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ARCHITECTURAL STYLES

[by alver_remolar]

Definition
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
 Record of man's effort to build beautifully. Traces origin, growth & decline of architectural styles which have prevailed lands and ages.

HISTORIC STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE


 Manner of design which prevails at a certain place and time.

6 Factors Affecting Styles


4 Great Constructive Principles
 History
 Society  Post & Lintel Construction
 Religion  Arch & Vault Construction
 Geography  Corbel or Cantilever Construction
 Geology  Trussed Construction
 Climate
OVERVIEW OF HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF ARCHITECTURAL STYLES

INFLUENCE ARCHITECTURE
STYLE / PERIOD
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
HISTORY RELIGION GEOGRAPHY CLIMATE ORIENTATION
(or Architectural Character)
PALEOLITHIC (460,000 YA) MATERIALS
Nomadic Tents made from animal skins, wooden frames, bones, thatch (dried
No organized
Hunting & gathering grass), turf (live grass/green roof), stone tools, bronze & copper
PRE-HISTORIC Towards
Cro-Magnons cave paintings Caves --
8000 – 3000 BC Burial rituals cardinal points
CONSTRUCTION
Monuments
NEOLITHIC (10,000 YA) Megalithic (large stones)
Agriculture, domestication
MATERIALS
Softstone: limestone, sandstone, alabaster
Hardstone: granite, quartite, basalt
Poly, gods
CONSTRUCTION
representing
Columnar & Trabeated
nature
Centralized kingdom, centralized (Amon-Ra,
COLUMNATION & CAPITALS
omnipotent Pharaoh (“king, “god on Osiris, Isis,
Lotus Capital
earth”, builders & leaders) Seth)
Papyrus Capital
Palm Capital
Astronomy, math, philosophy, music Funerary /
Big & Grand
Square Pillar
SOCIETAL CLASS SYSTEM Architecture
Nile River – Polygonal Column
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN Senior Priests
travel & trade Northward Palm-type Column
3200 BC – 1 AD Officials Afterlife in
rain Bud-and-bell Column
Noblemen kingdom of Towards
Fertile Foliated Capital Column
Army Commanders Osiris, cardinal points
Spring, Hathor-headed Column
“Monumental, immortal, Pharaohs
Bottleneck summer Osiris Pillars
permanent” Ordinary Egyptians buried bringing
invaders
Farmers things with
ROOFS & CEILINGS
them
Flat roof to exclude heat
Architects, engineers
Theologians Fine burial
WALL
Masons, sculptors, painters Embalmment
Batter Wall – diminishing width towards top for stability
Laborers, peasants, prisoners Funeral rites
Unbroken massive walls uninterrupted for Hieroglyphics
Permanent
9-24 m thick
tomb
“Eternal
OPENINGS
dwelling”
No windows: Skylights, roof slits, clerestories

DECORATION
Gorge & Hollow and Roll moldings
Hieroglyphics – pictorial representation of religion, history & daily
life, scratching pictures on mud-plaster walls

Sphinxes
Carved stone monument, body of lion & head of pharaoh
(avenue of sphinxes: rows of monsters leading to monuments)

Solar disc & vulture with spread wings

Scarab – ‘resurrection’

Papyrus – lotus & palm ‘fertility’

Grapes – ‘eternity’
Tigris &
Mesopotamian Sumerian
Euphrates
(dozen city-states divided by canals
& boundary stones) MATERIALS
Deserts of
Clay, soil, reeds, rushes
Arabian
NEAR EAST Babylonian or Chaldean
Peninsula
5000 BC – 641 AD (planned city, hydraulic system – Bricks made of mud & chopped straw, sun-dried or kiln-fired
Grasslands,
Hanging Gardens) -- -- --
Steppes,
Timber, paint, copper, tin, lead, gold, silver imported
River Plains
“Warring states” Assyrian Persian
of Fertile
Developed walled city (Jericho), CONSTRUCTION
Crescent
fortification Arctuated (Corbel Arch)
Mountain &
Plateau from
Cattle raising instead of agriculture
West to East
MATERIALS
No stone, only clay & soil 4 corners
Early Mesopotamian
-- -- -- -- towards
5000 BC – 2000 BC
COLUMNATION & CAPITALS cardinal points
No columns due to lack of stones
CONSTRUCTIONS
Asia Minor &
Hittite Architecture Hittite Empire Fortifications of cyclopean stone masonry & gateways with portal
Northern Syria
sculptures
MATERIALS
Stone & timber; glazed bricks in blue, white, yellow, green
Assyrian Cattle-farming, raising bulls -- -- --
DECORATION
Colossal winged-bulls guarding chief portals
Low relief sculpture in stone murals
Not war but negotiation India MATERIALS
Persian & Median Stone mostly for fire-temples & palace platforms due to scarcity
Multi-cultural Mongolia
-- --
COLUMNATION & CAPITALS
“international, enlightened” Greek + Egyptian influence Rest of Middle Introduced the use of columns
East
SASSANIAN CONSTRUCTION
Link between older Mesopotamiam Flat timber roofs rather than vaults
& Byzantine, characterized by
palaces with elliptical vaults & WALLS
domes set on squinches & stuccoed Double mud-brick walls for stability
masonry walls

Crete Island,
Nature worship Italy & Sicily Rigorous
cold to
Religious rites Mainland relaxing
Mountainous heat
Aegean
Sacred games Hinderlands
Mycenaean / Helladic
Clear
Hellenic
ANCIENT GREEK Ritual dances Separated atmosphere -- --
Hellenistic
Sacrifices inhabitants & intense
into groups, light –
“Hellas”
Greek gods & clans, states conducive
Roman to create
counterparts Archipelago & precise
Islands: sea forms
as means of
trade & comm.
COLUMNATION & CAPITALS
2-part Capital: square abacus above & circular bulbous echinus
below

Round shaft + squarish beam to distribute forces

WALL
Cyclopean Wall – large stones, no mortar, clay bedding

Polygonal Wall – advanced technique, Hellenic period, no pith or


Aegean
Crete Island & tar
3000 BC – 1100 BC
Commercial & naval power -- Greek -- --
mainland Rectangular Wall – dowels
“Rough & Massive”

HOUSES
Megaron – single-storey deep plan, columned entrance porch,
anteroom with central doorway, megaron proper (living apartment),
central hearth, columns supporting roof, thalamus (sleeping room
behind)

Entrance at end rather than on long sides


Portico – colonnaded space forming an entrance or vestibule, with
roof on one side by columns
MATERIALS
“Carpentry in marble” – timber forms imitated in stone with
remarkable exactness

Timber, stone, terracotta

CONSTRUCTION
Columnar & Trabeated

Entasis - Optical corrections: convex to concave


Correction of letter proportions

COLUMNATION & CAPITALS


First columns & entablature timber with terracotta décor
Golden Age Athens
Stone columns in 600 BC
(democracy)
Hellenic “Polis” – city-state
GREEK ORDER
650 BC – 323 BC Sparta
-- -- Capital
Common language (military)
Base
“Religious” Oligarchic, tyrannical
Column
Troy
Shaft
Pericles (monarchy)
Entablature
Architrave
Frieze
Cornice

Doric
Ionic
Corinthian

DECORATION
Refinements used to correct optical illusions

Sculptures, colors, mural painting

Polytheism CONSTRUCTION
Columnar & Trabeated
Nature worship
Hellenistic Established + extended civilization Mt Olympus COLUMNATION & CAPITALS Entire groups of
323 BC – 30 BC Gods Greek Orders buildings laid
“Shift” in culture personification Athens out
Outdoor
“Roman inspiration, civic not of natural Sparta OPENINGS symmetrically
oriented
religious, dignified & Greeks = first humanists elements Knossos Clerestory – between roof & upper wall
gracious, symmetrical & Gods = human level Thessaly Skylight – thin, translucent marble Doors oriented
orderly” “for the people” Zeus, Hera, Thrace Temple Door – on the east east
Poseidon,
Athena, DECORATION
Dionysus, Moldings – device which with light & shade, produce definition
Demeter,
Artemis,
Hermes,
Aphrodite,
Hephaestus,
Ares, Hades,
Nike

Torus Bird’s Beak


Corona Astragal (Bead)
Temperate
Intermediary in spreading art &
Italian (north)
civilization in Europe, West Asia &
peninsula
North Africa
ANCIENT ROMAN Sunny
Roman
Centrally- (central
Constitutional republic, mythology ARCH
“Spreading art & civilization in located on the Italy) --
2 Consuls (derived from Symbol of power
Europe, depended on Mediterranean
Greek)
conquest to extend power” Tropical
Farmers & soldiers, efficiency &
Not sea-faring (South)
justice, succession of military
people
dictatorships, Julius Caesar
MATERIALS
Stone: tufa, peperino, travertine, lava stone, sand & gravel
Earth for terracotta & bricks

Etruscan Drawing First use of concrete (300-400 AD) Stone or brick rubble & mortar or
750 BC – 100 BC Engineering marshes Pozzolana (first cement, thick volcanic earth material)
-- --
“Great builders & large-scale City walls & sewers Controlling CONSTRUCTION
undertakings” rivers Earliest use of true or radiating Arch; keystone
Column, beam, & arch

COLUMNATION & CAPITALS


Tuscan
MATERIALS Columnar & trabeated WALL
Opus Reticulatum
White marble style of Greeks ROOF & CEILING Opus Incertum
Roman Net-like effect, with fine
Concrete for vaults of Arch & vault system Wagon Vault Rectangular blocks, with or
750 BC – 100 BC joints running diagonally
magnitude never equaled Barrel Vault without mortar joints Opus Mixtum
until 19th century steel COLUMNATION Tuscan Tunnel Vault Alternation of brickwork &
“Utilitarian, practical & Opus Quasi-Reticulatum
(Doric with base) Wagon with Opus Quadratum small squared stone
economic, complex & great
CONSTRUCTION Composite (Ionic volute Intersecting Vault Small stones, loose blocks
constructive ability” Opus Testaceum
Greek orders used as + Corinthian leaves) Cross Vault Hemispherical pattern resembling
Brick facing
decorative features which Dome/ Cupola polygonal walling
could be omitted
MATERIALS
Utilized materials from old Roman temples

EARLY CHRISTIAN PLAN


313 AD – 800 AD Basilica plan

“Highly influenced by Roman” Christianity moved from Judea to Roman ruins ROOF & CEILING Façade face
Rome served as Simple timber roof of king & queen post trusses west
“Shelter of worshipers, not Christianity, quarries from Vaulted or domed
gods” Became the official religion of the unseen deity which Priest stood
Roman empire materials were DECORATION behind altar,
“Little architectural value, not obtained Little regard paid to external architectural effect facing east
produced by solution of Fire? sculptures
constructive problems” Mosaic on interiors or on exterior west facades, using color that
gave richness & mystery

PLAN
Domed, square cluster / centralized plan

CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM
Domical construction with classical columnar style

Byzantium, Greek colony since 660 Squinch - structural solution for odd corners in dome/arch
BC Turkey, Pendentive – new & improved solution
Istanbul
Constantine (converted Christian) COLUMNATION & CAPITALS
BYZANTINE changed the capital of Empire from Asia & Europe Roman Ionic, Corinthian, & Composite
330 AD – 1453 AD Rome to Byzantium in 330 AD intersection, Cubiform capital, shaped to form a transition from square abacus
330 AD, separated by to circular shaft
“Discarded Early Christian Empire divided Rome = western Constantinople a narrow strip Dosseret block used as deep abacus, invented to enlarge surface
style for new domical capital capital to first of water for receiving wide voussoirs of arches or thick walls
Byzantine style” official Christian
Byzantium = eastern capital, seat of empire Most ROOF & CEILING
“Mostly churches, official Christianity commanding 3 types of dome:
style for Orthodox Church” position & Simple
` CAROLINGIAN most valuable Compound
Early Romanesque in France & part of eastern Special
Germany by revival of forms of Roman
classical antiquity modified by Empire DECORATION
ecclesiastical requirements Stone bands instead of mouldings
Decorative arches
Internal marble, mosaic, & fresco decoration
Decline of Roman Empire led to
abandonment of towns & cities and
rise of independent states & nations
of Europe – Gaul, Central Europe,
CONSTRUCTION
etc
Rib & Panel Vault
ROMANESQUE
Growth of Framework of ribs support thin stone panels
900 AD – 1200 AD Germanic tribe invasion, monks
different More efficient than Barrel vaults
preserve ancient manuscripts in
religious orders Taller & lighter churches
“Classical, beauty, delicacy, monasteries -- -- --
Windows = forces to columns, not load bearing walls
ornamental, sober &
Christian-lead
dignified” Charlemagne crowned emperor by
institutions DECORATION
Pope in 800 AD, established
Religious enthusiasm found physical expression in magnificent
Roman Empire
cathedrals & monastic buildings
Feudalism, lords & fiefs/vassals
Protection in exchange for loyalty

Milan, Venice, Ravenna, Pavia,


Verona, Genoa

Invasions & trade with northern


Europe through alpine passes

Close alliance with Constantinople, Low-lying


Northern Italian Extremes of MATERIALS
influence of Byzantine culture -- plains of --
Romanesque heat & cold Clay for bricks & marble from hills
Lombardy
LOMBARD
Early Romanesque of Northern Italy
characterized by use of Early
Christian &* Roman forms &
development of ribbed vault &
vaulting shaft
Southern Italian Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Muslim, MATERIALS
-- Mountainous Sub-tropical --
Romanesque Norman rule Limestone
Great stone &
mineral wealth
at Tuscany
Rich in pagan MATERIALS
Central Italian Romanesque Rome, Florence, Naples, Pisa -- --
influence Bricks, tufa, peperino, travertine, marble
Ruins of
classical
buildings
MATERIALS
Wintery in
North French Romanesque -- -- -- Fine Caen stone --
north
Pumice & tufa
Abundant
good stone, Sub-tropical
South French Romanesque -- -- -- --
easily quarried (south)
& freely used
Mountains
OTTONIAN
along Rhine
Early Germany Romanesque
Central European MATERIALS
characterized by development of -- -- --
Romanesque Baltic shores Stone, timber, brick
forms derived from Carolingian &
Byzantine conbcepts
Elber in north
Moors in southwest Europe until
732 AD
Iberian MATERIALS
Spanish Romanesque
Christian peninsula – Granite, limestone, red sandstone, semi-marble
900 AD – 1200 AD Continuous warfare against Moors -- --
influence great rock
gave unity to peninsula
massif No timber
Royal ties with France & England
Subject to Roman conquest,
preceded by landing of Julius
Caesar in 55 AD

Ruled by Roman legions

ANGLO-SAXON
Early English Romanesque
Remote from
characterized by translation of
rest of Low
English Romanesque timber prototypes into stone MATERIALS
Europe, lighting,
900 AD – 1200 AD Hardwood & stone
dependent on severe cold
NORMAN
sea routes
From Normandy/Norman Conquest
in England & rise of Gothic;
characterized by great Benedictine
abbeys, 2-tower facade
supplementing central tower over
crossing, & geometric
ornamentation

GENERIC RIB SYSTEM (usually French Gothic


Towns develop from seasonal cathedrals) SECONDARY RIBS
GOTHIC market festivals PRIMARY RIBS ----- Tierseron
Freedom from Feudal kings (also found in Romanesque)
“Departure from Classic Thriving middle class ----- Ridge / Longitudinal TERTIARY RIBS
Lines” ----- Transverse ----- Lierne --
Guild – labor union, monopolize ----- Diagonal
“L’architecture Ogivale” business, start of banking system ----- Cross BOSS
Big elaborately carved common
“Goths” = barbaric keystone
PRIMARIE
“A lancettes”
Pointed arches
Geometric traceried windows
(smaller stone artwork filled with stained glass)

SECONDAIRE
“Rayonnant”
French Gothic ‘Hundred Years War’ began with Circular windows
Religious zeal –
1200 AD – 1600 AD with England Wheel tracery
Christianity was
1336 AD – 1453 AD
united against -- -- --
Feudal system, tyranny of lords TERTIARE
Muslims
“Restlessness” over common people “Flamboyant”
Flame-like window tracery
Crusades
Pointed arch w/ voussoirs & keystones (taller/wider blgs)
Flying buttresses & Pinnacles
Rose windows
Triforium & Clerestory
(nave under main roof, side aisles, lower side roofs, walking gallery
overlooking nave)

DECORATED
NORMAN Second Pointed, equivalent to
ELIZABETHAN
French Flamboyant
Renaissance ideas take strong TIMBER ROOFS
TRANSITIONAL Curvilinear, later dev't
hold
Pointed Arch
Trussed-Rafter Roof
English Gothic High Gothic style acceptance under PERPENDICULAR
VAULTS Tie-Beam Roof
1154 AD – 1189 AD Henry II EARLY ENGLISH “Rectilinear” or Third Pointed
Early English Collar-Braced Roof
Equivalent to French High
Decorated Hammer-Beam Roof
Gothic TUDOR
Perpendicular Aisle Roof
“Lancet” or First Pointed style Increasing application of
(Fan, palm, conoidal) --
Long narrow pointed windows Renaissance detail; transitional
Tudor
style characterized by Tudor
arch & late Perpendicular style
Central European Gothic
Germany was not one, but many MATERIALS
-- -- -- --
“Style from France, not states Brick
German Romanesque”
Belgian & Netherlands Number of medieval states & cities,
Gothic sea power; dependent on France &
Germany
Basins of
“French Gothic influence
-- Delta of Rhine -- -- --
(Brabantine style) Towns rivaled each other in power
& other rivers
& arts, architecture as product of
German influence civic rivalry in wealth & splendor
(hall churches)”
Spanish inquisition in 1477 AD –
brought national & religious unity
against Jews & Muslims

Spanish Gothic Muslim capital Toledo fell in 1085 -- -- -- -- --


AD

Moors expelled in 1492 AD with fall


of Granada
Italy led way in Europe, in art,
learning & commerce

Renaissance, cultural revival, took


place in Italy nearly in advance of
Italian Gothic northern Europe -- -- -- -- --

Arrested development of Gothic


arch in Italy (only 1 Gothic church in
Rome:
St. Francis of Assisi)
Discovery, knowledge

Started in non-existent Italy,


composed of city states but spoke a
common language
RENAISSANCE COLUMNATION & CAPITALS
Great inventions led to upheaval –
Orders standardized by Palladio, Vignola, Scamozzi, used rationally
gunpowder, mariner’s compass,
“Break in evolution of & decoratively
printing by movable types, sent
European architecture;
people to different parts of the world
departure from Gothic & ROOF & CEILING
& circulated ideas Generally,
Classic Roman orders” High drum raised above pendentives to accommodate not only
-- born in -- --
windows but decoration with classical columns, crowned with
Gunpowder (China) changed Florence
“Byzantine structural & lantern
warfare, negated large fortresses &
decorative practices
castles
interwoven with Roman & WALL
Romanesque succession” Rusticated masonry walls
Understand the ancient world,
Quoins - rusticated wall angles
values, literary & artistic forms;
“Treatise on Architecture” by
Vitruvius in 1486

Religious & intellectual unity of


Christendom begun to crumble
Early Renaissance

“Period of learning, -- -- -- -- -- --
transcription of Roman
elements”
High Renaissance & Proto- Mannerist; practices with no Roman
Baroque precedent buildings were conceived
in a non-Roman way;
-- -- -- -- --
“Individual style in its own
right; conflict between Purists Free, decorative, & illogical
& Proto-Baroque”
Baroque
True nature of Renaissance as a CONSTRUCTION / FORMS
distinctive style emerged Dazzling fusion of geometric & scenographic – wildly sensual yet
“Highly enriched play of form
structurally sound; Curvaceous, daring forms
with multiform elements;
Corruption & political dynasty (papal
freedom & firmly-acquired
family) led to rebellion & Protestant DECORATION
knowledge”
revolution -- -- -- Ornate & richly gilded --
Scroll motif
“Dramatic, rich, grand & alive;
Needed something to entice people
architecture, painting, &
to go back to church (“marketing Trompe L’oeil
sculpture used in harmony to
scheme”) Illusory effects & blending of painting & architecture
produce a unified whole"
“Barrocco” – “crazy style” 3D painting on flat surface
Rococo Primarily French origin
(but style of Baroque outside
“Rock-like forms, scrolls, & France)
shells in a confusion of detail,
DECORATION
often without organic “Rocaille” – “shell” in French
Essentially an interior style
coherence but presenting a
-- -- -- --
lavish display of decoration” GEORGIAN
Playfully decorated with flowers, birds, ribbons
Architecture, furniture, & crafts in
Vivid colors replaced by pastel shades
“Profuse & semi-abstract England & North American colonies
ornamentation & lightness of derived from classical,
color & weight” Renaissance, & Baroque, named
after 4 kings named George
One of central, chief powers of Italy
Craft guilds
with both
Medici family (Giovanni de Medici) –
religious & lay
commercial & political power; vitality
connotations,
of social life at every level Florence, WALL
Florentine Renaissance directed -- --
Genoa, Milan Rusticated masonry gave massive & rugged appearance
activities of
Excelling artists = high status in
studios &
society
workshops

Roman ruins supplied models for


new buildings, which in turn served
as models for all of Europe WALL / PEDIMENTS
Triangular
Roman Renaissance -- -- -- --
Political authority of Pope in Rome Segmental
+ Stable government, increased Broken
population & wealth = revival of
building in Rome
Venice,
Venetian Renaissance Padua,
Vicenza,
Greatness founded on oriental
“Uniquely Venetian but more Verona
commerce
Byzantine than Brescia,
Sea-power, semi-independence
Romanesque/Gothic” Bergamo
from popes -- -- -- --
“Lighter & more graceful than Ubiquitous
Merchants & commercial magnates,
Florentine; buildings built on waterways,
each in rivalry with each other
hundred isles of wooden & spanned by
stone piles” charming
bridges
United to expel English in 1453 –
EARLY
unprecedented unity, power, &
combination of Gothic & Renaissance, forming picturesque
splendor
ensemble
Napoleon Bonaparte as omnipotent
CLASSICAL
national figure
France had Dignity, sobriety, & masculine
united as a
Period of transition, Renaissance
kingdom, LATE
French Renaissance features grafted unto Gothic Secular -- --
Paris as (Louis XV) simple & less classically pure,
center (JA Meissonier) Rococo or Rocaille
EMPIRE
(Louis XVI) sober classicism, austere & refined exteriors
Neo-classic style of architecture,
(Empire) rigid formality
furnishings, decor characterized by
use of delicate but elaborate
DIRECTOIRE
ornamentation imitated from Greek,
Style of French furnishings and decorations
Roma, & occasionally Egyptian
military
Great wars of 1800 & 1900

Henry VIII – king of English church, EARLY


Protestantism
dissolved monasteries & sold their Elizabeth / Jacobean
converts
English Renaissance estates -- -- --
LATE
Secular
Stuarts gave England closer ties Stuart / Georgian
with France & Italy

Leading country in Europe in 1500s EARLY


Protestant Cape of Good
Renaissance details on Gothic forms, influenced by Moorish art;
Reformation Hope,
Vast hereditary possessions of Plateresque, rich, & poetic, from minuteness of detail & similarity to
gained few America,
Spanish monarchy, military silversmith’s work, extremely florid & decorative
adherents in Netherlands,
Spanish/Portuguese conquests
Spain, due to & Central -- --
Renaissance CLASSICAL
Christian unity Europe,
MOZARABIC adherence to Italian Renaissance art
brought about Mexico, Peru,
Spanish under Moorish influence,
by anti-Moor Chile
characterized by horseshoe ach
struggle
BAROQUE
reaction to correct & frigid formalism of Herrera & followers –
classical rules disregarded; Churrigueresque, fantastically
extravagant (Jose de Churriguera)

ANTIQUARIAN
Returned to ancient classical models

EARLY RENAISSANCE
Intro of Renaissance elements to Gothic buildings

PROTO-BAROQUE
Wars: Catholic vs Protestant Italian architects carried Renaissance into Switzerland, Austria, &
Martin Luther, figure of Reformation Germany – emulated by local architects

Invasion by Turks BAROQUE


Central European Local architects trained in Italy
Renaissance Influence of universities on art & Central
architecture position close ROCOCO
-- --
“Renaissance influence from to France & Great refinement in architecture & decoration
Italy & France, deferred by Heidelberg, seat of Humanist Italy
125 years” movement ANTIQUARIAN
Return to ancient classical models
Printing & literature sparked interest
in ancient Greece CHINOISERIE
Style of ornament prevalent in 18th-century Europe, characterized
by intricate & extensive Chines motifs & patterns

Age of Revival & Innovation

England – Great Britain


BUILDING TYPES
1800s & 1900s: REVIVAL Wealth from mining industry
Town halls, hospitals, public banks, warehouse, department stores,
Cast-iron led to machines &
fire & police stations, exhibition halls, university buildings, art
NEO-CLASSICAL mechanized agriculture
galleries, transport & industrial buildings
“Eclecticism, exotic forms, SOCIAL
TECHNOLOGICAL
native + foreign styles” Throes of industrial revolution, rise -- -- --
Drainage & sanitation, cotton manufacturing, steam-power, coal-gas
in population, urbanization,
& gas lamps, electricity, elevator,
“Very highly public transport systems, growth of middle
architecture” class, professionals & businessmen
MATERIALS
Metallurgy: structural iron, cast-iron, glass, steel, RC
Displacement, traffic, informal
settlers
Rapid changes in style as
consequence of aesthetic
controversy & technological TERMS
Victorian innovations by frequent presence of
ostentatious ornament, overall trend Gingerbread - superfluously ornamented
EARLY VICTORIAN from classicism, romanticism, Panopticon - all parts of interior visible from a single point
England
HIGH VICTORIAN eclecticism Eclecticism - freely mix various historical styles with aim of
LATE VICTORIAN combining virtues of diverse sources
EDWARDIAN AFTERMATH GOTHIC REVIVAL
STEAMBOAT GOTHIC Eclectic - derive from wide range of historic styles
COLLEGIATE GOTHIC
CARPENTER GOTHIC
Henry Hobson Richardson,
Richardsonian
Characterized by heavy arches, USA
Romanesque (Revival)
rusticated masonry walls, dramatic
asymmetrical effects
Classic Revival style of decorative
Federal USA
arts in US

Neo-classic style of architecture,


furnishings, & decoration in Britain
Regency when George IV was regent; USA
Close imitation of ancient Greek
forms
American architecture, use of
vertical board sidings with battens
Stick Style or grids of boards over horizontal USA
siding to express frame construction
beneath
Domesitc architecture by extensive
Shingle Style use of wood shingles as exterior USA
cladding over timber frame

Beaux-Arts
Ecole des Beaux-Arts
"Excessive formalism
France
disregarding considerations
Symmetrical plans, massive, USA
of structural truth, advanced
elaborate, & ostentatious effect;
aesthetic theory, rational
planning, or economy"

Reaction against poor quality mass-


produced goods, craft & decor as
Arts & Crafts Movement England
single entity in handcrafting of both
utilitarian & decorative objects
Mission Style Spanish colonial missions in Mexico

TECHNOLOGICAL
Communications, railways, ship-building, steam power, Suez Canal,
international exhibitions of science & industry
Continental European
MATERIALS
Revival French Revolution & Napoleonic
Metal, glass, RC construction
Empire influenced Europe
Structural iron
“(Jean-Nicolas Durand)
Brick
repetitive use of standard Economic rivalry of France &
bays in plan & elev, enriched Germany (WWI)
CHARACTER
with Classical, Medieval, or European countries acquired
-- -- -- 1850 AD – 1870 AD --
Renaissance motifs; colonies in other continents
Comparable to High Victorian in Britain
Renaissance revival established & gained richness; growing interest
Convenient but dull formula RUNDBOGENSTIL
in Gothic architecture; Major town planning (Paris by Baron Eugene
for large complex buildings” Round-arched style in Germany,
Georges Haussemann)
Early Christian, Byzantine, &
Romanesque revival
1870 AD – 1914 AD
Use of metals intensified, especially in exhibitions
Antique forms instead of Renaissance;
Less pretentious & more humane, rational in Holland &
Scandinavia, Creative flowering in Barcelona (Antoni Gaudi)
Art Noveau Art Nouveau in France/ Belgium
CONSTRUCTION & DECORATION
1870 AD – 1914 AD Deliberate simplification of structural elements in buildings &
Jugendstil in Germany interiors, handmade objects & furniture
“Free of any historical style; Sezession in Austria -- -- -- --
DECORATION
Floral, freely-shaped writhing Stile Liberty in Italy
forms” Whiplash Line, decorative vegetable & flower patterns
Glasgow Style in Scotland Biological & botanical
“Sexy, curvy lines” Modernismo in Spain

MATERIALS / CONSTRUCTION
Structural experiment & achievement: metal frame construction,
non-load-bearing curtain wall, elevators

POST-COLONIAL
Neo-classic elements
American Revival First skyscraper as America’s single
greatest contribution to architecture -- -- -- FIRST ECLECTIC --
Greek-revival, Gothic, & Egyptian styles

SECOND ECLECTIC
Gothic-revival
(HH Richardson) (Sullivan & FL Wright)
Academic in character (Ecole des Beaux-Artes) Italian & French
Renaissance, Ancient Greek & Roman, Late Gothic
Arts & Crafts Movement awakened social conscience
among architects
TECHNOLOGICAL
MODERNISM Curtain wall, steel, plate-glass
Art Noveau short-lived -- -- --

Deliberate philosophical & practical estrangement from


past
De Stijl Different arts as one, use of black & white as primary
Netherlands
"The Style" colors, rectangular forms, & asymmetry
Expression of construction as basis for all building
Constructivism
design, with emphasis on functional machine parts
Result of Nazi hostility;
Synthesis of technology, craft, & design aesthetics,
Weimar, then
emphasis on functional design
Bauhaus Dessau
Germany
Form of training intended to relate art & architecture to
technology & the practical needs of modern life
Fascist
US architects major innovations in high-rise
Chicago School construction & modern commercial building design
development
Organic Architecture
Functional requirements, with construction, materials,
Functionalism and purpose clearly expressed; aesthetic effect derived Europe
from proportions
Functional architecture devoid of regional
Western
International Style characteristics; Simple geometric forms, large
Europe, USA
untextured, white surfaces, glass, steel, & RC
Cast-in-place concrete, emphasizing aesthetic use of
Brutalism
building processes
Art Deco
1920s-1930s STREAMLINE MODERNE
MATERIALS
Geometric motifs, streamlined, & curvilinear forms,
Synthetics, plastics, industrial
“Geometry & Machine Age” sharp defined outlines, bold colors

Movement in reaction to principles & practices of


POST-MODERNISM AVANT-GARDE
modernism, encouraging use of elements from
Unorthodox & experimental
vernacular styles, illusion, decoration, complexity
Structural Expressionsim
Industrial, commercial, institutional fixtures, equipment,
High-Tech
materials, having utilitarian appearance
Critical Regionalism
Neo-Modernism
Philosophical movement that started with literature,
questioning traditional assumptions about ability of
Deconstructivism language to represent reality, emphasizing that text
has no stable reference because words essentially
refer only to other words
Blobitecture
New Formalism
Sustainable
622 ad, YEAR OF Hegira when
Mohammed moved from Mecca to
Medina Last of 3 great
religions of
In 10 years, Mohammed made Middle East
framework of religion & military
organization charged with spreading Complete
ISLAMIC the faith philosophy of
life &
“Product of rapid conquest of Concerted efforts by conquering government
diverse territories by people Arabic tribes to carry Islam into
OPENINGS
with no architectural tradition; Central Asia & Westward to the One god
Pointed arch
Synthesis of styles under one Atlantic, along trade routes into (Allah),
2-centered
philosophy but in many Africa & India, Turks & Mongols Prophet Western &
4-centered
different circumstances” (Mohammed) Southern Asia
Horseshoe
Always established cultural ties with
Cusped
“No essential difference in Arabian heartland, with annual Faith is held to Northern
Foliated
techniques between religious pilgrimage to Mecca as once-in-a- be god’s will for Africa Territories
Ogee
& non-religious buildings” lifetime obligation creation fertile by
Isolated virtue of
DECORATION Kibla Axis
“Important architectural Tribal groups 3 works: communities irrigation
Moldings, friezes, crestings extended into
endeavor expended on Public life reserved for men Koran – like Zanzibar, rather than
Abstract & geometric motifs, in lieu of human & animal forms formal
buildings with direct social or Women, domestic & agricultural revelation Madagascar, rainfall
Motifs from calligraphy, floral abstraction & geometric interlacement landscape as
community purpose” work through China
Carvings in bas relief integral part of
Mohammed Tendency
Stone inlay & mosaic design
“Abstract & geometric Self-contained groups of different Lately, all over to seek
Patterned brickwork
decorations, calligraphic, & religions Hadith – book the world shelter from
Carved stucco
plant motifs; preference for of sayings sun
Ceramic facing & mosaic
uniform field of décor rather Christians & Jews Countries
Glass mosaic
than focal element” “People of the book”, beliefs based Law – tradition already rich in
Painting
on revelations & teachings & example building
Timber inlay
“Basic conservatism contributory to Islam tradition
Pietra dura
discourages innovations & Freedom of worship & self- Acceptance of
Arabesques
favors established forms” government transitory
Screen or pierced grilles in marble
nature of
“Symmetry & balance in Spread of Islam associated with earthly life
concept of perfect creation military conquest & racial
centered upon God” movements Personal
humility
Arab expansion north & west out of
Arab peninsula Abhorrence of
image worship
MATERIALS
Timber buildings raised on stone or brick platform
Succession of emperors &
dynasties & warring states Stone for important edifices
Confucianism –
code of social
Philosophers: ROOF & CEILING
conduct &
Confucius – ethics & education Chief feature
philosophy of
Lao-Tzu – Taoism Supported on timber uprights independent of walls
life, family, & 23 provinces
Shih Huang Ti – emperor Severe Sign of dignity to place roofs one over the other
ancestor larger than
winters Up-tilted angles, with dragons & grotesque ornaments
worship Europe
Theorists, thinkers, schools of (north)
CHINESE --
philosophy OPENINGS
Taoism 1/13 of total
Warmer Square headed windows & doors
land area of
Arts, painting, calligraphy, (south) Lined oyster shell or rice paper for effective subdued lighting
Universal love the world
architecture
as solution to
DECORATION
social disorder
Foreign trade by land & sea Colors – integral
Dragons, fish in glazed terracotta
Buddhism
Chinese banned from going abroad

Principal
island
Honshu;
smaller
islands at
north & south

Off the
eastern coast
Feudalism, with castes of emperor
of Asian
& nobles, shoguns & military COLUMNATION & CAPITALS
JAPANESE mainland
Shinto, Winter & Columns of Chinese form
200 years closed to outside world, indigenous summer Intercolumnation follows ken
“Chinese influence but Earthquakes
isolation from foreign influence polydemonism --
maintained own special Hilly &
Heavy ROOF & CEILING
characteristic of lightness & forested
1854 AD, commercial treaties with Buddhism rainfall Dominant feature
delicacy; refined” Un-stratified
America & Europe entered into war Exquisite curvature
volcanic stone
with China & Russia
– granite &
porphyries
Hindu
from indigenous
Dravidians &
Influence from Central Asia through Aryan invaders
mountain passes in the north, from only Brahman
Persia & Graeco-Roman Western can officiate
Asia through Baluchistan religious Mountain
(Afghanistan) practices ranges (north)
Summer &
Excavations at Harappa & Buddhist Sea winter
Rajasthan (Pakistan) – close links Concentrated (south & east- (east)
INDIAN monasteries &
of Indus Valley-Harappan culture west)
stupas or -- --
with that of Mesopotamia shrines; Heavy
salvation or Indus & rainfall,
Successive military & economic nirvana Ganges were warm &
incursions brought art & architecture tradeways & humid
in Aryan, Persian, Graeco-Roman, Jain sites of first
Sassanian, Muslim Salvation cities
through
Portugese, French, English successive
rebirths;
avoidance of
injury to any
living creature
BUILDING TYPES
Shrines designed for congregational use, large groups of
worshippers
Buddhist
DECORATION
-- -- -- -- --
Mouldings of bulbous character, often heavily undercut – strong
shadow lines

Ornament restrained in character & extent


Painted wall decorations & bas-relief as social records
EARLY
Rock-cut caves
Exact stone copies of wood or thatch structures

LATE (1000 AD – 1700 AD)


Jain -- -- -- -- --
Temples in central India
Central shrine with a dome or sphere cover
Lighter & more elegant than Hindu temples
Careful site selection: temple cities on sacred mountains

BUILDING TYPES
Small unit shrine called garbha-griha
Hindu
-- -- -- -- Spire-shaped sikhara roof --
Porch-like mandapa halls for dancing & music
MATERIALS
Molave, guijo, yakal, narra, pine, bamboo, coconut, palm, cogon,
grass, rattan, nipa
PRE-COLONIAL
Austronesian, oldest set of cultures Clay, limestone, adobe, marble, gypsum, granite, coral stone,
metals
Immigrants of Malay origin, primitive
food gatherers & hunters PLANNING
Laws of the Indies
--
3000 BC, joined by more advanced 140 articles – how to construct a Spanish colonial settlement
race from Indonesia, agricultural; (Art 112) Main plaza is the starting point of towns
Barangays as tribal system Near coast/ center of town
Church next to plaza or highest point of town
Converted to Islam in 1300 AD Batangas, Laguna, Ilocos Sur
Trade center of Orient Archipelago of
7100 islands BRISE SOLEIL
SPANISH Deep overhanging horizontal & vertical louvers to the keep sun out
1521, Ferdinand Magellan landed Luzon
1564, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi Roman Visayas SPANISH COLONIAL HOUSE (BAHAY NA BATO)
brought Christianity Catholic Mindanao 1F 2F
Wet & dry
season ante-sala from
Nationalist movement by Jose Islam SE Asia, Zaguan for caroza Caida
stairs
Rizal, unsuccessful revolt by Pacific Ocean Bodega storeroom Sala living
FILIPINO Rainfall with
Aguinaldo Protestant Entresuelo mezzanine Comedor dining
typhoons &
Strategic Escalera stairway Cocina kitchen
tropical
AMERICAN Aglipayan position – path Meseta /
storms stairway landing Dispensa pantry
Islands ceded to America, as result of Far East Descanso
of war with USA Iglesia ni Kristo trade Entresuelo mezzanine Latrina / Comun toilet
Fighting, self-government
Quadra stables Baño Bath
Volcanoes,
Azotea open terrace
JAPANESE mountains,
December 1941 seas, forests Aljibe water cistern
Puppet government Cuarto, Alcoba,
bedroom
Liberation by Gen. McArthur in July Dormitorio
1945 Entresuelo vault
Balcon balcony
Independence in 1946 Patio courtyard
3rd largest speaking country in the Volada overhanging gallery
world Citadel of Christianity & Galeria corridor
democracy in East Asia Calado wood tracery
Mixture of races: Malay, Chinese, opening beneath
Ventanilla
Spanish window
Espejo transom
Barandillas balusters
Alero eaves
Media agua window awning
VERNACULAR TERMS
Alahado flush Kabilya reinforcing bars Poste column
Andayo scaffolding Kalinya aligned Prigadero sink
Anilyo tie bars Kantero Mason Pulgada inches
Asinta laying of CHB Kanto Mesa miter Rebokada scratch coat
Asolehos wainscoting tiles Kanto corner Reostra purlins
Bagad wall post Kapatas foreman Rimatse rivets
Balangkas framework Kilo truss Rodapis baseboard
Baral de Kadena chain bolt Kisame ceiling Senepa fascia board
Barandillas baluster Kontratista constructor Sepo girt
Batidura astragal Kostilyahe ceiling joists Sibe lean-to roof
Batidura fillet Kostura mortar joints/ tool joint Sinturon collar
Baytang tread Krokis sketch plan Soleras floor joists
Biento spacing Kuling girder Staka stake
Biga beam Ladrillo brick Suelo flooring
Bisagra hinge Larga Masa concrete slab Sumbrero Pintuan door head
Bolado projection Lastillas sand & gravel Tabike exterior siding
Caida hall Latero tinsmith Tabla wood plank
Canal groove Lingueta GI strap Takip Silipan riser
De Bandeha panel door Liyabe anchor Tambak fill
Banggueraha dish rack Madre de Escalera closed stringer Tapon Plug/ Brown Coat
Dos Aguas gable roof Masilya putty Tirante bottom chord
Dotal floorboards Media Cana quarter round Trabe Anzo horizontal stud
Dulang low table Media Agua Awning/ Canopy Trankilya barrel bolt
Dutcha shower Palitada plaster Truerka nut
Escombro earth fill Pamakuan nailers Tubo de Banada downspout
Escondro crushed stone Pasamano window sill Unosinotra alternate/staggered
Eskayola Plaster of Paris Paupo mortar Vaciada rabbet
Estanyo Nikolite bar Pendulum king post
Estanyo soldering bar Pergola trellis
Estopa oakum Pie de Galfo brace
Guililan floor sill Pilarete vertical stud
Hamba Pintuan door jamb Pitsa washer
Haspe wood grain Piye feet
Hiero iron Piyon laborer
Hulog plumb bob Plantsuela wrought iron strap
Kaballete ridge roll Poleya wiring knob