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© Research India Publications

http://www.ripublication.com/ijes.htm

the Effect of Isotropic Degradation Caused by Hygro-

Chemo-Mechanical Actions

1

Lecturer, Dept. of Civil Engineeing, BIT Mesra, Ranchi, India

2

Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineeing, IIT Kharagpur, India

3

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineeing, IIT Guwahati, India

Abstract

are inevitable for structures whose purpose is to retain water during their

service lives. Because of constant contact with water, the strength of the

concrete gets reduced as the micro-pores of concrete structures get penetrated

by the water, frost and various other harmful materials. In order to ascertain

the behaviour of such structures at a later stage after its construction, it is

necessary to determine the degraded strength of the concrete. A curve fitting

analysis is carried out to predict the behavior of concrete at a later stage of its

life based on some already published experimental results showing the gain of

compressive strength of concrete with age. The predicted strength is further

used to determine the effect of degradation of concrete by applying the model

to determine the behavior of Koyna gravity dam after its construction.

mechanical actions; Curve fitting analysis; Koyna gravity dam.

Introdction

Some structures such as concrete gravity dam, water tanks, well foundations etc. have

to retain water throughout their lifetime. The leaching of water saturates the numerous

pores of concretes. This phenomenon induces stresses in the concrete, which depends

on the degree of saturation reduces the strength of the concrete. At the macro-level,

this effect is manifested as a loss of elastic stiffness. Apart from this, structural

deformations may occur due to inhomogenous material characteristics and the non-

uniform moisture distribution due to asymmetry in the geometrical configuration of

106 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

the structure. The shrinkage of concrete due to moisture effect may further induce

micro-cracks as the local strength of the material may get exceeded. For such a

structure, the strength of the material will be largely different from that at the time of

construction. Therefore, it is important to estimate the strength of the concrete at a

later stage after construction because the structure may be hit by an earthquake long

after it has been constructed. At that moment, the response of the structure will be

significantly different from what it would have if the earthquake had hit just after the

construction was over. In the present paper, a model for depicting the reduced

concrete strength due to ageing process has been suggested. The suggested model is a

variation of an already existing model for describing the ageing behaviour of

concrete. The result of this alternative model has been found to match the results of

the existing model very closely. Since the scope of the present work is to predict the

behaviour of concrete ageing, a number of relevant literatures are reviewed and

presented in brief.

Byfors (1980) stated that the hydration is the primary cause of ageing of concrete,

which at micro level appears to change the mechanical properties of the concrete.

Bazant’s (1994) study of hydration of concrete at micro-level reveals that it is a

change in concentration of non-ageing constituents like hardened cement gel

constituting of tri and bicalcium silicate hydrates. Ulm and Coussy (1995) explored

the theory of reactive porous media for modelling of concrete at early ages. The

model accounts explicitly for hydration of cement by considering the thermodynamic

imbalance between the chemical constituents. The intrinsic relation between heat

generation, ageing and autogeneous shrinkage is derived. Niu et al. (1995) developed

a finite element modelling procedure for describing the thermo-mechanical damage of

early-age concrete in the construction of large dam. The stress deformation analysis

procedure includes temperature-induced, creep-induced and autogeneous

deformations. A failure criterion for each failure mode was developed along with

constitutive relationships for pre-failure and post-failure states during loading and

unloading conditions. Bazant et al. (1997) proposed a new physical theory and

constitutive model considering effects of long term ageing and drying on concrete

creep. This theory is an improvement over the solidification theory in which ageing is

modelled by volume growth.

Cervera et al. (1999, 2000a, b) proposed a thermo-chemical model to simulate the

hydration and ageing process of concrete considering creep and damage in a roller

compacted concrete dam. The evolution of temperature, elastic moduli, compressive

and tensile stress distribution inside the dam can be predicted in terms of ageing

degree at any time during the construction process and also during the first years

following the completion of the dam. This procedure can be applied to understand the

effect of some major variables such as the placing temperature, the starting date and

the placing speed on the construction process. In the long term, ageing of concrete is

affected by the concentration of various constituents in the concrete matrix, chemical

reactions such as calcium leaching or alkali-silica reaction, moisture transport and

loading due to submergence in water. According to Cervera et al. (2000b), the

consideration of creep is significant if the stress analysis includes simulation of

construction process. The model describes the behavior of early age concrete.

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 107

that was dependent on material properties, construction process and environmental

effect. The prediction of deterioration of concrete was based on theories of transport

in porous materials and empirical models, which were based on observations from

structures. Bangert et al. (2003) evaluated the long-term material degradation in

concrete structures due to a chemically induced degradation processes and calcium

leaching.

Steffens et al. (2003) introduced an ageing approach to determine the degradation

of concrete structures considering water effect on Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR). A

comprehensive mechanical model was proposed for the material swelling with a

hydro-chemo-mechanical approach, to study structural effects of ASR. The model

adopts a two-stage mechanism for the swelling kinetics, consisting of (i) the

formation of an amorphous gel for which a characteristic time of reaction is identified

and (ii) the quantity of water interacting with the gel. The ageing effect on the

material degradation and structural response is validated with experimental results.

Mazzotti and Savoia (2003) presented a creep-damage model for concrete under

uniaxial compression, which takes into account both nonlinear creep and damage

growth with time. Creep strain is modeled extending solidification theory in the

nonlinear range. Nonlinear creep strains are evaluated as a function of damage index,

which is calibrated from experimental results. It is also assumed that most of creep

strain does not produce damage, so that only a fraction of creep strain contributes to

damage evolution with time. This assumption is based on the experimental evidence

that, at low stress levels, strain due to creep can be large (even larger than that

corresponding to peak stress for short term loading), without any significant damage

of concrete.

Gogoi and Maity (2007) investigated the degradation of strength of an aging

concrete gravity dam adjacent to a reservoir in conjunction with the effects of

sediment layers in the fluid-structure interaction analysis. A new parameter called

degradation index is introduced to account for the extent of isotropic degradation

occurring in the concrete due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions. The

degradation index within the elastic limit is derived considering environmental factors

due to exposure to water, mechanical loading and chemical reaction. In their work, the

gain in compressive strength of concrete is obtained from experimental data published

by Washa et al. (1989) of fifty years of compressive strength of concrete by curve-

fitting procedures. In the present paper, the same fifty years of concrete compressive

strength is represented by a new curve by carrying out least square analysis on the

experimental data. The new curve is used to determine the isotropic degradation index

suggested by Gogoi and Maity (2007). Thus, the phenomena of concrete degradation

with age as well as the gain of concrete compressive strength are combined in the

present model. The constitutive relationships for degraded concrete has been

suggested for plane strain condition and applied to the analysis of Koyna gravity dam

subjected Koyna (1967) earthquake accelerations. The results obtained from the

present model have been compared with the published results (Gogoi and Maity,

2007) with satisfactory agreement.

108 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

The state of stress and strain within Hook’s law can be expressed as

{σ } = [D]{ε } (1)

T T

In the above equation, {σ} = { σx, σy, τxy} and {ε} = {εx, εy, γxy} are the vectors of

stress and strain respectively , and [D] is the constitutive matrix under plane strain

condition defined as

⎡ ⎤

⎢(1 − μ ) μ 0 ⎥

Ed

[D] = ⎢ μ (1 − μ ) 0 ⎥ (2)

(1 + μ )(1 − 2μ ) ⎢ (1 − 2 μ ) ⎥

⎢ 0 0 ⎥

⎣ 2 ⎦

for a material with elastic modulus Ed and Poisson’s ratio μ. The concept of

degradation of concrete strength is based on the reduction of the net area capable of

supporting stresses. The loss of rigidity of the material follows as a consequence of

material degradation due to various environmental and loading conditions. Adopting

an analogy given by Ghrib & Tinawi (1995) to measure the extent of damage in

concrete, the orthotropic degradation index can be determined as

Ω − Ω id Ωn

d gi = 1 − i = 1− i (3)

Ωi Ωi

Here, Ω i = tributary area of the surface in direction i; and Ω id = area affected by

degradation. In a scale of 0 to 1, the orthotropic degradation index, dgi = 0 indicates no

degradation and dgi = 1 indicates completely degraded material. The index i = 1,2

corresponds with the Cartesian axes x and y in two-dimensional case. The effective

plane strain material matrix can be expressed as

⎡(1 − μ)Λ2 μΛ Λ 0 ⎤

1 2

Ed ⎢ 1 ⎥

[Dd ] = ⎢ μΛ1Λ2 (1 − μ)Λ22 0 ⎥

(1 + μ)(1 − 2μ) ⎢ (4)

⎢⎣ 0 0 ( )

(1− 2μ)Λ21Λ22 / Λ21 + Λ22 ⎥⎥⎦

where Λ1 = (1 - dg1) and Λ2 = (1 - dg2). In the above equation, Ed is the elastic

modulus of the material without degradation. If dg1 = dg2 = dg, the isotropic

degradation model is expressed as

[Dd ] = (1 − d g )2 [D ] (5)

where [Dd] and [D] are the constitutive matrices of the degraded and un-degraded

model respectively. Equation (5) was used by Gogoi and Maity (2007) to determine

the degraded strength of concrete due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions.

The compressive strength of concrete is expected to decrease with age due to

chemical and mechanical material degradation. But it is also a known fact that

concrete gains compressive strength with age. In the present work, an attempt was

made to simulate the concrete strength considering both of these above-mentioned

factors.

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 109

Following the work of Gogoi and Maity (2007), the relation between degraded

elastic modulus due to porosity of concrete, En and the elastic modulus of concrete

considering strength gain at a particular age, E0 can be considered to be En = (1-dg)E0 .

Using the dimensionless value of total porosity obtained by multiplying the scalar

degradation variable, as reaction extent, the variation of degradation with respect to

time can be given as

ta

En = (1 − φ ) E0

τa

(6)

In the above expression, τa is the characteristic age for which the structure is

designed and ta is the time corresponding to which the degraded elastic modulus En is

determined. The symbol φ stands for total porosity of concrete which can be further

expressed as the sum of initial porosity, φ0 the porosity due to matrix dissolution, φc

and the apparent mechanical porosity, φm.

φ = φ 0 + φc + φ m (7)

Bangert et al. (2003) and Kuhl et al. (2004) have outlined the detailed procedure

to calculate mechanically induced porosity φm. The apparent mechanically induced

porosity, φm considers the influence of mechanically induced micro-pores and micro-

cracks on the macroscopic material properties of the porous material. It is obtained as

φ m = [1 − φ 0 − φc ]d m (8)

where dm is the scalar degradation parameter. The strain based exponential

degradation function as proposed by Gogoi and Maity (2007) is given as

d m = as −

κ

[

κ0 m

0

]

1 − α m + α m e (β [κ −κ ] ) (9)

κ = Internal variable defining the current damage threshold depending on the

loading history

Here ft = Static tensile strength of concrete

E0 = Elastic modulus of undegraded concrete before the imposition of any type of

mechanical loading.

Equation (9) may be used to find out the value of dm at any age, which again

varies with κ caused by the mechanical loading history. When there will be no

degradation due to mechanical loading, the value of κ may be considered equal to

κ 0 (i.e. κ 0 = κ ). Also, in case of no degradation caused by mechanical loading, φm is

also considered to be zero (i.e. φm = 0). Bangert et al. (2003) outlined the procedure to

calculate the values of the mechanical parameter α m and β m . In eq. (9), the value of as

is considered to lie between 1.0 and 0.0 indicating complete and no degradation (Simo

and Ju, 1987) respectively.

It is a known fact that concrete gains compressive strength with age. This

phenomenon is predicted by a curve fitting on 50 years of compressive strength data

110 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

published by Washa et al. (1989). The compressive strength test results of various

concrete specimens of different proportions were published in the referred literature.

These specimens were cured for 28 days and then placed in outdoors, which was on

level ground in an open location. All the specimens were kept in open so that they

were subjected to change in severe weather conditions of 25 cycles of freezing and

thawing each winter, annual precipitation including snowfall of about 0.813 cm and

air temperature variation between -32.0°C and 35.0°C.

Gogoi and Maity (2007) sought to carry out a least square curve fitting analysis on

the set of compressive strength data published by Washa et al. (1989). In engineering

problems, an experiment produces a set of data points (x1, y1), …., (xn, yn), where the

abscissas {xk} are distinct. It is often our objective to relate these data with the help of

a mathematical function. While choosing the particular mathematical function for the

curve fitting of the experimental data sets, the physical behaviour of the system

should be kept in mind i.e. the mathematical function should be comprised of

physically meaningful parameters. In the present case, we seek to suggest a

mathematical function involving the time in years and the compressive strength of

concrete. While expressing these experimental data by a mathematical function of the

form y = f(x) , some errors are inevitable which may originate from the test conditions

of the experiments as well as human or any other errors which can not be accounted

for. Therefore, the actual value f(xk) (Mathews 2001) satisfies

f(xk) = yk + ek (10)

where ek is the measured error. Some of the methods that can determine how far

the curve yls = f(x) lies from the data are:

1≤ k ≤ N ′

1 N′

Average error: E1 ( f ) = ∑ f (xk ) − y k

N ′ k =1 (11)

12

Root-mean- ⎡ 1 N′ 2⎤

square error: E2 ( f ) = ⎢ ∑ f (xk ) − y k ⎥

⎣ N ′ k =1 ⎦

The best fitting line is found by minimizing one of the quantities in eq.(13).

Amongst, all the three choices given in equation (11), E2(f) is preferred most of the

times because of computational convenience. The least squares line is the line that

minimizes the root-mean-square error E2(f) and is given as

yls = f(x) = Ax + B (12)

In the above equation, A and B can be determined from N΄ sets of experimental

data as follows:

N′ N′ N′

∑ xk yk ∑ yk ∑ xk

k =1 k =1 k =1

A= , B= −A (13)

N′ N′ N′

∑ xk

k =1

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 111

For the present work, the fifty years of compressive strength data set corresponds

to a concrete specimen of mixed proportion 1:2.51:5.34 (cement : sand : gravel by

weight) with water cement ratio of 0.49. Here, the following forms are considered for

curve fitting:

I. y = A ln( x ) + B

II. y = C ′e A ln x (14)

III. y = C ′x A

IV. y = C ′xe A ln x

transforming points (xk, yk) in the xy plane by the operation (Xk, Yk) = (ln(xk), ln(yk)) in

the XY plane for curve II and curve III. In case of curve IV, the transformation

operation carried out is (Xk, Yk) = (ln(xk), ln( y k x k )) in the XY plane. Then the least

squares line is fitted to the points {(Xk, Yk)} to give the predicted results. The

predicted results using the above expressions (eq. 14) are plotted in Fig. 1.

70

Compressive strength (Mpa)

60

50

40

Curve I

Curve II

20 Curve III

Curve IV

10

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time (years)

The curve I (i.e. y = A ln( x ) + B ) has been used by Gogoi and Maity (2007) with

excellent result. According to Washa et al. (1989), the specimen showed an increase

in compressive strength roughly proportional to the logarithm of age during the first

10 years and small variation thereafter. Therefore, curve III seems to be the most

logical choice to fit the experimental data. However, it is observed from Fig. 1, that

curve I also shows excellent agreement with the experimental data of fifty years of

concrete compressive strength. Gogoi and Maity (2007) proposed an equation to

predict the gain of concrete compressive strength with the passage of time (in terms of

years) as below:

f (t ) = 3.57 ln(t ) + 44.33 (15)

f (t ) = 43.47e 0.08 ln t (16)

f (t ) = 43.47t 0.08 (17)

f (t ) = 43.47te −0.92 ln t (18)

112 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

concrete in years. Eq. (15) was obtained by Maity and Gogoi (2007) by carrying out

least square analysis using a curve of the form y = A ln( x ) + B . Equation (18) has been

obtained by carrying out a least square analysis using a curve of the form

y = C ′e A ln x with the necessary transformation of the coordinates as mentioned before.

In this case, the values of C and A obtained are 43.47 and 0.08 respectively. Equation

(17) has been obtained by carrying out a least square analysis using a curve of the

form y = C ′x A with the necessary transformation of the coordinates as mentioned

before. In this case also, the values of C and A obtained are 43.47 and 0.08

respectively. Equation (18) has been obtained by carrying out a least square analysis

using a curve of the form y = C ′xe A ln x with the necessary transformation of the

coordinates as mentioned before. In this case also, the values of C and A obtained are

43.47 and –0.92 respectively. From Fig. 1, it can be noticed that the results obtained

from eq. (16), eq. (17) and eq. (18) are all similar and these results agree quite well

with the experimental data as well as the results obtained from eq. (17) proposed by

Gogoi and Maity (2007). Further, it may be noticed that eq. (16) and eq. (17) are not

unique but alternative to each other considering the transformation of coordinates to

be carried out. Since the results obtained from eq. (16), eq. (17) and eq. (18) are

almost identical, eq. (17) (as shown by curve III in Fig. 1) is chosen for all the further

analyses carried out in this work. This choice is done keeping in mind the ease of use

of an equation. In the present analysis, both eq. (17) and the equation suggested by

Gogoi and Maity (i.e. eq. (15)) have been used to predict the gain of concrete strength

with age and the obtained results are compared. The value of static elastic modulus of

concrete in SI units (Neville and Brooks, 1987) is obtained from

E 0 = 4733 f (t ) (19)

After calculating the static elastic modulus of concrete E0, the degraded elastic

modulus of concrete (En) due to various hygro-chemo-mechanical effects may be

obtained from eq. (8). Having obtained the value of En, the value of degradation index

is given by eq. (20) (Gogoi and Maity, 2007).

E

dg =1− n (20)

E0

The value of dg is used in the constitutive relationship given by eq. (4) to describe

the behavior of a concrete gravity dam (analyzed under plane strain assumption). In

Fig. 2, the variation of degradation index with age is plotted. The degradation index dg

is calculated from eq. (20) as a function of elastic modulus of concrete considering the

strength gain at a particular age E0. E0 is determined from eq. (19) which may be

approximated by eq. (15) (suggested by Gogoi and Maity, 2007) and eq. (17)

proposed in the present work. From Fig. 2, it may be observed that the degradation

index values obtained for different HCM design life (i.e. 50 years and 100 years

respectively) match very closely with each other. It is also observed that the

degradation of the concrete is less if the HCM design life ( τ a ) is considered to be less

compared to the situation when τ a value is more.

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 113

0.9

0.8

Degradation index

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

Design life = 50 yrs, Gogoi and Maity (2007)

0.3

Design life = 50 yrs, Present analysis

0.2

design life = 100 yrs, Gogoi and Maity (2007)

0.1 Design life = 100 yrs, Present analysis

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Age (yrs)

Figure 2: variation of degradation index with age of concrete for different HCM

design life.

In the present work, the Young’s modulus of concrete at a later stage after

construction of the structure is determined by using both eq. (15) (Gogoi and Maity,

2007) and eq. (17) suggested in the present analysis are used to analyze the behaviour

of Koyna gravity dam against Koyna (1967) earthquake accelerations under the

assumption of plane strain condition. The foundation material of the dam is assumed

to be hard rock. Therefore, the base of the dam is considered to be fixed at the ground.

The geometry of the dam body is shown in Fig. 3. The height of the dam is 103.0 m

and the width of the base is 70.0 m. The discretization of the dam body used for

analysis purpose is also shown in Fig. 2. The dam is analyzed against reservoir empty

condition subjected horizontal component of Koyna earthquake (1967) acceleration

data. The behaviour of the dam is observed at the crest point at different ages after the

construction.

114 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

Material Properties

As per Gogoi and Maity (2007), the Young’s modulus of dam body is assumed to be

3.15e+10 N/m2. The Poisson’s ratio is taken to be 0.235 and the mass density is

assumed to be 2415.816 kg/m3. The damping of the structure is considered to be 3%.

The dam is analyzed against empty reservoir condition because our objective to asses

the performance the degradation model (eq. 4) by using eq. (15) to find out the value

of degraded elastic modulus.

Element Selection

The dam is discretized with a two dimensional eight nodded isoparametric finite

element. This element is chosen over the lower order four nodded because it provides

more accurate results due to the quadratic variation of displacement profiles within

the element body (Bathe, 1996).

To check the convergence of the results obtained for various mesh grading, the model

shown in Fig. 3 has been chosen for the extensive analysis using finite element

technique. The dimension and the material properties of the dam in the present case

are same as listed before. The dam is discretized with 8-noded quadratic elements as

shown in Fig. 3 and is analyzed using plain strain formulation. A concentrated

horizontal load of 1000 kN is applied at the crest of the structure and the static

analysis is carried out considering the bottom nodes of the dam to be fixed. Also, the

eigen value analysis is carried out to observe the convergence of natural frequencies

and time periods. The structure is discretized with different mesh grading and the

convergences of results for the time periods and the crest displacements obtained for

different discretizations are presented in Table 1. It is observed from the results that

the solution converges sufficiently for a discretization of 6 × 4.

In the present analysis, the proposed concrete degradation model (eq. 6) has been used

to determine the behavior of Koyna gravity dam against Koyna earthquake (1967)

acceleration. The geometry of the dam is shown in Fig. 1 and the material properties

of the dam are as stated before. Koyna gravity dam is further analyzed using the

model proposed by Gogoi and Maity (2007) given by eq. (4) and both the results are

compared.

Equation (19) is used to predict the value of elastic modulus E0 as a function of

compressive strength of concrete considering the gain with age. The concrete

compressive strength is determined from eq. (17) proposed in the present work. Also,

the elastic modulus E0 is further calculated by using eq. (15) (proposed by Gogoi and

Maity, 2007) to determine the compressive strength of concrete at any age. Both the

results are compared in Fig. 3. It is observed that the value of the elastic modulus E0 is

slightly higher when eq (17) is used to predict the value of concrete compressive

strength at any age. The value of the material parameter as has been taken equal to

0.57 as considered by Gogoi and Maity (2007) in their work.

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 115

Table 1: Convergence of time periods and horizontal crest displacement of the Koyna

dam.

Mesh Size due to 1000 kN horizontal load

Nv × N h Mode 1 Mode 2 u v

5× 3 0.3431 0.1270 0.00532 -0.000675

5× 4 0.3437 0.1273 0.00534 -0.000678

5× 5 0.3440 0.1274 0.00535 -0.000679

6× 4 0.3440 0.1275 0.00534 -0.000678

6× 5 0.3440 0.1276 0.00535 -0.000678

7× 4 0.3440 0.1276 0.00536 -0.000685

7× 5 0.3442 0.1277 0.00536 -0.000687

8× 4 0.3440 0.1276 0.00536 -0.000685

8× 5 0.3440 0.1277 0.00537 -0.000687

9× 4 0.3441 0.1277 0.00536 -0.000686

9× 5 0.3440 0.1278 0.00537 -0.000687

10 × 4 0.3441 0.1277 0.00536 -0.000685

10 × 5 0.3442 0.1278 0.00537 -0.000687

Next, the variation of degraded elastic modulus with age is observed. The elastic

modulus of concrete (Ed) considering the strength gain with age is obtained from eq.

(19). Having obtained the value of Ed, the degraded elastic modulus En is calculated

from eq. (6). The variation of elastic modulus of concrete considering hygro-chemo-

mechanical effects with design life of 100 years is plotted in Fig. 4. The degraded

elastic modulus is found out as a function of the elastic modulus considering the gain

of strength with age which is further obtained using both eq. (15) and eq. (17). In Fig.

5, the variation of the degraded elastic modulus with the material parameter as is also

plotted. In case of hygro-chemo-mechnically induced degradation, the total porosity

φ of concrete is expressed as the summation of initial porosity φ0 , chemically induced

porosity φc and mechanically induced porosity φm according to eq. (7). The values of

φ0 and φc are considered to be 0.2 (Gogoi and Maity, 2007; Kuhl et al., 2004).

Following eq. (8), the value of mechanically induced porosity φm is expressed as a

function of scalar degradation parameter d m which may be calculated from eq. (9). In

eq. (9), the values of material parameters α m , β m , φ0 and κ 0 are considered to be 0.9,

1000, 0.2 and 1.1× 10 −4 respectively (Kuhl et al., 2004). The value of φc may be

considered between 0.0 and 0.2 in the presence of chemical degradation due to silt

deposition on the upstream face of the dam. The maximum allowable range of values

for d m should lie between 1.0 and 0.0 indicating complete and no degradation of

concrete respectively. The value of the material parameter as has been varied from 0.4

to 1.0 for a HCM (hygro-chemo-mechanical) design life of 100 years. The variation

116 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

of elastic modulus with different values as has been plotted in Fig. 5. The elastic

modulus has been calculated by using eq. (15) and eq. (17) and values of elastic

modulus have been compared. The elastic modulus values obtained from the present

analysis using eq. (17) to predict the value Ed are found to match closely with the

values of elastic modulus obtained by Gogoi and Maity (2007) by using eq. (15). It is

also noticed that the values of elastic modulus obtained by using eq. (17) is slightly on

the higher side of that obtained sing eq. (15). It is observed that considering as=1.0

reduces the value of elastic modulus of concrete to a very low value which is

practically incorrect. Having observed the effects of the different values of the

material parameter as, the value of has been fixed at 0.57 for further analyses (Gogoi

and Maity, 2007).

40000

35000

co m pressive streng th

considerin g gain of

E lastic m odu lu s

30000

present analysis

25000

(Mpa)

20000

as=0.57

15000

10000

5000

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Age of concrete (years)

Figure 4: The variation of elastic modulus of concrete with age considering the effect

of compressive strength gain.

40000

as = 1.0 (Gogoi and Maity, 2007)

E la s t ic m o d u lu s o f c o n c r e t e

35000

as = 1.0 (Present analysis)

30000 as = 0.6 (Gogoi and Maity, 2007)

(M p a )

10000

as = 0.4 (Present analysis)

5000

No degradation (Gogoi and Maity,

0 2007)

No degradation (Present analysis)

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Age of concrete (years)

Figure 5: Variation of elastic modulus of concrete with age (Design life = 100 years).

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 117

Next, the behavior of the Koyna gravity dam under the influence of ageing effects

caused by various hygro-chemo-mechanical actions is observed. The Young’s

modulus is calculated by using eq. (19) which is a function of the concrete

compressive strength f (t ) to be determined at the particular age of the concrete

structure. The compressive strength of the concrete at any age after construction is

determined by eq. (17) as suggested in the present paper. The comparisons of the

horizontal crest displacement of the structure after 25 years after construction and 75

years of construction respectively when the HCM design life of concrete is considered

to be 100 yrs under reservoir empty condition. The results are shown in Fig. (6). The

maximum and minimum values of the horizontal crest displacements obtained from

the present analysis observed are 6.14 cm and -5.43 cm respectively after 25 years of

construction. After 75 years of construction, the similar values were obtained to be

7.17 cm and -4.66 cm respectively. Therefore, it is observed that the displacement

increases after 75 years of construction because degradation of concrete is more in

that case.

0.08

After 25 yrs of construction

Horizontal crest disp. (m)

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time (sec)

Figure 6: Comparison of horizontal crest displacement vs. age under empty reservoir

condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 100 yrs).

9

After 25 yrs of construction

8

Major principal stress (Mpa)

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

-1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time (sec)

reservoir condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 100

years).

118 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

Similar analyses are carried out in order to compare the values of major principal

stresses occurring at point O (as shown in Fig. 2) after 25 years and 75 years of

construction respectively under the empty reservoir condition. The HCM design life

of concrete is considered to be equal to 100 years. It is observed that the maximum

value of the major principal stress obtained after 25 years of construction is 7.59 Mpa

and whereas that obtained after 75 years of construction is 2.93 Mpa. The major

principal stress vales have decreased at the age of 75 years after construction because

the stiffness of the material reduces by a large amount due high degradation

experienced at a later stage of its life. Fig. 8 shows the variation of minor principal

stress vs. time at the point O as shown in Fig. 3. The value of minimum minor

principal stress obtained after 25 years of construction is -9.77 Mpa whereas that

value is obtained as -4.34 Mpa after 75 years of construction. In this case also, the

value of the minor principal stress was observed to decrease at a later stage of its life

because the material loses its stiffness due to high amount of degradation.

2

Minor principal stress (Mpa)

-2

-4

-6

-8

After 75 yrs of construction

-12

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time (sec)

reservoir condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 100

years)

Next, the behavior of Koyna gravity dam under the effect of Koyna earthquake

acceleration is observed after 25 years and 75 years of its construction considering the

HCM design life of concrete to be 50 years. The degradation index values at 25 years

and 75 years are calculated using the eq. (17) suggested for the calculation of

compressive strength proposed in the present work. Fig. 9 shows the comparison of

horizontal crest displacement computed in both the cases. The maximum and

minimum values of horizontal crest displacements observed after 25 years are 5.73

cm and -5.99 cm respectively. Also, the corresponding values after 75 years of

construction are 7.11 cm and -7.22 cm respectively. Therefore, displacements at a

later stage of the structure’s life is found to increase because the stiffness of the

structure reduces with increasing degradation with the passage of time.

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 119

0.15

after 25 yrs of construction

0.1 after 75 yrs of construction

Horizontal crest disp (m)

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

-0.15

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time (sec)

Figure 9: Comparison of horizontal crest displacement vs. age under empty reservoir

condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 50 yrs).

Similarly, the variation of major and minor principal stresses vs. time is also

observed for point O (shown in Fig. 3) for both the cases i.e. when the compressive

strength is calculated from eq. (17). Fig. 10 shows the variation of major principal

stress vs. time at point O when the HCM design life is 50 years. The maximum values

of major principal stresses observed at point O after 25 years and 75 years after

construction are 5.88 Mpa and 3.34 Mpa respectively. The principal stress values

decreases at a later stage of the life of the structure because of the reduction of its

stiffness due to higher degradation experienced with time. Fig. 11 shows the variation

of minor principal stress vs. time at point O of concrete gravity dam (shown in Fig. 3)

for both types of analyses. The minimum value of the minor principal stress observed

at point O is -5.64 Mpa after 25 years after construction whereas the minimum value

of minor principal stress observed at point O is -2.32 Mpa after 75 years of

construction of the dam. Same reasoning of lower stiffness with higher age is

responsible for yielding of lower value of minor principal stress at point O.

7

After 25 yrs of construction

Major principal stress (Mpa)

5

4

3

2

1

0

-1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time (sec)

Figure 10: Comparison of major principal stress vs time at poin O under empty

reservoir condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 50

years).

120 A. Burman, D. Maity and S. Sreedeep

1

Minor principal stress (Mpa)

-1

-2

-3

-4

After 75 yrs of construction

-6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time (sec)

Figure 11: Comparison of major principal stress vs time at poin O under empty

reservoir condition after 25 and 75 years of construction (HCM design life = 50

years).

Conclusion

In the present work, the effect of degradation of concrete due to various hygro-chemo-

mechanical effects has been investigated on Koyna gravity dam subjected to Koyna

earthquake acceleration. Based on the test results of fifty years of concrete

compressive strength, a least square curve fitting analysis has been carried out. From

the curve fitting analysis, a new equation was obtained to predict the gain of concrete

compressive strength with time and the results were used to compute the degradation

index of concrete responsible concrete degradation due to various hygro-chemo-

mechanical analysis. The degraded elastic modulus of concrete is used in the material

constitutive matrix to determine the behavior of Koyna gravity dam against Koyna

earthquake (1967) acceleration. The equation used in the present analysis to predict

the concrete compressive strength at any age is slightly on the higher side when

compared to values obtained by using eq. (15) suggested by Gogoi and Maity (2007).

Therefore, degradation index predicted by the present method is slightly lower than

that suggested by Gogoi and Maity (2007). Based on the concrete compressive

strength predicted by the newly proposed curve (eq. 17), the elastic modulus of

concrete at various stages of its life is determined. This elastic modulus is used to

determine the response of Koyna gravity dam under Koyna earthquake acceleration

considering reservoir empty condition. The graphs showing the variation of horizontal

crest displacements, major and minor principal stresses after 25 years and 75 years of

construction suggest that the displacements increase whereas the major and minor

principal stress reduces with passage of time. This phenomenon is attributed to loss of

stiffness of the structure with increasing degradation experienced with higher age.

The Behavior of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam 121

Reference

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