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EDR TRAINING

FOR OEMS
Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Presented by Jon Wood


jonathan.h.wood@evoqua.com

©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC


is
committed to both
Performance
and
Support
NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017
Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 2
EDR Training Day 2
Sections

•Process Design
•Startup and Operation
•Troubleshooting
•Cleaning and sanitization
•Repair or Replacement

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 3
PROCESS DESIGN

©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC


Topics Covered in this Section

• Feed Water Specifications


• Pretreatment
• Particulate filtration
• Iron and manganese removal
• Aluminum

• EDR System Design Issues


• Module selection and sizing
• Nexed EDR Projection Program
• pH adjustment
• Antiscalant addition

•Electrode Stream Considerations

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 5
The Design Process

• Make sure the feed stream can meet EDR feed quality requirements
• Prevent plugging, fouling, scaling
• Requires detailed analysis or projection of feed stream
• Determine any pretreatment required
• Size the EDR system
• Determine number of modules required to attain desired product quality & quantity
• Determine maximum allowable water recovery
• Need: accurate feed analysis; product specification; EDR projection software
• Projection program presently only suitable for Evoqua (NEXED) personnel
• OEM version in development
• Determine how to handle electrode stream
• Address other system concerns
• Prevent hydraulic shock
• Balance pressures
• Review level of control, instrumentation and automation required
• In context of amount of operator attention
• Electrode gases

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 6
Feed Water Specifications

Parameter Limit
Feed water salinity 15,000 ppm max, < 6,000 optimal
Product water salinity minimum 100 ppm optimal
Temperature 5-45°C (40-113°F)
Inlet pressure ≤ 1.7 bar (≤ 25 psi)
Total chlorine (as Cl2) 0.5 mg/l continuous, 30 mg/l intermittent
Iron (as Fe) <0.3 mg/L
Manganese (as Mn) <0.1 mg/L
Aluminum (as Al) <0.1 mg/L
pH 3-10
Total hardness (as CaCO3) Less than saturation limits
Dissolved organics (TOC as C) <15 mg/L optimal
Total suspended solids (size µm) < 25 µm

COD (as O2) <50 mg/L


Oil & Grease (IR method) <2.0 mg/L

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 7
Particulate Filtration

• Must remove particles > 25 µm


• Prevent clogging EDR feed channels, membrane separator screens
• Clogging with particles increases pressure loss, decreases flow
• Bag filtration
• Economical, high flow capacity
• Limited dirt holding capacity
• Cartridge filtration
• Nominal-rated depth filtration recommended (membrane filters too costly)
• String wound or melt blown, graded density (latter is preferred)
• Surfactant-free
• 5-10 micron recommended
• No strict standard for rating the pore size of nominally rated filters
• Rule of thumb is 5 gpm per 10” cartridge equivalent
• Check product’s pressure drop curves

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 8
Iron and Manganese

• EDR limit for iron (Fe) is 0.3 mg/L as ion


• EDR limit for manganese (Mn) is 0.1 mg/L as ion
• Both are easily removed
• Greensand filtration (usually with permanganate regeneration)
• Oxidation (aeration, chlorine, permanganate) followed by filtration
• Ion-exchange softening (non-selective and thus may be impractical)

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 9
Aluminum

• EDR limit for aluminum (Al) is 0.1 mg/L as ion


• Can be removed by precipitation (pH 6) followed by 10 µm filtration

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 10
Dechlorination

• Complete dechlorination not required for EDR


• Can tolerate 0.5 mg/L free Cl2 continuously
• This is higher than typically found at POU in municipal water system
• Some Cl2 in EDR feed is desirable for bacteria control
• Main dechlorination methods
• Granular activated carbon bed (most reliable)
• Chemical injection of bisulfite or other reducing agent (least expensive)

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 11
Feed Water Hardness

• Any concentration process is susceptible to scaling


• Increasing the concentration brings you closer to solubility limit
• Sparingly soluble compounds may limit maximum water recovery
• Water recovery determines the concentration factor (CF)
• CF = 100 / (100-R)) where R = percent recovery
• Major concerns are:
• CaCO3
• CaSO4
• BaSO4
• SrSO4
• Mg(OH)2
• CaPO4
• CaF2

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 12
Polarity Reversal

• Breaks up polarization films 3 to 4 times per hour, minimizing scale


formation
• 15 to 20 minute reversal for high scaling or fouling potential
• 30 to 45 minute reversal for low scaling or fouling potential
• Breaks up freshly precipitated scale or seeds of scale and flushes them to
waste before they can grow or cause damage
• Reduces slime or similar formations on membrane surfaces
• Eliminates need for continuous chemical feeds
• Automatically cleans electrodes with acid formed during anodic operation
• Common practice is to turn off concentrate recirculation pump during
valve switchover
• Minimize pressure spikes during valve transition

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 13
Design to Prevent EDR Scaling

• Polarity reversal helps but by itself may not be enough


• Use scaling indices to predict risk of CaCO3 precipitation
• Langelier saturation index (LSI)
• Calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP)
• Stiff & Davis Index
• For other compounds calculate % of saturation
• Control recovery and use chemicals as required
• pH adjustment
• Antiscalant
• Take advantage of manufacturer’s software
• Need to stay well below limiting current density

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 14
Hardness Problems

• Possible effects of hardness scaling


• Reduced product water quality
• Increased module electrical resistance
• More DC voltage needed to achieve desired DC current
• Higher power consumption
• Increased pressure drop
• Can cause hot spots
• May require acid cleaning

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 15
EDR System Sizing Procedure

• Use antiscalant software to determine maximum recovery


• Have NEXED engineer use projection program
• Inputs:
• Balanced feed water analysis and target product water quality (ppm NaCl)
• Flow rate and target water recovery
• Module configuration
• Outputs:
• Number of modules
• Estimated product water quality
• Approximate pressure drop
• Estimated power consumption

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 16
EDR Sizing Program Output

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 17
EDR Electrode reactions

• At the anode, or positively charged electrode, electrons are transferred from


ions in solution to the external circuit (the anode accepts electrons – from
oxidation) by one or more of the following reactions:
• ½ H2O ® ¼ O2 + H+ + e- [1]

• Cl- ® ½ Cl2 + e- [2]

• At the cathode, or negatively charged electrode, electrons are transferred


from the external circuit to ions in the solution (the cathode donates
electrons – for reduction) by the following reaction:
• H2O+ e- ® ½ H2 + OH- [3]

• Neglecting [2], approximately 11 ml/min gas (3.7 ml/min O2 + 7.5 ml/min H2)
are produced per amp of current, at standard conditions of 25°C and 1
atmosphere.

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 18
Electrode Solution Requirements

• Meet the NEXED feed water parameters as defined earlier


• Contain <5ppm of Mg or acidified to a pH range of 2-4
• Necessary to avoid formation of insoluble Mg(OH)2 at cathode
• Contain <0.3 ppm of H2S
• Avoid oxidation of S-2 to S0 at anode (such deposits are difficult to remove)
• Contain <2.0 ppm of F
• Prevent HF damage to titanium electrode substrate
• Want a solution conductivity greater than 1000 µS/cm
• >1000 µS/cm reduces stack resistance, increases electrical efficiency

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 19
Electrode Configurations

• Multiple sources and configurations can be considered


• Always feed in series from anode to cathode
• Batch mode
• Separate tank and pump for electrode
• Use sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) solution to avoid formation of Cl2
• Continuous mode
• Feed from concentrate recirculation loop
• A common solution utilizes an acidified concentrate stream as the electrode feed
for balancing recovery and power efficiency
• Can also acidify only the electrode stream to pH 2-4 with feedback control
• pH of electrode stream can be impacted by the TDS fluctuations during normal
reversal modes
• Bicarbonate levels can increase pH dose requirements
• Softening of only electrode stream may be practical

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 20
Disposal of EDR Reject Water

• Concentrate bleed is generally sent to plant wastewater treatment


• High TDS, scaling potential make reuse difficult
• Electrode stream may be batch mode or continuous
• Batch would use Na2SO4 solution, require periodic dump and replacement
• Continuous might use acid feed, would typically be sent to waste treatment
• Both may require active ventilation (fan) to purge electrode gases
• H2 produced at cathode (explosive)
• O2 or Cl2 produced at anode

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 21
Application:
Recovery of RO Reject Stream

• Competition is RO
• Water recovery often limited by silica solubility
• High power consumption
• EDR
• Does not remove silica
• Allows higher water recovery
• Must watch for silica concentration
• Depends on where EDR product is used

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 22
Direct Feed of RO Reject to EDR

Interlock EDR to RO
Pressure relief between RO and EDR

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 23
Tank Feed to EDR

Interlock EDR to RO permeate pump (EDR feed pump)


Size reject pump for 25 psig (1.7 bar) max
Require cartridge filtration between pump and EDR

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 24
Other EDR Applications

• Cooling Tower Blowdown


• Increase number of cycles of concentration
• Reduced consumption of water and treatment chemicals
• Brackish Groundwater Treatment
• TDS reduction on well contaminated by road salt
• Softening
• Removal of hardness and TDS
• Residential point-of-entry (whole house)
• RO pretreatment
• Brackish Water Desalination
• EDR can employ DC power control to provide consistent water quality

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 25
Other EDR “Watchouts” - Hydraulic

• Pressure differential between compartments


• Keep pressure slightly higher on product side
• Water hammer
• Simultaneous operation of product and divert valves
• Should open one before closing other
• If using 3-way valves, use Double-L Port to prevent dead-ending

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 26
Avoid water hammer:
Open and close valves slowly!

Equation used to calculate the


pressure created inside a pipe due
to water hammer (US units)

.
Pwh= +

Pwh = Pressure resulting from water hammer [psi]


V= Change in velocity of liquid in pipe [ft/sec]
L= Upstream pipe length [ft]
t= Valve closing time [sec]
= Inlet pressure before hammer condition [psi]
NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017
Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 27
Water Hammer - Example 1

V= 4 ft/sec
L= 800 ft
t= 10 sec
= 15 psi
EDR
. ( )( )
Pwh= +
( )

Pwh=

Water hammer increased pressure by 22 psi

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 29
Water Hammer - Example 2

V= 4 ft/sec
L= 800 ft
t= 1 sec
= 60 psi
EDR
. ( )( )
Pwh= +
( )

Pwh=

Water hammer increased pressure by 224 psi

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 30
Air Purge Issue

• Initial (startup) EDR module air purge can take an hour


• Therefore don’t want module to drain down during standby
• Dilute usually remains flooded if feeding tank
• But may need anti-siphon on electrode and concentrate outlet
• Stagnation can increase potential for biofouling
• Periodic flush during start/stop operation
• Maintain small chlorine residual in feed

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 31
STARTUP AND OPERATION

©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC


Topics Covered in this Section

• Module Tightening
• Determining Required Amps and Volts
• Recovery and Flow Rates
• Pressure Balancing

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 33
Tightening EDR Tie Bar Nuts

• Tools required:
• Torque wrench (0-50 ft-lbs / 0-68 N-m)
• Custom extra-deep socket (1-1/8”)
• Box wrench (1-1/8”) to hold opposite end
• Modules are torqued in the factory for testing but
loosened slightly for shipment
• Tie bar nuts MUST BE RETIGHTENED before filling
or pressurizing module
• Use a star pattern and tighten all nuts to 29.5 ft-lbs
(40 N-m)
• SAE 20W-50 oil can be used sparingly on threads
• Do NOT over tighten!
• Do NOT loosen or open module!
• Do not tighten SS screws around port fittings

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 34
DC Volts and Amps

• Voltage (potential) causes current to flow

• Current causes transfer of salt

• Current and voltage are related by Ohm’s Law


• Potential, volts = (current, amps)(resistance, ohms) V=I*R
• Amount of current required is proportional to product
water flow, amount of salt being removed
• This relationship given by Faraday’s Law

• For EDR it is very important to stay below the limiting


current density

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 35
Faraday’s Law

I = (Q)(F)(Nf-Np)/(n)(eff)

I = DC current, amps per set of electrodes

Q = product flow rate, liters/second

F = Faraday constant, 96500 coulomb/equivalent

Nf = feed normality, equivalents/liter

Np = product normality, equivalents/liter

n = number of compartments

eff = current efficiency, fractional

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 36
Faraday’s Law, simplified

I = 1.31(Q)(Ci - Ce)/(# cells)(eff)

I = DC current, amps per stack (per set of electrodes)

Q = product flow rate, liters/min/module

Ci = feed (influent) conductivity, µS/cm

Ce = product (effluent) conductivity, µS/cm

eff = current efficiency, %

This version is reasonably accurate if the influent is mostly NaCl

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 37
Limiting Current Density

• LCD is the current at which ion depletion occurs at the surface of the
membrane in the diluting compartment
• Ions are being removed faster than they can be replaced from the solution
• Have reached a condition known as concentration polarization
• Further voltage increase will not increase current or ion transport
• Depends on membrane and solution properties and velocity of diluate
• Stack resistance increases above LCD
• Want to operate well below LCD
• Calculation of LCD is not simple
• Relies on empirical formula
• Incorporated into EDR sizing software
• Use this to determine DC amps setting

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 38
G2 Power Controller Board

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 39
Setting DC Amperage

• Use DC power supply capable of automatic current-control


• Get amps required per module from NEXED projection
• Set amperage targets
• Modules will have same current for each pass within module
• Multi-stage systems will have different setting for each stage
• With NEXED algorithm, power supply adjusts voltage (and therefore current)
to maintain product water quality

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 40
How Many DC Volts Will Be Required?

• Ohms Law: Volts = (Amps)(Ohms)


• Need to determine module electrical resistance
• Many factors affect resistance:
• Feed water temperature
• Conductivity (dilute, concentrate and electrode streams)
• Ionic composition of feed water
• Degree of scaling or fouling
• Flow rate / velocity
• Applied DC current
• Approaching limiting current density
• Module type, resistance of membranes

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 41
Monitoring Volts, Amps

• Very difficult to predict resistance accurately


• Must determine “baseline resistance” after startup
• At steady state
• Very important to monitor and record DC volts & amps daily
• Must also record temperature
• Change in stack resistance can indicate scaling or fouling

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 42
Setting EDR Flow Rates & Pressures

• Flows to monitor and control


• Product (dilute)
• Concentrate recirculation
• Concentrate bleed
• Electrode
• Calculating Recovery setting
• Limited by hardness
• Determined by dilute flow and concentrate bleed flow
• Given by NEXED projection
• Pressure Balancing
• Maintain dilute outlet pressure similar to concentrate outlet
• +/- 4 psid during normal operation
• +/- 8 psid during reversal
• Concentrate recirculation flow should be > nominal dilute flow

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 43
Product Flow Range

Dilute Compartment Flow Rate


Model Number No. of Passes Minimum Flow Nominal Flow Maximum Flow
(subblocks) m3/hr (gpm) m3/hr (gpm) m3/hr (gpm)
NEXED3-4A-1 2-pass (2:2) 1.7 (7.5) 3 (13) 3.4 (15)
NEXED6-8A-1 2-pass (4:4) 3.4 (15 6 (26) 6.8 (30)
NEXED12-16A-1 2-pass (8:8) 6.8 (30) 12 (53) 13.6 (60)

NEXED3-6A-1 4-pass (2:2:1:1) 1.9 (8.5) 3 (13) --


NEXED6-12A-1 4-pass (4:4:2:2) 3.9 (17) 6 (26) --
Note - Concentrate recirculation flow rate should be equal to or greater than nominal
dilute flow for optimal operation and reduced scaling potential

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 44
Recovery and Concentration Factor

% Recovery (R) = (QP)(100)/(QP + QR)

QP = Product (Dilute) flow rate


QR = Reject (Concentrate bleed) flow rate
Note: electrode flow not included

Concentration factor CF = 100 / (100-R))


R = percent recovery

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 45
Selecting EDR Recovery

• Depends on chemistry of feed stream


• Use concentration factor to predict concentrations in reject stream
• Feed ppm x CF = reject ppm
• Compare concentrations to solubility limits
• Use scaling indices such as LSI, CCPP, Stiff & Davis
• Or use software from antiscalant manufacturer
• Good practice is to take sample of EDR feed at startup for analysis
• Check conductivity and pH on-site
• Compare new analysis to analysis used as design basis
• If feed has changed, need to recalculate maximum recovery

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 46
Calculating EDR Reject Flow

• Once you have determined the maximum allowable recovery you must
determine how to set the concentrate bleed (reject) and electrode flows

• Reject flow = ((100 - R)/R) x product flow or ((100-R)/100) x feed flow


• where R is the percent recovery

• Electrode flow = 1 gpm per EDR module

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 47
EDR Reject Flow - Examples

EDR Product flow = 50 m3/h


EDR Recovery = 90%
EDR Reject = ((100-90)/90) x 50 = 5.6 m3/h

EDR Feed flow = 50 m3/h


EDR Recovery = 90%
EDR Reject = (0.1) x 50 = 5 m3/h

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 48
Flow Alarm Setpoints (Low and High)

• Dilute and concentrate recirculation: – 50% and + 50% of nominal


• Concentrate bleed: – 10% and + 10% of targeted recovery
• Electrode: 0.75 and 1.25 gpm per module

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 49
Typical Alarm Setpoints (Nexed 6-8A)

Parameter Units LL L H HH
Feed conductivity * µS/cm 7,000
Temperature °F 105 115
Product flow gpm 8 15 30
Recycle flow gpm 8 15 30
Electrode flow gpm 0.25 0.5
Bleed flow * gpm 1.0 1.5
Feed pressure psig 5 10 25 28
Conc inlet pressure psig 5 10 25 28
Conc outlet pressure psig 0.5 2.0
Outlet pressure Δ psid -8 -4 +4 +8
Electrode pH * pH 1 5
Recovery * % 87 90
NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017
Date: April 18, 2017 * application-specific
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 50
Setting Flows and Pressures

• Start with EDR product inlet and product outlet valves wide open
• Use concentrate inlet valve and/or recycle pump VFD to set concentrate
flow
• Use concentrate bleed valve to adjust reject backpressure

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 51
Pressure Balancing EDR

• PURGE AIR FIRST!!!!


• Must balance the pressure between the product compartments and the
reject compartments
• Compartments separated by ion exchange membrane
• Product outlet pressure should be about the same as concentrate outlet
pressure
• Pressure balancing accomplished by adjusting flow rates, and
backpressure
• Slow ramp up on conc recirc pump VFD

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 52
Typical EDR Pressure Balancing

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©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 53
EDR Pressure Drop

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Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 54
Selecting Reversal Timing

Reversal Time Estimates

70% % %scaling potential ( could be with antiscalants) 30


10 ppm TOC (as C) 20
20 Minutes Recommended reversal time

Scaling potential Minutes


<=50% 45
50-75% 30
75-90% 20
>90% 15

TOC Minutes
<=5 ppm 45
5-9 ppm 30
>9 20

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 55
EDR Startup Summary 1

• Check torque, tighten module as required


• 40 n-m for NEXED modules

• Test EDR feed water supply


• Test DC power supply
• Check plumbing connections
• Divert all outlets to drain
• Rinse piping !!!
• Set alarm set-points, if required
• Determine desired recovery, DC amps
• Test Remote On/Off interlock
• Turn on water supply
NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017
Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 56
EDR Startup Summary 2

• Set flow rates


• Set recovery
• Purge air (30-60 min on initial startup)
• Balance Pressures

• Turn on DC power supply


• Test flow alarms
• Set DC current to calculated value

• Send product to use when quality verified


• Allow system to come to steady state - typically <1 hour
• Record baseline operating data on log sheet (check both reversal modes)
• Very important for future troubleshooting

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 57
Test Kits Suggested

• Hardness
• Hach Model HA-71A (#145201) test kit
• Smallest increment 1 mg/l (not quite low enough, but best available test kit)
• Hach Spectrophotometer (ex: #DR2700) low range hardness test
• Smallest increment < 0.10 mg/l
• pH paper
• Smallest increment 0.25
• For cleaning and electrode pH
• Cl2 – Hach Model CN-70 (#1454200)
• Smallest increment 0.02 mg/l

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 58
EDR Preventive Maintenance
Required for Warranty

• Operating log sheets Daily


• Feed water chemistry Weekly
• Verify system recovery Daily
• Verify DC voltage/current Monthly
• Test flow switches Every 3 months
• Calibration of instrumentation Every 6 months
• Check SS grounding rods Every 6 months
• System sanitization User preference
• System cleaning Only as required

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 59
Daily Log Sheet (Typical)
Date:
Time Of Day:

Water Temperature °C

Feed water Hardness ppm CaCO3

Feed Conductivity mS/cm

Product Conductivity mS/cm

Product Flow m3/h

Reject Flow m3/h

Recovery %

P1 Inlet Pressure bar

P1 Outlet Pressure bar

P1 ∆P bar

P2 Inlet Pressure bar

P2 Outlet Pressure bar

P2 ∆P bar

DC Voltage volts

DC Current amps

DC Resistance (volts/amps) Ohms

Electrode flow liter/min

Electrode pressure bar


NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017
Reversal mode P1 or P2
Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 60
Time to next reversal minutes
Comments

• The more stable the feed stream, the more stable the EDR system will be
• Typical frequency of EDR cleaning is once per year
• The key to good EDR system operation is data logging and monitoring
• Decline in EDR system performance is usually not immediate and will
trend over time

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 61
TROUBLESHOOTING

©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC


Topics Covered in this Section

• Tools Required
• Overview of Possible Problems
• Scale
• Organic Fouling
• Biofouling
• Particulates
• Overheating
• Oxidation
• Monitoring Data Required and Why
• Step-by-Step Troubleshooting
• Quality
• Resistance
• Flow/DP

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 63
Comparison Points:
EDR vs RO

• Plugging
• In RO water goes across screen, through membrane
• In EDR water goes across screen, past membrane
• Scaling
• Both RO and EDR are concentration processes, but EDR has polarity reversal
• RO subject to silica scaling, EDR is not
• Fouling
• In RO water goes through membrane
• In EDR water goes past membrane, and polarity removal removes TOC
• Oxidation
• PA RO has no chlorine tolerance, EDR can handle 0.5 mg/L continuously
• For both, data collection is critical - troubleshooting without some
historical data is very difficult

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Date: April 18, 2017
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Tools for EDR troubleshooting

• Conductivity meter
• Volt-ohm-meter (clamp-on DC ammeter desirable)
• Ohm’s Law V=IR
• Faraday’s Law
• Torque wrench
• Imagination
• Open mind

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Why an open mind?

• “It can’t be chlorine because the on-line chlorine analyzer always reads
0 ppm Cl2”
• Test kit shows 1 ppm free chlorine
• “It can’t be hardness scaling because we never detect hardness in
feed”
• Softener dumping hardness before regeneration, customer only testing after
regeneration
• “It can’t be particulates because we cleaned out the tank and piping
before startup”
• No prefilter on tank/pump fed system. T-shirt found inside of upstream valve.
• Corollary to having an open mind:
• Don’t believe the instrumentation, confirm it

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Scale

• Causes
• Calcium carbonate (hardness) is the most common scale
• Magnesium hardness also forms precipitates - Mg(OH)2
• EDR water recovery too high

• Symptoms
• Drop in product water quality
• Increase in electrical resistance
• Drop in flow (increase in DP)
• Corrective action
• Increase polarity reversal frequency
• Perform acid cleaning
• Analyze concentrate bleed for hardness, review recovery selection
• Check antiscalant dosing

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Organic Fouling

• Causes:
• High Feed Water TOC
• Contaminated CIP system
• Symptoms
• Drop in product water quality (sometimes the only symptom)
• Increase in electrical resistance
• Does not affect pressure drop
• Causes discoloration and/or foaming of cleaning solution
• Corrective action
• More frequent polarity reversal
• Perform cleaning: brine/caustic, possibly percarbonate
• Extended soak for more effective cleaning

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Biofouling

• Causes
• Long stagnant periods with system full of water
• Dirty feed piping or storage tank
• Growth over time (warm feed water)
• Symptoms
• Usually does not affect performance or stack resistance, only flow
• sometimes associated with bisulfite dechlorination
• Corrective action
• Perform brine/caustic or hypochlorite cleaning
• Drain water if system idle more than a week
• Implement periodic flushing or recirculation
• Consider feed chlorine residual (< 0.5 mg/L)

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Excessive Feed Pressure

• Can cause increased external leaking


• Reject pressure > product can cause cross-leak
• Design system to avoid pressure changes, water hammer

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High Temperature

• DC power on without water flow can cause “burning” of membrane and


“melting” of plastic piping
Also caused by …
• High feed temperature
• Flow less than minimum flow with DC power on
• Restricted flow due to fouling, oxidation, scale, blockage

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Particulates
• Most often caused by debris in piping or lack of prefiltration in a tank/pump
fed EDR
• Can cause plugging of concentrate and dilute
• Block slots in flow distributor/membrane separator
• Normally don’t affect product quality or electrical resistance
• Backflush with clean water is best option
• Backflush before chemical cleaning if particulate fouling is suspected

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Oxidation

• Causes
• Too much chlorine in feed water (> 0.5 ppm)
• Improper cleaning or sanitization, exposure to H2O2 , O3
• Symptoms
• Initial symptom of EDR module oxidation is decline in product water quality
• Next symptom is increase in module electrical resistance
• Corrective action
• Oxidation causes permanent damage - subblock replacement required
• Need to reduce oxidant in feed to EDR

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EDR Troubleshooting:
Data Required

• Present & historical


• DC volts, DC amps, temperature
• Flow rates and inlet/outlet pressures of all streams
• Reversal time
• EDR feed water and reject µS/cm
• In some cases:
• Hardness
• Free chlorine

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Data Required: Why

• DC amps affects product quality


• Increase in resistance can indicate scaling or organic fouling
• To calculate resistance need:
• Ohms Law: ohms = volts / amps

• Also need temperature


• Module resistance inversely proportional to temperature
• About 2% per degree C

• Flow rate and DP can indicate increased internal restriction


• Due to scale, biofilm, particulates, etc.
• Drop in flow is same as increase in DP

• Feed µS/cm affect product quality and stack resistance


• Hardness (feed & reject) is useful to assess potential for scale
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EDR Troubleshooting:
Low Product Quality

• Has product flow changed?


• Check product (dilute) : concentrate DP
• Eliminate cross-leak
• Has feed µS/cm changed?
• Try retorqueing stack
• Has stack resistance increased?
• More than expected based on temperature change?
• Enough to cause amperage decline

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Direct Cross-Leak Test (Off-Line)

Dilute inlet pressure = 5 psig MAX


Concentrate inlet pressure = 0 psig
Both outlets open
Reject flow should be < 1 ml/min/cell (< 100 ml/min/subblock)
DC POWER MUST BE OFF FOR THIS TEST

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EDR Troubleshooting:
Resistance Increase

• Check wiring connections


• Has feed water temperature decreased?
• Check hardness in feed and concentrate
• Sufficient concentrate recirculation flow? (≥ nominal flow)
• Conductivity of electrode stream?
• Look for air bubbles in outlet (P1 and P2)

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EDR Troubleshooting:
Low Flow

• Look for signs of biofouling: slime in piping


• Look inside manifolds for debris
• Smaller particles may not be visible (in membrane separator)
• Check interstage pressure on two-stage system
• Make sure air is purged from system
• Open sample valves to check

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Questions To Ask

• Change in performance sudden or gradual?


• Power interruption?
• Any modifications made to system?
• Any pretreatment upsets?
• Direct feed or tank feed of EDR?
• Tank is possible source of contamination
• Noticeable changes in feed water?
• Rust, particulates from flushing pipes
• Change in water source?
• Different TDS, pH
• Out of service for extended period?
• May require chemical cleaning for biofilm
• DC power on without water flow?
• Damage plastic piping, internal module damage

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EDR Troubleshooting Symptom Summary

Symptom Product Electrical Pressure


Quality ↓ Resistance Drop ↑
Problem ↑
Oxidation ↓ ↑
Organic fouling ↓↓ ↑↑
Inorganic scale ↓↓ ↑↑ ↑↑
Metal fouling ↓↓ ↑
Biofouling ↑↑
Particulate ↑↑

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Flowcharts

• Troubleshooting flowcharts included in recent instruction manuals


• Cleaning is often used as a diagnostic tool
• If all else fails, autopsy may be necessary
• Send to Lowell for examination
• EDRMODEXAM ($950)
• EDRMODINSPECT ($450)
• EDRMODTEST ($450)
• EDR modules can NOT be rebuilt in the field

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Flowcharts

• Example of flow chart in manual

• Charts Included in Manual:


• Increase in DC Voltage
• Low Flow or High ΔP
• Low Product Water Quality

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
Call your local service
©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC PAGE 83
provider
EDR Module O&M Manuals

• Detailed operation and maintenance (O&M) manuals are provided


with each module shipment
• Include installation, start-up, operation, cleaning, and
troubleshooting information
• Available on www.nexedwater.com

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Service Bulletins

• Product design changes


• Updates
• Operation, maintenance, cleaning & sanitization, troubleshooting, repair
• How to resolve specific product problems
• Written only as-needed
• Available on www.nexedwater.com

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CLEANING
AND
SANITIZATION

©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC


Topics Covered in this Section

• When to Clean
• Chemicals
• Cleaning Equipment
• Good Practices
• Cleaning Procedures
• Shutdown/Preservation

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Important Points

• Cleaning can remove material that is responsible for poor performance or


restriction of flow, however
• There is no guarantee of effectiveness
• Some materials more difficult to remove than others
• Cleaning is more effective when problems identified early
• Cleaning will not reverse some types of chemical attack
• It is very important to follow cleaning guidelines
• For cleaning to be effective
• To avoid damaging the EDR module(s)
• pH too high or too low or too much chlorine can effect ion exchange membranes

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Definitions

• Cleaning
• To remove debris, scale or foulants from the EDR module
• Sanitization
• To reduce the live microbiological population in the EDR module
• Kills most (but not all) bacteria
• Destroys, neutralizes, and inhibits growth of microorganisms
• Sterilization
• To kill all bacteria (100%)
• Absence of life (bacteria, viruses, spores)
• Requires steam or very high temperature
• EDR systems can not be sterilized!!

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Purpose of cleaning

• Restore performance
• Quality
• Electrical resistance
• Flow/pressure drop

• Determine cause of performance drop


• Measure flow & DP during cleaning
• Analyze cleaning solutions (especially acid)
• Visual inspection of cleaning solutions

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When to Clean ?

• Reduced product quality


• Below customer specification
• Reduced product or reject flow
• 25% increase in DP without change in feed temperature or flow
• 25% increase in electrical resistance (ohms) at constant temperature
• About 2% per ⁰C is normal
• Detailed Logs Important
• Operation before cleaning
• Flows and pressures during cleaning
• Operation after cleaning

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EDR Cleaning Chemicals

• Hydrochloric Acid (pH 2)


• Cleaning only
• Removes calcium scale, metal oxides
• Sodium Chloride/Sodium Hydroxide (pH 10)
• Cleaning only
• Removes organic foulants from membranes
• Sodium Hydroxide & Sodium Hypochlorite (pH 10)
• Cleaning & sanitization
• Removes biofilm and kills bacteria
• Proprietary cleaners
• Avista P111 for organic/biological fouling
• Other chemicals may be qualified by special request

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Cleaning Chemicals:
Suggested Quality

• Hydrochloric Acid
• Technical or SEMI grade (32-38%)
• Sodium Chloride
• Food grade (granular, 99.9% NaCl)
• Sodium Hydroxide
• Rayon grade (50% solution – caustic soda)
• Technical grade (solid pellets)
• Sodium Hypochlorite
• Technical grade (5.25%)

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Good Cleaning Practice

• EDR product water (or better) used to make up solutions


• Use nominal product flow in dilute and concentrate
• Electrode flow 1 gpm per module
• Flow reversal every 10 min during cleaning
• EDR system DC power supply off during cleaning
• Possible exception HCl cleaning
• Make necessary connection to EDR from cleaning tank
• Flush CIP skid and hoses with clean water BEFORE making your cleaning solution.
• Install new cartridge filters in CIP skid
• Circulate water & test for leaks before adding chemicals
• If analyzing cleaning solutions, sample before and after cleaning, label bottles
• After cleaning, flush with water for 10 min without DC, then apply voltage
• See Product Operation & Maintenance manual for details

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Typical Clean in Place (CIP) System

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Hydrochloric Acid Cleaning

Use to remove hardness scale and metal fouling

1. 0.05% Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)


• Use technical grade acid
• Make sure CIP system piping & seals are compatible with HCl
• 1-4 hours recirculation at ambient temperature – DO NOT HEAT
• Yellow color may indicate iron fouling
2. Add acid as required to maintain pH ~ 2.0
• Carbonate scale will neutralize acid
• Conductivity stabilizes when rate of acid consumption is low
3. Flow reversal every 10 minutes
4. Send electrode to drain if applying low DC voltage
5. Monitor ΔP – soak overnight if necessary
6. Brine flush to drain (optional)
7. Water flush (10 minutes) without power

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Brine/Caustic Cleaning

Use to remove organic foulants from ion exchange membranes

1. Flush once-through with 5% NaCl for 5 min


• Precaution to remove hardness from IX membrane
2. Alkaline brine solution (5% NaCl/0.05% NaOH)
• 5% NaCl adjusted to pH 10 using NaOH
• Recirculate for 60 minutes at up to 45°C
• Flow reversal every 10 minutes
• DC power off
3. Water flush to drain for 10 min

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Caustic Cleaning/Sanitization

• For removal of biofilm


• First brine flush to drain to remove hardness
• Recirculate pH 10 caustic solution for one hour
• Flow reversal every 10 minutes
• DC power off

• Water flush for 10 minutes before applying DC power

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Bleach Cleaning/Sanitization

• For bacteria inactivation with some removal of biofilm


• Precautionary brine flush to drain to remove metals (optional)
• Recirculate 30 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for one hour
• Flow reversal every 10 minutes
• DC power off

• Water flush for 10 minutes before applying DC power

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Comprehensive Clean

Best for reducing electrical resistance / improving quality


Recommended if unsure of problem cause
1. Flush once-through with 5% NaCl for 5 min
2. Alkaline brine solution (NaCl/NaOH)
• 5% NaCl adjusted to pH 10 using NaOH
• Recirculate for 60 minutes at up to 45°C
• Solution pH should be 10
3. Water flush to drain for 10 min
4. Hydrochloric Acid solution (HCl)
• 60 minutes recirculation at ambient temperature – DO NOT HEAT
• Solution pH should be ~2
5. Water flush to drain for 10 min

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Which Cleaning for High ΔP ?

• Consider backflush for particles, piping debris


• Acid clean if hardness scale suspected
• Multi-agent cleaning if biofouling suspected (brine/caustic/percarbonate)

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EDR Backflush Procedure

• Water should be free of particulate – use a 1 micron prefilter


• Send backflush water to drain, filter to identify contaminant
• Flow rates should be ≥ minimum flow, nominal flow is preferred
• Pressure must be within the pressure rating of the module ( < 25 psi)
• Monitor the flows and pressure drops during backflush

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Cleaning for High Module Resistance?

• Usually caused by hardness scale


• Can be caused by organic fouling
• Can also be caused by oxidation but this is less likely

• Look for hardness mass balance


• If scaling indicated, acid clean
• If scaling not indicated, then brine/caustic for organic fouling

• Best to do both brine/caustic, then acid (comprehensive clean)

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Action for Quality Decline
with no Other Symptoms?

• Check for module cross leaks


• Try retightening module
• Check resistivity/conductivity instrumentation
• Typical life of conductivity probe 2 years
• Conductivity cells can be fouled by organics and metals
• Clean with brine/caustic for organic fouling

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Shutdown/Preservation

• Drain standing water


• Seal inlet & outlet connections
• Suitable for five (5) years or more
• Can preserve with 30 ppm bleach for long-term storage
• Fill, drain, seal
• Module design prevents evaporation out edge of membrane
• Not necessary to protect module from freezing if drained
• Thaw module before putting into service

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REPAIR
OR
REPLACEMENT

©2017 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC


Typical EDR Module Lifetime

• Nexed EDR is a new product


• EDR modules have been known to last 10 years or more
• Nexed module carries a 3 year pro-rated warranty
• Lifetime depreciation quoted for capital systems 5 years
• Modules can be repaired by simple replacement of sub blocks
• Replacement of hardware (electrodes, endplates, tie bars) seldom required

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Reason for EDR Module Replacements

• When module cleaning and/or system adjustments cannot restore


performance
• Loss of product quality
• Loss of product flow
• Severe differential pressure
• Loss of concentrate flow
• Severe bacteria fouling

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Identifying Cause of EDR Problem

• Before replacing modules, should determine cause of failure


• Review operating data
• Use troubleshooting flowcharts
• External examination of module
• Cross-leak test
• Internal examination of module
• Last resort for troubleshooting
• Destructive analysis
• Requires knowledge & experience – customer should not take apart in field
• Done in Tewksbury, MA
• EDRMODEXAM – test, autopsy, membrane analysis & report
• EDRMODINSPECT – visual inspection & report only
• Can do in conjunction with rebuild
• EDRMODTEST – test only

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EDR Module “Killers”
Would require rebuild or replacement

• Severe Organic Fouling


• If bad enough where cleaning does not restore performance

• Hardness Scale
• If unable to be removed through cleaning
• Especially if it leads to overheating

• High temperature
• > 45°C continuous
• DC Power on with no flow

• Excess pressure
• > 25 psig (1.7 bar) feed
• >5 psid (0.3 bar) product > reject
• Water hammer
• Particulates
• If unable to be removed through backflush / cleaning
• Oxidants (Cl2, O3, H2O2 … )

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Nexed EDR Summary

• Your decision comes down to who you can trust to supply


• The best product for your application
• The experience to know how to use the product correctly
• The support you when you need help
• Product
• The most robust EDR device with the simplest operation and maintenance
• Experience
• 30 years experience in electrically-driven membrane processes with proven
reliability worldwide in Power, Microelectronics, Pharmaceutical etc.
• Ionpure commercialized EDI in 1987 and continues innovative development
of EDI and EDR technology
• Support
• Local support of our local OEM network by regional and central technical
and market experts

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Additional Support Resources

• Nexed Web Site


• The most up-to date technical information
• Manuals, drawings, data sheets, bulletins …
• www.nexedwater.com

• LinkedIn Discussion Forum


• https://www.linkedin.com/groups/2677262

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Thanks for your time and attention!

NEXED® EDR Product Training - OEM 2017


Date: April 18, 2017
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