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CE-121 Engineering Materials

CE-121
121 Engineering Materials

Name:
me: MUHAMMAD TAHA RAZA

REG NO: 18PWCIV5141

CLASS NO: 204

SECTION: E

SUBMITTED TO: DR. KHAN SHAHZADA


SHAH

Date: April 2nd 2019

Department of Civil Engineering UET , Peshawar | Name: MUHAMMAD TAHA RAZA 1


2

Q
CE-121 Engineering Materials

uestions?
Explain the following in detail?

1. Alkali aggregate reactivity?


2. Sulphate Attack
3. Delay Ettringite Formation
4. Chloride Ingress
5. Corrosion of Reinforcement
6. Properties of concrete
7. Types of concrete
8. Effects of various chemicals on concrete.

nswers:-

Ans 1 : Alkali-Aggregate reaction:-


Alkali-Aggregate reaction on concrete:

Alkali aggregate reaction is the chemical reaction between alkali in


cement and silica content of aggregates. Hence it can also be called
as Alkali Silica reaction. Alkali–aggregate reaction is a term mainly
referring to a reaction which occurs over time in concrete between

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the highly alkaline cement paste and non-crystalline silicon dioxide,
which is found in many common aggregates. When this reaction
takes place, a gel like substance is formed which absorbs water and
volume of concrete will increase. This increasing volume develops
cracking and disintegration of concrete.

Research studies states that the Alkali Silica reaction only occurs
when the following are present together:
1. Concrete with high moisture level.

2. When cement contains high alkali content

3. Aggregate with Alkali reactive constituents.

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ANS: 2 Sulphate attack:


Sulphate Attack on Concrete:
Most of the soil types contains sulphates in the form of calcium,
magnesium, sodium, ammonium and potassium. They occur in soil or
ground water. When a concrete structure is built on these types of
soils, they may attack the concrete.
Generally sulphates in solid form do not attack the concrete severely
but when they are in liquid form they pass into the voids of concrete
and react with hydrated cement products. Calcium sulphate causes
minimum damage because of its low solubility while magnesium
sulphate causes maximum damage.
Most of the sulphates attacks calcium hydroxide and hydrated
calcium aluminates present in the concrete and results in changing
the volume of cement paste in concrete. Hence deterioration of
concrete structure takes place. Along with calcium hydroxide,
Magnesium sulphate also reacts with hydrated calcium silicate and
makes concrete into powdered mass.
Precautions:
 Concrete with low water cement ratio is less affected by
magnesium sulphate while high water cement ratio concrete is
highly affected.

 Sulphate-resisting Portland cement should be used where


sulphates are present in the soil, water or atmosphere and come
into contact with the concrete.
 Super-sulphated cement, made from blast furnace slag, can also
be used although it is not widely available. This cement can
resist the highest concentrations of sulphates.

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CE-121 Engineering Materials

ANS 3: Delay Ettringite Formation:


This process is associated with expansion. However, not necessarily
any ettringite-related expansion is related to the sulphate attack. For
example, early ettringite formation which occurs immediately (within
hours) in a plastic fresh mixture does not produce any damaging
expansion and is associated with the regulation of setting time of
Portland cement paste. Expansion after the hardening of cement paste
can be advantageously used for the development of chemical prestress
in expansive cements. Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) occurs
at late ages and the related heterogeneous expansion in a hardened
concrete can produce cracking and spalling. Two different types of
DEF are examined depending on the sulphate source: DEF caused by
external sulphate attack or internal sulphate attack.

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ANS 4: Chloride Ingress


The penetration of chloride ion (which comes from salt containing
chlorine)) through pores into permeable concrete is called Chloride
ingress.. ... Penetration of chloridein
in concrete exposed to wet/dry
environments occurs urs by diffusion and absorptio
absorption.
Explanation:
The strongly nature of Ca(OH)2 (PH about 13) prevents the corrosion
of steel reinforcement by the formati
formation
on of a thin protective film of
iron oxide on the metal surface. However if the concrete is permeable
to the extent that chloride can penetrate right up to the reinforcement
and water and oxygen are present then corrosion of reinforcement will
take place. The passive iron layer is ddestroyed
estroyed when PH falls below
11.
Penetration of chloride in concrete exposed to wet/dry environments
occurs by diffusion and absorption.
It is important to note that chloride ingress causes corrosion only
when water and air is present,
resent, That’s why even in the presence of
large amount of Chlorides, there is no corrosion of dry concrete.
concrete

Reaction:

Reason:
Chloride ingress are due to permeability of hardened concrete and
selecting high water cement ratio for wet concrete , so when concrete
concret
is more permeable then such type of attack/reaction take place.
Chloride ingress causes
causes:
When chloride penetrates into concrete it causes serious
expansion of concrete.
When hardened concrete expands then it distress the outer
layer of concrete and as a result bonded aggregate separate
and thus cracking of concrete occur due to which strength of
concrete decreases and resulting in major structure problems.
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Elements such as Chlorine and Sulphur chemically attack the
reinforcing steel bars in reinforced concrete causing
deterioration in its structure.

ANS 5 : Corrosion of Reinforcement:


Reinforced concrete structures show a very good durability as it is
capable of withstanding the different kind of environmental exposure.
However, the main limitation of concrete, even of good quality, is that
the penetration of chlorides, carbon dioxide (CO2), moisture, etc., can
cause the corrosion of reinforcement bars (rebars). Corrosion of
structure can be reduced by proper monitoring and taking suitable
control measures at the proper time interval.
Corrosion in concrete is induced by the generation of the
electrochemical potentials in following ways:
1. When two different metals are present in concrete, such as steel
rebars, aluminium conduit pipes, or when significant variation exist in
surface characteristics of the steel, formation of composition cell can
occur.
2. Concentration cells may be formed near reinforcing steel because
of the differences in the concentration of dissolved ions, such as
alkalies and chlorides.

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ANS :6 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE:


THERE ARE THE FOLLOWING MAIN PROPERTIES OF
CONCRETE.
 Workability

It is the ease with which concrete can be placed & finished. It is an important
property for many applications of concrete. One characteristic of workability is
consistency or fluidity which can be measured using slump test. (ASTM C143).
In the slump test, a specimen of concrete mix is placed in a mould shaped as the
frustum of a cone, 12 in high, with 8-in diameter at base and 4-in diameter at top.
When the mould is lifted up the change in height of specimen is measured. This
change in height is taken as the slump value. Higher is the water content larger is
the stump value.

 Durability
Concrete should be capable of withstanding the weathering
effects, chemical action and should be able to resist load to
which it will be subjected in service life. Much of the weather
damage sustained by concrete is attributable through freezing
and thawing cycles. Resistance of concrete to such damage
can be improved by increasing the water tightness.

 Water Tightness
It is an important property of concrete that can be improved by
reducing the amount of water in the mix. Excess water leaves voids
and cavities after evaporation, and if they are interconnected, water
can penetrate or pass through the concrete. Prolonged thorough curing
as well as entrained-air (minute bubbles) usually increases water
tightness. Water tightness can be increased by improving effective
compaction of concrete, controlling aggregate grading, using
construction chemicals etc

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CE-121 Engineering Materials
 Strength

This property is usually of main concern. Normally it is determined


by knowing the ultimate strength of a specimen in compression tested
in the lab but sometimes flexural or tensile capacity is also important
which can also be determined through lab tests. Since concrete
usually gains strength over a long period, (90 days) the compressive
strength at 28 days is commonly used as a measure of this property.
Concrete strength is influenced mainly by the water cement ratio, mix
proportions and other factors.

ANS 7: Types of concrete.


Types of Concrete:
1. Normal concrete; 2. high performance concrete; 3. Self
compacting concrete; 4. light weight concrete.

 Normal Concrete:
The concrete in which common ingredients i.e. aggregate, water,
cement are used is known as normal concrete. It is also called normal
weight concrete or normal strength concrete.

It has a setting time of 30 - 90 minutes depending upon moisture


in atmosphere, fineness of cement etc.

The development of the strength after 7 days the common strength


values is 10 MPa (1450 psi) to 40 MPa (5800 psi).

 At about 7 days 75 % of the total strength is attained.


 The gain in strength after 28 days can be taken into account in
design.

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CE-121 Engineering Materials

2. high performance concrete:


This mix has the following main properties:

High strength; High workability; High durability; Ease of placement;

Compaction without segregation; Early age strength; Long-term


mechanical properties; Permeability; Density; Long life in severe
environments.

Preparation;

High strength concrete mix can be prepared with careful selection of


ingredients and optimization of mix design.

High workability is attained by super plasticizers, they lower the


water cement ratio to 0.25 which is the amount required only for
hydration process.

High durability is attributed to fly ash and silica fume which modify
the mineralogy of the cement. Fly ash also increasing workability.
Properties of high performance concrete mix;

Strength of high performance concrete ranges from 10000 psi - 15000


psi.

Water cement ratio can be reduced to 0.25

3. Self compacting concrete;

The concrete where no vibration is required. The concrete is


compacted due to its own weight. It is also called self consolidated
concrete or flowing concrete. It can be also categorized as high
performance concrete as the ingredients are the same, but in this type
of concrete workability is increased. This self-consolidating concrete
is characterized by:

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Extreme fluidity as measured by flow, typically between 650-750
mm on a flow table, rather than slump (height).

No need for vibrators to compact the concrete.

Placement being easier.

No bleed water, or aggregate segregation.

Uses and Applications of Self Compacting Concrete:

It is used in location unreachable for vibrations. E.g. underground


structure, deep wells or at bottom of deep sea.

SCC can save up to 50% in labor costs due to 80% faster pouring and
reduced wear and tear on formwork.

4. Light weight concrete:


The concrete which has substantially lower mass per unit volume then
the concrete made of ordinary ingredients is called lightweight
concrete. The aggregates used are lighter in weight.

Density of light weight concrete is 240 kg/m³ (15pcf) -1850 kg/m³


(115 pcf).

Strength of light weight concrete blocks varies from 7 MPa (1000 psi)
- 40 MPa (5800 psi).

Uses of Light weight concrete:

Used where extra load is not applied e.g. parapet wall, road lining etc.
or to reduce dead load for earthquake resistant structures.

Other Types of Concrete are;

Roller compacted concrete; Shotcrete; pervious concrete; Air


entrained concrete.

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CE-121 Engineering Materials
ANS 8: EFFECTS OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS:
1. Sulphate Attack on Concrete:
Most of the soil types contains sulphates in the form of
calcium, magnesium, sodium, ammonium and potassium.
They occur in soil or ground water. When a concrete structure
is built on these types of soils, they may attack the concrete.
Generally sulphates in solid form do not attack the concrete
severely but when they are in liquid form they pass into the
voids of concrete and react with hydrated cement products.
Calcium sulphate causes minimum damage because of its low
solubility while magnesium sulphate causes maximum
damage.
Most of the sulphates attacks calcium hydroxide and hydrated
calcium aluminates present in the concrete and results in
changing the volume of cement paste in concrete. Hence
deterioration of concrete structure takes place. Along with
calcium hydroxide, Magnesium sulphate also reacts with
hydrated calcium silicate and makes concrete into powdered
mass.
Precautions:
• Concrete with low water cement ratio is less affected by
magnesium sulphate while high water cement ratio
concrete is highly affected.
• Sulphate-resisting Portland cement should be used where
sulphates are present in the soil, water or atmosphere and
come into contact with the concrete.
• Super-sulphated cement, made from blast furnace slag,
can also be used although it is not widely available. This
cement can resist the highest concentrations of sulphates.

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CE-121 Engineering Materials
• Most of the sulphates attacks calcium hydroxide and
hydrated calcium aluminates present in the concrete and
results in changing the volume of cement paste in
concrete. Hence deterioration of concrete structure takes
place. Along with calcium hydroxide, Magnesium
sulphate also reacts with hydrated calcium silicate and
makes concrete into powdered mass.
• Precautions:
• Concrete with low water cement ratio is less affected by
magnesium sulphate while high water cement ratio
concrete is highly affected.
• Sulphate-resisting Portland cement should be used where
sulphates are present in the soil, water or atmosphere and
come into contact with the concrete.
• Super-sulphated cement, made from blast furnace slag,
can also be used although it is not widely available. This
cement can resist the highest concentrations of sulphates.

2. Chloride attack on concrete:


• Chloride attack on concrete is one of the important
aspects of durability of concrete. It primarily affects the
reinforcement of concrete and cause corrosion. Chlorides
can attack on concrete either during or after construction
as follows.
• a) Before construction Chlorides can be admitted in
admixtures containing calcium chloride, through
using mixing water contaminated with salt water or
improperly washed marine aggregates.
• b) After construction Chlorides in salt or sea water, in
airborne sea spray and from de-icing salts can attack
permeable concrete causing corrosion of reinforcement.

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CE-121 Engineering Materials
• The chloride in the presence of water and oxygen reacts
with alkaline protected layer around the reinforcement
and removes it.

THE END

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