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The Legend of Bhagat Singh

The Legend of Bhagat Singh is a 2002 Indian historical biographical film


The Legend of Bhagat Singh
directed by Rajkumar Santoshi. The film is about Bhagat Singh, a socialist
revolutionary who fought for Indian independence along with fellow members
of the Hindustan Republic Association. It features Ajay Devgn as the titular
character along with Sushant Singh, D. Santosh and Akhilendra Mishra as the
other lead characters. Raj Babbar, Farida Jalal and Amrita Rao play supporting
roles. The film chronicles Bhagat's life from his childhood where he witnesses
the Jallianwala Bagh massacre until the day he was hanged to death—23 March
1931.

The film was produced by Kumar and Ramesh Taurani's Tips Industries on a
budget of ₹200 – 250 million (about US$4.15 – 5.18 million in 2002).[b] The
story and dialogue were written by Santoshi and Piyush Mishra respectively,
while Anjum Rajabali drafted the screenplay. K. V. Anand, V. N. Mayekar and
Nitin Chandrakant Desai were in charge of the cinematography, editing and
production design respectively. Principal photography took place in Agra,
Manali, Mumbai and Pune from January to May 2002. The soundtrack,
composed by A. R. Rahman, was released on 4 May 2002 to positive reception, Theatrical release poster
with "Mera Rang De Basanti" and "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna" being well-
Directed by Rajkumar
received in particular.
Santoshi
The Legend of Bhagat Singh was released on 7 June 2002 to generally positive Produced by Kumar Taurani
reviews, with the direction, story, screenplay, technical aspects and the Ramesh Taurani
performances of Devgn and Sushant receiving the most attention. However, the
Written by Rajkumar
film underperformed at the box office, earning only ₹129.35 million
Santoshi
(US$2.68 million in 2002).[b] It went on to win two National Film Awards –
Piyush Mishra
Best Feature Film in Hindi and Best Actor for Devgn – and three Filmfare
Anjum Rajabali
Awards from eight nominations.
Starring Ajay Devgn
Sushant Singh
D. Santosh
Contents Akhilendra
Plot Mishra
Cast Music by A. R. Rahman
Production Cinematography K. V. Anand
Development
Edited by V. N. Mayekar
Casting
Filming Distributed by Tips Industries
Music Release date 7 June 2002
Release Running time 155 minutes
Reception and accolades
Critical response
Country India
Box office Language Hindi
Accolades Budget ₹200 –
Legacy 250 million[a][b]
Notes Box office ₹129.35 million[b]
References
Film
External links

Plot
Bhagat Singh was born in British India in 1907. From childhood, he witnesses numerous atrocities committed on fellow Indians
by the British, who came to trade under the guise of the East India Company and ended up controlling most of the nation. Bhagat
takes a solemn vow to free India from British rule after witnessing the aftermath of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Soon after the
massacre, he learns of Mahatma Gandhi's satyagraha policies. He is especially impressed by his call to launch the non-
cooperation movement, which saw thousands of people burning British-made clothing and giving up school, college studies, and
government jobs. In 1922, Gandhi calls off the movement after the Chauri Chaura incident. Undaunted, Bhagat decides to be a
revolutionary, and, as an adult, joins the Hindustan Republic Association in its struggle for India's independence, ending up in
prison for it. Bhagat's father, Kishen, bails him out so that he can get him to run a dairy farm and marry a girl named Mannewali.
Bhagat runs away from home, leaving a note saying that his love for the country comes first.

When Lala Lajpat Rai is beaten to death by the police while protesting against the Simon Commission, Bhagat, along with
Shivaram Rajguru, Sukhdev Thapar and Chandra Shekhar Azad, assassinate a police officer named Saunders. Later on in the year
1929, when the British propose the Trade Disputes and Public Safety Bills, Bhagat, along with Batukeshwar Dutt, initiate a
bombing at Parliament House. He and Dutt throw the bombs on empty benches thereby not killing anyone. They are subsequently
arrested and tried publicly. Bhagat then launches his much-publicised ideas of revolution, stating that he wanted to tell the world
about the revolutionaries himself rather than let the British brand them as violent people, citing this as the reason for bombing the
assembly. Bhagat soon becomes as popular as Gandhi among the masses, especially the younger generation, labourers and
farmers.

In Central Jail Lahore, Bhagat and all of the other fellow prisoners, including Thapar and Rajguru, undertake a 63-day hunger
strike to improve the conditions of Indian political prisoners. Meanwhile, Azad, whom the British had repeatedly failed to
capture, is ambushed at the Alfred Park in Allahabad on 27 February 1931. The police surround the entire park leading to a
shootout; refusing to be captured by the British, Azad commits suicide with the last remaining bullet in his Colt pistol.

Fearing the growing popularity of the hunger strike amongst the people nationwide, Lord Irwin orders the re-opening of the
Saunders' murder case, which leads to death sentences being imposed on Bhagat, Thapar and Rajguru. The Indians hope that
Gandhi will use his pact with Irwin as a bargaining chip to save Bhagat, Thapar and Rajguru's lives. Irwin refuses Gandhi's
request for their release. Gandhi reluctantly agrees to sign a pact which includes the clause: "Release of political prisoners except
for the ones involved in violence". Bhagat, Thapar and Rajguru are hanged in secrecy on 23 March 1931.

Cast
Ajay Devgan as Bhagat Singh
Nakshdeep Singh as young Bhagat Singh

Sushant Singh as Sukhdev Thapar


D. Santosh as Shivaram Rajguru
Akhilendra Mishra as Chandra Shekhar Azad
Raj Babbar as Kishen Singh
Farida Jalal as Vidyawati Singh
Amrita Rao as Mannewali
Mukesh Tiwari as Jailor at Central Jail Lahore
Surendra Rajan as Mahatma Gandhi
Saurabh Dubey as Jawaharlal Nehru
Kenny Desai as Subhas Chandra Bose
Sitaram Panchal as Lala Lajpat Rai
Bhaswar Chatterjee as Batukeshwar Dutt
Kapil Sharma as Shiv Verma
Indrani Banerjee as Durga Bhabhi
Amitabh Bhattacharjee as Jatin Das
Sunil Grover as Jaidev Kapoor
Abir Goswami as Phanindra Nath Ghosh
Manu Malik as Agyaram
Ganesh Yadav as Ram Prasad Bismil
Tony Mirchandani as Ashfaqulla Khan
Rajesh Tripathi as Veerbhadra Tiwari
Lalit Tiwari as Vidyalankar
Gil Alon as Lord Irwin
Conrad as Saunders
Richard as Reginald Dyer

Production

Development
In 1998, the film director Rajkumar Santoshi read several books on the socialist revolutionary, Bhagat Singh, and felt that a
biopic would help revive interest in him.[4] Although Manoj Kumar made a film about Bhagat in 1965, titled Shaheed, Santoshi
felt that despite being "a great source of inspiration on the lyrics and music front", it did not "dwell on Bhagat Singh's ideology
and vision".[5] In August 2000,[6] the screenwriter Anjum Rajabali mentioned to Santoshi about his work on Har Dayal, whose
revolutionary activities inspired Udham Singh.[c] Santoshi then persuaded Rajabali to draft a script based on Bhagat's life as he
was inspired by Udham Singh.[8]

Santoshi gave Rajabali a copy of Shaheed Bhagat Singh, K. K. Khullar's biography of the revolutionary.[9][10] Rajabali said that
reading the book "created an intense curiosity in me about the mind of this man. I definitely wanted to know more about him."
His interest in Bhagat intensified after he read The Martyr: Bhagat Singh Experiments in Revolution (2000) by journalist Kuldip
Nayar. The following month, Rajabali formally began his research on Bhagat while admitting to Santoshi that it was "a difficult
task". Gurpal Singh, a Film and Television Institute of India graduate, and internet blogger Sagar Pandya assisted him.[9] Santoshi
received input from Kultar Singh, Bhagat's younger brother, who told the director he would have his full co-operation if the film
accurately depicted Bhagat's ideologies.[11]

Rajabali wanted to "recreate the world that Bhagat Singh lived in", and his research required him to "not only understand the
man, but also the influences on him, the politics of that era".[9] In a 2000 interview with Sharmila Taliculam of Rediff.com,
Rajabali said that the film would "deal with Bhagat Singh, the man, rather than the freedom fighter".[8] Many aspects of Bhagat's
life, including his relationship with fiancée Mannewali, were derived from Piyush Mishra's 1994 play Gagan Damama Bajyo;
Mishra was subsequently credited with writing the film's dialogues.[12]

A. G. Noorani's 1996 book, The Trial of Bhagat Singh: Politics of Justice, provided the basis for the trial sequences. Gurpal
obtained additional information from 750 newspaper clippings of The Tribune dated from 1928 to 1931, and from Bhagat's prison
notebooks. These gave Rajabali "an idea of what had appealed to the man, the literary and intellectual influences that impacted
him in that period".[9] By the end of 2000, Santoshi and Rajabali completed work on the script and showed it to Kumar and
Ramesh Taurani of Tips Industries; both were impressed by it. The Taurani brothers agreed to produce the film under their banner
and commence filming after Santoshi had finished his work on Lajja (2001).[13][14]

Casting
Sunny Deol was initially cast as Bhagat, but he left the project owing to schedule conflicts and differences with Santoshi over his
remuneration.[15] Santoshi then preferred to cast new faces instead of established actors but was not pleased with the performers
who auditioned.[8][16] Ajay Devgn (then known as Ajay Devgan) was finally chosen for the lead character because Santoshi felt
he had "the eyes of a revolutionary. His introvert nature conveys loud and clear signals that there is a volcano inside him ready to
burst."[5] After Devgn performed a screen test dressed as Bhagat, Santoshi was "pleasantly surprised" to see Devgn's face closely
resemble Singh's and cast him in the part. The Legend of Bhagat Singh marked Devgn's second collaboration with Santoshi after
Lajja.[17] Devgn called the film "the most challenging assignment" in his career.[5] He had not watched Shaheed before signing
up for the project. To prepare for the role, Devgn studied all the references Santoshi and Rajabali had procured to develop the
film's script. He also lost weight to more closely resemble Bhagat.[16][18]

Whatever we have read in school and learnt in history is not even 1% of the kind of person he [Bhagat] was. I
don't think he got his due ... When Rajkumar Santoshi narrated the script to me, I was taken aback because this
man had done so much and his motive was not just independence of India. He had predicted the challenges that
we face in our country today. From riots to corruption, he had predicted that and he wanted to fight that.[19]

— Devgn on his perception of Bhagat

Santoshi chose Akhilendra Mishra to play Azad as he also resembled his character. In addition to reading Shiv Verma's
Sansmritiyan, Mishra read Bhagwan Das Mahore's and Sadashiv Rao Malkapurkar's accounts of the revolutionary. Because of his
astrological beliefs, he even obtained Azad's horoscope to determine his personality. In an interview with Rediff.com's Lata
Khubchandani, Mishra mentioned that while informing his father about his role of Azad, he revealed to him that they originally
hailed from Kanpur, the same place where Azad's ancestors were from. This piece of information encouraged Mishra to play
Azad.[20]

Sushant Singh and D. Santosh (in his cinematic debut) were cast as Bhagat's friends and fellow members of the Hindustan
Republican Association, Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru.[21] Santoshi believed their faces resembled those of the two
revolutionaries.[5] To learn about their characters, Sushant, like Mishra, read Sansmritiyan while Santosh visited Rajguru's family
members.[22][23] The actors were also chosen according to their characters' backgrounds. This was true in the case of Santosh and
also Amitabh Bhattacharjee, who played Jatin Das, the man who devised the bomb for Bhagat and Batukeshwar Dutt. Santosh
and Bhattacharjee were from Maharashtra and West Bengal like Rajguru and Das.[24] Raj Babbar and Farida Jalal were cast as
Bhagat's parents, Kishen Singh and Vidyawati Singh, while Amrita Rao played Mannewali, Bhagat's fiancée.[25]

Filming
Principal photography began in January 2002 and was completed in May.[26][27] The first schedule of filming took place in Agra
and Manali following which the unit moved to the Film City studio in Mumbai.[5] According to the film's cinematographer, K. V.
Anand, around 85 sets were constructed at Film City by Nitin Chandrakant Desai who was in charge of the production design,
and "99 percent of the background" featured in the film was sets.[28] Desai used sepia tint throughout the film to create a period
feel.[29]

Additional scenes depicting the massacre of 1919 were filmed at Jallianwala Bagh; some of them were shot between 9 pm and
6 am. The scenes at Jallianwala Bagh and other surrounding locations in Amritsar at the beginning of the film feature Nakshdeep
Singh as the younger Bhagat. Santoshi selected Nakshdeep after receiving photographs of the boy from his father, Komal Singh,
who played Mannewali's father.[30]

Kultar stayed with the production unit for seven days during the outdoor location shooting in Pune. Both Santoshi and Devgn
appreciated the interactions they had with Kultar, noting that he provided "deep insights into his brother's life".[5][16] Kultar was
pleased with the sincerity of the cast and crew and shared private letters written by Bhagat with them.[31] The song "Pagdi
Sambhal Jatta" was the last part to be filmed. A sequence in the song featuring Devgn appearing between two factions of backup
Bhangra dancers took three takes to be completed.[5] The Legend of Bhagat Singh was made on a budget of ₹200 – 250 million
(about US$4.15 – 5.18 million in 2002).[a][b]

Music
A. R. Rahman composed the soundtrack and score for The Legend of Bhagat
The Legend of Bhagat
Singh,[32] marking his first collaboration with Santoshi. Sameer wrote the lyrics
Singh
for the songs.[33] In an interview with Arthur J. Pais of Rediff.com, Rahman said
that Santoshi wanted him to compose songs that would stand apart from his other Soundtrack album by A. R.
projects like Lagaan (2001) and Zubeidaa (2001).[33] Rahman took care to Rahman
compose the tunes for "Mera Rang De Basanti" in a slow-paced manner to avoid Released 4 May 2002
comparisons with the songs in Shaheed, which he and Santoshi found to be fast- Genre Feature film soundtrack
paced. Rahman followed the same procedure for "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna". He
Length 42:04
created a softer tune, saying that the "song is pictured on men who have fasted
for over a month. How can I compose a high-sounding tune for that song?"[33]
Label Tips
Despite this, Rahman admitted that "Des Mere Des" had "some strains" from Producer A. R. Rahman
Lagaan's music.[33] Rahman took "Santoshi's commitment to the film" as a A. R. Rahman chronology
source of inspiration to make an album that was "flavorsome [sic] and different."
Kannathil The Baba
Rahman experimented with Punjabi music more than he had done before on his
Muthamittal Legend of (2002)
previous soundtracks, receiving assistance from Sukhwinder Singh and Sonu (2002) Bhagat
Nigam.[33] The soundtrack was completed within two months,[34] with "Des Singh
Mere Des" recorded in an hour.[35] (2002)

The soundtrack, marketed by Tips, was released on 4 May 2002 in New Delhi.[36] The songs, especially "Mera Rang De Basanti"
and "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna", received favourable reviews.[29][37][38] A review carried by The Hindu said that while "Sarfaroshi
Ki Tamanna" had a "forceful" impact, "Mera Rang De Basanti" and "Pagdi Sambhal Jatta" were "not the boom-boom types but
subtly tuned". The review praised Rahman's ability "to impart the sombre and poignant mood" in all the album's songs "so well
that despite being subdued, it retains the patriotic fervour".[39] Seema Pant of Rediff.com said that "Mera Rang De Basanti",
"Mahive Mahive" and "Jogiya Jogiya" were "well rendered" by their respective singers and called "Shora So Pahchaniye" an
"intense track, both lyrically as well as composition wise". Pant praised Sukhwinder Singh's "exquisite rendition" of "Pagdi
Sambhal Jatta" and described the duet version of "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna" as having "been beautifully composed". She
appreciated how the "tabla, santoor and flute gives this slow and soft number a classical touch."[37] A critic from Sify said the
music is "good".[40] While Pant and the Sify reviewer concurred with Rahman that "Des Mere Des" was similar to Lagaan's
music,[39][40] the review in The Hindu compared the song to "Bharat Hum Ko Jaan Se Pyaara Hain" ("Thamizha Thamizha")
from Roja (1992).[37]

No. Title Singer(s) Length


1. "Mera Rang De Basanti" Sonu Nigam, Manmohan Waris 05:07
2. "Pagdi Sambhal Jatta" Sukhwinder Singh 04:45
3. "Mahive Mahive" Alka Yagnik, Udit Narayan 05:28
4. "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna" Sonu Nigam 01:47
5. "Dil Se Niklegi" Sukhwinder Singh 03:31
6. "Shora So Pahchaniye" Karthik, Raqueeb Alam, 01:22
Sukhwinder Singh
7. "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna" (Sad) Sonu Nigam, Hariharan 06:44
8. "Kasam Tumko Watan" Sukhwinder Singh 02:15
9. "Jogiya Jogiya" Alka Yagnik, Udit Narayan 05:41
10. "Des Mere Des" Sukhwinder Singh, A. R. 05:24
Rahman
Total length: 42:04

Release
The Legend of Bhagat Singh was released on 7 June 2002 coinciding with the release of Sanjay Gadhvi's romance, Mere Yaar Ki
Shaadi Hai,[41] and another film based on Bhagat, 23rd March 1931: Shaheed, which featured Bobby Deol as the
revolutionary.[1][42]

A week before the film's release, Article 51 A Forum, a non-governmental organisation in Delhi, believed The Legend of Bhagat
Singh to be historically inaccurate, criticising the inclusion of Mannewali as Bhagat's widow, and stating the films were made
"without any research or devotion" and the filmmakers were just looking at the box-office prospects to "make spicy films based
on imaginary episodes".[43] Kumar Taurani defended his film saying that he did not add Rao "for ornamental value", noting he
would have opted for an established actress instead if that were the case. A press statement issued by Tips Industries said: "This
girl from Manawale village loved Bhagat Singh so totally that she remained unmarried till death and was known as Bhagat
Singh's widow."[44] The chief operating officer of Tips Industries, Raju Hingorani, pointed out that Kultar had authenticated the
film, stating: "With his backing, why must we be afraid of other allegations?"[45]

On 29 May 2002, a 14-page petition was filed by Paramjit Kaur, the daughter of Bhagat's youngest brother, Rajinder Singh, at the
Punjab and Haryana High Court to stay the release of both The Legend of Bhagat Singh and 23rd March 1931: Shaheed, alleging
that they "contained distorted versions" of the freedom fighter's life. Kaur's lawyer, Sandeep Bhansal, argued that Bhagat singing
a duet with Mannewali and wearing garlands were "untrue and amounted to distortion of historical facts". Two days later, the
petition came up for hearing before the judges J. L. Gupta and N. K. Sud; both refused to stay the films' release, observing that
the petition was moved "too late and it would not be proper to stop the screening of the films".[46]

Reception and accolades

Critical response
The Legend of Bhagat Singh received
generally positive critical feedback, with
praise for its direction, story, screenplay,
cinematography, production design and the
performances of Devgn and
Sushant.[2][47][48] Chitra Mahesh praised
Santoshi's direction, noting in her review
for The Hindu that he "shows some restraint
in handling the narrative". She appreciated
the film's technical aspects and Devgn's Critics particularly praised the performances of Devgn and Sushant.[47]
rendition, calling his interpretation of
Bhagat "powerful, without being
strident".[29] Writing for The Times of India, Dominic Ferrao commended Devgn, Sushant, Babbar and Mishra, saying that they
all come "off with flying colours".[38] A review carried by Sify labelled the film "slick and commendable"; it also termed Devgn's
portrayal of Bhagat as "fabulous" but felt he "overrides" the character and that "the supporting characters make more impact than
him."[40]

In a comparative analysis of The Legend of Bhagat Singh with 23rd March 1931: Shaheed, Ziya Us Salam of The Hindu found
the former to be a better film because of the "clearly etched out" supporting characters, while opining Devgn was more
"restrained and credible" than Bobby Deol. Salam admired Sushant's performance, opining that he has "a fine screen presence,
good timing and an ability to hold his own in front of more celebrated actors".[49] In a more mixed comparison, Rediff.com's
Amberish K. Diwanji, despite finding The Legend of Bhagat Singh and Devgn to be the better film and actor like Salam,
criticised the "constant shouting and mouthing of dialogues". He responded negatively to the inclusion of Bhagat's fiancée,
pointing out the film took liberties in using this "slim" piece of information "just to have a girl sing." Diwanji, however,
commended the narrative structure of The Legend of Bhagat Singh, saying that the film captured the revolutionary's life and
journey well, thereby making it "worth watching and give[ing] it relevant historical background."[50]

Among overseas reviewers, Dave Kehr of The New York Times complimented the placement of the film's song sequences,
especially that of "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna" and "Mere Rang De Basanti". Kehr called Devgn's interpretation of Bhagat
"glowering" while praising Sushant's "urbane and unpredictable" rendition of Sukhdev.[51] Although Variety's Derek Elley found
The Legend of Bhagat Singh to be "drawn with more warmth" and approved of Devgn's and Sushant's performances, he was not
pleased with the "choppy" screenplay in the film's first half. He concluded his review by saying that the film "has a stronger lead
[thespian] and richer gallery of characters that triumph over often unsubtle direction".[52]

Some of the criticism was also directed towards the treatment of Gandhi. Mahesh notes that he "appears in rather poor light" and
was depicted as making "little effort" to secure a pardon for Bhagat, Sukhdev and Rajguru.[29] Diwanji concurs with Mahesh
while also saying that the Gandhi–Irwin Pact as seen in the film would make the audience think that Gandhi "condemned the trio
to be hanged by inking the agreement" while pointing out the agreement itself "had a different history and context."[50] Kehr
believed the film's depiction of Gandhi was its "most interesting aspect". He described Surendra Rajan's version of Gandhi as "a
faintly ridiculous poseur, whose policies play directly into the hands of the British" and in that aspect, he was very different from
"the serene sage" portrayed by Ben Kingsley in Richard Attenborough's Gandhi (1982).[51] Like Diwanji, Elley also notes how
the film denounces Gandhi by blaming him "for not trying very hard" to prevent Bhagat's execution.[52]

Box office
The Legend of Bhagat Singh had an average opening in its first week, grossing ₹57.1 million (US$1.18 million in 2002)
worldwide, with ₹33 million (US$684,221 in 2002) in India alone.[1][b] The film failed to cover its budget thus underperforming
at the box office, collecting only ₹129.35 million (US$2.68 million in 2002) by the end of its theatrical run.[b][1] Shubhra Gupta
of Business Line attributed the film's commercial failure to its release on the same day as 23rd March 1931: Shaheed, opining that
"the two Bhagats ate into each other's business".[2]

Accolades
At the 50th National Film Awards, The Legend of Bhagat Singh won the Best Feature Film in Hindi and Devgn received the Best
Actor award.[53] The film received eight nominations at the 48th Filmfare Awards and won three—Best Background Score
(Rahman), Best Film (Critics) (Kumar Taurani, Ramesh Taurani) and Best Actor (Critics) (Devgn).[54]
Date of
Award Category Recipient(s) and nominee(s) Result Ref.
ceremony[d]
Best Film Kumar Taurani, Ramesh Taurani Nominated
Best Director Rajkumar Santoshi Nominated
Best Actor Ajay Devgn Nominated
Best Supporting
Sushant Singh Nominated
Actor
Filmfare 21 February [47]
Best Music
Awards 2003 A. R. Rahman Nominated [54]
Director
Best Background
A. R. Rahman Won
Score
Best Film (Critics) Kumar Taurani, Ramesh Taurani Won
Best Actor
Ajay Devgn Won
(Critics)
Best Feature Film Rajkumar Santoshi, Kumar Taurani,
National Film 29 December Won
in Hindi Ramesh Taurani [53]
Awards 2003
Best Actor Ajay Devgn Won

Legacy
Since its release, The Legend of Bhagat Singh has been considered as one of Santoshi's best works.[55] Devgn said in December
2014 that The Legend of Bhagat Singh along with Zakhm (1998) were the best films he ever worked on in his career. He also
revealed he had not seen such a good script since.[56] In 2016, the film was included in Hindustan Times's list of "Bollywood's
Top 5 Biopics".[57] The Legend of Bhagat Singh was added in both the SpotBoyE and The Free Press Journal lists of Bollywood
films that can be watched to celebrate India's Independence Day in 2018.[58][59] The following year, Daily News and Analysis
and Zee News also listed it among the films to watch on Republic Day.[60][61]

Notes
a. While the film's details on Box Office India state that the budget was ₹200 million,[1] Shubhra Gupta of Business
Line says that ₹250 million was spent on the film's making.[2]
b. The average exchange rate in 2002 was 48.23 Indian rupees (₹) per 1 US dollar (US$).[3]
c. Udham Singh was a revolutionary responsible for the assassination of Michael O'Dwyer, the former lieutenant
governor of Punjab as a response to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919.[7]
d. Date is linked to the article about the awards held that year, wherever possible.

References
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5. Lalwani, Vickey (18 May 2002). "A revolution in his eyes"
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15bhagat.htm). Rediff.com. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20180328152147/http://www.rediff.com/movie
s/2000/sep/15bhagat.htm) from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
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External links
Official website (https://web.archive.org/web/20020607182704/http://www.legendofbhagatsingh.com/main.htm)
The Legend of Bhagat Singh (https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0319736/) on IMDb
The Legend of Bhagat Singh (https://www.allmovie.com/movie/v266227) at AllMovie
The Legend of Bhagat Singh (https://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/the_legend_of_bhagat_singh) at Rotten
Tomatoes

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Minat Terkait