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# Department of Chemical

Engineering
University of the Philippines Diliman

## Heat Equations of Change

ChE 131 – Transport Processes

Reference:
Geankoplis, C.J. (1993). Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd ed.
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
B, Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E., and Lightfoot, E.N. (2007). Transport
Phenomena, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Outline
 Differential Equation for Heat Conduction

 Energy Equation
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction

## Consider a differential element balance:

Assumptions:
1. Solid conduction
thermal resistance only.
2. Constant density,
thermal conductivity and
specific heat.
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction

## Consider a differential element balance:

Rate of HEAT in - out:

∆𝑦∆𝑧 𝑞𝑥 − ∆𝑦∆𝑧 𝑞𝑥
𝑥 𝑥+∆𝑥

𝑔 ∆𝑥∆𝑦∆𝑧

## Rate of HEAT accumulation:

In Chem 16, 𝜕𝑇
this is mcPdT 𝜌𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑥∆𝑦∆𝑧
𝜕𝑡
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction

## Consider a differential element balance:

Heat Balance:
𝜕𝑇
∆𝑦∆𝑧 𝑞𝑥 − ∆𝑦∆𝑧 𝑞𝑥 + 𝑔 ∆𝑥∆𝑦∆𝑧 = 𝜌𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑥∆𝑦∆𝑧
𝑥 𝑥+∆𝑥 𝜕𝑡
Dividing by ∆𝑥∆𝑦∆𝑧 :
𝑞𝑥 𝑥 − 𝑞𝑥 𝑥+∆𝑥 𝜕𝑇
+ 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑐𝑝
∆𝑥 𝜕𝑡

## Taking the limit ∆𝑥 → 0:

𝜕𝑞𝑥 𝜕𝑇
− + 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑐𝑝
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑡
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction

## Consider a differential element balance:

𝜕𝑞𝑥 𝜕𝑇
− + 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑐𝑝
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑡

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇
Substituting Fourier’s Law: − −𝑘 + 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑐𝑝
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑡

𝜕2𝑇 𝜕𝑇
Noting that k is constant: 𝑘 2
+ 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑐𝑝
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑡
𝜕𝑇
Extending to 3D space: 𝑘 𝛻 2𝑇 + 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑐𝑝
𝜕𝑡
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction

## Consider a differential element balance:

𝜕𝑇
𝑘 𝛻 2𝑇 + 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑐𝑝
𝜕𝑡

Measure of how
Recall the definition of 𝑘 quickly a material
𝛼=
thermal diffusivity: 𝜌𝑐𝑝 can carry heat away
from a source.

Dividing everything by k:

Differential Equation 𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
2
for Heat Conduction
𝛻 𝑇+ =
𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction
𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction 𝛻 2𝑇 + =
𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡

## Simplifications of the equation:

1 𝜕𝑇 Fourier’s Second
1) No heat generation: = 𝛻2𝑇 Law of Conduction
𝛼 𝜕𝑡
𝑔
𝛻 𝑇+ =0 Poisson’s Equation
𝑘
𝛻2𝑇 = 0 Laplace’s Equation
heat generation:
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction
𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction 2
𝛻 𝑇+ =
𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡

## The equation in different coordinate systems:

𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
1) Rectangular: + 2+ 2+ =
𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡

1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 1 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
2) Cylindrical: 𝑟 + 2 2+ 2+ =
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑟 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝑧 𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡

2
1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 1 𝜕 𝑇 𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
3) Spherical: 𝑟 2
+ 2 sin 𝜃 + 2 2 + =
𝑟 2 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝜃 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝜕𝜙 2 𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a flat slab (constant area, A)

𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
2
+ 2+ 2+ =
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a flat slab (constant area, A)
 We then have:
𝜕2𝑇
2
=0
𝜕𝑥

##  Integrating twice gives:

𝑇 = 𝑐1 𝑥 + 𝑐2
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a flat slab (constant area, A)
 Recall our boundary conditions:
 BC1: at x = 0, T = T1
 BC2: at x = L, T = T2
𝑇 = 𝑐1 𝑥 + 𝑐2

##  Applying BC1: Applying BC2:

𝑇1 = 𝑐1 (0) + 𝑐2 𝑇2 = 𝑐1 𝐿 + 𝑇1

𝑇2 − 𝑇1
𝑐2 = 𝑇1 𝑐1 =
𝐿
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a flat slab (constant area, A)
 Substituting:

𝑇2 − 𝑇1
𝑇 𝑥 = 𝑥 + 𝑇1 This is our temperature profile!
𝐿

##  What is the heat flux? What is the heat flow rate?

without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a hollow cylinder

r1
T1
r2
T2

1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 1 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
𝑟 + 2 2+ 2+ =
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑟 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝑧 𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a hollow cylinder
 We then have:

1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇
𝑟 =0
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟
 Integrating twice gives:

𝑇 = 𝑐1 ∙ ln 𝑟 + 𝑐2
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a hollow sphere
 Recall our boundary conditions:
 BC1: at r = r1, T = T1
 BC2: at r = r2, T = T2
𝑇 = 𝑐1 ∙ ln 𝑟 + 𝑐2

 Applying BC1: 𝑇1 = 𝑐1 ln 𝑟1 + 𝑐2
 Applying BC2: 𝑇2 = 𝑐1 ln 𝑟2 + 𝑐2
 Subtracting the two equations:
𝑟2
(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) = 𝑐1 ln
𝑟1
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a hollow cylinder
𝑟2
(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) = 𝑐1 ln
𝑟1
 Rearranging:
𝑇2 − 𝑇1
𝑐1 = 𝑟2
ln
𝑟1
 Substituting into BC1 equation:

𝑇2 − 𝑇1
𝑇1 = 𝑟2 ∙ ln 𝑟1 + 𝑐2
ln
𝑟1
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a hollow cylinder
𝑇2 − 𝑇1
𝑇1 = 𝑟2 ∙ ln 𝑟1 + 𝑐2
ln
 Rearranging: 𝑟1

𝑇2 − 𝑇1
𝑐2 = 𝑇1 − 𝑟2 ∙ ln 𝑟1
ln
𝑟1
 Substituting into the particular solution equation:

𝑇2 − 𝑇1 𝑇2 − 𝑇1
𝑇= 𝑟2 ∙ ln 𝑟 − 𝑟2 ∙ ln 𝑟1 + 𝑇1
ln ln
𝑟1 𝑟1
without Internal Generation
 Conduction in a hollow cylinder
 Rearranging:

𝑇2 − 𝑇1 𝑟
𝑇(𝑟) = 𝑟2 ∙ ln 𝑟 + 𝑇1
ln 1
𝑟1
This is our temperature profile!
 Can you derive the heat flow rate?

2𝜋𝑘𝐿
𝑄=− 𝑇2 − 𝑇1
𝑟2
ln
𝑟1
without Internal Generation
Example!
temperature distribution and the heat
flux in a slab in the region 0 ≤ x ≤ L for
thermal conductivity k and a uniform
heat generation in the medium at a
rate of g0 when the boundary surface
at x = 0 is kept at a uniform
temperature T0 and the boundary
surface at x = L dissipates heat by
convection into an environment at a
constant temperature T∞ with a heat-
transfer coefficient h.
without Internal Generation
Example!
Assumptions (or given):
2. Unidirectional heat flow (x only)
3. Constant k, ρ, cP, and h.

Differential Equation 𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
for Heat Conduction: 𝛻 2𝑇 + =
𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡

𝑑 2 𝑇 𝑔0
2
+ =0
𝑑𝑥 𝑘
without Internal Generation
Example!
𝑑2 𝑇 𝑔0
2
+ =0
𝑑𝑥 𝑘

## After 1st and 2nd integration:

𝑑𝑇 𝑔0
= − 𝑥 + 𝐶1
𝑑𝑥 𝑘
1 𝑔0 2
𝑇 𝑥 =− 𝑥 + 𝐶1 𝑥 + 𝐶2
2𝑘
without Internal Generation
Example!
𝑑𝑇 𝑔0
= − 𝑥 + 𝐶1
𝑑𝑥 𝑘
1 𝑔0 2
𝑇 𝑥 =− 𝑥 + 𝐶1 𝑥 + 𝐶2
2𝑘
Boundary conditions:
𝑎𝑡 𝑥 = 0, 𝑇(0) = 𝑇0
𝑑𝑇
𝑎𝑡 𝑥 = 𝐿, 𝑘 = ℎ 𝑇∞ − 𝑇(𝐿)
𝑑𝑥
*The second B.C. denotes that the
heat leaving by conduction is equal
to the heat entering by convection.
without Internal Generation
Example!
𝑑𝑇 𝑔0
= − 𝑥 + 𝐶1
𝑑𝑥 𝑘
1 𝑔0 2
𝑇 𝑥 =− 𝑥 + 𝐶1 𝑥 + 𝐶2
2𝑘
Applying B.C. 1: C2 = T0

Applying B.C. 2:
𝑔0 𝑔0 2
𝑘 − 𝐿 + 𝐶1 = ℎ 𝑇∞ + 𝐿 − 𝐶1 𝐿 − 𝑇0
𝑘 2𝑘
𝑔0 𝐿
𝐶1 ℎ𝐿 + 𝑘 = ℎ 𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 − ℎ𝐿 + 2𝑘
2𝑘
without Internal Generation
Example!
Applying B.C. 1: C2 = T0

Applying B.C. 2:
𝑔0 𝑔0 2
𝑘 − 𝐿 + 𝐶1 = ℎ 𝑇∞ + 𝐿 − 𝐶1 𝐿 − 𝑇0
𝑘 2𝑘
𝑔0 𝐿
𝐶1 ℎ𝐿 + 𝑘 = ℎ 𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 − ℎ𝐿 + 2𝑘
2𝑘

ℎ 𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑔0 𝐿 ℎ𝐿 + 2𝑘
𝐶1 = − 1 𝑔0 2
ℎ𝐿 + 𝑘 2𝑘 ℎ𝐿 + 𝑘 𝑇 𝑥 =− 𝑥 + 𝐶1 𝑥 + 𝐶2
2𝑘
𝐶2 = 𝑇0
After substitution…
without Internal Generation
Example!
1 𝑔0 2
𝑇 𝑥 =− 𝑥 + 𝐶1 𝑥 + 𝐶2
2𝑘
After substitution…

1 𝑔0 2 ℎ 𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑔0 𝑥𝐿 ℎ𝐿 + 2𝑘
𝑇 𝑥 =− 𝑥 + 𝑥− + 𝑇0
2𝑘 ℎ𝐿 + 𝑘 2𝑘 ℎ𝐿 + 𝑘

## Further manipulation into a desired form:

2𝑘
1 𝑔0 2 𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝑥𝐿 1 +
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = − 𝑥 + − ℎ𝐿
2𝑘 𝑘 𝐿 2𝑘 1 + 𝑘
1+
ℎ𝐿 ℎ𝐿
without Internal Generation
Example!
2𝑘
1 𝑔0 2 𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝑥𝐿 1 + ℎ𝐿
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = − 𝑥 + −
2𝑘 𝑘 𝐿 2𝑘 1 + 𝑘
1+
ℎ𝐿 ℎ𝐿

## Manipulating into a desired form even further:

2𝑘
𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝐿2 1+ 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = − ℎ𝐿 −
𝑘 𝐿 2𝑘 𝑘 𝐿 𝐿
1+ 1+
ℎ𝐿 ℎ𝐿

## Now, we introduce a new dimensionless number…

Differential Equation for Heat Conduction

## Dim. Group Ratio Equation

Biot, Bi convection at body’s surface/ ℎ𝐿
conduction within the body 𝑘

## Manipulating into a desired form even further:

2𝑘
𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝐿 2 1+ 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = − ℎ𝐿 −
𝑘 𝐿 2𝑘 𝑘 𝐿 𝐿
1+ 1+
ℎ𝐿 ℎ𝐿
𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝐿2 1 + 2 𝐵𝑖 𝑥 𝑥 2
Finally: 𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 =
1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿

2𝑘 1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿

𝐿
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction
Example!
𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝐿2 1 + 2 𝐵𝑖 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = − −
1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿 2𝑘 1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿 𝐿

## Special cases of the problem:

I. The Biot Number approaches infinity.
In this case, the
𝑎𝑡 𝑥 = 0, 𝑇(0) = 𝑇0
boundary conditions
𝑎𝑡 𝑥 = 𝐿, 𝑇 𝐿 = 𝑇∞
should have been:

## *When Bi approaches infinity, then the heat

transfer coefficient, h, approaches infinity also.
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction
Example!
𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝐿2 1 + 2 𝐵𝑖 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = − −
1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿 2𝑘 1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿 𝐿

## Special cases of the problem:

I. The Biot Number approaches infinity.
The resulting equation when 𝐵𝑖 → ∞ is:

𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑔0 𝐿2 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = 𝑥+ −
𝐿 2𝑘 𝐿 𝐿

## Recall the result when g0 is zero!

Differential Equation for Heat Conduction
Example!
𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝐿2 1 + 2 𝐵𝑖 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = − −
1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿 2𝑘 1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿 𝐿

## Special cases of the problem:

II. The Biot Number approaches zero.
In this case, the
𝑎𝑡 𝑥 = 0, 𝑇(0) = 𝑇0
boundary conditions
𝑑𝑇
should have been: 𝑎𝑡 𝑥 = 𝐿, =0
𝑑𝑥
*When Bi approaches zero, then the heat
transfer coefficient, h, approaches zero also.
Differential Equation for Heat Conduction
Example!
𝑇∞ − 𝑇0 𝑥 𝑔0 𝐿2 1 + 2 𝐵𝑖 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = − −
1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿 2𝑘 1 + 1 𝐵𝑖 𝐿 𝐿

## Special cases of the problem:

II. The Biot Number approaches zero.
The resulting equation when 𝐵𝑖 → 0 is:

𝑔0 𝐿2 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇0 = 2 −
2𝑘 𝐿 𝐿

## Q: What does dT/dx = 0 imply?

Differential Equation for Heat Conduction
Exercise!
A 10-cm diameter nickel-steel sphere has a
thermal conductivity, k = 10 W/m-K. Within the
sphere, 800 W/m3 of heat is being generated.
The surrounding air is at 20°C and the heat
transfer coefficient from the surroundings to
the surface of the sphere is 10 W/m2-K. What
is the temperature at the center of the sphere?
Energy Equation
Consider a differential
volume element:
Recall: Combined Energy Flux
1 2
𝒆= 𝜌𝑣 + 𝜌𝑈 𝒗 + 𝝅 ∙ 𝒗 + 𝒒
2
Recall: First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy Equation

Consider a differential
volume element:

Rate of Increase in KE
and Internal Energy:
(Accumulation)

## Rate of Work Done by

External Forces, g:
Energy Equation

Consider a differential
volume element:

Rate of Increase in KE
and Internal Energy:
(Accumulation)

## Rate of Work Done by

External Forces, g:
Energy Equation

Consider a differential
volume element:

Combining them:

## Expanding the combined energy flux term…

Energy Equation
Consider a differential
volume element:

## THE ENERGY EQUATION

Energy Equation

Consider a differential
volume element:

## The complete form of the Energy Equation

Energy Equation
Consider a differential
volume element:

## If we subtract the mechanical energy

balance from the energy equation:

## THE EQUATION OF CHANGE FOR INTERNAL ENERGY

Energy Equation
Consider a differential
volume element:

## If we subtract the mechanical energy

balance from the energy equation:

## THE EQUATION OF CHANGE FOR INTERNAL ENERGY

𝜕 𝐷𝑈
𝜌𝑈 + 𝛻 ∙ 𝜌𝑈𝒗 = 𝜌
𝜕𝑡 𝐷𝑡
Energy Equation
Consider a differential
volume element:

derivative form:

## By absorbing the pressure force term, U becomes H.

D𝐻 𝐷𝑇
Since = 𝜌𝐶𝑝 then at constant pressure:
𝐷𝑡 𝐷𝑡

𝐷𝑇 Convenient
𝜌𝐶𝑝 = − 𝛻 ∙ 𝑞 − 𝜏 ∙ 𝛻𝒗 Form!
𝐷𝑡
Energy Equation
Special Cases of the 𝐷𝑇
𝜌𝐶𝑝 = − 𝛻 ∙ 𝑞 − 𝜏 ∙ 𝛻𝒗
Energy Equation: 𝐷𝑡

𝜌𝑐 = 𝑘𝛻 2𝑇
𝐷𝑡

R:

C:

S:
Energy Equation

## Special Cases of the 𝐷𝑇

𝜌𝐶𝑝 = − 𝛻 ∙ 𝑞 − 𝜏 ∙ 𝛻𝒗
Energy Equation: 𝐷𝑡

## 2. For solids 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇 = 𝑘𝛻 2 𝑇 Fourier’s Second

𝑝
𝜕𝑡 Law of Conduction

## 3. With Heat Generation (simply added)

𝐷𝑇
𝜌𝑐𝑝 = 𝑘𝛻 2 𝑇 + 𝑔
𝐷𝑡
Energy Equation
𝐷𝑇
Example! 𝜌𝐶𝑝 = − 𝛻 ∙ 𝑞 − 𝜏 ∙ 𝛻𝒗
𝐷𝑡

## A solid cylinder in which heat

generation is occurring uniformly as g
W/m3 is insulated on the ends. The
temperature of the surface of the
cylinder is held constant at Tw K. The
radius of the cylinder is r = R m. Heat
flows only in the radial direction.
Using the Energy Equation only, derive
state if the solid has a constant k.
Energy Equation
𝐷𝑇
Example! 𝜌𝐶𝑝 = − 𝛻 ∙ 𝑞 − 𝜏 ∙ 𝛻𝒗
𝐷𝑡

## Using the solids special case with

cylindrical coordinates:

This can be
rewritten as:
Energy Equation
𝐷𝑇
Example! 𝜌𝐶𝑝 = − 𝛻 ∙ 𝑞 − 𝜏 ∙ 𝛻𝒗
𝐷𝑡

## From here on, the solution is just

the same as with the electrical
wire: