose sugar ribose as pentose sugar

organic bases: organic bases:


Adenine, Thymine , Guanine, Adenine, Uracil , Guanine,
Cytosine Cytosine
found only in nucleus manufactured in nucleus but
found throughout the cell
Differences between DNA & RNA

DNA RNA
chemically very stable chemically unstable
permanent existing temporary existing
only one basic form 3 basic forms ( mRNA, tRNA
& rRNA )
DNA carries genetic 3 different types of RNA are
information important in protein
synthesis
larger molecular mass smaller molecular mass