Anda di halaman 1dari 27

Report ON

Measuring the Effect of Hedonic Motives on Shopper Loyalty

1
Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................. 3
CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................................ 4
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 4
BACKGROUND & STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ..................................................................................... 5
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ....................................................................................................................... 6
LIMITATIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 7
METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................ 7
Research Model and Design ..................................................................................................................... 8
Data Collection and Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 9
CHAPTER 2 .............................................................................................................................................. 10
REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................................................... 10
Adventure Shopping ............................................................................................................................... 10
Gratification Shopping ............................................................................................................................ 11
Role shopping.......................................................................................................................................... 11
Value shopping........................................................................................................................................ 12
Social Shopping ....................................................................................................................................... 12
Idea Shopping ......................................................................................................................................... 14
Employee Services .................................................................................................................................. 14
After-sales service ................................................................................................................................... 15
Merchandise ........................................................................................................................................... 16
Shopper loyalty program ........................................................................................................................ 17
Research Model ...................................................................................................................................... 17
Hypothesis............................................................................................................................................... 18
Chapter 3................................................................................................................................................. 19
FINDINGS................................................................................................................................................. 19
Chapter 4................................................................................................................................................. 23
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 23
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................ 25

2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The study investigates the relationships among shopping motivation,


customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Measures based on the
literature on the subject were used in this study. Surveys were taken
from 20 individuals most of them are students again some are hob holder
and business man. Firstly, In chapter one we discussed about
background and statement objectives limitations and methodology.
Second chapter we discussed Literature review of these report we also
included research model and hypothesis in these chapter.
In chapter three we included Findings which we calculated from our
survey.
Here we included demographical discussion, descriptive analysis
correlation reliability and regression analysis.
In chapter four conclusion of the report were provided followed by the
appendix.

3
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Today, changes in the structure of a dynamic market and tough competition influence purchasing
preferences and behavior of consumers. Consumers realize their purchasing behavior and
preferences not only based on their life styles, but also according to hedonic and utilitarian
characteristics of products. Customers, realizing their purchase based on hedonic preferences,
obtain both psychological experience with the usage of the product and delight and joy by
possessing the product; those realizing their purchasing behavior based on utilitarian grounds are
more focused on the functional and objective attributes of the product. Consumers who act with
hedonic purchasing reasons realize the act not to satisfy a need but to enjoy and take pleasure by
doing it without contemplating and planning. Hedonic consumption signifies the joy and
pleasure the consumer expects from shopping. As the expectation from shopping is different for
each consumer, so is the feeling experienced during shopping. Some of the consumers are
affected by various motivational aspects in order to get joy and pleasure from shopping. These
motivational aspects can be described as adventure, socializing, taking pleasure, having an idea,
exchange of values and roles (Arnolds and Reynolds, 2003). Hedonic consumption is based on
hedonism. Hedonism is a philosophy acknowledging pleasure in the content and meaning of life.

Hedonism is an ethical theory ascribing something giving joy or saving from pain as “good”, and
something giving pain as “bad” (Hopkinson and Pujari, 1999; Babacan, 2001; Altunışık and
Çallı, 2004). Although hedonism is related to excess, unplanned and pleasure, it is important for
businesses to know which factors motivate consumers towards hedonic behavior. Being aware of
these factors (satisfaction of senses, protection, listening, comfort, having a good time, being
successful, curiosity and gaining new experiences, ease of use, long-term use, easy maintenance,
efficiency, healthiness, liking, prestigiousness, trendiness, differenceness, happiness of others,
obtaining new information and cultural development) will provide advantage for businesses in
the long run since it will be possible to understand many aspects of consumer behavior
(Holbrook and Hirschman, 1982a; Soysal, 1997; Özdemir and Yaman, 2007). All these factors
bear bothhedonic and utilitarian feelings and thoughts. Hedonic shopping influences a great

4
number of consumers, and is mostly effective on the new generation. Especially the clothing
sector is pioneering in the matter. Though clothing meets the need of covering and thus creates a
utilitarian requirement, it also fulfills hedonic demands (Kim et al., 2002). As in the joke “Ye
kürküm ye”(meaning “clothes make the man”) of Nasreddin Hodja, it also represents
characteristics of the individual like social status, individual image and differenceness, being
appreciated etc. Akdoğan and Karaaslan (2011) maintain that the young generation considers
clothes shopping as a way of expressing themselves. The explanations done so far show that the
clothes sector is a field which merely supports the hedonic shopping motivation of consumers.
Therefore, this study analyses what hedonic motivations of young consumers come forward
during clothes shopping and if these motivations have effects on satisfaction and loyalty.

BACKGROUND & STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


It appears that the most frequently adopted classification of shoppers ‘motivation is rooted in the
distinction between hedonic and utilitarian consumption (Hartman et al. 2006; Jones 1999;
Khanetal.2005; O’Curry and Strahilevitz 2001; Wetenbroch and Dhar 2000). Hedonic consumption
motivation suggests that purchases are inspired by the desire for pleasure, joy, and fun offered by the
possession and use of products, and therefore the primary goal of this motivation is to satisfy the
hedonically motivated appetite (Hirschman and Holbrook 1982). In contrast, utilitarian consumption is
task-oriented and inspired by consumers ‘efforts to solve problems and address needs and wants through
cognitively processing product information (Hirschman and Holbrook 1982; O’Curry and Strahilevitz
2001). In most cases, shoppers make a purchase based on both hedonic and utilitarian motivations, but for
some shoppers hedonic motivations may predominate while for others utilitarian needs would (Westbrook
and Black 1985). This relative predominance is influenced by diverse external and internal factors, such
as store atmosphere (Eroglu et al. 2001), retail prices (Jones 1999), time (Bloch and Richins 1983), tasks
(Babin and Darden 1995), and product categories/involvement (Bloch and Bruce 1984; Holbrook and
Hirschman 1982; Holbrook 1980). For example, shoppers who seek a laundry detergent will be primarily
motivated by a utilitarian consumption motivation, but those highly interested in seeing new models of
cameras or new styles of clothing will be more driven by hedonic consumption motivations (Holbrook
1980). Supermarkets continue to be increasingly enlarged to the size of superstores or hypermarkets with
ever larger areas dedicated to a greater variety of products that can feed shoppers ‘hedonic shopping
desires (e.g., clothes, home decorations, and cosmetics) (Weitz and Whitfield 2010), while maintaining

5
other areas stocked with grocery products in tight grid formats that are primarily orientated toward
satisfying utilitarian needs (Sloot et al. 2005; Teedetal.2010). In addition, many super-stores attempt to
feed shoppers ’hedonic desires by employing diverse mood-oriented factors, such as piped-in comfortable
music, warm and appealing store layout and design, and stylish indoor restaurants (Arnold and Reynolds
2003). For this reason, retail managers need to understand how strategies to enhance hedonic shopping
motivation operate in a superstore where both hedonic and utilitarian products are conveniently available
and the shopping environment stimulates shoppers’ hedonic shopping motivations in various ways
depending upon the section in which the shopper is located in at that time. We next focus on how hedonic
shopping motivation could be expected to either encourage or discourage consumer purchases within the
section(s) of a superstore having a utilitarian environment. We seek an integrated explanation of how both
the psychological and behavioral mechanisms, through which hedonic shopping motivation influences
shoppers ‘purchases, function when shopping within the predominantly utilitarian environment
sections of a superstore. We begin by examining two options as to the effect, one positive, the
other negative, of hedonic shopping motivation on the number of purchases made.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The following objectives were formulated for the study:

Primary objective

The primary objective of this study was to analyze students ‘hedonic and utilitarian shopping
motivations context in order to develop marketing strategies for effectively targeting this market.

Theoretical objectives

In order to achieve the primary objective, the following theoretical objectives were formulated
for the study:

Outline the fundamental principles of consumer motivation

Review the literature on the dynamics and the measurement of consumer motivation

Review the literature on consumers’ hedonic and utilitarian motivations for shopping

6
Conduct a review of the literature pertaining to the Generation Y cohort.

Empirical objectives

In accordance with the primary objective of the study, the following empirical objectives were
formulated:

Investigate students’ hedonic motivations for shopping

Determine students' hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations differ according to their
level of study (first-, second- and third-year)

LIMITATIONS
During fieldwork, we face some problems:

Some Respondents answer the questions without reading the questions properly.

Some Respondents did not provide actual answers.

Lack of effective interaction

Lack of Adequate Time, time is very limited which is not enough to complete it

METHODOLOGY
This study was designed to accomplish four main objectives. First, this study investigated
whether different personal characteristics (i.e., compulsive buying behavior,impulsive buying
behavior, variety-seeking tendency and price sensitivity) had differential impacts on hedonic
shopping motivations. Second, this study examined the impact of hedonic shopping motivations
on shopping values in online auctions. Third, this study analyzed the influence of shopping
values in online auctions on preference and behavioral intentions. Last, the moderating effect of

7
risk-taking propensity on hedonic shopping motivations and shopping values in online auctions
was examined. This chapter is divided into five major sections. The first section presents the
research model and describes relationships among variables in the model. The second section
discusses measurement of the constructs with their reliabilities. The third section defines the
population and sample that is used for this study. The fourth section discusses data collection. In
the final section, data analyses and statistical methods are described.

Research Model and Design


This study tested a conceptual model depicting the causal relationships among consumer
characteristics, hedonic shopping motivations, and shopping values of online auctions. Figure 3.1
displays the hypothetical causal model. Each component of the model was selected based on the
literature review. As depicted in the hypothetical research model, consumer characteristics
influence hedonic shopping motivations which in turn impact shopping values of online auctions.
In addition, the shopping values of online auctions influence future preferences and behavioral
intentions of consumers.

The consumer characteristics evaluated in this study consisted of four major components:
compulsive buying behavior, impulsive buying behavior, variety-seeking tendency, and price
sensitivity. These consumer characteristics influence hedonic shopping motivations (Forsythe &
Shi, 2003; O'Guinn & Faber, 1989; Rook, 1987). Hedonic shopping motivations (i.e., adventure
shopping, gratification shopping, idea shopping, and value shopping) developed by Arnold and
Reynolds (2003), were used in this study.

8
Data Collection and Analysis

We collect all the data from the field & the purpose behind such collection to gather quantitative
information for having experience & for practical knowledge. All the data are collected through
direct personal interview method. We use standard edition and use Pre-coded procedure &
categorize the data in gender, age, marital status, education occupation and income. After
collection of primary data; we input the data to SPSS software and analyzing the data.

9
CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This study contained four main research objectives. First, the relationship between hedonic
shopping motivations and shopping value in online auctions were tested. Second, the impact of
consumer characteristics (i.e., compulsive buying behavior, impulse buying behavior, variety-
seeking tendency and price sensitivity) on hedonic shopping motivations was examined. Third,
the effect of hedonic and utilitarian value in online auctions on consumers’ preference and
intentions was examined. Fourth, the moderating role of risk-taking propensity was tested
between hedonic shopping motivations and values in online auction. The review of literature is
divided into three major sections. The first section develops the theoretical framework of this
study. The next section reviews the previous research in relation to the major variables of the
present study. Based on the preceding discussions, research hypotheses are constructed in the
final section.

Adventure Shopping
Adventure shopping was used to refer to shopping for “stimulation, adventure, and the feeling
of being in another world” (Arnold & Reynolds, 2003, p. 80). Many individuals seek the
excitement of the shopping trip for the experience of adventure, thrill, stimulation, and entering
a different universe of exciting sights, smells, and sounds (Arnold & Reynolds, 2003).
Adventure shopping has been related to sensory stimulation grounded I stimulation theory
(Berlyne, 1969). Tauber (1972) and Arnold and Reynolds (2003) found that the personal
shopping motives of sensory and aesthetic stimulation were associated with shopping
enjoyment. Westbrook and Black (1985) and Tauber (1972) found that diversion from daily
routine was one of the most important motivations of shopping. Babin et al. (1994) referred to
the feeling of adventure in shopping as a factor that produces hedonic shopping value; Jarboe
and McDaniel (1987) identified shoppers who enjoyed exploring and window shopping as
“browsers.”

10
Gratification Shopping
Gratification shopping, as defined by Arnold & Reynolds (2003) involved “shopping for stress
relief, shopping to alleviate a negative mood, and shopping as a special treat to oneself” (p. 80).
Gratification shopping emphasized the shoppers’ potential to alleviate depression as they spent
money and bought something nice when they were in a down mood (Jamal, Davies, Chudry, &
Al-Marri, 2006). In this sense, individuals with this motivation go shopping to relieve stress, to
improve mood status, and to forget about their problems (Arnold & Reynolds, 2003).

Arnold and Reynolds proposed gratification shopping based on McGuire’s (1974) tension-
reduction theory, which suggests that “humans are motivated to act in such a way as to reduce
tension, thereby maintaining inner equilibrium and returning the self to a state of homeostasis”
(Arnold & Reynolds, 2003, p. 80). Babin et al. (1994) identified one of the important values of
shopping as “gratification from immediate hedonic pleasure” (Babin et al., 1994, p. 646).
Shopping could be a therapeutic activity for individuals to lift their mood when they feel
depressed. For example: I really don’t care how much money I have to spend. It’s always a pick-
me-up to see all the kinds of things each store has. It’s even better to enjoy something that’s
productive (Babin et al., 1994, p. 647). Tauber (1972) also viewed shopping as self-gratifying
because pleasant stimuli and the process of shopping could make the shopper feel better.

This self-gratification of shopping could be increased by aesthetic appeals (Arnold & Reynolds,
2003). Lee, Moschis, and Mathur (2001) discovered that individuals view shopping as an escape
mechanism to get their minds off their problems and as a way of relieving stress and alleviating a
negative mood. Jamal et al. (2006) classified these types of individuals as escapist shoppers who
emphasize pleasure and gratification in shopping.

Role shopping
Evans et al. (2009:25) describe role shopping as consumers attaining pleasure when shopping for
others. Arnold and Reynolds (2003:81), who state that role shopping has an effect on a shopper’s
emotional state, add that these shoppers seek pleasure in finding the perfect gift for others.
Wagner and Rudolph (2010:417) define role shopping, or gift shopping, as consumers
representing a role. These roles may include being a good friend or being a good spouse.
Cardoso and Pinto (2010:554) suggest targeting role shoppers by means of accentuating gift
11
shopping with in-store communication and taking advantage of seasonal events where gifts play
an important role, such as Christmas and Easter.

Value shopping
To et al. (2007:778) identify value shoppers as consumers connecting emotionally and enjoying
the process of negotiating with sales people for the purpose of obtaining a bargain. Evans et al.
(2009:25) agree, declaring the classification of value shopping as shopping to find discounts or
seek bargains. Chandon et al. (2000:6) state that consumers who receive a greater discount feel
ingenious about their shopping. According to Morschett et al. (2005:425), value shoppers have
the attainment of financial advantages in mind when bargaining with retailers. Wagner and
Rudolph (2010:417) describe value shopping or bargain hunting as the pleasure consumers feel
when challenged to negotiate for discounts and the benefits they enjoy of purchasing products at
lower prices. Cardoso and Pinto (2010:554) advise retailers to target these consumers by offering
a good price in accordance to the quality of the product. Jamal et al. (2006:77) recommend the
retailers implement price promotions, as well as marketing messages, supporting the quality of
the product or service to target value shoppers. While hedonic shopping motivations play an
important role for certain shoppers when deciding where to shop, utilitarian shopping
motivations are also important in influencing consumer behavior. The following section provides
an in-depth discussion on utilitarian shopping motivations.

Social Shopping
To leverage on business opportunities and provide high quality services, businesses are looking
for the strategies which can integrate the power of social networking with social shopping (SS)
enrichment (Shen, 2012). Online retailers have been investigating the effective strategies to
attract customers and support their online operations (Luo et al., 2012) as the social media
websites attract millions of users (Waters et al., 2011; Rodríguez-Ardura et al., 2010); many of
whom integrate the sites into their daily lives and business practices (Wang et al., 2012;
Bernhardt et al., 2012). At the same time, significant improvement in computer mediated

12
communication technology has further attracted more research in understanding social needs,
social presence (Kehrwald, 2008) and online retail channel (Cheng et al., 2011).The effect of
social networking on online retailing is an area of research that has not been examined well.
More research is needed on how and why firms differ in their adoption and manner of using new
media for marketing communications (Perrigot et al.,

2012). Shen (2012) stated that prior research has focused on information technology only while
new researchers should enhance the understanding of SS behavioral intention. Moreover, the
development of product and information shows the shift from product oriented to consumer
orientation (Dong et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2008). Though shopping is a social activity in nature
(Kim and Kim, 2005), online shopping has become more common. People have been
increasingly sharing product information on the internet to deliberate their purchase decision
(Purnawirawan et al., 2012). According to Chan and Li (2010), the actual causality of co-
shopping among online shoppers requires further research. Based on a meta-analysis, Toufaily et
al. (2012) also suggested that future studies should be built upon online social interactions and
online social identity to understand consumer behavioral intention. Understanding consumer
decision, process, perceptions and intentions to use certain tools as a SS website has management
implications. With growing competition, online retailers increasingly use interactive website
features to enhance brand identity and secure consumer loyalty (Lee et al., 2010). On the other
hand, research on online consumer purchasing pattern and behaviour may help companies to
define their online retail strategies and online advertising in an effective way. Thus, this study
examines the social and technological factors that may lead to customers’ purchase intention.
More specifically, this study assesses the influence of CIQ, EIC, ATT, PSP and SS among social
network users in Malaysia. This paper is organised as follows. The next section discusses the
online shopping in the context of Malaysia followed by a literature review and development of
hypotheses. Subsequently, the research method and findings of the study are discussed. Finally,
discussion of the findings and managerial implications are presented.

13
Idea Shopping
As described by Arnold & Reynolds (2003), idea shopping referred to “shopping to keep up with
trends and new fashions, and to see new products and innovations” (p.80). Making a purchase
was not necessarily a precursor of shopping value because some consumers may enjoy browsing
to learn about new trends, or innovations (Bloch, Ridgway, & Sherrell, 1989). Tauber (1972)
also proposed that learning about and keeping up with the latest trends was one important
personal shopping motive. Babin etal. (1994) reported that collecting information could be one
of the reasons of shopping; however, some researchers reported that consumers collected
information because of necessity rather than recreation (Babin et al., 1994; Bloch & Rishins,
1983). On the other hand, Arnold and Reynolds (2003) found that ‘idea shopping’ was highly
correlated with hedonic shopping motivations describing shopping to keep up with trends or to
gather information as pleasurable and recreational. Bloch, Sherrell, and Ridgway (1986)
described pleasure and recreation as a motive for information search when consumers engaged in
information search for their intrinsic satisfactions.

Employee Services
Employee Services (ES) provides oversight for programs and benefits regarding Federal
employees. We offer policy direction and leadership in designing, developing, and implementing
Government-wide human resources systems and programs for recruitment, pay, leave,
performance management and recognition, employee development, work/life/wellness programs,
and labor and employee relations. We also provide technical support to agencies for the full
range of human resources management policies and practices, including veterans’ employment
and evaluation of agencies’ human resources programs. ES is also responsible for managing the
operation of OPM’s internal human resources program.

Employee Services provides the following programs and departments in support of OPM:

Recruitment and Hiring programs have been developed by OPM to help strengthen the
current hiring reform movement by streamlining and simplifying the hiring process.

14
Pay and Leave provides leadership on Federal pay and leave administration policies and
programs. We maintain pay tables for General Schedule employees, manage the Federal Wage
System, and develop and provide Government wide regulations and policies on other pay and
leave authorities.

Senior Executive Service and Performance Management leads Government-wide human


capital policy for the Senior Executive Service and other senior professionals, as well as for non-
executive performance, awards, and leadership development.

Accountability and Workforce Relations (AWR) provides technical expertise, policy


guidance, and professional development opportunities on employee and labor relations across the
Federal government. Labor Relations advises the OPM Director and Federal agencies on issues
arising under the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute to help maintain good
relations among agencies, labor organizations, and employees. Employee Accountability reviews
third-party decisions for consistency with civil service laws, rules and regulations and advises the
OPM Director on exercising formal intervention or reconsideration of decisions.

Veterans Services provides Government wide leadership and direction to improve the Federal
employment opportunities for veterans, transitioning military service members, military spouses,
and their families.

OPM Human Resources (internal) functions as OPM’s Human Resources Office, working to
support the needs of the many program offices within OPM, from recruiting candidates for our
own employment opportunities to handling all internal human resources-related matters for
OPM’s current workforce.

After-sales service
A sale is the first step to increasing your sales, not the last. Providing good after-sales service
shows your customers you want to build a long-term relationship with them, earn their loyalty
and keep their business.

15
Many successful businesses use after-sales service strategies to consolidate sales, build customer
relationships and grow their profits. Providing after-sales service keeps your customers coming
back to you and encourages them to refer your business to others.

After-sales service includes what you do at the point of sale, including your customer service and
selling techniques. It also includes how you follow up after the customer has left, such as
providing follow-up contact and effectively dealing with complaints.

This guide highlights the importance of after-sales service and explains customer service
techniques that will help you build better relationships with your customers.

Merchandise
Merchandising is everything you do to promote and sell your products once the potential
customer is in your store. When we talk about merchandise, we are talking about products
available for sale, typically in a retail setting.

Since the sales process often starts with the eyes, merchandising typically involves presenting
products in a visually favorable light, to try and encourage purchases.

Merchandising Strategies

Some of the most popular ways to entice buyers to purchase include:

 Window and in-store displays


 Grouping related products together
 Shelf signage
 In-store ads featuring the merchandise
 Samples and giveaways
 In-store demonstrations
 Well-stocked shelves
 Spotlighting promotional items

16
Shopper loyalty program
Any program under which a gift or other benefit could be obtained by the purchaser of tobacco
products, non-tobacco smoking products, or e-cigarettes (regardless of whether the program
extends to the purchase of other products); or 4 Any program under which a purchaser of goods
or products may be entitled to a gift of tobacco products, non-tobacco smoking products or e-
cigarettes (regardless of whether the purchaser may choose to accept another type of gift
instead).

Research Model
There are two major types of research models or Research paradigms:
Quantitative: It is also known as traditional, positivist, experimental, or empiricist as advanced
by authorities such as Comte, Mill, and Locke.
Qualitative: Constructive, naturalistic, interpretive, post positivist or postmodern perspective as
advanced by Dithey, Kant & Huberman

17
Hypothesis
H 1: Shopping motivation will positively influence customer satisfaction
H 1a: Gratification shopping motivation will positively influence customer satisfaction
H 1b: Idea shopping motivation will positively influence customer satisfaction
H 1c: Role shopping motivation will positively influence customer satisfaction
H 1d: Experimentation motivation will positively influence customer satisfaction
H 1e: Value shopping motivation will positively influence customer satisfaction
H 2: Shopping motivation will positively influence loyalty
H 2a: Gratification shopping motivation will positively influence customer loyalty
H 2b: Idea shopping motivation will positively influence customer loyalty
H 2c: Role shopping motivation will positively influence customer loyalty
H 2d: Experimentation motivation will positively influence customer loyalty
H 2e: Value shopping motivation will positively influence customer loyalty

18
Chapter 3
FINDINGS

Respondent Frequency Of Shopping

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Once a Week 7 35.0 35.0 35.0

Twice a Month 4 20.0 20.0 55.0

One a Month 9 45.0 45.0 100.0

Total 20 100.0 100.0

Analysis:
Based on the survey, 35 percent respondent’s Complete their Shopping Once a
week, 20 percent respondent’s Complete their Shopping Twice a Month, and 45 percent
respondent’s Complete their Shopping One a Month.

19
Reasons For Visiting Shopping Mall

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid Buying Groceries 1 5.0 5.0 5.0

Buying clothing and accessories 7 35.0 35.0 40.0

Buying specialty products 5 25.0 25.0 65.0

Eating out 2 10.0 10.0 75.0

Meeting friends/Socializing/ 3 15.0 15.0 90.0


Celebrating

Window Shopping 2 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 20 100.0 100.0

Analysis:
Based on the survey, 5 percent respondent’s Buying Groceries, 35 percent respondent’s
Buying clothing and accessories, 25 percent respondent’s Buying specialty products, 10 percent
respondent’s Eating out, 15 percent respondent’s Meeting friends/Socializing/ Celebrating and
10 percent respondent’s going Window Shopping.

Preferable Shopping Mall/Shop

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Sunmar Ocean City 9 45.0 45.0 45.0

Finlay Square 2 10.0 10.0 55.0

Mimi Super Market 2 10.0 10.0 65.0

Amin Centre 1 5.0 5.0 70.0

Shopping Complex 1 5.0 5.0 75.0

New Market 2 10.0 10.0 85.0

Gulzer Tower 1 5.0 5.0 90.0

Anwar Shopping 2 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 20 100.0 100.0

20
Analysis:
Based on the survey, 45 percent respondent’s going Sunmer Ocean City, 10 percent
respondent’s going Finlay Square, 10 percent respondent’s going Mimi Super Market, 5 percent
respondent’s going Amin Centre, 5 percent respondent’s Shopping Complex, 10 percent
respondent’s going New Market, 10 percent respondent’s going Gulzer Tower and 10 percent
respondent’s going Anwar Shopping Mall.

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics are brief descriptive coefficients that summarize a given data set, which can
be either a representation of the entire population or a sample of it. Descriptive statistics are
broken down into measures of central tendency and measures of variability or spread.

Rank
N Mean Std. Deviation

Average Adventure Shopping 20 4.7830 .31124 9

Average Gratification Shopping 20 4.7833 .27091 10

Average Role Sopping 20 4.6668 .38993 7

Average Value Sopping 20 4.7000 .52315 5

Average Social Sopping 20 4.5667 .57328 4

Average Idea Sopping 20 4.6500 .72729 3

Average Employee Services 20 4.6333 .76395 1

Average After Sales Services 20 4.5250 .75175 2

Average_Merchandise 20 4.6875 .50572 6

Average Shopper Loyalty 20 4.6700 .36864 8

Valid N (listwise) 20

Analysis:
All constructs were assessed through a 5-point-Likert-type scale ranging from “Agree” (5) to
“Disagree” (1).

21
Based on Table, Average Role Sopping has the highest Standard division among all the
constructs at .76395, and Average Gratification Shopping has the lowest Standard division
among all the constructs at .27091

Reliability Statistics
The ability of an apparatus, machine or system to consistently perform its intended or required function
or mission on demand and without degradation or failure.

Cronbach's Alpha No of Items

.871 10

Analysis:
The value of Cronbach Alpha, which with the value 0.70 or higher represents acceptable reliability.
Dependability of data will be determined using SPSS version 17. According to the Cronbach’s alpha test
total scale of reliability is 0.871. This result indicated an overall higher reliability factor. As a result,
reliability of this study is substantial.

22
Chapter 4

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


Developments in production and communication technologies, women entering the labor market,
and improvements in the life standard of individuals have all caused a change of perspective of
individuals towards shopping. Especially, competition among businesses led to the launch of
different products and value package. Such changes seen in the business world resulted in the
change of shopping motivation of consumers, where some are driven by the role motive and
some by the motive of having an idea or experience or value motives. Here, the question is raised
concerning which motivation is effective on loyalty and satisfaction.
When related literature is analyzed, we can see that consumers have two types of shopping
values, that is the hedonic and utilitarian values, and that it is usually attempted to bring out the
effect of these shopping values on satisfaction and behavioral intention. This study aims to
examine the causal relationships of hedonic shopping motivations on customer satisfaction and
loyalty. Our findings partially support the result of Jones et al. (2006), Ryu et al. (2010),
Carpenter et al. (2005), Carpenter (2008) because they did not examine sub-factor of hedonic on
satisfaction and loyalty. As a result of testing hypothesis, we have found that experimentation
shopping motivation influence customer satisfaction and loyalty. However, value shopping
motivation does not influence them. Gratification on customer loyalty, are not statistically
significant. Idea and role shopping motivation does not influence customer satisfaction, but both
of them influence customer loyalty.
This study helps retailing managers understand which shopping motivation influence customer
satisfaction and loyalty. In other words, which shopping motivations should be stimulated by
retailers. Herein, the store atmosphere is important for both traditional and non-traditional
retailing settings. Moreover, the shopping motivation of consumers may change or widen
through retail attributes (e.g. promotions, merchandise displays). In the study it is stressed that
innovations such as gift draws and other activities created in the shopping centers by managers,
and the existence of a better atmosphere will orientate consumers more and increase the number
of hedonist consumers. This fact is also effective on the decision making process of consumers
since a positive change in the shopping motivation of consumers leads to a longer stay in the
store, to an unplanned shopping, and to a change of the experienced satisfaction and loyalty
depending on other factors in the store.
Thus, businesses should determine the hedonic motivation of each group by looking into the life-
time value of their customers or the shopping history of their customers registered in their data
base, and thus conducts studies on how to bring out such motivations. It can be said that within
the past years marketing experts and neurologists have acted together in order to understand how
consumers think and how the mind of the market can be studied.

23
Finally, the study has several limitations. First, this study was limited to undergraduate and
graduate students. Second, this study carried out only Aksaray city and one university in Turkey.
Future research should be on different sample from student sample and should be test actual
consumption situations. Besides, they should be participants of different age groups and in
different geographic locations. This study can be extended other variables.

24
REFERENCES

Amine, A. and S. Cadenat (2003). "Efficient retailer assortment : a consumer choice evaluation
perspective Efficient retailer assortment : a consumer choice evaluation perspective."
International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 31(10): 486-497.
Babin, B. J., Y.-K. Lee, E.-J. Kim and M. Griffin (2005). "Modeling Consumer Satisfaction and
Word-of-mouth: Restaurant Patronage in Korea." Journal of Services Marketing 19(3): 133-139.
Bastin, M. (2010). "Hedonic shopping value and impulse buying behavior in transitional
economies : A symbiosis in the Mainland China marketplace." Journal of Brand Management
18(2): 105-114.
Boone, M. D. (2004). "The way ahead: learning cafés in the academic marketplace." Library Hi
Tech 22(3): 323-327.
Cardoso, P. R. and S. C. Pinto (2010). "Hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations among
Portuguese young adult consumers." International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management
38(7): 538-558.
Carpenter, M. Jason, M. Margurite, A. E. and Fairhurst (2005). " Consumen Shopping Value for
Retail Brands."
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 19(25): 43-53.
Carpenter, J. M. (2008). "Demographics and patronage motives of supercenter shoppers in the
United States."
International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 36(1): 5-16.
Chariri, A. (2009). Landasan Filsafat dan Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. Semarang, Fakultas
Ekonomi, Universitas Diponegoro.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design, Choosing Among Five
Approaches. California, Sage Publication.
Dammar, S. (2012). Makassar Kota Seribu Warkop. Seputar Indonesia. Jakarta.
Engel, J. F., R. D.Blackwelll and P. W. Miniard (1994). Perilaku Konsumen. Jakarta, Bina Rupa
Aksara.
Erythriana, A. (2011). Analisis Proses Pengambilan Keputusan Konsumen Restoran Daiji
Ramen, Bogor.
Hsu, M. K., Y. Huang and S. Swanson (2010). "Grocery store image, travel distance, satisfaction
and behavioral intentions: Evidence from a Midwest college town." International Journal of
Retail & Distribution Management 38(2): 115-132.

25
Jang, D. and A. S. Mattila (2005). "An examination of restaurant loyalty programs: what kinds of
rewards do customers prefer?" International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
17(5): 402-408.
Jin, B. and J.-O. Kim (2003). "A typology of Korean discount shoppers: shopping motives, store
attributes, and outcomes." International Journal of Service Industry Management 14(4): 396-419.
Kang, J. and H. Park-Poaps (2010). "Hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations of fashion
leadership."
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 14(2): 312-328.
Kim, J. O., J. Ok and B. Jin (2001). "Korean Consumers' Patronage of Discount Stores:
Domestic vs Multinational Discount Store Shoppers' Profiles." Journal of Consumer Marketing
18(3): 236-255.
Koo, D.-m. (2003). "Inter-relationships among Store Images , Store Satisfaction , and Store
Loyalty among
Korea Discount Retail Patrons." Business 15(4): 42-71.
Kotler, P. and R. Keller (2006). Marketing Management. New Jersey, Pearson Education,Inc.
Miles and Huberman (2009). Analisis Data Kualitatif. Jakarta, Universitas Indonesia Press.
Rohman, F. (2009). Peran Nilai Hedonik Konsumsi dan Reaksi Impulsif sebagai Mediasi
Pengaruh Faktor Situasional Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Impulsif di Butik Kota Malang,
Universitas Brawijaya.
Ryu, K., H. Han and S. Jang (2010). "Relationships among hedonic and utilitarian values,
satisfaction and behavioral intentions in the fast-casual restaurant industry." International Journal
of Contemporary Hospitality
Management 22(3): 416-432.
Sinha, P. K. and A. Banerjee (2004). "Store choice behaviour in an evolving market."
International Journal of
Retail & Distribution Management 32(10): 482-494.
Solomon, M. R. C. B. B., Having and Being, Ninth Edition, Pearson Education Inc. New Jersey.
(2011).
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having and Being. New Jersey, Pearson Education Inc.
Somogyi, S., E. Li, T. Johnson, J. Bruwer and S. Bastian (2011). "The underlying motivations of
Chinese wine consumer behaviour." Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 23(4): 473-
485.

26
Tauber, E. M. (1972). "‘‘Why Do People Shop?’’." Journal of Marketing Management, Fall
36(4): 58-70.
Vabo, S. I., V. Burau, A. D. Venanzi, A. Gregory and S. Milner (2008). "Unequal federalism and
regional inequalities : the case of the coffee policies in Brazil." International Journal of
Sociology 26(7): 1162-1185.
Walter, U., B. Edvardsson and Å. Öström (2010). "Drivers of customers' service experiences: a
study in the restaurant industry." Managing Service Quality 20(3): 236-258.
Wati, E. I. R. A. (2011). Analisis Tingkat Kepuasan dan Proses Pengambilan Keputusan
Pembelian Konsumen Kafe Kebun Kita, Bogor.
Yavas, U. and E. Babakus (2009). "Modeling patronage behavior: a tri-partite
conceptualization." Journal of Consumer Marketing 26(7): 516-526.

27