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# Department of Chemical

Engineering
University of the Philippines Diliman

## Convective Heat Transfer

ChE 131 – Transport Processes

Reference:
§ 4.1B, Geankoplis, C.J. (1993). Transport Processes and Unit Operations,
3rd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Tosun, I. (2007). Modeling Transport Phenomena, 2nd ed. Elsevier.
Outline
 Convective Heat Transfer
 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient

##  Combined Heat Transfer

 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
 Log-Mean Temperature Difference
Convective Heat Transfer
Convective Heat
Transfer
Transport of property (momentum / energy /
mass) due to the bulk flow of a fluid
Combined Heat
Transfer
 When applied to energy, this means “energy
flowing into/out of the control volume”
 rate of energy flowing into / out of the control
surface:
𝐸 = 𝐸𝑣𝐴 = 𝜌𝐶𝑝 𝑇 𝑣𝐴
 TOTAL FLUX =
molecular flux (due to gradients/molecular motion) +
convective flux (due to bulk motion)

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Convective Heat Transfer
Convective Heat  How do we calculate
Transfer
the total rate of heat
Combined Heat transfer from the
Transfer
plate to the flowing
stream?
No slip condition:
 Total energy flux at the wall: Stagnant fluid

Molecular Convective
energy flux energy flux

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Convective Heat Transfer
Convective Heat  Therefore,
Transfer

Combined Heat
Transfer
 The rate of heat transfer from one side of the
plate to the flowing stream is

##  What is the temperature gradient at the wall?

Difficult if not impossible…
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
Convective Heat  We resort to experimentally determined values of
Transfer
the energy flux at the solid-fluid interface in terms
Combined Heat of the convective heat transfer coefficient, h.
Transfer

 where:

## T∞ = temperature of bulk fluid

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
Convective Heat  The heat flow rate then becomes
Transfer

Combined Heat
Transfer
𝑄 = ℎ𝐴 𝑇𝑤 − 𝑇∞
 In difference form,

𝑇𝑤 − 𝑇∞ Driving force
𝑄=
1 Thermal
ℎ𝐴 Resistance

##  What is the unit of h? Ans: W/m2 - K

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
Convective Heat  The heat transfer coefficient depends on the fluid
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flow mechanism, fluid properties (density,
Combined Heat viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity) and
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flow geometry.
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
Convective Heat
Transfer

Combined Heat
Transfer
 From the equations above, we can see that

##  The entire resistance to heat transfer is assumed

to be due to a stagnant film in the fluid next to the
wall.
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
Convective Heat
Transfer

Combined Heat
Transfer
 The above equation indicates that the thickness
of the film, δt , determines the value of h.

##  For this reason the term h is frequently referred to

as the film heat transfer coefficient.
Exercise
Convective Heat  Air at 20°C flows over a flat plate of dimensions
Transfer
50 cm × 25 cm. If the average heat transfer
Combined Heat coefficient is 250 W/m2·K, determine the steady
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rate of heat transfer from one side of the plate to
air when the plate is maintained at 40°C.
Exercise
Convective Heat  Air at 15°C flows over a spherical LPG tank of
Transfer
radius 4 m. The outside surface temperature of
Combined Heat the tank is 4°C. If the steady rate of heat transfer
Transfer
from the air to the storage tank is 62,000 W,
determine the average heat transfer coefficient.
Combined Heat Transfer
Convective Heat Conduction Convection
Transfer

## Combined Heat −∆𝑇 −∆𝑇

Transfer 𝑄= 𝑄=
∆𝑥 1
𝑘𝐴 ℎ𝐴
Combined heat transfer (in a flat slab):
−∆𝑇
𝑄 = 1 ∆𝑥 1
+ +
ℎ1 𝐴 𝑘𝐴 ℎ2 𝐴

−∆𝑇
𝑄=
1
𝑈𝐴
Combined Heat Transfer
Convective Heat  We define the overall heat transfer coefficient, U
Transfer

## Combined Heat 1 1 ∆𝑥 1 Inside overall heat transfer

Transfer = + + coefficient, Ui
𝑈𝐴 ℎ1 𝐴 𝑘𝐴 ℎ2 𝐴
1 1 ∆𝑥 1
= + +
𝑈𝑖 𝐴𝑖 ℎ𝑖 𝐴𝑖 𝑘𝐴𝐿𝑀 ℎ𝑜 𝐴𝑜

## Outside overall heat

transfer coefficient, Uo
1 1 ∆𝑥 1
= + +
𝑈𝑜 𝐴𝑜 ℎ𝑖 𝐴𝑖 𝑘𝐴𝐿𝑀 ℎ𝑜 𝐴𝑜
Combined Heat Transfer
Convective Heat  We define the overall heat transfer coefficient, U
Transfer

Combined Heat 1 1
Transfer =
𝑈𝑖 𝐴𝑖 𝑈𝑜 𝐴𝑜

##  The heat flow rate equation then becomes

𝑄 = 𝑈𝑖 𝐴𝑖 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇𝑜 = 𝑈𝑜 𝐴𝑜 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇𝑜
Exercise
Convective Heat  Saturated steam at 267°F is flowing inside a
Transfer
steel pipe with an ID of 0.824 in. and an OD of
Combined Heat 1.05 in. The pipe is insulated with 1.5 in. of
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insulation on the outside. The convective heat
transfer coefficient inside and outside the pipe is
hi = 1000 Btu/hr/ft2/°F and ho = 2 Btu/hr/ft2/°F,
respectively. The mean thermal conductivity of the
metal is 26 Btu/hr/ft/°F, while that of the
insulation material is 0.037 Btu/hr/ft/°F.
Calculate the heat loss for 1 ft of pipe using
resistances if the surrounding air is at 80°F.