Anda di halaman 1dari 18

International Journal of Engineering Studies

ISSN 0975- 6469 Volume 1, Number 2 (2009), pp. 105–122


© Research India Publications
http://www.ripublication.com/ijes.htm

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam under


the Effect of Isotropic Degradation Caused by Hygro-
Chemo-Mechanical Actions

A. Burman1, D. Maity2 and S. Sreedeep3


1
Lecturer, Dept. of Civil Engineeing, BIT Mesra, Ranchi, India
2
Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineeing, IIT Kharagpur, India
3
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineeing, IIT Guwahati, India

Abstract

The degradation of concrete due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions


are inevitable for structures whose purpose is to retain water during their
service lives. Because of constant contact with water, the strength of the
concrete gets reduced as the micro-pores of concrete structures get penetrated
by the water, frost and various other harmful materials. In order to ascertain
the behaviour of such structures at a later stage after its construction, it is
necessary to determine the degraded strength of the concrete. A curve fitting
analysis is carried out to predict the behavior of concrete at a later stage of its
life based on some already published experimental results showing the gain of
compressive strength of concrete with age. The predicted strength is further
used to determine the effect of degradation of concrete by applying the model
to determine the behavior of Koyna gravity dam after its construction.

Keywords: Aged concrete behavior; Isotropic degradation; Hygro-chemo-


mechanical actions; Curve fitting analysis; Koyna gravity dam.

Introdction
Some structures such as concrete gravity dam, water tanks, well foundations etc. have
to retain water throughout their lifetime. The leaching of water saturates the numerous
pores of concretes. This phenomenon induces stresses in the concrete, which depends
on the degree of saturation reduces the strength of the concrete. At the macro-level,
this effect is manifested as a loss of elastic stiffness. Apart from this, structural
deformations may occur due to inhomogenous material characteristics and the non-
uniform moisture distribution due to asymmetry in the geometrical configuration of
106 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

the structure. The shrinkage of concrete due to moisture effect may further induce
micro-cracks as the local strength of the material may get exceeded. For such a
structure, the strength of the material will be largely different from that at the time of
construction. Therefore, it is important to estimate the strength of the concrete at a
later stage after construction because the structure may be hit by an earthquake long
after it has been constructed. At that moment, the response of the structure will be
significantly different from what it would have if the earthquake had hit just after the
construction was over. In the present paper, a model for depicting the reduced
concrete strength due to ageing process has been suggested. The suggested model is a
variation of an already existing model for describing the ageing behaviour of
concrete. The result of this alternative model has been found to match the results of
the existing model very closely. Since the scope of the present work is to predict the
behaviour of concrete ageing, a number of relevant literatures are reviewed and
presented in brief.
Byfors (1980) stated that the hydration is the primary cause of ageing of concrete,
which at micro level appears to change the mechanical properties of the concrete.
Bazant’s (1994) study of hydration of concrete at micro-level reveals that it is a
change in concentration of non-ageing constituents like hardened cement gel
constituting of tri and bicalcium silicate hydrates. Ulm and Coussy (1995) explored
the theory of reactive porous media for modelling of concrete at early ages. The
model accounts explicitly for hydration of cement by considering the thermodynamic
imbalance between the chemical constituents. The intrinsic relation between heat
generation, ageing and autogeneous shrinkage is derived. Niu et al. (1995) developed
a finite element modelling procedure for describing the thermo-mechanical damage of
early-age concrete in the construction of large dam. The stress deformation analysis
procedure includes temperature-induced, creep-induced and autogeneous
deformations. A failure criterion for each failure mode was developed along with
constitutive relationships for pre-failure and post-failure states during loading and
unloading conditions. Bazant et al. (1997) proposed a new physical theory and
constitutive model considering effects of long term ageing and drying on concrete
creep. This theory is an improvement over the solidification theory in which ageing is
modelled by volume growth.
Cervera et al. (1999, 2000a, b) proposed a thermo-chemical model to simulate the
hydration and ageing process of concrete considering creep and damage in a roller
compacted concrete dam. The evolution of temperature, elastic moduli, compressive
and tensile stress distribution inside the dam can be predicted in terms of ageing
degree at any time during the construction process and also during the first years
following the completion of the dam. This procedure can be applied to understand the
effect of some major variables such as the placing temperature, the starting date and
the placing speed on the construction process. In the long term, ageing of concrete is
affected by the concentration of various constituents in the concrete matrix, chemical
reactions such as calcium leaching or alkali-silica reaction, moisture transport and
loading due to submergence in water. According to Cervera et al. (2000b), the
consideration of creep is significant if the stress analysis includes simulation of
construction process. The model describes the behavior of early age concrete.
The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 107

Lindvall (2001) determined the service life of concrete structures mathematically


that was dependent on material properties, construction process and environmental
effect. The prediction of deterioration of concrete was based on theories of transport
in porous materials and empirical models, which were based on observations from
structures. Bangert et al. (2003) evaluated the long-term material degradation in
concrete structures due to a chemically induced degradation processes and calcium
leaching.
Steffens et al. (2003) introduced an ageing approach to determine the degradation
of concrete structures considering water effect on Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR). A
comprehensive mechanical model was proposed for the material swelling with a
hydro-chemo-mechanical approach, to study structural effects of ASR. The model
adopts a two-stage mechanism for the swelling kinetics, consisting of (i) the
formation of an amorphous gel for which a characteristic time of reaction is identified
and (ii) the quantity of water interacting with the gel. The ageing effect on the
material degradation and structural response is validated with experimental results.
Mazzotti and Savoia (2003) presented a creep-damage model for concrete under
uniaxial compression, which takes into account both nonlinear creep and damage
growth with time. Creep strain is modeled extending solidification theory in the
nonlinear range. Nonlinear creep strains are evaluated as a function of damage index,
which is calibrated from experimental results. It is also assumed that most of creep
strain does not produce damage, so that only a fraction of creep strain contributes to
damage evolution with time. This assumption is based on the experimental evidence
that, at low stress levels, strain due to creep can be large (even larger than that
corresponding to peak stress for short term loading), without any significant damage
of concrete.
Gogoi and Maity (2007) investigated the degradation of strength of an aging
concrete gravity dam adjacent to a reservoir in conjunction with the effects of
sediment layers in the fluid-structure interaction analysis. A new parameter called
degradation index is introduced to account for the extent of isotropic degradation
occurring in the concrete due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions. The
degradation index within the elastic limit is derived considering environmental factors
due to exposure to water, mechanical loading and chemical reaction. In their work, the
gain in compressive strength of concrete is obtained from experimental data published
by Washa et al. (1989) of fifty years of compressive strength of concrete by curve-
fitting procedures. In the present paper, the same fifty years of concrete compressive
strength is represented by a new curve by carrying out least square analysis on the
experimental data. The new curve is used to determine the isotropic degradation index
suggested by Gogoi and Maity (2007). Thus, the phenomena of concrete degradation
with age as well as the gain of concrete compressive strength are combined in the
present model. The constitutive relationships for degraded concrete has been
suggested for plane strain condition and applied to the analysis of Koyna gravity dam
subjected Koyna (1967) earthquake accelerations. The results obtained from the
present model have been compared with the published results (Gogoi and Maity,
2007) with satisfactory agreement.
108 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

Modeling of Aged Concrete


The state of stress and strain within Hook’s law can be expressed as
{σ } = [D]{ε } (1)
T T
In the above equation, {σ} = { σx, σy, τxy} and {ε} = {εx, εy, γxy} are the vectors of
stress and strain respectively , and [D] is the constitutive matrix under plane strain
condition defined as
⎡ ⎤
⎢(1 − μ ) μ 0 ⎥
Ed
[D] = ⎢ μ (1 − μ ) 0 ⎥ (2)
(1 + μ )(1 − 2μ ) ⎢ (1 − 2 μ ) ⎥
⎢ 0 0 ⎥
⎣ 2 ⎦
for a material with elastic modulus Ed and Poisson’s ratio μ. The concept of
degradation of concrete strength is based on the reduction of the net area capable of
supporting stresses. The loss of rigidity of the material follows as a consequence of
material degradation due to various environmental and loading conditions. Adopting
an analogy given by Ghrib & Tinawi (1995) to measure the extent of damage in
concrete, the orthotropic degradation index can be determined as
Ω − Ω id Ωn
d gi = 1 − i = 1− i (3)
Ωi Ωi
Here, Ω i = tributary area of the surface in direction i; and Ω id = area affected by
degradation. In a scale of 0 to 1, the orthotropic degradation index, dgi = 0 indicates no
degradation and dgi = 1 indicates completely degraded material. The index i = 1,2
corresponds with the Cartesian axes x and y in two-dimensional case. The effective
plane strain material matrix can be expressed as
⎡(1 − μ)Λ2 μΛ Λ 0 ⎤
1 2
Ed ⎢ 1 ⎥
[Dd ] = ⎢ μΛ1Λ2 (1 − μ)Λ22 0 ⎥
(1 + μ)(1 − 2μ) ⎢ (4)
⎢⎣ 0 0 ( )
(1− 2μ)Λ21Λ22 / Λ21 + Λ22 ⎥⎥⎦
where Λ1 = (1 - dg1) and Λ2 = (1 - dg2). In the above equation, Ed is the elastic
modulus of the material without degradation. If dg1 = dg2 = dg, the isotropic
degradation model is expressed as
[Dd ] = (1 − d g )2 [D ] (5)
where [Dd] and [D] are the constitutive matrices of the degraded and un-degraded
model respectively. Equation (5) was used by Gogoi and Maity (2007) to determine
the degraded strength of concrete due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions.

Evaluation of degradation elastic modulus En


The compressive strength of concrete is expected to decrease with age due to
chemical and mechanical material degradation. But it is also a known fact that
concrete gains compressive strength with age. In the present work, an attempt was
made to simulate the concrete strength considering both of these above-mentioned
factors.
The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 109

Following the work of Gogoi and Maity (2007), the relation between degraded
elastic modulus due to porosity of concrete, En and the elastic modulus of concrete
considering strength gain at a particular age, E0 can be considered to be En = (1-dg)E0 .
Using the dimensionless value of total porosity obtained by multiplying the scalar
degradation variable, as reaction extent, the variation of degradation with respect to
time can be given as
ta

En = (1 − φ ) E0
τa

(6)
In the above expression, τa is the characteristic age for which the structure is
designed and ta is the time corresponding to which the degraded elastic modulus En is
determined. The symbol φ stands for total porosity of concrete which can be further
expressed as the sum of initial porosity, φ0 the porosity due to matrix dissolution, φc
and the apparent mechanical porosity, φm.
φ = φ 0 + φc + φ m (7)
Bangert et al. (2003) and Kuhl et al. (2004) have outlined the detailed procedure
to calculate mechanically induced porosity φm. The apparent mechanically induced
porosity, φm considers the influence of mechanically induced micro-pores and micro-
cracks on the macroscopic material properties of the porous material. It is obtained as
φ m = [1 − φ 0 − φc ]d m (8)
where dm is the scalar degradation parameter. The strain based exponential
degradation function as proposed by Gogoi and Maity (2007) is given as
d m = as −
κ
[
κ0 m
0
]
1 − α m + α m e (β [κ −κ ] ) (9)

Where κ 0 = Value of strain at initial threshold degradation given by ft /E0


κ = Internal variable defining the current damage threshold depending on the
loading history
Here ft = Static tensile strength of concrete
E0 = Elastic modulus of undegraded concrete before the imposition of any type of
mechanical loading.
Equation (9) may be used to find out the value of dm at any age, which again
varies with κ caused by the mechanical loading history. When there will be no
degradation due to mechanical loading, the value of κ may be considered equal to
κ 0 (i.e. κ 0 = κ ). Also, in case of no degradation caused by mechanical loading, φm is
also considered to be zero (i.e. φm = 0). Bangert et al. (2003) outlined the procedure to
calculate the values of the mechanical parameter α m and β m . In eq. (9), the value of as
is considered to lie between 1.0 and 0.0 indicating complete and no degradation (Simo
and Ju, 1987) respectively.

Gain of Compressive Strength With Age


It is a known fact that concrete gains compressive strength with age. This
phenomenon is predicted by a curve fitting on 50 years of compressive strength data
110 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

published by Washa et al. (1989). The compressive strength test results of various
concrete specimens of different proportions were published in the referred literature.
These specimens were cured for 28 days and then placed in outdoors, which was on
level ground in an open location. All the specimens were kept in open so that they
were subjected to change in severe weather conditions of 25 cycles of freezing and
thawing each winter, annual precipitation including snowfall of about 0.813 cm and
air temperature variation between -32.0°C and 35.0°C.
Gogoi and Maity (2007) sought to carry out a least square curve fitting analysis on
the set of compressive strength data published by Washa et al. (1989). In engineering
problems, an experiment produces a set of data points (x1, y1), …., (xn, yn), where the
abscissas {xk} are distinct. It is often our objective to relate these data with the help of
a mathematical function. While choosing the particular mathematical function for the
curve fitting of the experimental data sets, the physical behaviour of the system
should be kept in mind i.e. the mathematical function should be comprised of
physically meaningful parameters. In the present case, we seek to suggest a
mathematical function involving the time in years and the compressive strength of
concrete. While expressing these experimental data by a mathematical function of the
form y = f(x) , some errors are inevitable which may originate from the test conditions
of the experiments as well as human or any other errors which can not be accounted
for. Therefore, the actual value f(xk) (Mathews 2001) satisfies
f(xk) = yk + ek (10)
where ek is the measured error. Some of the methods that can determine how far
the curve yls = f(x) lies from the data are:

Maximum error: E∞ ( f ) = max { f (xk ) − y k }


1≤ k ≤ N ′
1 N′
Average error: E1 ( f ) = ∑ f (xk ) − y k
N ′ k =1 (11)
12
Root-mean- ⎡ 1 N′ 2⎤
square error: E2 ( f ) = ⎢ ∑ f (xk ) − y k ⎥
⎣ N ′ k =1 ⎦

The best fitting line is found by minimizing one of the quantities in eq.(13).
Amongst, all the three choices given in equation (11), E2(f) is preferred most of the
times because of computational convenience. The least squares line is the line that
minimizes the root-mean-square error E2(f) and is given as
yls = f(x) = Ax + B (12)
In the above equation, A and B can be determined from N΄ sets of experimental
data as follows:
N′ N′ N′
∑ xk yk ∑ yk ∑ xk
k =1 k =1 k =1
A= , B= −A (13)
N′ N′ N′
∑ xk
k =1
The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 111

For the present work, the fifty years of compressive strength data set corresponds
to a concrete specimen of mixed proportion 1:2.51:5.34 (cement : sand : gravel by
weight) with water cement ratio of 0.49. Here, the following forms are considered for
curve fitting:

I. y = A ln( x ) + B
II. y = C ′e A ln x (14)
III. y = C ′x A
IV. y = C ′xe A ln x

In the above expression, C ′ = eB and D ′ = -A. Data linearization is carried out by


transforming points (xk, yk) in the xy plane by the operation (Xk, Yk) = (ln(xk), ln(yk)) in
the XY plane for curve II and curve III. In case of curve IV, the transformation
operation carried out is (Xk, Yk) = (ln(xk), ln( y k x k )) in the XY plane. Then the least
squares line is fitted to the points {(Xk, Yk)} to give the predicted results. The
predicted results using the above expressions (eq. 14) are plotted in Fig. 1.

70
Compressive strength (Mpa)

60

50

40

30 Expemental data (Washa et al. 1989)


Curve I
Curve II
20 Curve III
Curve IV
10

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (years)

Figure 1: Curve fitting of experimental data.

The curve I (i.e. y = A ln( x ) + B ) has been used by Gogoi and Maity (2007) with
excellent result. According to Washa et al. (1989), the specimen showed an increase
in compressive strength roughly proportional to the logarithm of age during the first
10 years and small variation thereafter. Therefore, curve III seems to be the most
logical choice to fit the experimental data. However, it is observed from Fig. 1, that
curve I also shows excellent agreement with the experimental data of fifty years of
concrete compressive strength. Gogoi and Maity (2007) proposed an equation to
predict the gain of concrete compressive strength with the passage of time (in terms of
years) as below:
f (t ) = 3.57 ln(t ) + 44.33 (15)
f (t ) = 43.47e 0.08 ln t (16)
f (t ) = 43.47t 0.08 (17)
f (t ) = 43.47te −0.92 ln t (18)
112 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

The values of compressive strength obtained are in SI units and ta is age of


concrete in years. Eq. (15) was obtained by Maity and Gogoi (2007) by carrying out
least square analysis using a curve of the form y = A ln( x ) + B . Equation (18) has been
obtained by carrying out a least square analysis using a curve of the form
y = C ′e A ln x with the necessary transformation of the coordinates as mentioned before.
In this case, the values of C and A obtained are 43.47 and 0.08 respectively. Equation
(17) has been obtained by carrying out a least square analysis using a curve of the
form y = C ′x A with the necessary transformation of the coordinates as mentioned
before. In this case also, the values of C and A obtained are 43.47 and 0.08
respectively. Equation (18) has been obtained by carrying out a least square analysis
using a curve of the form y = C ′xe A ln x with the necessary transformation of the
coordinates as mentioned before. In this case also, the values of C and A obtained are
43.47 and –0.92 respectively. From Fig. 1, it can be noticed that the results obtained
from eq. (16), eq. (17) and eq. (18) are all similar and these results agree quite well
with the experimental data as well as the results obtained from eq. (17) proposed by
Gogoi and Maity (2007). Further, it may be noticed that eq. (16) and eq. (17) are not
unique but alternative to each other considering the transformation of coordinates to
be carried out. Since the results obtained from eq. (16), eq. (17) and eq. (18) are
almost identical, eq. (17) (as shown by curve III in Fig. 1) is chosen for all the further
analyses carried out in this work. This choice is done keeping in mind the ease of use
of an equation. In the present analysis, both eq. (17) and the equation suggested by
Gogoi and Maity (i.e. eq. (15)) have been used to predict the gain of concrete strength
with age and the obtained results are compared. The value of static elastic modulus of
concrete in SI units (Neville and Brooks, 1987) is obtained from
E 0 = 4733 f (t ) (19)
After calculating the static elastic modulus of concrete E0, the degraded elastic
modulus of concrete (En) due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical effects may be
obtained from eq. (8). Having obtained the value of En, the value of degradation index
is given by eq. (20) (Gogoi and Maity, 2007).
E
dg =1− n (20)
E0
The value of dg is used in the constitutive relationship given by eq. (4) to describe
the behavior of a concrete gravity dam (analyzed under plane strain assumption). In
Fig. 2, the variation of degradation index with age is plotted. The degradation index dg
is calculated from eq. (20) as a function of elastic modulus of concrete considering the
strength gain at a particular age E0. E0 is determined from eq. (19) which may be
approximated by eq. (15) (suggested by Gogoi and Maity, 2007) and eq. (17)
proposed in the present work. From Fig. 2, it may be observed that the degradation
index values obtained for different HCM design life (i.e. 50 years and 100 years
respectively) match very closely with each other. It is also observed that the
degradation of the concrete is less if the HCM design life ( τ a ) is considered to be less
compared to the situation when τ a value is more.
The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 113

0.9
0.8
Degradation index

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
Design life = 50 yrs, Gogoi and Maity (2007)
0.3
Design life = 50 yrs, Present analysis
0.2
design life = 100 yrs, Gogoi and Maity (2007)
0.1 Design life = 100 yrs, Present analysis
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Age (yrs)

Figure 2: variation of degradation index with age of concrete for different HCM
design life.

Numerical Results and Discussions


In the present work, the Young’s modulus of concrete at a later stage after
construction of the structure is determined by using both eq. (15) (Gogoi and Maity,
2007) and eq. (17) suggested in the present analysis are used to analyze the behaviour
of Koyna gravity dam against Koyna (1967) earthquake accelerations under the
assumption of plane strain condition. The foundation material of the dam is assumed
to be hard rock. Therefore, the base of the dam is considered to be fixed at the ground.

Geometry of Koyna Gravity Dam


The geometry of the dam body is shown in Fig. 3. The height of the dam is 103.0 m
and the width of the base is 70.0 m. The discretization of the dam body used for
analysis purpose is also shown in Fig. 2. The dam is analyzed against reservoir empty
condition subjected horizontal component of Koyna earthquake (1967) acceleration
data. The behaviour of the dam is observed at the crest point at different ages after the
construction.

Figure 2: Geometry and discretization of koyna gravity dam.


114 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

Material Properties
As per Gogoi and Maity (2007), the Young’s modulus of dam body is assumed to be
3.15e+10 N/m2. The Poisson’s ratio is taken to be 0.235 and the mass density is
assumed to be 2415.816 kg/m3. The damping of the structure is considered to be 3%.
The dam is analyzed against empty reservoir condition because our objective to asses
the performance the degradation model (eq. 4) by using eq. (15) to find out the value
of degraded elastic modulus.

Element Selection
The dam is discretized with a two dimensional eight nodded isoparametric finite
element. This element is chosen over the lower order four nodded because it provides
more accurate results due to the quadratic variation of displacement profiles within
the element body (Bathe, 1996).

Selection of an Optimum Mesh Size


To check the convergence of the results obtained for various mesh grading, the model
shown in Fig. 3 has been chosen for the extensive analysis using finite element
technique. The dimension and the material properties of the dam in the present case
are same as listed before. The dam is discretized with 8-noded quadratic elements as
shown in Fig. 3 and is analyzed using plain strain formulation. A concentrated
horizontal load of 1000 kN is applied at the crest of the structure and the static
analysis is carried out considering the bottom nodes of the dam to be fixed. Also, the
eigen value analysis is carried out to observe the convergence of natural frequencies
and time periods. The structure is discretized with different mesh grading and the
convergences of results for the time periods and the crest displacements obtained for
different discretizations are presented in Table 1. It is observed from the results that
the solution converges sufficiently for a discretization of 6 × 4.

Analysis of Koyna Gravity Dam Against Koyna Earthquake Acceleration


In the present analysis, the proposed concrete degradation model (eq. 6) has been used
to determine the behavior of Koyna gravity dam against Koyna earthquake (1967)
acceleration. The geometry of the dam is shown in Fig. 1 and the material properties
of the dam are as stated before. Koyna gravity dam is further analyzed using the
model proposed by Gogoi and Maity (2007) given by eq. (4) and both the results are
compared.
Equation (19) is used to predict the value of elastic modulus E0 as a function of
compressive strength of concrete considering the gain with age. The concrete
compressive strength is determined from eq. (17) proposed in the present work. Also,
the elastic modulus E0 is further calculated by using eq. (15) (proposed by Gogoi and
Maity, 2007) to determine the compressive strength of concrete at any age. Both the
results are compared in Fig. 3. It is observed that the value of the elastic modulus E0 is
slightly higher when eq (17) is used to predict the value of concrete compressive
strength at any age. The value of the material parameter as has been taken equal to
0.57 as considered by Gogoi and Maity (2007) in their work.
The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 115

Table 1: Convergence of time periods and horizontal crest displacement of the Koyna
dam.

Dam With Time Period (sec) Horizontal Crest Displacement (m)


Mesh Size due to 1000 kN horizontal load
Nv × N h Mode 1 Mode 2 u v
5× 3 0.3431 0.1270 0.00532 -0.000675
5× 4 0.3437 0.1273 0.00534 -0.000678
5× 5 0.3440 0.1274 0.00535 -0.000679
6× 4 0.3440 0.1275 0.00534 -0.000678
6× 5 0.3440 0.1276 0.00535 -0.000678
7× 4 0.3440 0.1276 0.00536 -0.000685
7× 5 0.3442 0.1277 0.00536 -0.000687
8× 4 0.3440 0.1276 0.00536 -0.000685
8× 5 0.3440 0.1277 0.00537 -0.000687
9× 4 0.3441 0.1277 0.00536 -0.000686
9× 5 0.3440 0.1278 0.00537 -0.000687
10 × 4 0.3441 0.1277 0.00536 -0.000685
10 × 5 0.3442 0.1278 0.00537 -0.000687

Next, the variation of degraded elastic modulus with age is observed. The elastic
modulus of concrete (Ed) considering the strength gain with age is obtained from eq.
(19). Having obtained the value of Ed, the degraded elastic modulus En is calculated
from eq. (6). The variation of elastic modulus of concrete considering hygro-chemo-
mechanical effects with design life of 100 years is plotted in Fig. 4. The degraded
elastic modulus is found out as a function of the elastic modulus considering the gain
of strength with age which is further obtained using both eq. (15) and eq. (17). In Fig.
5, the variation of the degraded elastic modulus with the material parameter as is also
plotted. In case of hygro-chemo-mechnically induced degradation, the total porosity
φ of concrete is expressed as the summation of initial porosity φ0 , chemically induced
porosity φc and mechanically induced porosity φm according to eq. (7). The values of
φ0 and φc are considered to be 0.2 (Gogoi and Maity, 2007; Kuhl et al., 2004).
Following eq. (8), the value of mechanically induced porosity φm is expressed as a
function of scalar degradation parameter d m which may be calculated from eq. (9). In
eq. (9), the values of material parameters α m , β m , φ0 and κ 0 are considered to be 0.9,
1000, 0.2 and 1.1× 10 −4 respectively (Kuhl et al., 2004). The value of φc may be
considered between 0.0 and 0.2 in the presence of chemical degradation due to silt
deposition on the upstream face of the dam. The maximum allowable range of values
for d m should lie between 1.0 and 0.0 indicating complete and no degradation of
concrete respectively. The value of the material parameter as has been varied from 0.4
to 1.0 for a HCM (hygro-chemo-mechanical) design life of 100 years. The variation
116 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

of elastic modulus with different values as has been plotted in Fig. 5. The elastic
modulus has been calculated by using eq. (15) and eq. (17) and values of elastic
modulus have been compared. The elastic modulus values obtained from the present
analysis using eq. (17) to predict the value Ed are found to match closely with the
values of elastic modulus obtained by Gogoi and Maity (2007) by using eq. (15). It is
also noticed that the values of elastic modulus obtained by using eq. (17) is slightly on
the higher side of that obtained sing eq. (15). It is observed that considering as=1.0
reduces the value of elastic modulus of concrete to a very low value which is
practically incorrect. Having observed the effects of the different values of the
material parameter as, the value of has been fixed at 0.57 for further analyses (Gogoi
and Maity, 2007).

40000
35000
co m pressive streng th
considerin g gain of
E lastic m odu lu s

30000
present analysis
25000
(Mpa)

Gogoi and Maity (2007)


20000
as=0.57
15000
10000
5000
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Age of concrete (years)

Figure 4: The variation of elastic modulus of concrete with age considering the effect
of compressive strength gain.

40000
as = 1.0 (Gogoi and Maity, 2007)
E la s t ic m o d u lu s o f c o n c r e t e

35000
as = 1.0 (Present analysis)
30000 as = 0.6 (Gogoi and Maity, 2007)

25000 as = 0.6 (Present analysis)


(M p a )

20000 as = 0.5 (Gogoi and Maity, 2007)

15000 as = 0.5 (Present analysis)

as = 0.4 (Gogoi and maity, 2007)


10000
as = 0.4 (Present analysis)
5000
No degradation (Gogoi and Maity,
0 2007)
No degradation (Present analysis)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Age of concrete (years)

Figure 5: Variation of elastic modulus of concrete with age (Design life = 100 years).
The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 117

Next, the behavior of the Koyna gravity dam under the influence of ageing effects
caused by various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions is observed. The Young’s
modulus is calculated by using eq. (19) which is a function of the concrete
compressive strength f (t ) to be determined at the particular age of the concrete
structure. The compressive strength of the concrete at any age after construction is
determined by eq. (17) as suggested in the present paper. The comparisons of the
horizontal crest displacement of the structure after 25 years after construction and 75
years of construction respectively when the HCM design life of concrete is considered
to be 100 yrs under reservoir empty condition. The results are shown in Fig. (6). The
maximum and minimum values of the horizontal crest displacements obtained from
the present analysis observed are 6.14 cm and -5.43 cm respectively after 25 years of
construction. After 75 years of construction, the similar values were obtained to be
7.17 cm and -4.66 cm respectively. Therefore, it is observed that the displacement
increases after 75 years of construction because degradation of concrete is more in
that case.
0.08
After 25 yrs of construction
Horizontal crest disp. (m)

0.06 After 75 yrs of construction


0.04
0.02
0
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (sec)

Figure 6: Comparison of horizontal crest displacement vs. age under empty reservoir
condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 100 yrs).

9
After 25 yrs of construction
8
Major principal stress (Mpa)

After 75 yrs of construction


7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (sec)

Figure 7: Comparison of major principal stress vs time at point O under empty


reservoir condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 100
years).
118 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

Similar analyses are carried out in order to compare the values of major principal
stresses occurring at point O (as shown in Fig. 2) after 25 years and 75 years of
construction respectively under the empty reservoir condition. The HCM design life
of concrete is considered to be equal to 100 years. It is observed that the maximum
value of the major principal stress obtained after 25 years of construction is 7.59 Mpa
and whereas that obtained after 75 years of construction is 2.93 Mpa. The major
principal stress vales have decreased at the age of 75 years after construction because
the stiffness of the material reduces by a large amount due high degradation
experienced at a later stage of its life. Fig. 8 shows the variation of minor principal
stress vs. time at the point O as shown in Fig. 3. The value of minimum minor
principal stress obtained after 25 years of construction is -9.77 Mpa whereas that
value is obtained as -4.34 Mpa after 75 years of construction. In this case also, the
value of the minor principal stress was observed to decrease at a later stage of its life
because the material loses its stiffness due to high amount of degradation.
2
Minor principal stress (Mpa)

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10 After 25 yrs of construction


After 75 yrs of construction
-12
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (sec)

Figure 8: Comparison of minor principal stress vs time at point O under empty


reservoir condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 100
years)

Next, the behavior of Koyna gravity dam under the effect of Koyna earthquake
acceleration is observed after 25 years and 75 years of its construction considering the
HCM design life of concrete to be 50 years. The degradation index values at 25 years
and 75 years are calculated using the eq. (17) suggested for the calculation of
compressive strength proposed in the present work. Fig. 9 shows the comparison of
horizontal crest displacement computed in both the cases. The maximum and
minimum values of horizontal crest displacements observed after 25 years are 5.73
cm and -5.99 cm respectively. Also, the corresponding values after 75 years of
construction are 7.11 cm and -7.22 cm respectively. Therefore, displacements at a
later stage of the structure’s life is found to increase because the stiffness of the
structure reduces with increasing degradation with the passage of time.
The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 119

0.15
after 25 yrs of construction
0.1 after 75 yrs of construction
Horizontal crest disp (m)

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

-0.15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (sec)

Figure 9: Comparison of horizontal crest displacement vs. age under empty reservoir
condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 50 yrs).

Similarly, the variation of major and minor principal stresses vs. time is also
observed for point O (shown in Fig. 3) for both the cases i.e. when the compressive
strength is calculated from eq. (17). Fig. 10 shows the variation of major principal
stress vs. time at point O when the HCM design life is 50 years. The maximum values
of major principal stresses observed at point O after 25 years and 75 years after
construction are 5.88 Mpa and 3.34 Mpa respectively. The principal stress values
decreases at a later stage of the life of the structure because of the reduction of its
stiffness due to higher degradation experienced with time. Fig. 11 shows the variation
of minor principal stress vs. time at point O of concrete gravity dam (shown in Fig. 3)
for both types of analyses. The minimum value of the minor principal stress observed
at point O is -5.64 Mpa after 25 years after construction whereas the minimum value
of minor principal stress observed at point O is -2.32 Mpa after 75 years of
construction of the dam. Same reasoning of lower stiffness with higher age is
responsible for yielding of lower value of minor principal stress at point O.

7
After 25 yrs of construction
Major principal stress (Mpa)

6 After 75 yrs of construction


5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (sec)

Figure 10: Comparison of major principal stress vs time at poin O under empty
reservoir condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 50
years).
120 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

1
Minor principal stress (Mpa)

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5 After 25 yrs of construction


After 75 yrs of construction
-6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (sec)

Figure 11: Comparison of major principal stress vs time at poin O under empty
reservoir condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 50
years).

Conclusion
In the present work, the effect of degradation of concrete due to various hygro-chemo-
mechanical effects has been investigated on Koyna gravity dam subjected to Koyna
earthquake acceleration. Based on the test results of fifty years of concrete
compressive strength, a least square curve fitting analysis has been carried out. From
the curve fitting analysis, a new equation was obtained to predict the gain of concrete
compressive strength with time and the results were used to compute the degradation
index of concrete responsible concrete degradation due to various hygro-chemo-
mechanical analysis. The degraded elastic modulus of concrete is used in the material
constitutive matrix to determine the behavior of Koyna gravity dam against Koyna
earthquake (1967) acceleration. The equation used in the present analysis to predict
the concrete compressive strength at any age is slightly on the higher side when
compared to values obtained by using eq. (15) suggested by Gogoi and Maity (2007).
Therefore, degradation index predicted by the present method is slightly lower than
that suggested by Gogoi and Maity (2007). Based on the concrete compressive
strength predicted by the newly proposed curve (eq. 17), the elastic modulus of
concrete at various stages of its life is determined. This elastic modulus is used to
determine the response of Koyna gravity dam under Koyna earthquake acceleration
considering reservoir empty condition. The graphs showing the variation of horizontal
crest displacements, major and minor principal stresses after 25 years and 75 years of
construction suggest that the displacements increase whereas the major and minor
principal stress reduces with passage of time. This phenomenon is attributed to loss of
stiffness of the structure with increasing degradation experienced with higher age.
The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 121

Reference
[1] Bangert, F., Grasberger, S., Kuhl, D., Meschke G. (2003) “Environmentally
induced deterioration of concrete: physical motivation and numerical
modelling”, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 70, 891–910.
[2] Bazant, Z.P. (1994) “Creep and thermal effects in concrete structures: a
conceptus of some new developments”, Computational modelling of Concrete
Structures, International Conf. EURO-C, H. Mang, N. Bicanic and R. de
Borst. eds., Pineridge Press, Swansea, Wales, 461-480.
[3] Bazant, Z.P., Hauggaard, A.B., Baweja, S. and Ulm, F.J. (1997)
“Microprestress-solidification theory for concrete creep. I: Aging and drying
effects”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 123(11), 1188-1194.
[4] Byfors, J. (1980) “Plain concrete at early ages”, Research Report F3:80,
Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
[5] Cervera, M., Oliver, J. and Prato, T. (1999a) “Thermo-Chemo-Mechanical
Model for Concrete. I: Hydration and Aging”, Journal of Engineering
Mechanics, ASCE, 125, 1018 -1027.
[6] Cervera, M., Oliver, J. and Prato, T. (1999b) “Thermo-Chemo-Mechanical
Model for Concrete. II: Damage and Creep”, Journal of Engineering
Mechanics, ASCE, 125, 1028- 1039.
[7] Cervera, M., Oliver, J. and Prato, T. (2000a) “Simulation of construction of
RCC dams I: Temperature and aging”, Journal of Structural Engineering,
ASCE, 126(9), 1053-1061.
[8] Cervera, M., Oliver, J. and Prato, T. (2000b) “Simulation of construction of
RCC dams. II: Stress and Damage” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
126(9), 1062-1069.
[9] Ghrib, F. and Tinawi, R. (1995a) “Nonlinear behavior of concrete gravity
dams using damage mechanics”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE,
121(4), 513-527.
[10] Ghrib, F, Tinawi, R. (1995b) “An application of damage mechanics for
seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams”, Earthquake Engineering and
Structural Dynamics, 24(2), 157-173.
[11] Gogoi, I. (2007) “Dynamic response of structures interacting with fluid of
infinite extent using finite element technique”, Doctoral Thesis, IIT
Kharagpur.
[12] Gogoi, I. and Maity, D. (2007) “Influence of sediment layers on dynamic
behavior of aged concrete dams” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE,
133(4), 400-413.
[13] Kuhl, D, Bangert, F, Meschke, G. (2004) “Coupled chemo-mechanical
deterioration of cementitious materials. Part I: Modeling”, International
Journal of Solids and Structures, 41, 15 - 40.
[14] Lindvall, A. (2001) “Environmental actions and response: Reinforced concrete
structures exposed in road and marine environments”, Licentiate of
Engineering Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
122 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

[15] Mathews, J.H. (2001) Numerical Methods for Mathematics, Science and
Engineering, Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 257-314.
[16] Mazzotti, C. and Savoia, M. (2003) “Nonlinear creep damage model for
concrete under uniaxial compression” Journal of Structural Engineering,
ASCE, 129(9), 1065-1075.
[17] Niu, Y.Z., Tu, C.L., Liang, R.Y. and Zhang, S.W. (1995) “Modeling of
thermo-chemical damage of early-age concrete”, Journal of Structural
Engineering, ASCE, 121(4), 717-726.
[18] Simo, J. and Ju, J. (1987) “Strain and stress-based continuum damage models
– I. Formulation”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 23(7), 821-
840.
[19] Steffens, A., Li, K. and Coussy, O. (2003) “Ageing approach to water effect
on alkali–silica reaction degradation of structures”, Journal of Engineering
Mechanics, ASCE, 129(1), 50-59.
[20] Ulm, F.J. and Coussy O. (1995) “Modelling of thermochemomechanical
couplings of concrete at early ages”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics,
ASCE, 121(7), 785-794.
[21] Washa, G.W., Saemann, J.C. and Cramer, S.M. (1989) “Fifty year properties
of concrete made in 1937”, ACI Materials Journal, 86(4), 367-371.