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International Journal of Geology and Mining

Vol. 5(2), pp. 275-281, July, 2019. © www.premierpublishers.org. ISSN: 3019-8261

Research Article
Evidence of Geological Control on Reservior Petrophysical
Properties of “Beta” Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
*1Uzoegbu, M.U., 2Emenike, K.
1Department of Geology, College of Physical and Applied Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike,
Abia State, Nigeria
2Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Geological controls on the reservoir petrophysical properties of “BETA Field” have been carried
out using suites of wireline logs. Stratigraphic relationship among the reservoir sand bodies
including their geometrical architectures, and their stacking patterns were also established.
Exponential regression analysis of some of the petrophysical parameters were carried out to
establish any relationship with depositional processes as well as depositional environments of
the reservoir sand bodies in the field. The main factor controlling petrophysical properties and
thickness for these reservoirs is the type of sandstone facies. The petrophysical evaluation of
both reservoirs (K and Q) depicts porosity range from fair to very good across wells (i.e 11% to
25%). From the evaluated reservoirs porosity, there is no significant reduction of porosity with
depth increase. The values obtained for the permeability of both reservoirs (K and Q) varied widely
and inconsistent across the wells in the study field. The various depositional environments
established in BETA field include fluvial, tidal channel, mouth bars, delta front, and the reservoir
sands occurring in different depositional settings, resulting from different depositional
processes, which had a wide range of petrophysical properties.

Key words: Reservoir, Petrophysical properties, Porosity, permeability, Stratigraphy, Depositional environment.

INTRODUCTION

BETA is a name assigned to a field in the Eastern Niger describing and predicting reservoir development and
Delta. It is situated within the Coastal Swamp depobelt of distribution on both local and regional scale (Ugwueze,
the eastern Niger Delta, which lies within latitude 5o27ˈ36 2015).
‫״‬N to 6 o 30ˈ00 ‫ ״‬N and longitude 6 o 32ˈ24 ‫ ״‬E to 6 o 38ˈ24 ‫״‬

E (Fig.1). Depositional environment, detrital composition and sorting


are the main function of primary porosity of any siliciclastic
The potentials and performance of reservoir sands depend reservoir (Ugwueze, 2015). The initial porosity with time
on certain essential petrophysical properties such as (secondary porosity) in which the deposit has been
porosity, permeability, water saturation, formation factor subjected to, may be modified by post depositional
and formation water resistivity (Slatt, 2006). processes, such as; compaction, dissolution, cementation,
replacement, as well as synsedimentary and post-
The depositional environments of reservoir sandbodies sedimentary micro and macro tectonic processes produce
can be inferred by comparing the gamma ray log structural elements like faults, fold and diapirs (Amajor and
signatures with standard log motifs indicative of gamma Aghaire, 1984 in Ugwueze, 2015). This paper deals with
ray response to variations in grain size (Amajor and (a) evaluation of stratigraphic relationship among the
Lebekmo, 1990). reservoir zones, (b) the geometric architectures and

Geological processes within a depositional environment *Corresponding Author: Uzoegbu M. Uche; Department
impart their characteristic by creating lithofacies changes of Geology, College of Physical and Applied Sciences,
both lateral and vertical with varying porosities (Slatt, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike,
2006). The depositional environments reconstruction in Nigeria. Email: mu.uzoegbu@mouau.edu.ng, Tel:
clastic sequences provides optimum framework for +2348030715958.
Evidence of Geological Control on Reservior Petrophysical Properties of “Beta” Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
Uzoegbu and Emenike 276

Fig. 1: Map showing location of study area modified (Ocheli et al., 2013).

stacking patterns of the reservoirs sandbodies across the sediments of the onshore are separately mapped as
field, (c) to establish environments of deposition of the alluvium in contrast with the offshore sediments, in which
reservoir sandbodies in the field, and to carry out the youngest sediments were not investigated because
exponential regression analyses of some of the cutting samples could not be collected from the upper
petrophysical parameter hundred feet below sea level.

REGIONAL GEOLOGIC SETTING Akaegbobi and Schmitt (1998), established that


heterogeneity of reservoir, and formation evaluation
The studies of the Niger Delta have widely been done problems can make it difficult to characterize fluid
mostly by oil companies and academician because of its distribution, determine permeability and estimate
petroliferous province which is of economic importance. hydrocarbon in place. They suggested that the approach
Many authors have investigated and summarized the used in characterizing a reservoir involves a combination
basic geology, structural setting, depositional of analysis of geological framework of the reservoir,
environments, production characteristics, and field hydrocarbon trapping components (stratigraphic and
development strategies among others. Short and Stauble structural), formation evaluation and calculation of
(1967), outlined the regional geology of the Niger Delta. volumetric hydrocarbon in place. Haack et al. (2000)
The origin of the Niger Delta was attempted and they discussed the tertiary petroleum systems of the Niger
established that the Tertiary deltaic fill is represented by a Delta. He observed the lower cretaceous petroleum
strong diachronous sequence (Eocene- recent), which is system is characterized by lacustrine source rocks which
divided into three lithofacies units namely; the Akata, occurs in the north-western part of the delta and might be
Agbada and Benin Formations. present in the Benin trough and the upper cretaceous
lower Paleocene petroleum system, which is characterized
Doust and Omatsola (1990), observed that sands of the by marine source rocks, is defined for the north-western
Niger Delta are poorly consolidated with porosity as high part of the delta.
as 40% in oil bearing reservoir, reservoir sands of more
than 15m thick in most places consists of two or more Various depositional processes gave rise to the Niger
stacked channel. They also observed gradual reduction of Delta Cenozoic stratigraphy. The studies of Short and
porosity with depth and permeability in hydrocarbon Stauble (1967), Frankyl and Cordey (1967) and Avbovbo
bearing reservoirs are commonly in the range of 1-2 Darcy and Ogbe (1978) provided the initial information on the
and sands shallower than 3000m have porosity of more stratigraphic unit distribution of the Niger Delta subsurface.
than 15%, but below 3000m only a few sands have more Also, the works of Evamy et al. (1978), Ejedawe et al.
than 15% porosity. Bustin (1988) established that the (1984), Nwachukwu and Chukwura (1986), Haack et al.
Niger Delta basin is divided into continental, marginal (2000), Reijer (1996) among others provided useful
marine and marine facies. He also observed that information on the stratigraphic units of the region. The
Evidence of Geological Control on Reservior Petrophysical Properties of “Beta” Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
Int. J. Geol. Min. 277

Fig. 2: Stratigraphic Column showing Eastern Niger Delta lithofacies units and Cenozoic Geological Data (Reijers,
1996).
Niger Delta subsurface is divided into three major well-header. Only one correlation transects (SSW-NNE)
lithostratigraphic units such as the Akata, Agbada and were used to infer the stratigraphic positions of each of the
Benin Formations (Reijers, 1996) (Fig. 2). Basin-ward, reservoir sands under study (Fig. 3).
there is a decrease in age, which reflects the overall
regression of the Niger Delta clastic wedge depositional The wells were correlated using gamma ray log signature
environments. In the south southern Niger Delta, to identify the major sandstone units, and the deep
stratigraphic units equivalent to these three formations are resistivity log for detailed correlation on emphasis on the
exposed, and it reflect a gross coarsening upward shale sections. The stratigraphic relationship and reservoir
progradational clastic wedge (Short and Stauble, 1967), continuity among various reservoir sands as well as their
deposited in marine, deltaic and fluvial environments geometries and direction of sand development were
(Weber and Daukoru, 1975; Weber, 1987). inferred.

The quantitative interpretation involved the use of


MATERIALS AND METHODS mathematical models and relations whose values of the
log response to the formation parameters, while the
The data sets used in the studied project were obtained qualitative interpretation involved the use of models which
from Nigeria Agip Oil Company (NAOC), and it includes represent the characteristics log responses to formation
the base map of BETA Field suite of wireline logs. The parameters.
correlation of wells across a field serves as an excellent
aid in determining the lateral and vertical continuity of
sands within that field, which provides subsurface RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
information such as lithology, reservoir thickness,
formation tops and base, porosity and permeability of In the SSW-NNE correlation panel, K and Q-reservoir
production zones. sands developed across the six well correlated (Fig. 3) at
different depths. From this analysis it shows that each of
First the depth unit, coordinates (for both x and y) which the well thickness in the “BETA” field varies throughout the
contains information of each well, were obtained from the field with possibly evidence of faulting.
Evidence of Geological Control on Reservior Petrophysical Properties of “Beta” Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
Uzoegbu and Emenike 278

The evaluation of water saturation (Sw) in K-hydrocarbon


reservoir sands indicates a value range of 0.51% in well A
to 0.83% in well C (Table 1). The higher the value of (Sw)
in the reservoir sands the lower the value of hydrocarbon
saturation in the reservoir sands, and vice-versa.

The permeability of K-reservoir shows values between the


ranges of 1.6mD in well C to 206mD in well A, which is
described as poor to very good permeability.

Again, the porosity of Q-Reservoir was found to show an


average values between 14% in well C to 22% in well B
Fig. 3: SSW-NNE lithostratigraphic correlation of the and F which is described as fair to very good porosity
‘BETA’ Field showing positions of ‘K’ & ‘Q’ Reservoirs (porosity is a function of the degree of uniformity of grain
size, the shapes of the grains, the manner in which the
For Reservoir petrophysical properties a total of six wells grains were packed, the environment of deposition, and
were provided, in which two hydrocarbon bearing the effect of compaction during and after deposition).
reservoirs were picked and analyzed from each of the There is a gradual decrease in average porosity values
wells across the study field. The reservoirs were labeled from one well sand to the other as depth of burial increase,
“K and Q”, and the following petrophysical parameters which is a function of the degree of compaction of the
from the reservoirs using well log values and petrophysical sediment deposited.
calculation were computed namely; Porosity (Φ),
permeability (K), water saturation (Sw), Hydrocarbon Table 2: Average Petrophysical evaluation of Q-Reservoir
saturation (SH), formation factor (F) volume of shale (Vsh), in ‘BETA’ field.
Bulk volume water (BVW), and irreducible water saturation WELL F E D C A B
(Swi). From the petrophysical calculation and computation, Gross
the analyses of the results of (K and Q) reservoirs across 118 48 48 73 69 49
Thickness
the six wells are presented in Table 1 and 2.
Vsh (%) 11 26 11 24 34 10
Net
Table 1: Average Petrophysical evaluation of K-Reservoir 107 22 37 49 35 39
Thickness
in ‘BETA’ field
Net-Gross
WELL F E D C A B 0.91 0.46 0.77 0.67 0.51 0.8
Ratio
Gross
90 76 89 86 77 69 ɸ (%) 22 19 23 14 19 22
Thickness
F 18.53 42.31 17.5 66.4 65.17 16.87
Vsh (%) 12 24 17 27 29 14
Sw 0.59 0.69 0.61 0.67 0.78 0.62
Net
78 52 72 59 48 55 SH 0.41 0.31 0.39 0.33 0.22 0.38
Thickness
Swirr 0.09 0.12 0.09 0.17 0.11 0.09
Net-Gross
0.87 0.68 0.81 0.69 0.69 0.8 BVw 0.13 0.12 0.14 0.08 0.13 0.14
Ratio
ɸ (%) 23 18.95 21.5 11.4 25 24.4 K (mD) 3.95 3.75 3.92 2.9 93.4 3.98
F 17.25 33.41 19.21 105.1 16.5 46.45
The evaluation of water saturation (Sw) in K-hydrocarbon
Sw 0.54 0.67 0.57 0.83 0.51 0.61
reservoir sands indicates a value range of 0.59% in well F
SH 0.46 0.33 0.38 0.18 0.39 0.39
to 0.78% in well B (Table 2). The permeability of K-
Swirr 0.089 0.12 0.095 0.213 0.085 0.092
reservoir shows values between the ranges of 2.9mD in
BVw 0.123 0.12 0.124 0.08 0.12 0.135 well C to 73mD in well A, which is described as poor to
K (mD) 5.4 3.6 4.1 1.9 206.4 8.6 very good permeability.
From the reservoir petrophysical properties values
computed were from both quantitative and qualitative Depositional Environment
interpretations of the results were done for the study area.
The porosity of K-Resrvoir was found to show an average When K-reservoir (Fig. 4) top is flattened and the gamma
value between 11% in well C to 25% in well A which is ray patterns are compared with the gamma ray log facies
described as fair to very good porosity. Porosity being a association of well log defining depositional systems in the
function of the degree of uniformity of grain size, the central Maracaibo basin and the facies log shapes relating
shapes of the grains, the manner in which the grains were to the sedimentological relationship, the prediction of
packed, the environment of deposition, and the effect of depositional environment of the reservoir sandbodies can
compaction during and after deposition. There is a gradual be inferred by comparing the shapes of the gamma ray log
decrease in average porosity values from one well sand to with the standard motif (Fig. 5).
the other as depth of burial increase, which is a function of
the degree of compaction of the sediment deposited.
Evidence of Geological Control on Reservior Petrophysical Properties of “Beta” Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
Int. J. Geol. Min. 279

Analysis of the gamma ray log motif indicates that the log
trend of K-Reservoir sands falls mostly into five categories
namely; serrated (saw teeth) shape, funnel shape,
cylindrical shape, symmetrical shape and bell shape.

Well F, well E and well B which are found at the depth


range of 2787-2877ft, 2856-2932ft, and 2479-2548ft
respectively have a serrated and blocky log signature
which is typical of amalgamated fluvial/distributory channel
deposits. Well D which is found at the depth range of 2778-
2867ft shows a blocky and fining upward log signature
typical of fluvial channel and tidally influenced delta. Well
C found at the depth range of 2740-2826ft shows a spiky
and coarsening upward cycle typical of mouth bar, delta
front or tidal bar. Well A which is the shallowest well in the
studied field found at depth between 2344-2422ft shows a
symmetrical log signature typical of middle to lower delta Fig.5: Facies log shapes relating to the sedimentological
plain. Delta front, tidal and mouth bar processes in well C
relationship (Cant, 1992)
and well D (Fig.4) dominated over fluvial processes in well
A, B, E, and F
Analysis of the gamma ray log motif indicates that the log
trend of Q-Reservoir sands fall mostly into five categories
namely; serrated (saw teeth) shape, funnel shape,
cylindrical shape, symmetrical shape and bell shape.

Well B found at the depth between 2676-2725ft and part


of well F at the depth between 3082-3119ft shows serrated
and blocky log signature typical of amalgamated
fluvial/distributory channel deposits (Fig. 6). Part of well F,
well D, well C and well A which are found at the depth
range between 3016-3048ft, 3012-3032ft, 2992-3016ft
and 2628-2640ft respectively, shows a symmetrical and
blocky log signature typical of middle to lower delta plain.
Well E at the depth between 3131-3179ft shows blocky
and fining upward log signature typical of fluvial channel
and tidally influenced delta, while part of well C at the depth
between 3032-3050ft shows spiky and coarsening upward
Fig.4: K-Reservoir Stacking pattern and depositional cycle typical of mouth bar, delta front or tidal bar. On Q-
environment. reservoir fluvial process in well A, B, E and F dominated
over delta front, tidal and mouth bar processes in well C
Also, when Q-reservoir (Fig. 6) top is flattered and the and D.
gamma ray patterns are compared with the gamma ray log
facies association of well log defining depositional systems The cross plot of petrophysical properties involved by
in the central Maracaibo basin and the facies log shapes establishing their relationships is done using exponential
relating to the sedimentological relationship, the prediction analysis among petrophysical variables which involves a
of depositional environment of the reservoir sandbodies method by an equation of investigation. A regression
were inferred by comparing the shapes of the gamma ray analysis of water saturation (Sw) against porosity (Φ) was
log with the standard motif (Fig. 5). carried out to get the regression equation through which
the best fitting line on the plotted set of petrophysical
parameters was drawn.

Evidence of Geological Control on Reservior Petrophysical Properties of “Beta” Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
Uzoegbu and Emenike 280

Fig. 9: exponential cross plot of water saturation (Sw)


against porosity (Φ) for Q-reservoir.

Fig. 6: Q-Reservoir Stacking pattern and depositional From the cross plot of water saturation (Sw) against
environment. porosity in Q-reservoir, it has a wide (negative) dispersion
around the exponential curve (Fig. 9), the formation bulk
volume water values are not constant or near a constant,
which is an indicative that the formation is heterogeneous,
not at irreducible water saturation, and the reservoir will
produce hydrocarbon with water. The formation has more
water than it can hold by capillary pressure.

CONCLUSION

A detailed review on suites of wireline logs (gamma ray


log, Deep resistivity log, Neutron log, density log and sonic
log) to determine the geological control on reservoir
petrophysical properties of reservoir sands from six wells
within BETA field, were achieved by careful examination of
the log shapes responses or signatures, and petrophysical
calculations to determine the petrophysical properties of
Fig. 7: Geological control of depositional environment on the reservoirs. The petrophysical evaluation of K and Q-
K and Q-reservoir sandbodies. reservoirs depict porosity range from fair to very good
across wells within K-reservoir (i.e 11% to 25%) and Q-
From the cross plot of water saturation (Sw) against reservoir (i.e. 14% to 23%). From the evaluated reservoirs
porosity in K-reservoir, it has a good (positive) dispersion porosity, there is no significant reduction of porosity with
around the exponential curve (Fig. 8), the formation bulk depth increase, this may be due to the unconsolidated
volume water values are constant or near a constant, nature of the Niger Delta sand, or could be possibly due to
which is an indicative that the formation is homogenous digenetic processes which do not only results in porosity
and the reservoir is at irreducible water saturation, thereby reduction, but can also cause porosity enhancement.
it will produce water free hydrocarbon. The values obtained for the permeability of both K and Q-
reservoirs varied widely and inconsistent across the wells
in the studied field. Considering the variation in
permeability, no definite trend was established across the
wells. One may infer that the various environments of
deposition (fluvial, tidal channel, mouth bars, delta front)
established in BETA field and the reservoir sands
occurring in different depositional settings, results from
different depositional processes which commonly had a
wide range of petrophysical properties.

Fig. 8: Exponential cross plot of water saturation (Sw)


against porosity (Φ) for K-reservoir.
Evidence of Geological Control on Reservior Petrophysical Properties of “Beta” Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
Int. J. Geol. Min. 281

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Evidence of Geological Control on Reservior Petrophysical Properties of “Beta” Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria