Anda di halaman 1dari 3

P1 Conservation and

Student Book answers dissipation of energy

Question Answer Marks Guidance


number
1a energy transferred by electric current to heater and motor 1
in heater, increases store of thermal energy so becomes hot 1
in fan motor, transferred to air as kinetic energy 1
air warmed by heater heats objects and material it comes into contact 1
with
heater warms fan heater case and vibrating parts of heater create 1
sound waves
1bi energy transferred where wanted in way wanted 1
in fan heater, transferred by current to heater transferred heat air 1
creating convection currents and keeping motor turning to make air 1
move
1 b ii energy transferred that is not useful 1
in fan heater, kinetic energy from vibrations of motor transferred as 1
sound waves
and by heating fan heater case 1
2ai loses gravitational potential energy and gains kinetic energy 1
some energy lost due to air resistance 1
2 a ii loses more gravitational potential energy and all kinetic energy 1
energy lost mostly transferred as elastic energy into rope 1
some energy may be lost due to air resistance 1
2b maximum kinetic energy when rope taut 1
if 100% efficiency, maximum kinetic energy = 12 000 J 1 Must have unit to gain mark.
3ai 7000 kW × 300 s = 210 MJ 1 Must have unit to gain mark.
3 a ii 23 m/s × 300 s = 6900 m 1 Must have unit to gain mark.
3 a iii 210 000 000 1
= 30 435
6900
≈ 30 000 N 1

© Oxford University Press 2016 www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements


This resource sheet may have been changed from the original. 1
P1 Conservation and
Student Book answers dissipation of energy

3 a iv a = zero so resultant force = zero 1


as driving force and resistive force must be equal and opposite in 1
direction
3b train gains gravitational potential energy as it travels up incline 1
rate it transfers energy to surroundings unchanged as speed same and 1
resistive forces unchanged
so output engine power needs to be greater as energy must be 1
transferred to train as gravitational potential energy as well as to 1
surroundings
4a mg = 150 N 1
EP = 150 N × 1.2 m = 180 J 1
4b W = 11 N × 20 m 1
= 220 J 1
4c trolley did not gain kinetic energy as speed constant 1
trolley gained 180 J gravitational potential energy which is 40 J < work 1
done by student
resistive forces such as friction at trolley wheels → 40 J to surroundings 1
as waste energy
5a energy initially stored in stretched cord as elastic potential energy → 1
arrow as kinetic energy when cord released
as arrow gains height its kinetic energy decreases and gravitational 1
potential energy increases
at maximum height arrow has maximum gravitational potential energy 1
and minimum kinetic energy
as it travels through air, some energy transferred to air due to air 1
resistance
5bi 0.5 × 0.015 kg × (25 m/s)2 1
= 4.7 J 1
5 b ii 0.015 kg × 10 N/kg × 20 m 1
= 3.0 J 1

© Oxford University Press 2016 www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements


This resource sheet may have been changed from the original. 2
P1 Conservation and
Student Book answers dissipation of energy

5 b iii 4.7 J − 3.0 J 1


= 1.7 J 1
EK = ½mv2 = 1.7 J so ½ × 0.015 kg × v2 = 1.7 J 1
1.7 𝐽𝐽
v2 =
0.5 × 0.015 kg
= 227 m2/s2 1
v = 15 m/s 1
6a EK = 0.5 × 75 kg × (60 m/s)2 1
= 135 kJ 1
6bi 0.5 × 75 kg × (5 m/s)2 1
= 940 J 1
6 b ii 75 kg × 10 N/kg × 900 m 1
= 675 kJ 1
6c W = (GPE + KE) at start – KE after = 675 kJ + 135 kJ − 940 J 1
= 809 kJ 1
7ai mgh = 500 N × 3.0 m 1
= 1500 J 1
7 a ii energy supplied = 600 W × 25 s = 15 000 J 1
energy wasted = 15 000 J − 1500 J = 13 500 J 1
7b 1500 J/15 000 J 1
= 10% 1

© Oxford University Press 2016 www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/acknowledgements


This resource sheet may have been changed from the original. 3