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an Surveying, Higher Surveying, Mine Surveying, Hydrographic

urv ylng, Topographic Surveying, Astronomy, Simple Curves, Compound Curves,


plral Curves, Reversed Curves, Parabolic Curves, Sight Distance, Earthworks,
ass Diagram, Highway Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Traffic Engineering.
.>
for CIVIL and DETI~
LieeQSure Exam
Copyn~;t 1987

Venancio I. Besavilla, Jr.


(BSCE, MSME, AS, F. (PICE)

Civil Engineer -CIT (2nd Place) - August, 1969


. Geodetic Engineer - CIT (7th Place) - July, 1966
Former Instructor: Cebu Institute of Technology
Former Instructor: University of the Visayas
Former Chairman: CE Dept. University of the Visayas
Dean: College ofEngineering and Architecture, University of the Visayas
Awardee: As an Outstanding Educator from the Phil.
Veterans Legion on May 1984
Awardee: As Outstanding Alumnus in the Field of Education
from CIT Alumni Association, Inc., Marcil 1990
Awardee: As Outstanding Engineering Educator from the
CIT High School Alumni Association, December 1991
Member: Geo-Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Member: Structural Engineering Institute (ASCE)
Member: American Concrete Institute (ACI)
(Membership No. 104553)
Member: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
(Membership No. 346960)
Member: PICE Delegation to the ASCE (Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) (Oct.
1997)
Head PICE Delegation to VFCEA, Hanoi, Vietnam (April 2009)
Head PICE Delegation to JSCE, Fokuka Japan (September 2009)
Head PICE Delegation to A SCE.~ Kansas City, USA (October 2009)
Director: PICE National Board (1997-2008)
Director: PICE Cebu Chapter 1991- 2008
~lce President: PICE Cebu Chapter 2006, 2008
President: PICE Cebu Chapter 2009
Vice President: PICE National Board 2009
President: PICE National Board 2009
Chairman International Committee (PICE) Busan, Korea (February 2010)
President: Cebu Institute ofTechnology Alumni Association (20OJ-up to the
present)
ISBN 971- 8510-11-7
Available at:
BISAVlllA
Engineering Review Center
CEBU DAVAO CAGAYAN DE ORO
MANILA
2nd Floor, Pilar-Bldg. 4th Floor, 3rd Floor,
2nd Floor, Concepcion
Cor. Osmena Blvd. Porras Bldg. Ecology Bank Bldg.
Villaroman Bldg., P. Campa
& Sanciangko Sts. Magallanes St., Tiano Bros. St.
St., Sampaloc Melro Manila
Cebu City Davao City Cagayan De oro City
Tel. (02) 736-0966
Tel. No. (032) 255-5153 Tel. No. (082) 222-3305 Tel. (08822) 723-167(Samsung)
BAGUIO TACLOBAN GENERAL
SANTOS
Lujean Chalet Bldg. Door 11.-303, F. Mendoza RD. Rivera
Bldg.
Lourdes Grotto Commercial Complex Constar
Lodge, Pioneer Ave.
Dominican Road 141 Sto. Nino Street General
Santos City
No. 68 San Roque SI. Baguio City Tacloban City Tel. No.
(083) 301-0987
Tel. Nos. (074) 445-5918 Tel. No. (053) 325-3706
SURVEYING
for
CIVIL and GEODETIC
Licensure Exam

Copyright 1984 by Venancio I. Besavilla, Jr. All Rights


Reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the publisher.

ISBN 971· 8510·11.7 •

• ~,.. ~;:,_;_~_,m.,
Punta Princesa, Cebu City. Tel. 272-2813
"~..'III.. I~ •• I~~ ~ '•• ~"I~I~XTS ~
@ X~'''~~"''{i:'t'¥m"", 0%l'0fu~!;·*kW ~" ~W<fm_~" """it" 0«
W::~ill.Th,. ~~"

DESCRIPTION OF TOPICS
PAGE NO.
1. Tape Correction ------------------------------ S- 1 - S- 12
2. Errors and Mistakes -------------------------- S- 13 - S- 129
3. Leve Ii ng ------------------------.- -,- ------------- S- 30 - S- 54
4. Compass SUNeying ------------------------- S- 55 - S- 66
5. Errors in Transit Work -------------------------- S~ 67 - S- 83
6. Triangulation -----------------:------------------ S- 84 - S-108
7. Spherical Excess ------------~------------------ S-1 08 - S-111
8. Areq of Closed Traverse -----------------"- S-112 - S-130
9. Missing Data ------------------------------------ S-130 - S-144
10. Subdivision -------------------------------------- S-144 - S-172
11. Straightening of Irregular Boundaries -- S-172 - S-175
12. Areas of Irregular Boundaries ------------ S-176 - S-178
13. Plane Table ------------------------------------- S-179 - S-182
14. Topographic SUNey ------------------------- S-183 - S-187
15. Route SUNeying ------------------------------- S-188
16. Stadia SUNeying ------------------------------ S-189 ,. S-194
17. Hydrographic SUNeying -----"-------------- S-195 - S-208
18. Three Point Problem ------------------------- S-209 - S-213 .
19. Mine SUNeying ------------------------------.- S-214 - S-222
20. Practical Astronomy ------------------------- S-223 - S-251
21. Simple CUNes ---------------------------------- S-252 - S-292
22. Compound CUNes --------------------------. S-292 - S-318
23. Reversed CUNes - '--------.----------------- S-318 - S-333
24. Parabolic CUNes --- -------------- ------------ S-333 ~ S-361
25. Sight Distance ---------------------------------- S-361 - S-376
26. Head Lamp Sight Distance ---------------- S-376 - S-386
27. Sight Distance ----- ---------------- --- -- ------- S-387 - S-388
28. Reversed Vertical Parabolic CUNe ---- S-389 - S-390
29. Spiral CuNe----"-------------------------------- S-391 - S-404
30. Earthworks -- -- --- ---- ------ ---------------------- S-405 - S-430
31. Transportation Engineering -------.-------- S-431 - S-523
32. Miscellaneous ----- ------ ---------- ---- ---- ---- S-524 - S-542
5-1

TAPE CORRECTION

I-~~-~~----' --~~-

2. Pull Correction:
(To be added or
sUbtracted)

1. Tape not standard length


2. Imperfect alinement of tape
3. Tape not horizontal
4. Tape notstretch straight P2 = actual pull dUring
measurement
5. Imperfection of observation
P1 = applied pull when
the length of
6. Variations in temperature
7. Variations in tension tape is L1
A = Cross-sectional area
of tape
E = Modulus of elasticity
of tape
I~~------------'-~-
3. Sag Correction:
I (To be subtracted only)

1. Adding or dropping a full tape length.


2. Adding a em., usually in measuring the
fractional part of tape length at the end
of the line.
3. Recording numbers incorrectly, w= weight of tape in pit.
or kg.m.
example 78 is read as 87. L = unsupported length of
tape
4. Reading wrong meter mark. p = actual pUll or
tension applied

4. Slope Correction:
(To be subtracted only)

1. Temperature Correction: (To be


added or subtracted)
H=S-Cs
H = horizontal distance
or corrected
distance
S = inclined distance
K =000000645 ft. per degree F. h = difference in
elevation at the end of
K =0.0000116 m. per degree C. the tape
T1 =temp. when the length of tape is L1
T2 =temp. dUring measurement
5-2

TAPE CORRECTION

5. Sea Level COffection:


Reduction factor= 1.~

1. The 3:4:5 Method:


To erect a
perpendicular to the line
AB, from a given point
C a point a on line
B = horizontal distance Gorrected for
AB is assumed to be on
the
temperature, sag and pUll.
perpendicular and a pin
is set at a. With
B' = sealevel distance
sides a multiple of 3,
4 and 5 m. such as
h = average altitude or observation
24.32 and 40 m., a
right triangle abc is
R = Radius.of curvature
constructed as follows:
A pin is set on
line AB at b, 32 m.
from a. The zero end
6. Normal Tension:
of (he tape is fixed
with a pin at a, and
It is the tension which is applied to
the 100 m. end at b.
The zero end of the
a t.ape supported over two supports
tape is fixed with a
pin at a, and the 100
which balances the cofrec!ion due to
m. end at b. The head
chainman moves
pull and due to sag. The application of
to c and holds the 24
m. and the 60 m.
the tensile force increases the length of
marks of the tape in
one hand, with the
the tape whereas the sag decreases its
tape between these
marks laid out so as
length, the normal tension neutralizes
to avoid kinking. He
then sets a pin at c.
both corrections, therefore no correction
The rear chairman moves
from a to b as
is necessary.
necessary to check the
position of the
tape at these points as
c is established.
He then sights along ae
to C' beside C,
usually Cto the a(::'
is measu"red, and the
foot a of the
perpendicular aC' is moved
along the line AB by an
equal amount, to
P = applied 'normal tension
the point a'. If the
trial perpendicular ae'
P1 = tension at which the tape is
fails to include the
point C by several
standardized feet, the process is
repeated for a', the
W = total weight of tape new point, otherwise
the location of a'
A = cross-sectional area of tape may be assumed as
correct.
E = modulus of elasticity of tape
2. The Chord Bisection
Method:
To erect a
perpendicular to the line
AB; from a given point
C, the position of
the perpendicular is
estir,lated, and a pin
IS set at d on this
estimated

a) Add correction when measuring distances perpendicular, somewhat


less than one
b) Subtract correction when laying out tape length from the
line AB. With d as
distances center and the length
of tape as radius,
the head chainman
describe the arc ED
of a circle, setting
pins at the
intersections band c of
the arc with the
line AB. The rear
chainman stationed at
o A or B determines the
location of the
a) Subtract correction when measuring intersections band c on
line. The point a
distances is established midway
between band c.
b) Add correction when laying out distances
S-3

TAPE CORRECTION

The line ad is prolonged to C' besides C, 2. ParaJle/lines:


and the point a is moved if necessary as
A'i ..· ··
~B'
described for the 3:4:5 method.

c c'
r: y! A 0-'" - - - -

1----"""'8
i *f,
ii
A.---.o-o-~-...."
'~~~~,
B
a'a b
If the necessary
distance from the
3:4:5 Method
line AS is short,
perpendicular AA' = BB'
are erected by either using
3:4:5 method
of the chord bi-section
method to clear
the obstacle. The line A'B'
is then
chained, and its length is
taken as that of
AB.

Chord Bisection Method 3. Similar Triang/es:


C

A / .. ~.<:~:>~~'"

Let C be a point from A
and Bare
visible. AC and BC are
measured. CD
1. Swing offsets: and CE bears to CB: that is
CD/CA =
CEICB. It will generally be
convenient to
make this a simple ratio
such as 1/2 of
1/3. The triangles ACB and
DCE are
similar. DE is measured and
AS is
computed.
At'/
To find the distance AS by the sWing
offset method, the head chainman

.~i.tl'"iI
attached the end of the tape to one end
of the line as at B and describes an arc
with center S and radius 100 m. The
rear chainman stationed at A lines in the
rll~anteTperature<()t~5·9·,.a@us$djl)l)f
endiof the tape with some distant object
stan9a~l~ngth.1lt20·QunderaP4IIAf§~g,
as 0 and directs the setting of pins a1 Cr9$csezliQnClI"are<l.of,l~pe.,is
• • Q.Q~~q;pm;,.
points a and b where the end of the tape CQefficfe!1t()ltheyrMex:e~n$iM>I~
crossed line AO. A point C midway Q.009011~WC,.M~dtllu$ •
ofela$tic~Y.(jf,tllP~ls,
between a b lies on the perpendicular 2x1mkg1Crl1 2.
' , ",
CB. A pin is set at C, and the distances
BC and CA are measured to obtain the G)[)eterllline.the•• errot••
of .the.,tapedu#.to
necessary data for computing the length changeintempera1ure. ,. ' ",'
'. '
of AS, ®
DetElfrninelheerrprduetotension, ••'.','
® Oetenninethe
correetedlengthofthe line.
8-4

TAPE CORRECTION

Solution: @ True length


of the line:
G) Temp. correction: Corrected
hor. distance =673.92 + 0.1348
Ct =KL (T - Ts) Corrected
hor. distance =674.055 m.
C, =0.0000116 (2395.25}(35 - 20)
Ct = + 0.4168 m.
@ Tension correction:
(P-Ps ) L
Cp=---xE
c - (4 - 5)(2395.25) .A·••$Q.·.rIl·••
• m~EH • • f~p~WaW.$t@9a.rdlzed • ·and
p- 0.03 (2) 106
sj~ppporteq1:ttrougholJttts • • wbole •. lergth.·.~nd
Cp =• 0.0399 m.

·1QlJJldJ9b{l;.Q.O()~Q5nl. long~r~t·an .• pb~ery~d

t~mp~rliIW~(ff~1.~·C~Qd~pulh~flON~~,
@ Corrected length:

Thl$taReW<1l.SlJ$edlomea~ure a• liqe•• v.'hjCh


L =2395.25 + 0.4168 - 0.0399 Wfl$f~~'nd • f~b$
.• 66Z.702.% • at • an•• ~v~mge
L = 2395.6269 m. ·~~Beralljr~ • •
8f•• 24·B·9.@ingJh~ • • s~me· • pull,

Y$e.·C()~fflci$nt.pf.e~Bansion.·pf.0.()Ooo116·m·
pl:ifgegreeCE!
ntigiage~< .

(j)..
¢oIl1IM~lhesl!lnd?~.terilp· • • • • • ·
~· •
··G9IllP~~me.t()!al • telTlp>Wq'El(;tiOn-
®
CQmPlJf~the.{icllTE!CflenglhJ:iflh~·IiI1~;·
A$QrmtAA~W~~$t~rm@l4eg.MdW!l$f@hd.
l$bep:Q<l42m:IQO)?n~>tf1~nJhe$t<1ln~~rd Solution:
.lE!gg1:tt~t~r:Jop~ry@.t£!rnP~r~fw~6fR~~Q·{:l[l9
CD Standard
temperature:
• ~~~t~~~~~iri~r~~~~~aW~~~e~td· Cr=K(Tz-
Ts)L
• 19~~7~.~4.m···long.M.~n.(l~S7!Ye<J.·~~mp:.Of +0.00205
=0.0000116(31.8- Ts)(50)
.~~~[t·:~~~~~lIfs°6;~.~~~j~··idi~ji:~~I .• o.f 31.8 - Ts =
3.53
qj\P~I~!QElme$!Md~Jem@@tt!rEf; . Ts =
28.27'C (standard temp.)
··~.··~~{~I~~m:I'~I'~ihe.lioe .. @ Total
correction:
Solution: Cr =K(T2 -
Ts ) L
G) Standard temperature: Cr
=0.0000116(24.6 - 28.27)(50)
Cr = K (TZ - T1) L1 Cr
=;_0.00213 (too short)
+ 0.0042 =0..0000116 (58 - T1}(50)
+ 0.0042 =0.03364 - 0.00058 T1
· 0.00213(662.702)
7iataI
correctIOn = 50
T1 = 50.76'C (standard temp.)
Total correction
=0.02823 m.
@ Total correction:
Cr=K(T- T1)L1 @ Corrected length of
line:
Cr =0.00(J01Q (68' 50.76)(50) Corrected horizontal
distance
Cr =0.01 (tape is too long)
b.;;; G 1J =662.702 - 0.02823
Ttl t· 673.92 (0.01)
,oa correc Ion = 50 ~D =662.67377 m.
"" G .--
Total correction = 0.1348 m. \...0
::co,O I ;:r~,"1'2.\
~ I') \ \-:1,t.\&llv Db -)
8-5

TAPE CORRECTION

@ Tota/error:
Too shortby =30 - 29.992
Too short by =0.008 m
- 472.90 (0.008)
7iot'aJ error- 30
Total error = 0.126 m. (to be
subtraded)

@ True horizontal distance:

Corrected inclined distance


=472.90 •0.126
=472.774m
.e h
Solution: Sin = 472.774
CD Actual length: h =472.774 (0.03)
Cr = K (T2 - T1) L1 h= 14.183m
Cr =0.0000116(5·20)(30.005) . for (14.183f
Cr=· 0.00522 mm Correction slope = 2 (472.774)
(P2· P1) L1 Correction for slope =0.213 m
Cp- AE Corrected horizontal distance
C - (75· 5OX3O.005) =472.774·0.213
p- 3(200 x 103) = 472.561 m.
Cp = tQ.00125 m
w2L3
CS=24P2
0.65 x9.81 \'
w=.30":' .
C «(0.65 x 9.8115(30)3
S - . (3O)t(24)(75t
Cs =- 0.00904 m

Total correction =·0.00522 + 0.00125


·0.00904
- Tata/ Cf)ffection=- 0.009G4-
Total correction =·0.00522 + 0.00125
,
-0.00904 .(!)... (;q~PIJtEl~.~
¢@Illeng{h9f.tcl~ • 4IJling
Total correction =·0.013 m mAA~~rerrEl9t. • '> • • • i • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • •>•• • • • •>./.
® Wl'!litlsttletfuEl·atilll'
.••.'••'. •. •••••.. '".< • • < . . .• .
Actual length of tape during measurement @. ·Whab$lh$
¢~&ln~rea.ln$q.m.<········<·······
=30.005·0.013
·=29.992m.
S-6

TAPE CORRECTION

Solution: Solution:
CD Actual length: CD Cross-sectional area:
Cr = K(T2 - Tl) Ll A(1OOX100X7.86) = 267
Cr =0.‫סס‬OO16(30 - 2OX30·002) 1000 .
Cr =0.00348 m (too long) A = 0.034 sq.m. W1"f1:
Actual length of tape during measurement
=30.002 + 0.00348 ® Total correction:
=30.00548 m. Cr=K(T2' Tl)L jt1
® True area: Cr= 7 x 10-7 (20 • 15X1,l:1J
Therefore the tape is 0.00548 mtoo long Cr =0.00035 m.
Forthe 144.95mside:
7iotal error =144.95(0.00548)
30 =0.26 m. Pull correction:
. (P2- P1)L
True length = 144.95 + 0.026 Cp= AE
True length = 144.976 m
C - (16 ·10)(100)
For the 113 m side: p - 0.034 (2) 106

Total error =113(0~) =0.021 Cp= 0.009 m


Correction =0.00035 + 0.009
True length =113 + 0.021 Correction = 0.00935 m
True length = 113.021 m
True area =(144.976X113.021) No. of tape lengths =~~6
=4.306
True area = 16,385.33 ~ Total correction =4.306
(0.00935)
® Error in area: Total correction =0.0403 m
Erroneous area = (144.95)(113)
Erroneous area::: 16,379.35 m2 ® True length of baseline:
Error in area = 16,385.33 -16,379.35 True length of baseline =430.60
+ 0.0403
Error in area = 5.982 ~ True length ofbaseline =430.6403
m

A~pm.~tEleIJap~W~jghl~gA·f$~}$@f
~tMdatQI~rglll.Ulld~r~ • pUII.~f?
@~UPP9rt~·
forfull.. . I~l"\gth, • • .• •
TMta~ • • ..v~$U95~ . . . I~
m~asyHrt9.Allne~~~ᤤm.IMg.l?
~~·smWm
f~~elgW~n~~flder~$te~f1~ .
P\,ltIQf19t<~;
AsslJming.I:.=.2•• l(.·.1()~ .
k9tcmZ•• ~@ll1e • uriil
'Il¢ighl.m.
$I~I.t()be7.9X1(t3.kglbrn3.

®•• ·.Oalermina.·me·crosssticllonal.atea·Ofthe
®~8IuleI16@~~@n,
®Compuletl'lEl1ruelElng!tiW1beb(lseli®•....
S-7

TAPE CORRECTION

Solution:
<D Cross-sectional area of tape:
w=AL Ys
1.45 = A(3000)(7.9) x 10.3
A = 0.061 cml
@ Pull Correction:
(P- Psi L
Cp=-xE
_ (10-5X30)
Cp - 0.061 (2 x 106)
Cp =+ 0.00123
Total Correction = 0.00123 (938.55)
30
Total Correction = + 0.038 m.
@ Correct length ofline:
Corrected length = 938.55 + 0.038
Corrected length = 938.588 m.

Ill'll'•
•••
@ •••.
·Per~rm(oe.·lIl$·hOrtzOO~I.dlStatt¢.,.

Solution:
~~~~jbg~~ •.•j~611~~~~.~h~/i~i~ <D Total
correction per tape length:
Gr= K
(T2· T1) L1
jsmown•• 19be.5(JnV.19@@?9·¢'Tl1~t~p~ Cr=
0.0000116 (15 ·10)(30)
wasusedtome<l$lJre<.~ljffll'Wtti¢l't\¥~s@YQg
l[).pe.532@.meter~l@g~~·tl1~Jelll~Wt~ Gr= +
0.00174 rn
W<ls.35·c, • • ~t€lITl1If\~.~.@IQ\Vil'l9:·>i.· .• · ·.••·•·•·•· · ..
PUll
correction:
0!•• • ternper~tureC9ttecti6rll¢nap~·l®$tti<> ••••••••
(P2 ,P1)L1
®TelJ1~raflJreCllrre¢ticmJprfh~fTlffll!l~rE:!9 .
WilfuL·································· Cp
AE
@)1\C~edlength()ff&ljne...•
_ (75 • 50)(30)
Cp-
6.50 (200 x 103)
Solution: Cp
=+ 0.00058 rn
<D Temperature correction per tape length:
Cr=K(T- Ts)L
Sag
Correction:
Cr = 0.0000116 (35 -20)(50)
Cr =0.0087 m. too long

. .l-L 2
Cs=
24 p2
® Temperature correction for the measured r
_ (0.075 x 9.81)2 (30)3
line: vs-
24 (75)2
ft· :-1··· ,. - 532.28 (0.0087) . r'\.!J)
loa correCdon - 50 C !, -.- - Cs
=0.10827 m
Total correction =+ 0.0926 m. \. ""0

Total correction per tape length:


@ Corrected length ofline:
COrrected length =532.28 + 0.0926 C
=0.00174 + 0.00058 ·0.10827
Corrected length =532.3726 m. C=·
0.10595 m
S-8

TAPE CORRECTION

® Correction for slope: ® Total correction:


. 459.20 (·0.10595) Temp. corrections:
Tolaf correction = 30
Cr=KL(T- T1)
Total correction =- 1.622 Cr =0.‫סס‬OO116 (624.95~32 -20)
Correct slope distance =459.20 ·1.622 Cr =.;. 0.087 (too long)
Correct slope distance =457.578 m
fl2 Pull correction:
CS=2S (P2' P1) L
(1.25f Cp = AE
Cs =2 (457.578) _ (15 -10) (624.95)
Cs = 0.002 Cp- 0.06 (2) 106
@ Horizontal distance: Cp := +0.026 (too long)
Corrected horizontal distance
=457.578· 0.002 Total correction = + 0.0l7 •
1.781 +0.026
= 457.576m Total correction =• 1.668 m.

@ Corrected length of the liIle:


Corrected length =624.95 .1.668
Corrected length = 623.182 m.

Il,.'.
Solution:
CD Sag correction:
w2 L3
- CS1 = 24 p2
(0.04j2(100)3
CS1 = 24 ~15)2 . =0.296 m.
_ (0.04) (24.95)3 =0 005
CS2'" 24 (15)2 . .
Total sag correction =6(0.296) + 0.005
Total sag correction = 1.781 (too short)
5-9

TAPE CORRECTION.

Solution: Actual
length of tape at 40.6'C Tension
CD Tension applied at 32'. 99.986 -
0.00232 =99.98368 10 kg
99.992 -
0.00232 = 99.98968 14 kg
99.992 '4 100.003
-0.00232 =100.00068 20 kg
0.008
{
100.00 0.011 x
{ 6
99.98968 '4
0.01032
{

0.011 x

100.0000 6
100.003

~_9·008

100.00068
6 - 0.011
x=4.36 kg.
x 0.01032
Tension applied =14 +~4.36'~·~·'~·· ,) ~ .', ~:., 6=llO11
Tension applied = 18.36 kg. x= 5.63 kg
',k Tension
applied =14 + 5.63
® Tension applied at 40.6'. Tension
applied = 19.63 kg
Temperature correction:
Cr=K(T2- T,}L
Cr= 0.0000116 (40.6 - 32) 100
Cr=O.00998

Actual length of tape at 40.6'C Tension


99.986 + 0.00998 = 99.99598 10 kg
99.992 + 0.00998 = 100.00198 14 kg
100.003 + 0.00998 = 100.01298 20k~

0.006
r·~98}
100.0000
0.00402 {' 4
100.00198 14

~_ 0.00402
4 - 0.006
x= 2.68 kg GJ Compute the
correctiartdue to the applied
pulfofS kg. ,'"
.'
Tension to be applied =10 + 2.68 @ Compute the
cortecUOn due to weight.ot
Tension to be applied = 12.68 kg tape.
'
@ Compute the
true length of the measured
@ Tension applied at 30'C: lineAB ,due
to the combined effects of
Temperature coffection: tension, sag
arid temperature.
Cr=K(T2- T,}L
Cr =0.0000116 (30 - 32) 100
Cr=-0.00232
S-10

TAPE CORRECTION

Solution: @ Number ofpaces


for the new line:
CD Pull correction: AI f _
893 =893.5 + 891 + 895.5
IVO. 0 paces -
5
C - (P,- PM,
P- AE No. ofpaces
=893.25':.-:;.
C - (8 -5.5X458.650) _ +
P - 0.04 (2.10 x 106) - 0.014 m. ® Distance of the new
line:
.Distance of new
line =893.25 (0.691)
Distance of new
line =617.236 m.
@ Correction due to weight oftape:
W2L3
Cs = 24 rJ2 'I.
C = (o.05f (50j3 (9)
s 24 (8f
(0.05)2 (8.65)3
+ .@'. 1'hl$Sk!es••
of.a.M9a(elat••havIM•• ®J@a
24(8f ·····>··Clf•• ?
~!)pe9~rAAWfl~m¢-~~qt~.9$j.J19 • •~·
Cs =·1.832 m. (always negative)

® True length ofmeasured line AB:


·······~~~~ih:.~~
• i~i~J~I.·m.~~~@W •
Cr =K(T2 -T1)L @ ··ttiE!••
(:Qrr1'!¢t.dl~ta6@ • ~~!lh@~ • P9.@•• ~··
Cr =0.0000116 (18 - 2OX458.65) '. · · • • ~P.4$.m' •
• l@ng.~ • jQQm;mjll;l.lMl#,,#!
Cr =-0.011 m. m,@~ltl~!
~\th~l¢hSll1l~~~I~J(j96t/'l~

Total correction =0.014 -1.832 - 0.011 ·••• ·• ··


··>.Woyl1~.®()ut~.~.2@Q*:Itlm;
·.•
Ii'~i:
$.·of.:x·?··.····.·····

••

." . . . . . . .tl$ffi~

•. /••. . •. . . .
Total correction =-1.829 m.
True length AB =458.65 - 1.829 @•• •
T\lij.~jstlil'lCElfrOm.P.Il)ei@fJi~@~d;.j$·.
True length AB =456.821 m. • • • • • • • •
1§$.2.rl1.•••• lf.tM.$Q.m;t#p~~eaj~Q~Q1 • m;.
tQP$lyjrt;Wh~!i$~#grf~W(ll$tM¢¢m
rie?
.. ... ... .... ...

Solution:
CD Error in area:
(99.962 _ (1002)

~~~I~~~!~~n~~~~i~I~~at~jl~_\\~~ A - 2.25
A=2.2482 hectares
.~~5f:o~~~~~~~Ii~~~~"'1~11;1~~l~'~.·
..' .. .
6~3,893,5dI9talj(18~S;&/<'" .
Enur in area
=2.25 - 2.2482~.l\
Errorin area
=0.0018 hectares,
Error in area
= 0.0018 x10000 ~\
@-p~lerl11IMltlE!pa¢¢taClor+< Error in area
= 18 sq.m.
~·< •. [)~t~rmjlie· • I'l~mbefgf.p~c~s.·fCll'~~¢-,,·new

une,> Note: 1
hectare =1000 sq.m.
~.·• •. Oetennineme·pjfltanc:eMlbe.fleWljne. @ Value of x:
Solution: ~~5 x =220.45
- 220.406
CD Pace factor: x =0.02 m.
142 + 145 + 145.5 + 146
N0.0 f paces = 5
k,t'::'l:1, ® Corrected distance:
No. of paces = 144.625" " '
100 1:.; L -:. /. Correct
distance = 165.2 _1:.2 (0.01)
Pace factor =144.625 = 0.691
Correct
distance =165.167 m.
S·Il

TAPE CORRECTION

@ Unit weight of tape:

_ 0.204 w...fAE

PN-
\i)•• • 8()rnpqte.the.O()rrnlJl•• t~~$IQI1.wh~hwin • b~
-J

PN- Ps

·. ·.• •. .•
....•. ~ppU®t~~t~®SlJPPA.~~9pV~r.twq
16 =0.204 w'./'--0.-05-(2-)1-06'
. . ·Sl.IPP()rtsillord~tt()fl1aketr~tape~~alt£>
·.it$•. n()[llill~I.I~ngtb •.VjI'l~ll~IlPP()rtE!d.ptJly'~t
~
~~~~.~f~~~ ~~4$t~I • _1~ ~.~6~~~
•.•. t@)~9hourit$ • leo91h.und~r.~.ll\at\!j~rd·PW
•.
0.:

w=0.784 kg

w= =0.026 kglm
· • •pt$·§.·kg•• wilh.•!J'tEl•. rnod~N~.9felastiglyfS
.• ·~ • x.1~kgf(@fW"ldaieaOf.Q,06(:mf • • • • • •.• • ·•• •·
® Cross sectional area:

_ 0.204 w...fAE
·®•• • Aste~tapei$30:lt1 .•• ~ogu@era • ~nd~@.·
PN-
•.• • • • • plJu • • ~f.9 • • • k~, • • • With•• • ~ • • • %J~~I~nt • • ett)$lh.
-J PN-Ps

·(:.lilli'~_'1
me¢M·P9IIlt~~ • tl)9~ls.W~.~ff®!·.()f$a~Wlll·

18 = O.204[~O.OO25)(40i...fAE

W=279.02

~
•.••.••.. ·.M.~I@i~W~pYlffil~l()l'lg~~9f;l§flIW¥lP~.
AE =77854.67
d~Mo.tI'lE!M~lj¢atl@Qft~I$IMdi~¢M~1
••.t6.t6.M....(feterlnio~lhe9~il·W~i9htcitt~e.
A = 77854.67 = 0039 rrf

2 x 106 . c
•• iaPE!•• j~
taM·.MQ(I~ltl~ ()f•• elast@fy.Qf••
~*lQ~Mtcnt.>
®Urid$ra$tandardpullQf~~g,Jhel@el
tapej~4QlTl"()(lg,An9rm~IJ~n~i9Q:qf
1&.k9rll~~~s • m¢••
~I()ng~~qiJ9f.~h~ • • l~Il$··
··()ff$e;t.t~~en~pt.pf.·~~·.· • • lfm~t~w(#Stm··
.0) ..• Det~rminelli~ IEltlgll1 of the fine in meters if
llqZ#·kgfril,•• •arld.E • =••z•)(•• j06•• • kglciril%)
... .there were 3 tallies'S phis aildthe last pin
Qeletrlline .• • it~ • • cr(Jss • • $ecll()nlll.··ar~.· • . in.
\ was9>·Iil,Jromtheend of tile Hne. The
s:(P::Il'l{
...•..• tapeMectwas so. m.IOhg. .• . .

Solution:
lID A line was measured wilh a50 m. tape
CD Normal tension:
and fo~nd .to beJOO m. long. It was
PN = 0.204 {Ai!
. <Jis(:oileredlhaltneflrst pin was stUck

.... 306m. tathe left oftheUne.andthesecond


..,j Pw Pt"
. . pin 30cm. to .the right. Fino the error In the
_ 0.204(0.84) ..,j'-O.-OO-(2-)1-06'
measurement in em?
PN-
..,j Pw P1
® A line was measured with a 50 m. tape
_ 59.3608
and recorded ·100 m. long. While
PN-
measuring lhe first pin was stuck 20 em to .
..,j PN - 5.6
the right of the line and the second pin

40 em. 10 the left. Find the correct length


By trial and error:
PN= 17.33 kg
oflhe line.
_ 59.3608
PN-
Solution:
..,j 17.33 - 5.6
(j) Length of the line:
PN= 17.33 kg
L = 3(10)(50) +8(50) + 9

L =1.909 m
S-12

TAPE CORRECTION

@ Error in the measurement: Total distance = 8 (16.5)


t 6 (16.5)
If
45(33)
Error=2s +
12
E (0.30f (0.60)2 Total distance =354.75
ft.
-rror = 2(50) + 2(50) Total distance = 108.16
m.
Error =0.0045 m. =0.45 em.
@ Correct length of the line:
E - (0.20f (0.60)2
rror - 2(50) + 2(50)
Error = 0.004 m. @ .·A.. 1M • • rrl· • • !~pe
• • is•• • 1~.·mrT!·.wide.<lhd
Correct length ofline = 100 - 0.004 O.80mm·.th~ •.•
lf.the·tapl.j$·90rr~unq~r·
Correct length of/ine = 99.996 m. ~ •
PlJIl()f.94·.N;.Wll'tputEl.tIJ~~rJ'9r.ll'Iadl'by

··uSlngapuII.Qf.eaN,••·.e.::;:.. 4®,OOQ.MP!i.· . .
@·.1'lWIElr1Qlh9f••~• • ~~ries
• of.Une5.iSf()@gll)
. • • bE!
34.2f·Q2mdDWef9~rq.directlOn.~nd

·•342f.~·rn·.ln·1~e.reverseddire(;t~n, • •. VV/'lal
i~lh~ratJopftlj¢l:lrror?
··· .
@A Ilnewasmeasure<l tC)ha~5 tallies; 6
• marking pins lind ~3.5Ijnks. How long is @.·.. A~ytJsterlS~ • p~r •
il)m®nt~~<lt • ~ • • ~rtair
thelme In ft.?' .... . . ....
·9i$~n~frpmjlj~jnstru~~t~lldthean~l~
... ·~~~t~ndeq.l:!
Yff@.bal'.i$p·$".9:JrnP~t~t~e
@ A line wasmeasiJred witha 50 m. lape. . . .•. ~r\~8n!~! • .
d~tM~~.·.frpmtr.~ • j~strlJrr~nl
There were 2 .tallles. 8 pirys, and the. .. sl1ltl(')flIQ
OOlloAA«"nmthesl,lblen$f:l par,
distance from the last pin iothe elid of the
line was 2.25 nf. Find the length of the Solution:
lirie in meters? . CD Error made by using a pull
of 68 N:
_ (P2 - P1) L_ (68- 54)
100
@ A distance was Measured and was Cp - AE -12 (0.8)
(200000)
recorded to.. tlave a value equiYalentio Cp =0.0007
8 perch,6 rods and 45 Yarn. Compute the
.•• tolal distance inmeters. . .. Error = 0.0007 x 100
100
Error = 0.0007%
Solution:
CD Distance ofline: @ Ratio ofthe error:
Note: 1 tally = 10 pins A I gth 3427.fJ2 +
3427.84
1 link =1 ft verage en = 2
1 pin = 100 links Average length = 3427.73
L = 5 (10)(160) + 6 (100) + 63.5 . f 3427.84 -
3427.62
Ratlo a error=
3427.73
L =5663.5 ft
· f 0.22
1
Rat10 a error =3427.73
=15581
@ Length of the line:
Note: 1 tally =10 pins
1 pin = 1 chain @ Horizontal distance:
1
2 (10)(50) + 8 (50) + 2.25 =1402.25 m. tan 0.2' =/1
H = 1,718.87 m.
(3) Total distance:
Note: 1 perch =1 rod =16.5 feet Note: Subtense bar is
standard
1 vara =33 inches to be 2 m. long
S-l3

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Gli2D 2. Probable Error of the Mean:


is defined as the difference between the
true value and the measured value of a
quantity.

E
MISTAKES Em=-
-r;,
are inaccuracies in measurements
which occur because some aspect of a
1"1"
surveying operation is performed by the 3. Standard deviation:
Geodetic Engineer with carelessness,
poor judgment and improper execution.

4. Standard error:

1. Systematic Error
2. Accidental Error

1. Instrumental Error
2. Natural Error
3. Personal Error
1. The weights are inversely
proportional
to the square of the
corresponding
~ probabl errors.

is define as the number of times


something will probably occur over the
range of possible occurrences.

1. Probable Error a
single observation:

2. The weights are also


proportional to the
number of observations.
Where E =probable error
,£V2 = sum of the squares of the 3. Errors are directly
proportional to the
residuals
square roots of distances.
n =number of observation
S-14

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

® Most probable value of diff. in elevation:

Route Diff. in Elev. Weight

1 340.22 1

2 340.30 0.25

3 340.26 0.1111

4 340.32 0.0625

Sum = 1.4236

Weighted Observation

340.22 (1) = 340.220


®Whaflsttleweightnfr(lqte2a$$~mI6g
~.30 (0.25) = 85.075
. • •. . .• • ·.•. ~ig~t·.¢f·.·.l'O.Ut~ • 1•.• I~.~ql¥l.I§ •.1.•·..•. • . . ·..
.•.•. . . . . .·.•• . · 340.26 (0.1111) = 37.803
.• ~• • Detem1ine1hemos1~b'eValueof.diff.
340.32 (0.0625) = 21.270
jnel~'ffltl$l'I.<
Sum = 484.368
• 'W•. • !fW~.·~I£tlfatio/' • 9fa~h • ls.~@,4f.m;'M\at
••..• ·.isth~elev~TIWL(lf~M2asslJrnlllgiti~
. ··fjigheftMhaMW .
. 484.368 i'/";

Most Probable Value = 1.4236- .• ',: .

Solution:
Most Probable Value =340.242 .
G) Weight of route 2:

® Elev. ofBMi
The weights are invserseley proportional
Bev. = 650.42 + 340.242
to the square of the corresponding probable
Elev. =990.662 m.
errors.

4 W1 = 16 Wz = 36 W3 = 64 W4

W1 = 4 Wz =9 W3 = 16 W4
Assume W1 =1
1
WZ=4"
Wz =0.25
1
\D Compute lfle probable weight oftrtal 3..
W3=g

® Determine the most probable diff. in


W3=0.111
elevatiOn. . .
1
® Compute the elevation of B if .elevation of
W4 =16
AIs 1000 with Bhigher than A,
W4 =0.0625
S-lS

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Solution: Solution:
ill Weight of trial 3:
CD Probable error:
The weights are also proportional to the Mean value
number of observation.
··120.68 + 120.84 + 120.76 +
120.64
Weight of trial 3 = 6. ~ = 4
Mean value =120.73
@ Probable diff. in elevation:

Distance Weight Residual V


V2
520.14 1 120.68 -120.73 =- 0.05
0.0025
520.20 3
120.84 -120.73 =+0.11
0.0121
520.18 6
520.24 8 120.76 -120.73 =+0.03
0.0009
Sum =18 120.64 -120.73 =- 0.09
0.0081
'LV2
=0.0236
Weighted Values
520.14(1) = 520.14
520.20 (3) = 1560.60 _
f"iV2t:.(
520.18 (6) = 3121.08 Probable erro~.= 0.6745 -"
n(rJ~1r'- 'l
520.21 (8) = 4161.92
Sum = 9363.74 Probable error =0.6745

~0.0236.

4(3)

· I 9363.74 Probable error =± 0.0299


Probable value 0 fdiff.. In eev. =-18-
Probable value ofdiff. in elev. = 520.208 @ Standard deviation:

@ Elevation of B: .. - fiV2
Standard deViation =-" ~
Elev. ofB =1000 '10520.208
Elev. of B = 1520.208 m.
. = ~0.0236
Standard deviation -3-

Standard deviation = ± 0.0887


y\..
@ Standrad error:
Standard
deviation
Standard error = {;;
±0.0887
Standard error = {4
Standard error =± 0.0443
["11,\
5-16

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

1--------------------- •

Iftiglf!tma2Z;- At ;i)i'<1
Three iridepen<lentJilieof levelsarerunJrom "M()bserveO•• afi91~s •
9faW~nfll~ar~ • • as
.BM1t~BM~.R<JuteAjS6 kll'l, 1~,rOt1tee 1$ follOWS: ..
A"'34'20'36~<B"'49~t6'34·
...
'..' ' .
4 knt long andrpute Pis 8 km 8y muff! A,
¢7®'?2'41~

.:~JS~~·;~~ej~~~a~~~Y:y:~'.:~.:;'
SHOm. shove-BM,. ···TM eJevatloo{jfBM1 Is
6M2>'" . .... . ...
.0)Using the weighted mean valUes,WtiaLis
the weight~froufeB. ' .
00 Whatls the PrPfutblevalue 9ftheVil!lgtited.
niEian. .•. . ••. . .
@ . WhatJstheelevalion ofB~; . . Soiution:
Solution: G) Probable value of angle C:
G) Weight of route A:
ROUTE DISTANCE DIFF. IN ELEV. Sum of all angles = 180'
A 6 82.27 34'20'36" +49'16'34"
+96'22'41"
B 4 82.40
C. 8 82.10 =179'59'51"
1 1 1 = =
Error 180' ·179'59'51" 09"
(too small)
LCD =24
6 4 8 F" L) . 9
CorrectlOn =-
Weight computations 3
24 Correction =3"
A W1 =6=4
24
B W2=4"=6 Probable value of angle C =
96'22'41" +3"
24 Probable value of angle C =
96'22'44"
C W3=a=3

Weight of 8 = 6 ® Probable value of angle A:


® Probable value of weighted mean: Probable value of angle A =
34'20'36" + 3"
82.27(4) =329.08
Probable value of angle A =
34'20'39"
82.40(6) =494.40
82.10(3) =246.30
1069.78 @ Probable value of angle B:
Probable value of the weighted mean Probable value of angle B =
49'16'34" +3"
1009.78 Probable value of angle B =
49'16'37"
=-13-
=82.29
@ Elevation of8M2.'
8M2 =82.46+82.29
8M2 = 168.71 m.
5-17

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Sum = (n - 2) 180 =(5 - 2) 180


=540'
=
Enor = 540' - 539'59'40" 20"

G) Adjusted value of angle 0:


Adjusted value of angle 0 =
167'02'07.11"
® Adjusted value of angle B:
Adjusted value ofangle B =
134'44'41,31"
® Adjusted value ofangle E:
Adjusted value ofangle E
=76'08'53.16"

Solution:
ANGLE OBSERVED WEJGHT
VALUE
1
A 86'15.20" 6= 0.167
1
8 134'44'35" 2=0.SO
1
C 75'48'SO" 2=0.SO
1
0 167'02.05" 6= 0.167
1
E 76'08'SO" 4=0.25
Solution:
Sum = 539'59'40" 1.584 G) Probable value of angle A:
A+8+C=41 +77+63=181'
CORRECTION ADJUSTED
Error= 181' -180' =01'
ANGLES Error= 60 mins.
LCD of 5, 6and 2 is 30
O.~~~O) = 2.11" 86'15'22.11"
Sta. Weight
Correction
O.~~O) = 6.31" 134'44'41.31" I c~v( 6
A ~. 4.~ = 6 ~:;..; Z6 (50) =
13.84'
0.~.~O)=6.31" 75'48'56.31"
8 30 = 5 16 (60)
=11.54'
6
O.~~~O) = 2.11" 167'02'07.11" C 30 = 15 15 (60) =
34.62'
2 26 26
50'
O.~~O) = 3.16" 76'08'53.16"
Corrected value ofA =41' - 13.84'
Sum -20" 540'00'00" Corrected value of A=40'46.16'
5-18

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

® Probable value of angle B: ® Probable value of angle B:


Corrected value of B = 77' - 11.54' Corrected value ofB = 65' +
13.85'
Corrected value of B = 76'48.46' Corrected value of B = 65'13.85'

@ Probable value of angle C: @ Probable value of angle C:


Corrected value of C = 63' - 34.62' Corrected value of C = 75'
+27.69'
Corrected value of C = 62'25.38' Corrected value of C=75'27.69'

Solution:
Solution: ill Average mean value:
ill Probable value ofangle A: Average value (mean)
A + B + C= 39 + 65 + 75 = 179' 200.58 + 200.40 + 200.38 +
200.46
Error =180' - 179' =01' =
4
Error =60 mins. Average value (mean) = 200.455
LCD of3, 4 and 2 is 12
® Probable error of the mean:
Sta. Weight Correction
12 4 /
A -=4
3 13 (60)= 18.46 Length V
V2
3 200.58 200.58 - 200.455 = +0.125
0.015625
B 12 =3 13 (50) = 13.85
4 200.40 200.40 - 200.455 = -
0.055 0.003025
12 =6 6 200.38 200.38 - 200.455 = -
0.075 0.005625
C 2 13 (50) =27.69
200.46 200.46 - 200.455 = +0.005
0.000025
13 60
,
,£V2 =0.0243
Corrected value of A = 39' + 18.46'
Corrected value of A = 39'18.46'
5-19

ERRORS AND MISTAKES


)',,,·v.
fd. .-.~.

-V
XV-1)
Probable error of mean =0.6745 ..n(n
2
Probable error= 0.6745

- r""iV2

-\I n(n:1)
P.E. =0.6745
-v 0.0243
4(3} Probable error =0.6745

~0.0236

4{3}
PE =±0.03 Probable error =± 0.0299

® Precision of the measurements: ® Standard deviation:


0.03 p "
Precision = 200.455
1
i ,,,,

·Y. Standard devta


""IG2
. t·Ion = -
~

Precision =6681.83
..
y0.0236
.. 1 Standard deviation =
-3-
PreCISion =6682
Standard deviation =±
0.0887

® Standard error.

Standard deviation
Standard error =
-{;

±O.OBB?
Standard error = {4
=± 0.0443
Solution:
CD Probable error.
Mean value
120.68 + 120.84 + 120.76 + 120.64
= 4
Mean value = 120.73

Residual V V2
CD What is thewelghfofroute
3as$uming the
120.68 • 120.73 =·0.05 0.0025 weightof route f equal tD
1.
120.84 -120.73 =+0.11 0.0121 ® What is the .sum of the
weighted
120.76 -120.73 =+0.03 0.0009 obserVation.
.
120.64 -120.73 =- 0.09 0.OOB1 @ What i$ the most probable
value of the
LV2 =0.0236 elevatlon.
5-20

ERRORS AND MISTAIES

Solution:
CD Weight ofroute 3:
The weights are inversely proportional to
the square of the corresponding probable
errors.
" K
1 J/1 = (2)2 .
K 'J
W3= (6)2

4W1 = 16W2 = 36W3 = 64W4


W1 = 4W2 = 9W3 = 16W4
1
IfW1 = 1 W3 =9=0.1111
1 1
W2 =4'=0.25 W4 = 16 =0.0625

Therefore the weight ofroute 3 = 0.1111.

@ Sum of the weighted obseNation:


Solution:
F"'.
ROUTE DIFFERENCE IN WEIGHT' CD Probable value under each
set:
t· ELEVATION Most probable value using
the Invartape in
1 measurements:
1 340.22 571.185 + 571.186 +
571.179 + 571.180 + 571.183
2 'I 340.30 0.25
5
3 (, 340.26 0.1111 :; =571.183
4 I'. 340.32 0.0625
Most probable value
using the Steel tape
Sum= in measurements:
1.4236
571.193 + 571.190 +
571.185 + 571.189 + 571.182

5
WEIGHTED ~) = 571.188
OBSERVATION @ Probable Errors under
each set:
240.22 (1) = 240.220 Probable error using
Invar tape:
340.30 (0.25) = 85.075 ~H
340.36(0.1111) = 37.803 Invar tape Residual
(V) V2
340.32 (0.0625) = 21.270 571.185 - 571.183 = 0.002
0.000004
Sum = 484.368 :'5.' 571.186 - 571.183 = 0.003
0.000009
571.179 - 571.183 = - 0.004
0.000016
571.180·571.183 = ·0.003
0.000009
The sum of weighted obseNation 571.183·571.183 = 0
0.000000
=484.368
'Dfl =0.000038
@ Most probable value of the elevation:
484.368 PE = 0.6745
-GY2
'\J
nTtJ=1)
Most Probable Value = 1.4236
Most Probable Value = 340:424
~. ~.,

"~, PE = ~ 0.000038
5(4)
=
00009'1
± .
v
S-21

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Probable erro~us;ng Steel tape: WE2 = W1 E12


1;.

Steel tape ::I.. Residual (V) V2 WE2 = W2 E22


571.193 - 571.1~ 0.005 0.000025
571.190-571.188 0.002 0.000004 W1 E12
571.185 - 571,188 - 0.003 0.000009 ~= W
571.189 - 57-V,188 t{).OO1 0.000001
571.182-57t188 -0.006 0.000036 E2 = 1.98(0.00093)2
{ }:.V2 =0.000075 2.98
E= ±O.DOO76 (probable
errorofmean)

. PE = 0.6745
-GT
'\J ~
..-
W2 E,2
~= W
PE = 0 6'745'" J0.000075
' \ { 5(4) £:2 = 1.00(0.00131)2
PE =to.OO131 2.98
E=tO.OOO76
® Most probable value ofthe two sets:
Probable value Probable error
.-;. 571.183 Ei =0.00093
"1571.188 E2=0,oo131
. 1
K
'2 =/ K
W1 =E2
W1 Ei 2 = W2 Ei
W1 (0,00093Y = W2 (0.00131)2
Ass. W2 = 1
Ei ') k r.

..••-fd!:··~;W·:J:~1
Wi (0,OOO93Y =1 (0,OO131j,2
Wi = 1.98
Weight/
W1 = 1,98
" ' c:~F:'~~;11
.~ .. poC
t','
I·'
Wt. x value
1130.94
i l ! !f~jl:l!lll~~;l.
W2 = 1.00
Sum= W=. 298"'.'.'1
.-
571.188
- - . .,"
1702.18.:'//
li'_liiil~ii:!~1
1702.128
Most probable value ofthe two sets = ~ Solution:
Most probable value ofthe two sets = 571.184 G) Probable error:
40'31' +
40'34' +40'36'
Mean value =
3
@ Probable error ofthe general mean:
K Mean value =40'33.7'
W=E2
K Residual v
? V2
W1=-2 40'31' - 40'33.7' =
2.7 7.29
E1 40'34' -40'33.7' =
t{).3 0.09
2
E2 _ W1 E1 40'36' -40'33.7 = +2.3
5.29
- W
E2_ W2E l
}:. V2 =12.67
- W
5-22

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Probatie error =0.6745 -,,~-G:V2 G) Probable error:

-52
Probable error =0.6745 ." ~
_f12.67
Probable error =0.6745 -" 3(3=1)
Probable error = ± 0.98 Probable efTDr= 0.6745 ~ = ±
0.039
® Standard deviation:
@ Standard error.
-52
Standard deviation = -" ;;'::1 -fiV2
Standard deviation =-" ~

Standard deviation ="_112.67


2-2-
Standard devia,tion= ± 2.52
Standard deviation = ~ =0.10
Standard
deviation
® Standard error:
Standard error = v;,
2.52
Standard error = 13 Standard error = ~ = ± 0.577
Standard error = ± 1.453
@ Precision:
0.039
Precision = 141.70
1
Precision = 3633

ii;Atili1:~' 11'1~;
Solution:
Average value (mean)
141.60 + 141.80 + 141.70
= 3 (j)Flrldthepr°bable¥~I»~\)faogleA.
Average value (mean) = 141.70 @ FiMthepto~~~I~Y~19~f>1~r~I~B,<
.,
@tIMt!'leproMPi¢VaI4¢~f~OglE~%
,',
V v2
141.60 ·141.70 =·0.10 +0.01 Solution:
141.80 -141.70 = +0.10 +0.01 Error= 180· (39' +65' +75')
141.70-141.70= 0 o .Error = 01'
Error = 50' (too smalQ
S·23

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

. Weight
Solution:
CD Corrected angle A:
A 39' 12 =6
2 Angles Value Weight
Corrections
A 92' 12/6 =6
6/15 (60) =24'
B 65' 12=4 B 88' 12/4 =3
3/15 (60) =12'
3 C 71' 12/3 =4
4/15 (60) =16'
o 110' 12/6 = 2
2/15 (50) =..!
C 75' 12 = 3
4 15
00'
13 Error =(92 + 88 +71 +110)
- 360
Error =01' = 60' (too big)
Correction Corrected Angles Corrected angle A = 92'
·24'
Corrected angle A = 91'36'
6
13 (50) =27.69' 39' 27'41" ® Corrected angle B:
Correded angle B =88' • 12'
1~ (50) = 18.46' 65'18' 28" Corrected angle 8 = 87'48'

® Corrected angle C:
3 Correctedangle C= 71' • 16'
13 (50) =13.85' 75' 13'51"
Correctedangle C = 70' 44'
50'

CD Probable value of angle A:


Probable value of angle A =39' 27' 41"

® Probable value of angle B:


Probable value of angle B = 65'18' 28"

® Probable value of angle C:


Probable value of angle C= 75'13' 51"

Solution:
CD Probable value of angle A:
Sum ofinterior angles = (n·
2)180
Sum ofinferior angles = (5·
2)(180)
Sum ofinterior angles =
540'
@•• • qO/tlflM~m~#Jffep(#1.val®(Jt.ittg~.!} •.• Sum = 110' +98' + 108'
+120' +105'
.~ • • GOI1)P~t~lhe(;Orr¢¢t#lv~lpe9f.~leEl.·i·<.·· Sum=541'
·®••··CornplJ@ftle90rrec!ed·vBll.le.ofangle.Q... Error =0l' or 50' (to be
subtracted)
S-24

ERRORS AND MISTAIES

Sta. Angles Weight Solution:


110' 12 -6
A 2- 28'34' + 61'15' =89'49'
Error = 40"
B 98' 12=4
3 Angle
Weight
12 =3 1
C 108' BAC 2=0.5
4
12 =2 1
0 120'
6
BAD 4=0.25
12 =3 1
E 105' CAD 2=0.5
4
18
1.25
COITection Corrected Angles Correction Corrected
Values
6
18 (50) =20' 109' 40' 00" 40 (9.5) = 16"
28'34'16"
1.25
1~ (60) =13.33' 91' 46' 40.2" 40 (0.25) =.8"
89'49'32"
1.25
1~ (50) =10' 101' 50'00" 40 (0.5) = 16"
61'15'16"
1.25
2
18 (60) =6.67' 119' 53'19.8"
<D Probable value ofangle BAC =
28'34'16"
1~ (50) =10' 104' 50' 00"
@ Probable value ofangle BAD =
89'49'32"
50' 540'00'00"
® Probable value of angle CAD =
61'15'16"
Probable value ofangle A :: 109'40' 00"
@ Probable value ofangle C= 107'50' 00"
@ Probable value ofangle 0 = 119'53'19.8"

(1).. f)eleWIM1heWeight.
(lfr@W.@lTIber.g.
® ·Oelertrilne
fhemO$fpt()Pabledlffe$/1¢eJo
elevatioll, ..
.
®
P~t~it1e.tnelnosfprOb@IEleIWalion·tJfQ
lnmetars.· . .
S-25

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Solution:
CD Weight ofroute no. 2.:
W1D1 = W2D2 = waDa = W4 D4
Assume:
W1 =6
6(2)= W2 (6)
W2=2 Solution:
2(6) = wa (4) Determine first the weight
of each route
wa =3 111
3(4) =w4 (8) 10 16 40
w4 = 1.5
Weight ofroute 2 = 2 To find the weight, divide
the L.C.D. by its
distance.
@ Probable difference in elev:
Route Weight WI. x Diff in elevation CD Probable weight of route B:
1 6 6(0.86) =5.16 ROUTE LENGTH
WEIGHT
2 2 2(0.69) =1.38 A 10
160 =16

10
3 3 3(0.75) =2.25
4 1.5 1.5(1.02) =1.53 B 16
160 = 10
- --
16
12.5 10.32
C 40
160 =4

40
Probable diff. in elev. = 1102~52
Sum=3O
Probable diff. in elev. = 6.826
Weight ofroute B= 10
@ Probable elevation of C:
Probable elevation ofC= 825 + 0.82 @ Probable difference in
elevation:
Probable elevation of C = 825.82 16(632.81) = 10124.96
10(632.67) = 6326.78
4(633.30) = 2533.28
18984.86

Mast probable d·ff.· .


18984.86
I.melev.=~
lines of levels are run from BM1 to BM2 over
three different routes. Ifthe elevation of BM1 is Most probable diff. in
elev. = 632.83
100 m. above the sea level.
Route Length (Diff. In Elev.) @ Probable elevation of 8M2:
Between Bm1 & Bm2 Probable elevation of 8M2
A 10 .632.81
= 100 + 632.83
B 16 632.67
C 40 633.30 = 732.83 m. above sea
level
5-26

ERRORS AND MISTAIES

·.I.•
[dlrr2;~lull~lfll_·.

i I• • •;'

·~~~.··.O•·.••·n. ~.$ · ., 4v
•.••.•. '.•. •.•.•.•·.•.•.
'.·.•L.• ..•·.•.•.1•• .~ t >.>

~• .• •.• • •.·•.~~I~i

6i• • • • • • • • •

. ·• .E.•.·••.• •.•.•.•.•.•.•.• . ·•. ••. •. I.I. •.••. : ..• 1.•11..•


•.k1.•·. .•.• .•.•.L.•.•.• . E

l.·•. .•

U.

~~~:~»<i~
Solution:
® Probable weighted mean:

Line Diff. in Elev.


Weight
Solution:
1 41.16
6
CD Probable error of the resulting computation:
2 41.20
4

3 41.12
3
PE =..J (b Eh)2 + (h Eb)2
13
b =314.60
WI. x Diff.
in Elev.
V WV2
h=92.60
6(41.16)=246.96
0 o
Eb =+0.16 4(41.20)
=164.80
+0.04 0.0064
Eh =0.14
3(41.12)=123.36
-0.04 0.0048
.-----~---
535.12
0.0112
PE =..J[314.6(0.14)]2 + [92.60(0.16)~
V1
=41.16-41.16=0
PE =+46.47
V2
=41.20 - 41.16 = +0.04

V3=41.12 ~ 41.16 =- 0.04


@ Probable error of the sum of the sides: .

535.12
PE =..J (PE1)2 + (PE2)2 + (PE3)2 + (PE4)2
Weighted mean = ~ = 41.16

PE =..J (0.04)2 +(0.08)2 +(0.04~ + (0.08~ ® Standard deviation:


PE =+0.126

Standard deviation =
~~21)
@ Relative precision:
. .. 0.043
. .
0.30112
ReIatlve precIsion = 860
Standard deViation =
13(3 _1)

Standard deviation =±O.021


Relative precision = 2~O
@
Elevation 8Mi

Elevation 8M2 =212.40 - 41.16

Elevation 8M2 = 171.24


5-27

ERRORS AND MlSTAIES

8M,

· hted d·ff.·
Wieig I '1436.36
I .meev.=~

Weighted diff. in elev. =


143.636

@ Bevation of 8M3:
Elev. of 8M3 = 143.636 +
30.162
Bev. of 8M3 = 173.798 m.

@ Adjusted elevation of8M2:


Total Correction for route 1
=143.70 ·143.636
=O.064m.
3
Correction for 8M2 = 10
(0.064)
Solution: Correction for 8M2 =0.0192
0) Weighted difference in elevation between Correction for diff. in elev.
of BM1 and 8M2
BM1 & 8M3: = 68.258·0.0192
Route Distance Diff. in elev. = 68.2388 m.
1 10 km. 68.258 + 75.442 = 143.70
2 6km. 143.62 Adj. Elev. of8M2 =30.162 +
68.2388
3 15 km. 143.58 Adj. Elev. of 8M2 =98.4008 m.
w1 01 =w2 02 =w3 03
wd10) =6w2 =15w3
Ass: W2=5
w1 (10) =6(5)
w1 =3 From starting .P:OiN
A,eleyatipn340;6S m·,
3(10) =15 w3 theelevat~nof asecondpotnt6is
f6Und, lile
w3=2 rottle, distance<liidefevationof 8
being
respeClivelyas f6HoWs: Route J ~ 4
km, 3&h64
Ditt. in Weight WI. x Ditt. m., Roule2· 2,5 krri., 364.2.0 m.
Route 3-3
elev. in Elev. km.,365.01 m.,R()ute4- 6 km.,
364.31m,
143.70 3 3(143.7) =431.10 Midway alOng route 1~8M1 is
located with an
143.62 5 5(143.62) = 718.10 elevation of 35U9. Along route 4,
2.5 km.
143.58 2 2(143.58) = 287.16 from AIQwards 6,6M2 is located,
with an
10 1436.36 elevation of 349;86 m..

~., .
S-28

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

il.ipillelB
@ Error in elevation of 8
using route 4:
Error in route 4 =364.60 -
364.37
Error in route 4 = 0.23 m
@ Adjusted elevation of 8M2
using route 4:
Solution: Correction for 8M2 =2 5
(023)
CD Weighted elevation of 8:

6
Correction for 8M2 =0.096 m.
A Corrected £Iev. of 8M2 =
349.86 + 0.96
Corrected Bev. of 8M2
=349.956

Route Distance Elevation of 8


1 4 km. 364.84 m
2 2.5 km. 364.20 m.
3 3 km. 365.01 m.
4 6 km. 364.37 m.
k k
w1 =01 w2 =02
k k
WJ=- w4=-
03 04
w1 01= w2 ~ = w3 03 = w4 04
Ass: w1 = 1.0
Solution:
(1)(4) =2.5(W2)
CD Probable weight of A:
w2 = 1.6 k
w1 01 = w3 0 3 w1=-2
E1
(1 )(4) = w3 (3)
w3= 1.33 w1 E1 2 =W2 E l
w1 (3.2)2 =w2 (1.6)2
w1 01 = w4 04
(1)(4) = w4 (6) Assume w2 = 1
w4 =0.67 _ (1.6)2
WI. WI. x Elev. w1- (3.2f
1.0 1(364.84) = 364.84 w1 = 0.25
1.6 1.6(364.20) = 582.72 Observer
Angle Error
1.33 1.33(365.01) = 485.13
A
42'16'25" ±3.2"
0.67 0.67(364.37) = 244.13 8
42'16'20" ±1.6"
4.60 1677.15
Weight
WI. x Angle
Weighted elev. of 8:
0.25
25(0.25) = 6.25
1677.15 1.00
20(1) = 20.0
Elev. 8 =4:60 = 364.60
1.25
26.25
5-29

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

@ Sum of the weight of A and B: @ Actual ground area:


Sum of the weight of Aand B = 1 + 0.25 Combined factor = 0.9998756
(0.9999)
Sum of the weight of Aand B =1.25 Combined factor =
0.999775612

25425
@ Most probable value of the angle: Actual ground area =
(0.999775612)2
Actual ground area =
25436.41 sq,m.
Best value of the angle =42'16' + 21~;;
Best value of the angle =42'16'21"

(IJ The dlfference of elevation


between two
points\vas deterlllil1eq by
tng~nometrjc
CD A line tneasures6846.34 in. at elevation l~!Veling, . The slope .
distance was
.. 993.9 m. The average radiusofcurvature measured electronically
andw~s .found to
in the area is 6400 km~Corilpute thesEla be 148e.72m.. andtheieh~h
dis!<lncewas
. leYeldistance. 83'14'20". Calcul~te
fhediffetence In
elevation between the two
points.. .•... .....
®. The ground distance as corrected for
temp., sag and puUcorrection Is 10000 m. ®The' geodetic length qf a line on
theearlh's
ff the sea level reduction factor is surface is found 10 be 5280 m.
and Its grid
. 0.9998756 and the flrid scale factor is dl$tanceis equal tClS279.67 m.·
Compute
0.9999000,corripute the grid distance of the scate factor
used. . . ........ ...
the same1ine,
@ The corrected field distance
on the surface
@ The grid area of a parcel of landis 25425 of the earth was found to be
3296.43 m.·· If
sq.m. If the sea level re:ductionfactor is the elevation factor
isl).9999()4zand a
0.9998756 and the griel scale factor is scale factor
ofO.9999424,compufe the grid
0.9999, determine the actual grOUnd area. distance. ..

Solution: Solution:
CD Difference in elevation:
CD Sealevel distance:
Vertical angle =90' -
83'14'20"
Reduction factor =1 - ~ Vertical angle =6'45'40"
Diff. in elevation = 1486.72
Sin 6'45'40"
· I 1 993.9 Diff. in elevation =175.03
m.
ReductJon lactor = - 6400000
Reduction faqtor= 0.99984 @ Scale factor:
Sea level distance =6846.34 (0.99984) Grid distance =Geodetic
length
x scale
factor
Sea level distance =6845,24 m.
5279.67
Scale factor = 5280
@ Grid distance:
Scale factor =0.9999375
Combination factor
=0.9998756(0.9999000) @ Grid factor'
=0.9997756 Grid factor = elevation
factor x scale factor
Grid factor =
0.9999642(0.9999424)
Grid distance =10000(0.9997756) Grid factor =0.9999066
Grid distance =9997.756 m. Grid distance
=3296.43(0.9999066)
Grid distance =3296.12 m.
5-30

LEVEliNG

1. Dumpy Level

2. Wye Level

1. Adjustment of Level Tube:


To make the axis of the level tube
perpendicular to the vertical axis.

2. Adjustment of Horizontal Cross~Hair:


To make the horizontal cross-hair lie in a
plane perpendicular to the vertical axis.
1. In the dumpy level, the
bubble tube is
3. Adjustment of the Line of Sight: attached to the level bar
while in the wye
To make the line of sight parallel to the level it is attached to the
telescope.
axis of level tube.
2. In the dumpy level, the
bubble tube can
be adjusted in a vertical
plane only,
while in the wye level it
may be adjusted
vertically and laterally.

3. In the dumpy leVel, the


telescope is
1. Adjustments of Level Tube:
rigidly fastened to the
level bar and can
To make the axis of level tUbe lie in the
not be removed there from,
while in the
same plane with the axis of the wyes.
wye level, the telescope
rests in Y-
shaped supports which permit
it to be
2. Adjustment of Level Tube: removed and reversed end for
end or
To make the axis of the level tube revolved abolit the axis of
collars.
parallel to the axis of wye.

3. Adjustment of Horizontal Cross-Hair: 4. The dumpy is more rigidly


constructed
To make the horizontal cross-hair lie in a that the wye that it has
fewer
plane perpendicular to the vertical axis. adjustments. However, to
adjust a
dumpy level would require at
least two
4. Adjustment of Line of Sight:
men whereas a wye level may
be
adjusted by only one man.
To make the line of sight coincide with
the axis of the wyes.
5. In the dumpy the supports
are not
5 Adjustment of Level Tube: adjustable, while in the
wye, one end of
To make the axis of level tube the level bar may be
adjusted vertically.
perpendicular to the vertical axis.
5-31

LEVELING

11. Settlement of tripod or


turning points:
This could be eliminated by
choosing
stable locations, and
taking backsight
and foresight readings in
qUick
succession.
1. Imperfect adjustment of instrument:
This could be eliminated by adjusting the
instrument or by balancing the sum of
foresight and backsight distances.

2. Rod not of standard length:


This could be eliminated by
standardiZing the rod and apply 1. Imperfect adjustment of
instrument
corrections same as for tape.
2. Parallax
3. Parallax: 3. Earth's curvature
This could be eliminated by focusing 4. Atmospheric refraction
carefully. 5. Variation in temperature
4. Bubble not centered at instant of sighting: 6. Rod not standard length
This could be eiiminated by checking the 7. Expansion or contraction of
rod
bubble before making each sight. 8. Rod not held plumb
5. Rod not held plumb: 9. Faulty turning points
This could be eliminated by waving the 10. Settlement oftripod
ortuming points
rod or using rod level. 11. Bubble not exactly centered
at the
instant of sighting
6. Faulty of reading the rod: 12. Inability of observer to
read the rod
This could be eliminated by checking
exactly.
each rod reading before recording.

7. Faulty turning point:


This could be eliminated by choosing
definite and stable points.

8. Variation of temperature:
This could be eliminated by protecting
the level from the sun while making
observations.
1. Confusion of numbers in
reading and
recording.
9. Earth's curvature: 2. Recording B.S. on the F.S.
column and
This could be eliminated by balancing vice-versa.
each backsight and foresight distance, or 3. Faulty additions and
subtractions.
. apply the computed correction. 4. Rod not held on the same
point for both
10. Atmospheric refraction: B.S. and F.S.
This could be eliminated by balancing 5. Wrong reading of the
vernier when the
each backsight and foresight distance, target rod is used.
also take short sights well above ground 6 Not having target set
properly when the
and take backsight and foresight long rod is used.
readings qUick succession.
S-31-A

lEVELING

R =radius of earth
R::6400km.
K2
h =2R
Horizonrul Lint!
h = K2 (1000)
2(6400)
h =0.078 K2
hr--~
7
h = 1 (0.078 K2)
Horizontal Line = a straight line tangent to a r 7
level surface. hr =0.011 K2
Level Surface =a curved surface every her = h - hr
element of which is normal to the plumb her = 0.078 K2 - 0.011 K2
line.
Level line = a line in a level surface.

From the figure shown, an object actually her = in meters


at C would appear to be at B, due to K =in thousand of meters
atmospheric refraction, wherein the rays of
light transmitted along the surface of the earth
is bent downward slightly. The value of h Derivation:
represents the effect of earths curvature and
atmospheric refraction and has the following
values.

DERIVATION OF
C.URVATURE and ~
REFRAqTION CORRECTION

Conditions:

h =height in m. of the line


of sight, at the
intervening hill C,
above sea level.
h1 =height in m. of the
station occupied A,
above sea level.
h2 :: height in m. ofthe
station observed B,
above sea level.
0 1 :: distance in miles of
the intervening
K2 + R2 :: (R + h)2
hill C from A.
K2 + R2 =F{2 + 2 Rh + h2 O2 :: distance in miles of
the intervening
'Since h is so small, h2 is negligible hill C from B.
S-31-B

lEVELING

Since h1, h, and h2 are vertical heights, and considering the


effects of
curvature and refraction at A and S, as reckoned from a tangent (horizontal)
line at
sea level vertically below C, the figure can be reconstructed in its plane
sense.

Hoeizontal Line

In triangle ABE, by proportion:

(h 1 - 0.067012) - (h2 - 0.0670,2) _h- (h2 - o.067Dll


0 1 +~ - ~

hl - h2 - 0.067 (0 12 - Ol) _ h- h2 + 0.067Q2


01+~ - ~

h- h2 + 0.0670l =: ~ [h 1 - h2 - 0.067(0, + O2)(01 • O2)]

h =: h2 - 0·067Ol + 0 ~D-t (hl • h2) - 0.067~ (01- D-tl


1

h =h2 - 0·067Oi + 0
1
~2O2 (h l - h2) - 0.0670 102 + 0.067D-t2
5-32

LEVEUNG

@ Diff. in elevation
ofstation 7 and station 4:
Diff. in elevation of
station 7 and 4
=400.78 - 389.01
=11.77
@ Elevation of station 3 =
392.61

Inm~.pla~ •
beIOW$Ho~s.adlffer~ntial.levelln9

frorlt~rct1.ITla.rt<.to~nomer.~nph • rnark,al?(lg'

ea®llqerepr~$~n~~~~rShUnthe~etualr()d
r~~din~· • • • Tbe • dj~~~n • •
of•• lbtl.Jjeh:lwork•• is

indica~~,pythe.nlJrnber.oft1,Jllllng.polnts·
ill, 90rnPlItet/lE!
el~YliijortpfTP2'
@
9ptnplJleth~ele¥~ti@Qf,~~.w
® '. ()o@i.JteJneelevau®mJPs·

Solution:
Note: H.I. = Elev. + B.S.
Elev. = H.I. - F.S.
BM,
Sta. B.S. H.I. F.S. Elev. El,33.971

1 5.87 398.12 392.25


2 7.03 398.86 6.29 391.83
3 3.48 396.09 6.25 392.61
4 7.25 396.26 7.08 389.01
5 10.19 400.88 5.57 390.69 Solution:
6 9.29 405.72 4.45 396.43 Sta. B.S.
H.I. F.S.
7 4.94 400.78 BM, 2.565
36.536
TP 1 10.875
41.59 5.821
TP 2 7.035
46.679 1.946
IBS = 43.11 IFS =34.58 BM2 3.560
44.498 5.741
TP3 7.186
41.948 9.736
Arithmetic check: BM 1
7.977
IBS - IFS "43.11 - 34.58 = 8.53
400.78 - 392.25 = 8.53 Sta. Elev.
Remarks
BM 1 33.971
Bench Mark No.1
CD Diff. in elevation of station 7 and station 5: TP, 30.715
Turning point
Diff. in elevation of station 7 and 5 TP 2 39.644
Turning point
= 400.78 - 390.69 BM 2 40.938
Bench Mark NO.2
=10.09m. TP 3 34.762
Turning point
BM 1 33.971
Bench M;:jrk NO.1
S-33

lEVELING

Arithmetical check:
Solution:
LF.S. = 5.821 + 1.946 + 5.741
+ 9.736 + 7.977
LF.S. =31.221 STA 8S
HI FS IFS ELEV
LB.S. =2.565 + 10.875 + 7.035 8M,
2.32 331.02 328.70
+ 3.560 + 7.186 1
1.7 329.32
LB.S. =31.221 2
2.2 328.82
LF.S.. B.S. =31.221 ·31.221 =0
3
1.2 329.82
33.971 - 33.971 =0
4
0.9 330.12
CD Elevation of TP2: TP1
2.77 330.36 3.43 327.59
Elevation of TP 2 = 39.644 m. 5
2.2 328.16
6
3.7 326.66
@ Elevation of 8M2:
7
1.6 328.76
Elevation of 8M2 = 40.938 m.
TP~
2.22 329.52 3.06 327.30
@ Elevation of TP3: 8
2.8 326.72
Elevation of TP3 = 34.762 m. 9
3.6 325.92
10
2.0 327.52
11
1.1 328.42
BM~
2.45 327.07

7.31 8.94
%hefj@r~M4w~ • i:t•• $RMmajjc.~$l®¢mElnt • !)f
~• • pro~I~ •. I~y~I • fl'llt~frgrn·aM1 •.lir9•• a.Mi··.·.TM.
Arithmetic check:
\I~W~~lhdiC~ledrE!pre$~NPMK$lgrt,. 8.94 -
7.31 = 1.63
.f()(eSi9nt, • ~rld • •jl'ltl3fm~(jiate • f()J'.esigh1•• re~~i.~.~· 328.70
- 327.07 = 1.63
l1:ikEln.·on.~tMOl'l~.aI9ng.the. rolJle.·.Elevation.• 9f
13M,£W!.70m,· . .
CD Difference
in elevation between stations
Sand 9:
=
328.16 - 325.92

=2.24m.
® Elevation
of TP 2:
Elevation
of TP2 =327.30 m.

® Elevation
of 8M2:
Elevation
of 8M 2 =327.07 m.

CD Find the difference in elevation between


stations 5 and 9. From the
given prUflleleveling notes:
@ Find theelevatiQn of TP2.
@ Find the elevation ofBM2.
S-34

lEVEliNG

I BS· . FS Arithmetic
check:
BM. 1 0.95 - 225.50 9.03 .
8.41 = 0.62
}
226.12 .
225.50 =0.62
.....
::c: ~I 3.13 0.64 ~
CD Difference in
elevation between station
Sand 2:
I

=225.8 ·224.2
=
1.6m.

® Bevation ofTPi
Elevation of
TP2 = 227.66 m.

® Elevation
ofBMi
..
Elevation
ofBM2 = 224.88 m.

0.62 2.37
,
·3.50
..

~···1.24
BM.

M~09&.tMJ()ll9Wlng.(l~$crlRfl®.lothemtfu.()f
(J)·>What•. . . j~ . •'.t@•• • diff¢ri3nce•• · in .··elevallon·
.prMIEl.~¥l'll.hQt~~C9mp~I~· • tPel~Y@()r1, • • • A·
betW~~~$ta1k>o5~6d2, • •.• ' \ l~vellS$l;!
t4PBll~~r~dlngcrlg.~~5l'rl.I$
@jyomputelh&l'll&Y<ltioopfTF'ti . tilken•• on••
a.tlench•• mal'l<..llie.~levam)l'l.6fWhjch
@ c:ornput~theeleva~Cll1of8M:
( iS12·13qrn·Atth~tlegihrying()f~e@et6tl~
Solution: prBfl'ed'••l®••
WdJeadjn~,lsg·Q?5~.·.~~m·fl'9hj.

ml:ll:>egin~jl1g,)tis1·~1TI'l1·aJepm·,ifi$
STA BS FS IFS ELEV
{l;702m.atpem.and~1m.,thet()~~at!lng$
HI
BM, 0.95 226.45 225.50 ~te • l.2~1 •
nl;~@.O.7§2.lil. • r~spe¢tj@M·.·.()(ja

rocklh~tistlQtoPlll1e,tMtPdrl;!~qiMl~
1 3.0 223.50
0.p55•• lTl.••
Jh~·.le\l&liS,me{l·remo\lM.ahead,$et
2
TP, 3.13 228.94 0.64
2.3 224.2
225.81

ea
upand•• aroqf
dingqt.1.95Z.m· i QbseNed,

the}odsljllbelngh~ld()nlherock,Ttte

*.
3 2.7 226.2 readjllgs •
al()h~.th~.PtOfil#.~re.thenrll~lJrn¢d;
4 2.8 226.1 90m.•
ftoll'llhebegir,"jl1gofth~ljn~/therod
5 3.1 225.8
reading.ls.1AS$.m.! ·'ZO.rn.• frorn••IHe.beginniog
6 0.5 228.4 of•• tile
·linl;!.tM.·readil19.is • 1AM.I'Il.,•• ~IlCllly • 1(iO
7 0.8 228.1
rn·frornt@p~9InningQfthemnethe@j
TPo 2.16 229.82 1.28 227.66
readfngfs2J9611l. .
8 0.9 228.9
(i).
COrnPlJtethEle~vationatJhepQlnt60rn.
9 1.2 228.6
10 1.7 228.1

fr°rn.lhe.t¥9inning•• oflhe.line.
®
CompUI~.the.eIeVatiOn.l)f.the.tumjn9.pol{lt
11 2.8 227.0 @ CornPufe lhe
difference in &/evation ala
TP~ 0.82 228.27 2.37 227.45
P<Jlflt.·1~0I11;·.ar1d • 81•• lTl..• fTorn.the·\:ieginning
TPA 1.35 226.12 3.50 224.88 oftheHne.
12 3.0 223.1
BMo 1.24 224.88
8.41 9.03
5·]5

lEVELING

Solution: cD Find thedlff. in elevation


belweEm TPl and
STA BS HI FS IFS ELEV TP3' . '.'
@ .. Find the elevation of~.
BM 2.995 15.130 12.135 @ What is the difference
in elevation
0 2.625 12.505 between BM 1 and TP2'
30 1.617 13.513
60 0.702 14.428 Solution:
66 1.281 13.849
81 0.762 14.368 STA BS HI
FS ELEV
TP 1.952 16.527 0.55~ 14.575 BM 1 9.08 758.14
749.06
90 1.159 15.368 BM 1 9.08 758.14
120 1.434 15.093 TP -L 12.24 766.65
3.73 754.41
150 2.196 14.331 TP 1 -R 10.10 766.64
1.60 756.54
4.947 0.555 TP?-L 11.04 775.48
2.21 764.44
Arithmetic check: TP?-H 9.92 775.48
1.08 765.56
4.947 - 0.555 =4.392 TP1 -L 1.75 767.39
9.84 765.64
16.527 - 12.135 =4.392 TP,·H 0.55 767.41
8.62 766.86
BM?
11.27 756.12
CD Elevation at point 60 m. from the beginning 8M?
11.27 756.14
of the line:
49.62
63.76
=14.428 m.
® Elevation of the tuming point = 14.575 m. Arithmetic check:
63.76 - 49.62 =14.14
GD Difference in elevation at point 150 m. and
81 m. from the beginning of the line: 14~/4 =7.07
= 14.368 -14.331
=O.037m. Ave. elev. of BM2
756.12 + 756.14
2
=756.13
756: 13 - 749.06 =7.07
.Data shown is obtained from a double rodded
line of levels of a certain cross-seclion of the CD Diff. in elevation between
TP I and TP3:
proposed ManUa-Bataan Road. :: 754.41 +
756.54
EIev.o f TP I 2
IA. RS. F.S ELEV. Elev. of TP I =755.475
I. 9.08 749.06 - 765.64 +
766.86
9.08 EIev.of TP3 - 2
TP1 -L 12.24 3.73 Elev. of TP3 = 766.250
1 ~n
Diff. in elevation
=766.250 - 755.475
TPrL 11.04 Diff. in elevation
=10.775 m.
1.08
TP~-l 1.75 9.84 ® Elevation of BMi
K62 I 756.12 + 756.14
11.27 2
11.27 =756.13 m.
S-36

LEVELING

® Difference in elevation betwwen 8M1 and STA.


Rise Fall Reduce Level
TP2:
346.75
BM 1
'
E,ev.o f TP - 764.44 + 765.56 1
+0.860 347.61
2- 2
Elev. of TP2 :: 765.00 2
+1.153 348.763
Diff. in elevation:: 765 - 749.06 3
+0.059 348.822
Diff. in elevation:: 15.94 m. 4
-1.046 347.776
BM,
+0.672 348.448

2.744 1.046

Rise::
3.755-2.895
Rise::
0.860 m.
'l'b~ • fCtI19Wing • • @()w,s•• • fl•• • t<lbtllate(j•• • d~ta • • ()f Rise::
2.895 -1.742
Rise::
1.15Jm.
~VE!lil'iS·.r()t~~.#Slng.ri~~.~nd.fall.rnettiod .. Rise::
1.742 -1.683

Ris~ :: 0.059 m.
Fall::
1.683 - 2.729

Fall :: 1.046 m.
Rise::
2.729- 2.057
Rise::
0.672 m.
Rise
at station 2:: 1.153 m.

® Reduced
elevation at station 3:
Reduced
elevation at station 1
:
: 346.75 +0.86
:
: 347.61 m.

Reduced elevation at station 2

=347.61 +1.153
=348.763m.

Reduced elevation at station 3


Solution: =
348.763 + 0.059
cD Rise or fall at station 2:
=348.822 m.

ROD READINGS ® Reduced


Level of BMi .
STA. B.S. I.F.S. F.S. Reduced
Level of station 4
BM1 3.755
=348.822 - 1.046
1 2.895 =
347.776 m.
2 1.742 Reduced
Level of 8M2
3 1.683 =
347.776 + 0.672
::
348.448 m.
4 2.729
BM, 2.057 Arithmetic
check:
3.755 2.057 IBS· LFS::
3.755-2.057:: 1.698 (check)
IRise::
0.860 + 1.153 + 0059 + 0.672
IRise::
2.744
IFall::
1.046
IRise·
IFall:: 2.744 - 1.046 :: 1.698 (check)
S-37

lEVELING

8 ::
4.478; 4.476:: 4.477
m

A•• ffi9ipro~I • I~'J~IiDfl • • ·ls?~~~~gacmss • • a· Diff. in


elevation between Aand B
~ide.• • W~er<'lQ~ • • ·ll'l~.·.t~C!pr9¢aLI~¥~I • r~~m~9:S ::
3.143 •4.477
W~r~taken[)etWEl~nP9jl'lts~aod~>as
=·1.334 m.
fgll?W$,.·•• Wllhlnstrtkoeo{setup.nearA,.the.rod.
rE!a~mgs()nA~f~~.28~~nti?·285rn,Ih~ True
difference in elevation Aand B
reRI!lrClC<llleYtllre~~ing()~·thT()Pposlt~~I~()f _ (-
1.336) + (·1.334)
lhtlJiVerCltp9iml3ar~~.61a,~·919,~·9?1~M -
2
3.622:m··•• • ·\Nilh.th~jllsWlTlerrtsetupnear • ~;
=1.335m.
lh$rad.reaqing$.(jIl••e• <'ire .4A78@d.4·47tl!n···
an9•• trye.rod•• r@~iM$ • ()n • lhe9P1lO$it~ • si~9f @
Elevation of B:
~river·llctpaitlt·A,.lhe.@lrtladln9$·<'irEl~.143,· B= 300
-1.335
M4Qi3.14u~@~.1.:t4ffl.< . . .... . ......
B=
298.665 m.
CD Compute the difference In elevation
. betweeliA and B with the. instrument set
. .• up near A ... •. . ..• . . ..../ ..• .
® What· is the true difference in· elevation
between A and B. . . •• .•. . . •.. . . . :
.~.. If the elevation at A i$~OOm:, whatis.the IO.lev~llngacro$$
• ~.Wi.d~rivE!l'6n·eall'lPa"~a.a
.·elevationofB. . / .
WPiPf9cal.lev~lt~~dings • W;E!~I'~~~ .• ·b~W~l'n

p(')iht$§anqR~~$~()Y"nlnth~~~~I~~~6<
Solution:
CD Difference in elevation between A and B
with instrument set up near A:
With instrument near A:
"'1ean rod reading on A.
~ :: 2.283 + 2.285 = 2 284
i m 2 . m.
2.284 . 2~48Q

2.286 2;476
Mean rod reading on B: •
2.283·· ·2.478
B :: 3.618 + 3.619 + 3.621 + 3.622
m 4 I
1.674 3.140 . .
Bm :: 3.62 m.
1.677 3.145
I . :
1.6743.142 I .
Diff. in elevation between A and B
. 1.6773:1431
=2.284 - 3.62 I
1.678 3.146
::·1.336m

® True dirt. in elevation between A and B: Compute the


difference in elevation
(j)
With instrument near B: between Band C
with instrument set up
Mean rod reading on A: nearS.
A =3143 +3.140+ 3.146 + 3.144 ® Compute the true
difference in elevation
m 4 between 6 and C.
@ If the elevation
of 8 is 346.50 m., compute
Am:: 3.143
fhe elevation of
C.
Mean rod reading on B:
5-38

LEVEliNG

Solution:
CD Difference in elevation between 8 and C
with instrument set up near B:
Mean rod reading on 8: ~.llne.9ftev~IS.1(lkCll· •
• §ng.WE\ft4n()vet~ff.
8 =2.283 +2.284 +2.286 +2.283
••
9~Otlll~ • • <§Ia,rting••
f~~m ~1 • Wlf~.·.·~I~Y~~An
m 4 .:!f·§<I11Elt~r~·.· • • • •
rhe·•• $le~li()n • • Qf•• ~M?·.\y~s
8m =2.284 m.

tomput~~ • lR••.tl¢••
H.·~~·m·\ It•• wa$•• f()ung9ut
tJQ',Y~Y~r • ttJat•• tIle••
~Yel.settIEls.5.rl11'!l.b~~n.
fbe•• in~lanf.Af.ey~rt •
ba,d($ighf•• r~a.ding,.me.Wd
Mean rod reading on C:
C =1.675 + 1.674 + 1.677 + 1.674 + 1.677 + 1.678
~tlttl~~ •. 2•• mrn••
if•• th~ •
• ~c;k~ight.<1nd • • fo(esjghl

d:islanl;ElheveanE\verage100m.< FindJhe
m 6 (x)rte~teJevati6l'ldfaM2·<·
.. . .
Cm = 1.676 m.

Diff. in elevation between 8 and C with .~w • •Oet~rrnjne


•.•1.. Find.l~errO(duetO.
$MllementW~~I .• •

the.elT9r•• duet()•• s~tt~Il1El.~tOf
instrument set up near 8 f()(j.\
=2.284 • 1.676 WCpfJ1Pulilthecprrecled
elevaticiflpfBMi·<
=+O.60Bm.
Solution:
@ True diff. in elevation between 8 and C: CD Error due to settlement
oflevel:
Mean rod reading on C: 10000
C - 2.478 +2.480 +2.476 +2.478 No. of set ups = 100 +
100
m 4 No. ofsetups = 50
Cm =2.478 m.
Error due to
settlement oflevel
Mean rod reading on 8: =50(0.005)
8 = 3.143 + 3.140 + 3.145 + 3.142 + 3.143 + 3.146 =O.25m.
m 6
8m =3.143 m. @ Error due to
settlement ofrod:
N ft' .t
10000 1
0.0 ummgpoms=
100 + 100·
Diff. in elevation between Band C
=3.143·2.478 No. of turning
points = 49
=0.665 m.
Error due to
settlement of rod
True difference in elevation
=49(0.002)
0.608+ 0.665 = O.098m.
= 2
=O.6365m. @ Corrected
elevation of8Mi
Total error =0.25
+ 0.098
® Elevation of C: Total error =0.348
m.
Elevation of C= 346.50 +0.6365
Elevation of C =347.1365 m. Corrected
elevation of8M2
= 17.25 -
0.348
= 16.902m.
5-39

lEVEliNG

®
Rod reading on A with iilsflUment near B:

x+ e = 0.549
.
e = 0.549 - 0.53

e = 0.019
.' '. ¥ . .•... .,': .....
Rod reading on A=0.938 - 0.019

Rod reading on A = 0.919 m.


I',' .. Instrument . lristrortlenl
. .Sl:}t unearAsetuDnearB @
Error in line ofsight:

= 0.019m.

Rod readlng·1 .'


. on8'" I ;."
-.,7
<D Whaf is the. difference Jnelevatlon
. . between Aand at '. . .
In.a.lWoipeglesfOSing.rriqdel\'Vjldf>.lPi2liuI11PY.·
® If the line of sight is not in adjustment,
level,the.f9"Q\'!'mgobsepj§tioMw~r~t~~~~i.·.
determire the correct rod reading on AwUh
thernsttument still setup at B. .
® Deterrnlne fhe error in the line of sight

Solution:
CD Diff. in elevation between Aand B:

l.ine ofsif<hr
"- - - - - - - -
-rll----...::lII--' 0 C ~- - - - --I --
{/{)ri:oftwl {iue
CD
What is the true difference in elevation

betWeen A and6? ..•.. ..... ...• .... .....'. .... .


x ®
With tl)elevel inthe..samepqsiijonat D; to

what rod reading on B shouldJhe Une of

sight be adjusted. • '.' . i ..... '...' .


(3).
Whatls the corresponding rod reading on A

for a hotizontalline of sight Withlnsltument

still at D? .
Solution:
CD
True diff. in elevation between Aand B:
1.505 + x = 2.054 - e
x+ e:: 0.549·
x + 0.938 - e =1.449
e
x- e =0.511
B O.99lm

x+ e:: 0.549

Ik~"7'I1 x
2x =1.06
x = 0.53 m. (diff. in elevation)

1.103 + e :: 0.991 + e + x

x=O.112m.
5-4Q

lEVElIN~

® Rod reading on B with level at D: <D•• C()


(nplJW.·.tM•• • lfiffet¢nte • • • jry•• • ~leya. I. io.•.•.n

pelwi¥rrAalldEL/
~ •
'Nhat~~ould • ~~.tbecoIT@tJ()(tf'l<:l9Jngon
A.to••
g~tl • • ~ • • leM~I • • line•• of.si9htwth.~e

1I'1$II'\1ltlflllt$~llsiHupat~1
® •
Whllt.~hPul~ • h~lYe9~~ • lhtl••rellpln9••pn§

..........ilhJhein$t!'ul'MntatA16 giYe a leVelline


QfsJghtT
.

Solution:
CD Diff. in
elevation between A and B:
0.568 + e1 =e2 + 0.289 + 0.112
0.568 + e1 =~ +0.401
e2 - e1 = 0.167
Hori:.onwl finf'

..-
11--"'1:--.... = 0 d -- -}--- -- e
~-~
12 -72
LlTll' of :nghl

e2 = 6e1
6e1 • e1 =0.167
5e1 =0.167
e1 = 0.0334 m.
~ = 6(0.0334)

_-_~:~_- __ \_O~_
e2 =0.2004

line Of5ight

Rod reading on B = 0.289 + 0.2004


Rod reading on B = 0.4P94 m.
1.623 + X
=C + 2.875
@ Rod reading on A to have a horizontal line
ofsight with instrument still at D:
e + 0.362
+ x= 1.622
Rod reading on A =0.568 + e1 x- e
=1.252
Rod reading on A =0.568 + 0.0334 x+ e =
1.26
Rod reading on A = 0.6014 m. 2x =2.512
X =1.256
(diff. in elev. bet. A and B)

® Rod reading
on A to give a level line of
sight
with instrument at B:
RA
=e+0.362
@~.t~~ra~hip$Ui\le.YLJM~~kent>Y.Kawa~ x+e=1.26
··sorv·.~rp .• b~te • ~nY • leyeljng•• I$¢QmjUcted. 1.256 + e
=1.26
Ifye • Mgllleers··H~u.~lIy • • ch!ck•• wh~lhEm •. lhe e=0.004
engil'le~t~.mY~Hs.lry.PeJ'feCt.~djUSlment. • • AtW() RA =0.004
+ 0.362
peg .f@t·is•• use<i • to.j;;ryeck.""hetherfhe.llne•• of RA
=O.366m.
$i9hlls.lIlPerfect.~djU$trnentiln(j • t®.fOIlQViing
rqd.W'¥iings.<lre.tilken, ",itfi•• instrument.set.9P @ Rod
reading on B with the instrument at A
n~llrA,I:l~¢f<si9hloIlAjst~2~rn;allcl to give a
level line of sight:
f()l'esI9ht•• readlllg • on•• B•• l$•• 2.~7S • • m.• • ""llh•• the RB =2.875
+e
instrumentseluPHear.8,backsighIOI'l~is
1.622··m.• and.afo~ght.onA.jsO,3Q2.m.·· RB =
2.875 + 0.004
RB
=2.879m.
5-41

lEVEliNG

x + 1.563 + e1
=ez + 2.140
0.614 + 1.563 +
e1 =2.140 + ez
0.037 + e1 =ez
~-~
2.5 -79.27
e1 = 0.0315 ez
0.037 + 0.0315
ez = ez
ez = 0.038 m.
@ Rod reading on
B for a horizontal line of
sight with
level at P:

kOint••M.l$••~~ldiS~~I.1r6fu.~lh.·.A.1nd.~f.Whil~.
RB =2.140 + ez
RB = 2.140 +
0.038
Pj$f.50%a:w~y JrgfJlAl:lI()ngthe~~flSi()n
Qfllt1~AElaod1~~27m;fr9ma. . ... RB = 2.178m.

•~ • • De!ermjn.~.th!3.true • difference••irlElI:Vatfon
b~WJeen~~ndB><.
·.@.f.)eterlllit1~me~rt't:lt.,n,.~.·r9(j.J'B.a9illgatB
WilhmelJjsfCJJmemsti~alg.< . , '.' .•
~ • • O~in~tpe.~~dlllg·9I).rQ(i~.f9r.a • Attigo®~m4 •
1WElliils~q@«¥I.W.J~re~~
·••··• ··sfIUatP.
• • • no[iiM@lirleof•
. • ~lght.With.the·.im~!ttiment
. ..
§urVey.lng.pgmp~1I~y,.ttie:tW9·P91t1t$A.aMB.pt
Cl
¢e~inr0ti9h·tert'''ill~ree"chl:lil>tanc:e • 2900
Soluticm: 1TI·•• • frqrtj •.•
a••·.miTlt••PQint.Pi • • fr°ITl .• ·.\Yhic:~ •.• th~·
G) Difference in elevation between A and B: .ll)~$~r~d •
veijl~!.~~S!G)Ai$.t.~ .•~9'.~nq19.

Bj~f1·~'·ftevM9nClfCjs~t1()'-mlobe

342.pqm.abQ\I~~~lev~kPollltCjsm
b~~rjA~l'ldEl;<"
...' .. ... .

G) .CqmpriJ¢•• •
th~ • • (l!ffer~OClr • •ln•• .• ~I~y~ti9r
·• • •
····~~;6·~cjlw~d~fet. •.
P 0.296
effect.Of
2.5'-+----
f-----~79.27-----I

~··qWllPl.lt~thw.pjffer~llp~ in Jllevation
.beweM13
and.q.•• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •·.·•·•·
@
Compuletheel~vatlonmk'"
x + 0.296 + e =0.910 + e
x= 0.910 . 0.296
x= 0.614m. Solution:
CD Diff. in elevation
between Aand B:
@ Error in rod reading at B with instrument
still at P:

tL-------
----
S-42

LEVEliNG

tan 3'30' =J!L hCr1 =


0.067 x2
2000
h2 = 122.33 m. hCr2 =0.067
(2)2
h0 =0.067 (2)2 hCr2 =
0.268 m.
h0 =0.268 m. h1 =x tan
18'30'
h 1 =2000 tan 1'30' h1 =0.3346x
km.
h1 =52.37 h1 =334.6x
m.
hc, = 0.067 (2)2 ~ =2000 tan
8'15'
hc, =0.268 m. f7 =289.99
m.
H + h, + hC1 = ~ + h0 h1 + hCr, =
111.356 + h2 t hCr2
H +52.37 +0.268 = 122.33 +0.268 334.6x +
0.067x2
H= 69.96m. =
111.356+289.99+0.268
x2 + 4994x
- 5994.24 =0
@ Difference in elevation between Band C: x= 1.2 km.
=h1+ hC1 x= 1200m.
=52.37 +0.268
= 52.638m. @ Elevation
of B:
Elev. of B
= Elev. A + h1 t hCr,
@ Elev.ofA: Elav. of B
= 200 + 334.6('1.200)
Elev. A = 342.60 + 122.33 +0.268
+0.067(1.2')2
Elev. A = 465.20 m. Elev. of B
= 601.62 m.

@ Elevation
of C:
Elev. C =
Elev. B - 111.:356
Elev. C =
601.62 - 111.2,56
Elev. C =
490.264 m.

l@n$lq¢rlhgt@ • • ~ff~(;~$ • •§f•• Bury~ture • • al1d


ff}fr~pl!og,Jh~ •. q1ff~r~~¢El.inele¥ati9n • of.p()ints
• ~o~id~Ci~$.~~@U~IOa~~ • •~.~~Tf~~hill~O~
··eleVation.of.eal'\d.q.are.t8'SO'.!'f1spl';!(ltively.

Ai$i~pointh~vih~@ijl~vatl®l:rr1~.4fil}@
(j)•• • lfq.ls2000.rl1·•• fr()I1l.~,ho . .lfari~.~.'fr()m.A?
~qove9atMl11lal)dB.:lm:iC~t~pojl'lI~(:)f
@ . • If.th(:).~~.Vali9r·()ffJ..i$.~qUal·t(j.2OQm.,.ffod
unkno\\,I).~leva~i()ni .• aJ$•• jn·•.l1e.tWElen6.a~d¢.
. . .•.• JMtllEtvatiQnpfB.) . .. .
BY.l11eansof.an•• jl1~trlJm~nt • $~t·1;22lli,.a~O\le
@ • ··Plndal$O·ihe.elevatiOOof.C.
B,V~rl~l~nQle$.~re.9bserVed,.ttl~ttoA.b~irlQ

14'15'andJMtt9Cpeltlg+·~r~2',The
Solution:
hOrizontaldlstanceABi$5~;r.20anqthe
CD Distance of B from A: horizol1tal••
djstance • aqi~ • 923,2;5 • nV•• M?king

due<lllQv.'ancefore~l'th'sc urviitureiil'ld

almosphericrefrl@lon· ... .

®.·•• •Cqmpute••
• • lhe • • difference•• • • jn•• • elevation.

betw~nAandB:.
@ Oetermine •
• th~ . •·djffl:lrence .• ·.in•• .• elevallon
betweenB?
ndC· .•
®
OeterminelheelevatiOnofG.
S-43

LEVELING

Solution:
CD Oiff. in elevation ot A and 8:

A man's eyes t 75 m. above sea level can


barely see the lop of a lighthouse which
is at a
certain distance away from a man.
What. is .th~ elevation of the lop of
the
(j)
lighthouse·· above sea level if the
. lighthouse Is 20 km. away from the
man~
® How far is the lighthouse from the nian
in
meters if the top of the lighthouse 15
14.86 m.above sea level.
tan 14'45' = 54~~20 @ What is the height of the loWer at a
distance 20km, away from the man thaI
h1 = 144.07 m.
will just be visible without the Hne of
sight
=
hCl 0.067 K12 approaching nearer than US m. to the
hc, =0.067(0.5472)2 water, .
hC1 =0.02
H= 144.07 -0.02 Solution:
H= 144.05 m.
CD Elevation of the top of the
lighthouse:

Oiff. in elevation of A and 8


= 144.05 - 1.22
=142.83m. 1.75m

® Ditt. in elevation between 8 and C: 1.75 = 0.067 K,2


K1 = 5.11 km.
~~ (c h=0.067 Kl
K2 =20 - 5.11
K2 =14.89 km.
h =0.067 (14.89)2
h =14.86 m. above sea level
® Distance from lighthouse from the man:

h =923.25 tan 8'32'


h =138.53
h~ = 0.067(0.92325)2
h~ =0.057 h1 = 0.067 K12
H =138.53 + 0.057 + 1.12 1.75 =0.067 K12
H= 139.81 K1 =5.11
h2 =0.067 Kl
@ Elev.otC: 14.86 =0.067 Ki
Elev. ofC =130.48 + 142.83 + 139.81 K2 =14.89 km.
0= K1 +K2
Elev. of C =413.12 m.
0=5.11+14.89
0= 20km.
S-44

LEVELING

® Height of tower at a distance of 20 km.


away from the man: h = h + fb (h 1 - h2) _0
067 0 0
2 0 1 + D-;, .
1 2

h = 800 + 10 (600 - 800) _0


067 (12)(10)
----.-----------71 h1 h =701.05
12
+10 .

~1 75m 175m
Obstruction = 705 - 701.05
Obstruction = 3.95 m.

® Height of tower at C so that


it could be
h1 =0.067 (20)2 visible from A with a 2 m.
clearance above
h 1 =26.8 m. hill 8:
H =h1 + 1.75
H =26.8 + 1.75
H = 28.55 meters

Two hUls A and C have elevalkJns of 600 m.


and 800 m, respectively. In between A andC h =h + D-;, (h 1 - h2) _0
067 D 0
is another hill 8 which has an elevation of 2 0 1 + D-;, .
1 2
705 m. and is located at 12 km. from A and
10 km. from C. . 707 = (800 + x) +10
[6~2'1~~ +x)]
- 0.067 (12)(10)
CD Determine the clearance or obstruction of
707 =800 + x - 90.91 -
0.4545x - 8.04
the line of sight at hill 8 if the observer is
at A so that Cwill be visible from A. x =10.91 m.
@ If C is not visible from A, what height of
tower must be constructed at C so that it @ Height of equal towers at A
anti Cso that it
could be visible from A with the line of will be intervisible:
~l~ht having a clearance of 2 m. above hill

® Whal height of equal towers at A and C


must be constructed in order that A, Band
C will be inlervisible,
Solution:
CD Obstruction of the line of sight at hill B:
h = h + O2 (h 1 - h2) - 0
067 0 0
2 0 1 + D-;, .
1 2

705 = (800 ) 10 [(600 +


x) - (800 + x)]
+x + 12 +
10
- 0,067 (12)(10)
705 =800 + x- 90.91·8.04
x=3.95m.
5-45

lEVEliNG

@ Equal
height of towers at Alpha and
Charlie:
\
------"-----n--------- -
x
: X

h = h. + 0
(h, - hz) • 0067 0 n.
"L
0, + ~ . 1......L

¢PQrrPtltEl • tH.~ • e@,atiOtt9ftl1elj~Qf.~1ght • 649 = (620


+x) + 15 [(6801+2~ ~~620 + x)]
~ts®io~.Bt~Vo.¥llththe.instrtJme.lt.plaqed
• • 1.lt•. $t;;lIIOt"\NPb~·sUchltJ~t •. $t@~(lCnaMj~
·0.067 (12)(15)
. 'k0uld•• • M•• VlsiblE!.<f~orri·· • •~t~tiClni • ~lpha_ 649 =620
+x +0.556(60) -12.06
{;9n$id~rlrg • Jh~· • ~ff#8 • • 91·.99rv~tute)and x= 7.7m.
tef!'a¢lklncortl3Ctl0n.}
®•• • ASS9lnirygttH~t.$fJ.llloriat~y9Wi(k9~~tl'\lpt @ Height of
tower at station Charlie:
.. .··t~E;.IiQEl(lf~j~htJtCJnl$lati9~.AIPhil,·~ile A
B
<)b$~lhg$ta!l/)nCharlieaM~4m.J()Yw
.ls••con~!tu9t~d • • ~m • ·t9pQf.~tatI9m~rayCJ'
. . . . . P(lmp~t~ . f!m.·.b~i9hl·9t~qll~!t9VJE!rs.·.Elt
.•·.·• • • • §la~AA • AlpM•• an~ • ~Wioryqh~m~ln • 9@er••
·mat.bQ!tl.• three.$ti!111l0sas·Ob$rvedfrom··
• • •. ~a~on • ~phawlll s~n.l¥lihtr&l~tJlE! .• • • • • .• • • •.

.@..•WilMgllt•. (;;9IJstrtJc~ngElnyt<lWl!lr.Elt •. ~t~U9!1 h = h. + 0
(h, - hU _0 067 0 n.
"L
01 +~ . l"'"L
..•••••~r~\j()~ •••• WhElfIW9ht9ftOW~r@ij$~b~ .
.···@nsttu(:t~~ • ~·.$t.aI16~·.ynar1i~SCl·thal.f)()tb.

15
645 = (620
+ x) + 12 +15 [(680) - (620 + x)]
. . .. .~ti9m§r~¥(lam:fQMl'lt~W99Id~~\li~tJl~
fromstatl6l1AJpM:
•0.067 (12)(15)
645 =620 +
x +0.556(60 - x)· 12.06
37.06 = x
+ 33.36 . 0.556x
Solution: x= 8.33 m.
G) Elevation of line of sight at station Bravo:

Thr~(h!!I~
%a,jMPhM~IWM9Mqf
6~nl,,6@5.'W •
~~4 • 600••

m>respe¢ijMelY.•·•• ~• •~
in••
betWeeilAEll'ld··C~nd.·is·10~rit·fJ;9Il1Aa!l<l·
h =0. + 01~~ (h1· hi)·0.067 01~ 12krn·®rn(k·
15
h=620 +12 + 15 (680-620)
(1).<Con~ideriJ@ • • tne.• •

effect•• of.curVamrea.riiI·

.·.·.refraction.cotrEl%iorl,.whatisth~·creat~nce .
·0.067 (12)(15)
%obstrycti91l.of•. • th.~ .• line • • of•• siQht•• al•• B
h= 641.27m.
consldenngtt\alCisvlslblefromA . .
S-46

lEVELING

@)•• • ff.~ • $m,.t@ffltW~.~.~.~tAAm~i.WM~.


. . •.•.•.•. ·Wl:)\:ll~J;lEi.~~~ • M19W¢~~il,tI~@.tlf! •
• .• • • !•• ~f~~~I1~.1~.~.~at.~.~.~~.~
••~.• ,• •.er~et~·.at.CsQll'l~tl3aii'l
vm~ • $®61~.Miti~ij~9ID~~~ft9.~·
• •tWlllbe:

. @ Height of tower at C:

A B

••jht~M$lb~ftClm.A· • • • ·i.···.·>······ ············::···.···••·•·•·•• ·••


·>·U •
Solution:

~=600+X
CD Clearance orobstrucfion of the line:

h=625

h, =660

h = h. + 0, (h , - ~ _0 067 D n..

"l D, + ~ . ' .....L

625

=600 12[(660) • (600 + xll

+x+ 10+12
,
- 0.067 (10)912)
h = h.. + 0, (h • 0) . 0 067 0 n..
"L D, +~ . ,.....L

25 = x+ 12 (60 - x) _8.04
h = 600 12 (660.600).0067 (10)(12)
22
+ 10 + 12 .

33.04 = x + 32.73·0.545 x
h = 624.69 < 625

x= 0.68 m.
Obstruction = 625 -624.69
Obstruction = 0.31 m.

® Equal height of towers at A and C:


fQuthillsA,I3.¢arldq~f$lfisl~i~htline.

tMele\'~tiClnsareA;(~1~m,B::;23~ro}

G.:;'•• ~H • rn.~rld.P • "'.3~~.l1J;.·te~~etlv~Iy. • • Th~

di$lanc~s()fB)Catldqfr6111~~re12k1tl,

4$l@anq§Ol<J"tl·fElsp~lively.¢onsidering

tMElff®f.Of•• (jlJrv!lltirEl • ~M • • tE!ft'a(jtioll•• ()f•• ll1e


h=625+5

MM.
h=630
(j) .p()ll1pute•• th$·t$I~ht • PfM4al•• tPWElf$•• ()n·A
h, = 660 +x
$nd{)Josighf()v€r~ilrld8~j~~31T1.
h2 =600+x
>c!elll'llnce'......:: .'. ...••.•.• •••••..•.•.••••
h = h + 0, (h , • 0) _0 067 D n..
@•• • ¢dmpute•• th&•• ¢I¢va@Q8t.th~ • lin~ • ot.siSht
2 0 , +~ . ,.....L
13tWWiltlth$inMallaliofl9ttheElQlJal
= 600 . 12 [(660 + x) - (600 + xl)
tie@11$9ft9Wet~tA<1l@O; ' ...
630 +x + (10 + 12)
~. .C()rnplJt~ • the • heighl•• qf.lo~r • $t.A·.WlltJ•• a
-0.067 (10)(12)
ch.ara[1¢eoC3ri'lCaFP$omafPWlIlbe
30 =x+ 12~0). 0.067 (10)(12)
. lf.tM.hei9ptgfIWWat.p.i$

Visibfe.jJ'°lTi.A••

2m. .. . .
x= 5.31 m.
LEVELING

Solution: @ Height oftower at A:


CD Equal heights of tower at Aand 0:

Considering hi/ss A, C and 0 h1 = 247 + x


h1 =247+x hz =396 +2
hz =396+x hz =398
h =314 + 3 h= 314 + 3
h = 317 h= 317
h = h + Dz (h] + f?L 0.067 0 1....n_L h =h. + P2 (h 1 + hz) _0067 0
n.
Z 0 1 +~ "L 01 +~
. 1V Z

= 396 15 [(247 + xl· (396 +x)] 317 = 398 15 [247 +x- 398]
317 +x+ 45 + 15 + 45 + 15
- 0.067 (45)(15) ·0.067 (45)(15)
317 = 396 + x- 37.25 - 45.225 317 =378 + 0.25x - 37.75 -
45.225
x= 3.475m. x= 7.9m.

@ Elevation of line of sight at B:

qonsidElrir.g¢[/tVatureand·re~Oli()
(j@ctiol1
aftnE!
earth@~.· .. .. '.' ..'

0)" ·Tt@.f,$,rn~~lng •
on.·.•ffi~.l'pd~t • P6lht••$• j$:.
1;86rtt••·•• J:h
¢~rteClit)hJ9r¢~rv~~~9Ply
iF • 9·Q48.• nk·.I(HJ·•• : :
•. g98-,17.Jll.ar~the
h1 =247 + 3.475
r,orrepl~~I~vatj0l'l8fa.~.·f~6,~~m·;o/bat.
h1 =250.475 i~ .• tl1e.G<1[El~t\
(inf()rreft~ct!9n()f\1Y?:<>·· .• • • •
hz= 396 + 3.475 ® AIPtlll)tBI.ihE!•• F,§.••
readIQgi$Z.~nt,th£',
hz = 399.475 correctEld • e'~V{lti6n.of8.· •
isi114·~ • ·m"
Cons19f!l'ing•• • reffaClIoJl••
and.p~rvaW%.····lf
h = he + ~ (h 1 + hzl. 0.067 0 1....L
n_ HJ. ",117.Q§3m.
atldlhe.C(jrrepti 011 fof
L 0 1 + Dz
refraBtlon.is?005••• ~at • j
%reCFrreFiol1
~ = 399 475 + 48 (250.475 - 399.475) f!JrcllrvatU~?/
1/. 12+48
@ Considerins.curvalure.aryd •
rSifacfion.the
- 0.067 (12)(48) corret;ledelevatian••
ofpoil1t.CiS$lh8$m·
h = 241.633 m. > 236 m.
Thef·S.reading.ontherodaIC.is.2J6.m.
TheC9ffecUon·for••
curvature••lsQ.046while
thatforrefi'actiOnis 0.004.·
Determine HJ
S-48

LEVE1I1G

Solution: Solution:
CD Correction for CUNature only: CD Oiff. in
elevation between Band C:
Corrected F.S. = 238.17 - 236.35
Corrected F.S. = 1.82 m.
Error in F.S. reading = 1.86 - 1.82
Error in F.S. reading = 0.04
CUNature and refraction correction =0.04
CUNature and refraction = curvature - refraction
0.04 = 0.048 • x
L~~·}.A.
{8:1·5'
h e & .
""':2600"'-..;

1
x = 0.008 refraction correction .!--
,
,--'"

ElfN.219.42m

® CUNature correction: hc1 = 0.067


(1.2)2
F.S. =147.063 - 144.86
hC1 = 0.09648
m.
F.S. =2.203
CUNatureand refraction correction hc2 = 0.067
(2)2
= 2.23 • 2.203 hC2 =0.268
=0.027 h1 =1200 tan
18'30'
CUNature and refraction = Curvature - refraction h1 =401.51 m.
correction h2 =2000 tan
8'15'
0.027 = CUNature· 0.005 ~ =289.99 m.
Curvature = 0.032 m. H= (h l + hCl)·
(h2• h0.)
H = (401.51 +
0.09648)· (289.99 + 0.268)
@ ValueofH.J.
H= 111.348m.
Curvature and refraction correction
=0.046 - 0.004
=0.042 ® Oiff. in elev.
between A and C:
Corrected F.S. = 2.16 - 0.042 Oiff. in elev. =
h2 + hC2
Corrected F.S. = 2.118 m. Oiff. in elev. =
289.99 + 0.268
H.I. =Elev. + Corrected F.S. Diff. in elev.
=290.258 m.
H.I. =311.85+2.118
H.I. =313.968 m. @ Elevation of B:
E1ev. B ='
219.42 + 401.51 ... 0.09648
Elev. B =
621.026 m.

,Frornp(Jit1f.A.ill•• bEltween••Efan(JC,•• the.an~le~.·


ofeleyallon9tBaMqafe18'3Q'and8'15~
r~sPectiMelY .••• A8irtPi~20()Orn·fr9rn.A.al1dl? A transit is sef up
at point Bwhich is between
is••12,OO.m·•• Jr'°mA, • • e.I#\laflgn•• of.A.is•. 219AZ.Ill. Aand B. The
Yertical angle obsef\led towards
abo\lt3se<lJilVill· . Ais known to be .
20' and thai of C is +12'.
The
honzontaldlstance between A and B is
cD Compute the difference in elevation 64~.80m. and that
of Band C is 1032.4Q m.
betWeen B and C, considering the effect of The height of
Instrument is 1.5 m.abOY8 8
fheeartl1s curvature and refraction. with A having an
elevation of 146.32 m.
@) CQmpute the difference in elevatiori Considering the
effect of curvature and
between Aand C. refraction
correction.
@ Gompute the elevation ofB.
5-49

lEVELING

®Gornpul~>th~<qff'fElre6Qe in ~HNaliQn
bEltvl~enA,gr9~,> .• •. . • .
i:ID.Pmnput¢•• tf\~.)differEll#¢e '>lnelElYaI160
pel>veenl\~nd8··)
Miradorhilhvfth.an. elev9tionofp26rn,iSoll.a
@'.Comput!3c.ftIe·.ElIEl\l()ti()n.of.~i •.
lifle••
~Elwee8.A~ror() • ~ill • ~hlh$~· .• el~YWipry·.i~
Solution: 660.·m·.9nd••
Q()thedr()lhillna...i'19.<3f1.~IW<:l~!Ofl
Of.60Qtii.·•• •
Di~I~n~.()H.-1ir~~orhiUfml'll)\tirQl'll
Dift. in elevation between A and B;

hHljsl0kfl1argdistaryCe8fMir~dorniRfrPm
G)

cathetlral.hi1l.i~ • 14·.km·•• • 9aO$i9~ringP~rY~tQte·

aodrefractioncorrectlOn. . .....
..

<D
CompUte.theQbS!tuciIQtlqMMllM9lsltM
at.•
Miragor.mll•• VItlElr·.o~~eiyjq~Q.1ftlEldqll

hlll.fr()Ill~WOl'a.tlill, • • • • • •.• • • • • • • • • • .• / • . ).<...<


.
®
\foIhaf.would.betheDejghlof.ElqY~lm~rs·

tRe.~reQled.9t.i\uror~.hill.affij·cmhe9ral~IH
$o•• •
that.Cal~eqr~I • • hill,lwror~Nll.lln~

Miradorhilj.wil'•• beirtervisi~l~wilh?·.4rfi~

t<>wererected.ft.the.~QP.of.MiW~%blll? •.• •.• >••

® Ifou·. tow~r •
wi!I .• b~.eract~d .• atAur()r<3·.hill
artd••
Mirador••hitf,•• ~>twould~e.tbehe~ht
hC1 =0.067 (0.6428W ()f.tower••
tQbEl.e~cIElq •. (ltGlllheQfilllJilI~Q
hC1 =0.028
Ihat.·.Mlrador•• and•• • Sathedral•• hill WiU•• be
' ~
lntervisiblefromA\Jrqrahill, '.' .
tan 20. = 642.80
h1 =233.96 m.
H1 = 233.96 m. - 0.028 Solution:
H1 = 233.932 CD Obstruction
of line of sight at Mirador hill:

Dift. in elevation between A and B


=233.932 - 1.55
= 232.382m.

(?) Diff. in elevation between Aand C:


h~ = 0.067 (1.0324)2
hC2 =0.071
h2 =1032.4 tan 12'
h2 = 219.44 m. - (~)
(h 1 - hz)- 0.067 Dl~
H2 =219.44 + 0.071 h -?2+
0 +~ / 1
H2 = 219.511 m.
12(660 - 600) - 0.067 (10)(12)
h=600+
10+12
Dift. in elevation between A and C
h = 624.69
m.
=H1 +H2
= 233.932 + 219.511
Obstruction
=626 - 624.69
=453.443 m. Obstruction
= 1.31 m.
. ® Elev. of B:
Elev. of B =146.32 + 233.932 - 1.55
Elev. of B = 378.702 m.
5-50

LEVEliNG

@ Equal heights of towers at Aurora and


Cathedral hills:

A line of levels is run from


8M, to 8M z which
is 12 km long. Elevation of 8M
1was found out
to be 100 m. and that of 8M 2
is 125.382 m.
Backsight and foresight
distances were 150 m.
and 100m. respectively.

G) Determine the corrected


elevation of 8M 2
considering the effect
of curvature and
refraction correction.
(2) If during the leveling
process the line of
h =h + QzJ.h1 - hz)· 0.067 °lfh
z 0 1 + fh sight is inclined
downward by 0.004 m. in
630=600+x a distance of 10 m, what
would be the
+ 12 [(660 +x) - (600 + x))· 0.067 (10)(12) corrected elevation of
8M 2?
@ If the average backsight
reading is 3.4 m.
10 + 12
and every time it is
taken, the rod is
x= 5.31 m.
inclined to the side
from the vertical by 4',
what should be the
corrected elevation of
8M2?
@ Height oftower at Cathedral hill:
Solution:
G) Corrected elevation of
8M 2 considering
curvature and refraction
correction.
hC1 =0.067 (0.15)z
hc, =0.00151
hC2 = 0.067 (0.100)2
hcz =0.00067

Error per set up =


0.00151 - 0.00067
Error per set up =
0.00084
h =h + Oz (h, - hz)- 0.067 O,D:?
12000
No. of set ups =150 +
100 =48
z 0, + Dz
626 = 600 + x Total error =48(0.00084)
+ 12 [660· (600 =x)]- 0.067(10)(1~ Total error = 0.04032
10 + 12 Corrected elevation of
8M2
. =125.382 - 0.04032
- 12 (60-x) = 125.34168 m.
3404
. -x+ 22
748.88 = 22x + 720 -12x @ Corrected elevation of
8M 2 if the line of
10x= 28.88 sight is inclined
downward by 0004 m.
x= 2.89 m. every 10m:
!!L _0.004
150 - 10
h1 = 0.06
J1L _0.004
100 - 10
hi = 004
S-51

LEVEliNG

Errorper set up =0.06 - 0.04 Solution:


Error per set up =0.02 CD Corrected elevation of 8M 2
due to
Total error = 0.02(48) curvature and refraction
correction:
Total error = 0.96 m. hI =0.067 (0.11W
Corrected elev. of 8M2 h1 = 0.0008107
h2 =U.067 (0.070)2
= 125.382 + 0.96
h2 = 00003283
=126.342 m.
Error per set up = 0.0008107
- 0.0003283
® Corrected elev. of 8M2 if the rod is inclined Error per set up = 0.0004824
m.
by 4' from the vertical: 9360
No. of set ups = 110 + 70 =52
Error in reading per set up
=3.4 - 3.4 Cos 4' Total error = 52 (0.0004824)
T(}tal error = 0.0251 m.
=0.0083m.
Corrected elevation of8M2
= 31.388 - 0.0251
Total error =48(0.0083) = 31.3629 m.
Total error = 0.3984 m.
Corrected elev. of 8M2 '.?1 Corrected elev. of 8M 2 due
to line of sight
inclined upward by 0.003 m.
every 25 m:
= 125.382 - 0.3984
Diff. in distance per set up
= 110 -.70
=124.9836 m. Diff. in distance per set up
=40 m.
x 0.003
,40=20
x = 0.006 m.
9360
No. of set ups =1Tclt7O =52
A line of levels 9.36 km is run to check the
Total error =52(0.006)
elevation of 8M 2 which has been found to be
31.388 meters, with 8M 1 of elevation at sea Total error = 0.312 m.
level (reference datum). backsight and Corrected elevation of 8M2
foresight distances are consistently 110 m. = 31.388 - 0.312
and 70 m. respectively. =31.076 m.
cD Detemline the corrected elevation of 8M2 @ Corrected elevation of 8M2
due to rod
considering the effect of curvature and settlement·
refraction correction. . . 9360
1 51
@ if the level used is out of adjustment so No. af turnmg pOints = 110 +
70 - =
that when the bubble was centered the line Total error =0.004 (51)
of sight was inclined 0.003 m. upward in a
Total error = 0.204 m.
distance of 20 m. Determine the corrected
elevation of 8M 2, , Corrected elevation of 8M2
'j If at every turning points the rod settles = 31.388 - 0.204
about 0.004 m., determine the corrected = 31.184m.
elevation of BM 2.
S-52

LEVEliNG

P#i~g.M.$llgineers • lfw~l,tMreilqiM.on.arod
8qfu·~WW~S9b$IW"edt(l~~.2·~1t:n·Th~
.\)\;jbble·was••lf)l(el@·.ttlry•. ~·ll·p~~~Qll.·lbe • leVElI
·t\.lbE!aM.thE!rOd•• @Mingihdr$$~Wz.a74rrl.
ii) • D~te®lr@.t® .• ~ngletl1at.tl1~.blJbbl~.()fl.lh13 •
•·.·.·.···lul)¢WM•• qeYiMi!d•• d(je.tO.M.inM~aseln
M~f()(jljl#<ljol!lbYfu9\@9fD~I$I~C()Il~
ijpW~rdin$ec()fld~¢f*c.«· •.. . •.••
·~ • ·.·P13~wjn~.m~.all~@M"~1~9r~11~Sp~Gl3.
i:iflhelubeirlsecondSofar&>
.·&>•.•.• D~teri1ijOO··t@r@iU$Qf • @&afOr$•• 6ftHe
:i~yelt~pejf@@~P;~c~@th~hibei$
@.·.Gprn@~.mll.COlTec~Oll.fbbl:l.~pplied.tq.tb~.
<MOmmlong. . .
~~vatl()nOfBM2-

®.••
~OIl1P9tethecorrecte9.elElvftiOnofBM2.··.
Solution: &:i••
Cornpme.tl1E!.correc!ed.elev<ltionofBM3·····
CD Angle the bubble on the tube was deviated
due to an increase in the rod reading: Solution:
CD Correction to
be applied to BMi

~:F=

,
Station
Distance -Observed

Ikm) Elevation
R\ iR BM 1
0 1oo.00m.
~8~ BM?
4 121.42 m.
BMo
6 131.64m.
BM 1
10 100.15 m.

Error of
closure = 100.15 - 100
S =2.874 - 2.81 =0.064
0.064 Error of
closure =0.15 m.
tan8=-- -fL_.!
80
0.15 -10
8" (0.000005) = 0-:4
C1 =0.06
Correction to be applied to 8M2
8" = 160"
® Corrected
elevation of BMi
® Angular value of one space:
160 Corrected
elevation = 121.42 -0.06
0=-=32" Corrected
elevation =121.36 m.
5
® Radius of cUNature:
o S ® Corrected
elevation of BM3:
R-L Correction 6
0=0.6(5) 0.15
10
0=3 mm =0.003 m. Correction =
0.09
0.003 _ 0.064 Corrected
elev. = 13164 - 0.09
R - 80
Corrected
elev. =131.55 m.
R=3.75m.
5-53

LEVELING

@ Adjusted elevation of
B:
Corrected diff. in
elev. =475.31 + 12.03
Corrected diff. in
e/ev. =487.34 m.
Adjusted elev. of B
=1584 +487.34
Adjusted elev. of B
=2071.34 m.

The .elevation of the base at station A is


1584m. above sea level. The barome1ric
r~;ldi(ig at station A was 65,53 cm, ofHg.at
thelnst..ml when the barometric reading at Give~below.are.th$ •
porfe$p6rKling.b~ro~triS
statlon i B Which Is higher than A was
reildir9~.i1lI~o~lVerlplil~ .•••.• T~re¥Vi1ltionAf
M,39 cm~ of Hg. The temp. at the time of
observation at A W3S g'C While 1hat I'll B was

·rv1o~mM~wpn ·is.1~9Q/Il'l·
• • above.• ~a • le,,~1.
Motlm.~YQn •.
is.loWeJ"tI1~n.Mpu~t.J\pIJ .• • • • • • • >•·•·•
22'C. rime of observation on both slatlorl is
10:20 AM.

CD .Compute the barometric


reading at MoUnt
Apo at10,30 A.M.
••... ....• . . ...
@Compule IhediffereMe in
elevation
between Mount Apo and
Mount Mayan.·
® What is the elevation of
Mount Apo above
sealevel. .

Solution: Solution:
CD Uncorrected difference in elevation CD Barometric reading at
Mount Apo at
belYieen A and B: 10:30 AM:
76 76
z =19122 log h~- 19122 log h
Barometric
2
76 76 Station Time
Reading Air
z =19122 log 65.53 -1912210g 69.39
.(cmofHq) Temp.
Mt. Arm 9:25
74.73 8.3'C
z =1230.95 - 755,64
z =475.31 m.
Mt. Mayan
10:30 68.96 He
Mt.Apo
10:57 74.57 6.rC

@ Correction for the difference in elevation:


8 + 22
Mean temp. =- 2-

Mean temp. =15'C


Correction for diff. in elevation
=0.0253 (475.31)
92 mn f] ~ 10:57

m;, 7473} ' } 0.16

74.57
= 12.03 m.
5-54

lEVEliNG

Oiff. in time = 10:57·9:25


Diff. in time = 1:32 hrs. = 92 min.
Oiff. in time = 10:30·9:25
Oiff. in time =1:05 hrs. =65 min.
Diff. in reading = 74.73·74.57 TM~re\latiCln°tlM~~perba~eAis37~1l1.
Diff. in reading =0.16 em. Whll~t~*\l.l)tth6 •
lpwerb~~at~,m~~~vallQr
Is•• 1Sq.rn.• • • At.~giM~rt • •
jnsta~tt~f¢ealtirn~~er •
By ratio and proportion re.adirg$ lndiCali~ that lhe
i(jiffete.~.~ ••. ·W .
65_2...- ¢l~aliCln • of~n •.
lr~~rined~t~p()jll~·.qftpmth~ .
92 - 0.16 qpp¥P~$~AI~~~m·~I1d;th~dl~~rt~Bem
el#if9tj9Jifrom@!l.·19Yler.b~$tl§ .
tOPOl!1t•• q IS.•
x=0.11 em. 2?.. rrl.~in~thElttlJ~~I¢va~9!
lpfpolrtCirl
b~tWeeni\~OdEl· .. . .
...
Barometric reading of Mount Apo at 10:30
=74.73·0.11
= 74.62cm. Solution:

® Difference in elevation between Mount Apo


and Mount Mayan:

H = 18336.6 (log h1 • log h2) [1 + T~oT2]


X
h 1 = 74.62 em. (barometric reading of I

Mount Apoat 10:30)


h2 = 68.96 em. (barometric reading of
Mount Mayan at 10:30)
y
T1 = temp. at Mount Apo at 10:30
T2 = temp. at Mount Mayan at 10:30

9:25 } {3'C x=true difference in elevation


between
AandC
92 10:30 65 2.2
{ By ratio and proportion:
x 219
10:57 6.1·C 209 = 234
92 _2.2 x = 195.60
65-x
x= 1.6'C Elevation of C= 375 • 195.60
T1 = 8.3 • 1.6 = 6.7'C Elevation of C = 179.40 m.
T2 = 1.1'C y=219-195.60
H = 18336.6 (log 74.62 • log 68.96)
y= 23.40 m.
[1 + (6.7500+ 1.1)]
Elevation of C= 156 + 23.40
H= 637.97m.
Elevation of C = 179.40 m.
® Elevation of Mount Apo:
Elev. = 1200 + 637.97
Elev. =1837.97 m.
8·55

COMPASS SURVEYING

1. Needle bent· if the needle


is not perfectly
straight, a constant error
is introduced in all
Surveyor's .Compass - an instrument for observed bearings. The
needle can be
determining the. horizontal direction of a corrected by using pliers.
line with reference to the direction of the
magnetic needle. 2. Pivot bent • if the point of
the pivot
supporting the needle is not
at the center of
the graduated circle, there
is introduced a
variable systematic error,
the magnitude of
which depends on the
direction in which
the compass is sighted. The
instrument
can be corrected by bending
the pivot until
the end readings of the
needle are 180'
1. Compass box = with a circle graduated apart for any direction of
pointing.
from O· to 90' in both directions from the N.
and S. points and usually having the E and 3. Plane of sight not vertical
or graduated
W points interchanged. circle not horizontal.
2. Sight Vanes - which defines the line of 4. Sluggish
sight in the direction of the SN points of the
compass box. 5. Reading the needle
3. Magnetic needle - has the property of
pointing a fixed direction namely, the 6. Magnetic variations
magnetic meridian.

1. Compass is light and


portable and it
1. Pocket compass - which is generally
requires less time for
setting up, sighting
held in the hand when bearings are
and reading.
observed; used on reconnaissance or other
rough surveys.
2. An error in the direction of
one line does
2. Surveyor's compass - which is mounted not necessarily affect other
lines of the
usually on a light tripod, or s.ometimes on a survey.
Jacob's staff (a point stick about 1.5 m.
long). 3. The compass is especially
adopted to
running straight lines
through woods and
3. Transit compass - a compass box other places where obstacles
are likely to
similar to the surveyor's compass, interfere with the line of
sight.
mounted on the upper or vernier plate of the
engineer's transit.
8-56

COMPASS SURVEYING

Why is the East and West points


of a compass
interchanged?

1. The compass reading is not very accurate. From the figure shows a
compass having
a NS and EW calibration. In
using a compass,
2. The needle is unreliable especially with always sight the object with.
the north end of
the presence of local attractions, such as the compass and the compass
needle when
electric wires, metals, magnets that may pivoted and brought to rest
gives the magnetic
render it practically useless. bearing.

Magnerit.Norrh

Magnetic declination· the angle that a


magnetic meridian makes with the true
meridian.
Magnetic dip. the vertical angle which the
magnetic needle makes with the horizontal
due to uneven magnetic attraction from the
magnetic poles.
Isogonic lines - an imaginary lines passing
through places having the same magnetic Let us sayan object on the
right side is
observed, sight this object
with the north end
declination:
of the compass. The needle
atthis instant will
Isoclinic lines - an imaginary line passing point steadily on the magnetic
north, so a
through points having the same magnetic reading could now be obtained
as shown as
dip. NE.
Agonic lines· imaginary line passing through
places having a zero declination.

(J)1'hei
ol:i~rVedcomp~5sbearlng of a line in
,1981 W8S$, 37'3:0~S. ~nd the
magnetic
',' "detli~tioriQftheplade
then W8S lmown to
be 3'10'W. ,'If'has also
discovered that
When the compass traverse forms a
closed figure, the interior angle at each station "dUring' the6bserv~ijon local
attraction of
is computed from the observed bearings at that " '. the place at that mom~t of
5'Eexisled,
'Fifldthe trueazirnuth
aHhe line.
particUlar point, the computed value which is
free from local attraction. The sum of the @ 'The ~aring of aline from A
to B was
interior angles of a closed polygon must be measured as S. 16'3Q'W. It
was found
equal to (n • 2) 180' in which nis the number of that there-was local
attraction at both A
sides of the polygon. Since the error of
observing a bearing is accidental, it is
'and a and therefore a
forward and a
backward bearing w,ere
taken between A
assumed to be distributed equally at each 'and apoin! Cat which there
was no local
interior angle. The bearings are then adjusted attraction. If the bearing
of AC was
from a line whose observed bearing is to be 8,30'10' E. and that of CA
was N. 28'20'
correct using the adjusted values of each W., What is the corrected
bearing of AS?
interior angle.
5-57

COMPASS SURVEYING

@ ··m•• • •a•• • pattic~IN • • •y¢llr,.ihll·.·lTJa9flellc @ Magnetic bearing


of line DE:
d~l;lin~~()l'I·.~.~.·.1··1W • l:~n~I~~m~9neti9
wanngQflill~.peWas~,la'3{)'.W .• ••lfthe
~~cHI<!r'larja,tl(mp~y~aris>3·E.,
cl~tE!fl1'\ire .• ·~ • ~g~ti¢~rtI'lgQftlneOE
!5yearslarer?/ ... ..... . . .

Solution:
<D True azimuth of the line:

True bearing DE
=16'30' ·1'10'
True bearing =S 37'30' E-1'50' True bearing DE
=N 15'20' W
True bearing = S 35'40' E
True azimuth = 324'20' Magnetic bearing
of DE
= 15'20' +
1'25'
® Corrected bearing of AB: =N16'45'W

A field ish; the form


ofa tegularpentagol1:
The direction oflha
bounding sides were
surveyed wffh an
aSSttmed meridian S' to the
right of the true.
nOrth and south meridian. As
$urveyed .With an
assumed meridian, the
beating Mone side AS
ls N. $3'20' W.
Angle at A=16'30' +30'10'
Angle at A = 46'40'
<D Compute the true
bealingof tine BC.
@ Compute the true
azimuth of line CO.
Bearing of AB =46'40' - 28'20'
Bearing of AB = S 18'20' W @ Compute the true
bearing of line AE.
5-58

COMPASS SURVEYING

Solution:
Sum of all interior angles of a closed
polygon.
= =
(n- 2) 180 (5 - 2) 180 540'
Value of each inferior angle = ~O
Value of each inferior angle = 108

TN
MN

N.
73"00' W. . . S. 72'15 E. ..

\DP®lput~fl'le~@l'ing9fljMIilQ.
®¢PmPlJleth~~eanjjg(jfII~¢p.
@ ()QfflPute(!
lEl6ij<IDngb1Hh~.DI: .• • •

Solution:

LINES BEARING AZIMUTH


AB N.28'20'W 151'40' A

Be
CD
N.43'40· E
S. 64'20' E
223'40'
295'40'
E~
\~7'Jo,3
'30 B

Aw
DE S.7'40'W 7'40'
AE S.79'4Q'W 79'40'
AB N.28'20'W 151'40'
60'

CD True bearing of line BC =N. 43'40' E 7~B


c~
..........
D
® True azimuth of line CD = 295'40'

@ True bearing of line AE =S. 79'40' W


5-59

COMPASS SURVEYING

Point Interior angles LINES AZIMUTH


A 59'00' + 37"30' =96'30' AS 322'30'
B 180' • (37'30' +43'15') = 99'15' + 81'00'
C 73'00' +44'15' = 117'15' 403'30'
D 180' • (12'45' +72'15') =95'00' (since there is no
azimuth
E 120' + 13'15' = 133'15' greater than 360',
subtract 360')
541'15'
403'30'
Sum of interior angles - 360'00'
= (n - 2) 180 =(5· 2X180) =540' BC 43'30'
Error = 541'15' - 540'00' + 53'00'
Error = 1'15' (toa big) CO 106'30'
. = 5"
Error per station 75' = 15' + 85'15'
DE 191'45'
45'00'
POINTS CORRECTED EA 238'45'
A 96'15' 83'45'
B 99'00' AE 322'30'
f---
C 117'00' .
0 94'45' CD Bearing ofline BC = S. 43'30' W
E 133'00'
@ Bearing of line CO = N, 73'30' W

INTERIOR ANGLE ® Bearing of line DE =N. 11'45' E

LINES BEARING AZIMUTH


AB S. 37'30' E 322'30'
BC S.43'30'W 43'30' CD Compute the deflection angte at C.
CO N.73'30'W 106'30' CV Compute the bearing of line DE.
DE N.11'45' E 191'45' @ Compute the bearing of line AE.
AB S.3T30'E 322'30'
5-60

COMPASS SURVEYING

Solution:
CD Deflection angle at C:

Solution:
Station Interior Anales
A 180- L
Ar--__ ~~
B
C
180+R
180- L
0 180-L
E 180- L
C =180' - 142'54' F 180- L
C=37'06'R G 180 -L

® Bearing of line DE:


AB =180' - 96'32'
AB =N 83'28' E
CD =142'54' - 83'28'
CD = S 59'26' E
DE::: 180' - 59'26'
DE= 120'34'
DE= 132'18'-120'3'l'
DE =S 11'44' E

® Bearing ofline AE:


Sum ofinterior angles
EA =11'44' + 50'46'
,EA =N 62'30' W
=1080 - LL + 180 + 'LR
=1260-2,L + LR
Sum ofinterior angles = (7 - 2) 180
Sum of interior angles = 900
900 =1260· LL + LR
360=LL-LL
Therefore the difference of the sum of
deflection angles is always 360'

2,L =50'20 +83'32 +63'27


+34'18' +72'56' + 30'45'
2,L =370'18' L
LR= 10'11' R
2,L·LR=360
370'18' ·10'11' =360'07'

CD Total error of the deflection angle:


Error = 360W . 360'
Error = 07' too big
S-61

COMPASS SURVEYING

® Bearing of line DE:

Points Corrected Reflection Anale


A 85'20'L -01 85'19'l
8 10'32'R +01 10'12'R
C 83'32' L - 01 83'31'L
0 63'2,l -01 63'26'L
E 34'18' L -01 34'1TL
F 72'56' L - 01 72'55'L
G 30'45' L -01 30'44'L
Beanng ofline DE =N. 3"15' E

Check: @ Bearing of line GA = S,


45'19' W
LL =85'10' +93'31' +63'26'
+ 34"1, + 72'55' + 30'44'
L.L = 10'12'
LL -'LR = 370'12' - 10'12' = 360 (check)
An engineers notebook gives the
observed
•magnetic bealingsQf tile
fOlklWlng traverSe, .
LINES AZIMUTH
AB 320'
BC 320' -10'12' =330'12'
CD 330'12' - 83'31' =246'41'
DE 246'41' - 63'26' = 183'15'
EF 183'15' - 34'1, = 148'58'
FG 148'58' " 72'55' = 76'03'
GA 76'03' - 30'44' = 45'19'
AB 45'19' + 180' +(180 - 85'19')
= 320'00'
CD Compute the local attraction
at A
@ Compute the local attraction
atB,
LINES BEARING AZIMUTH
@ Compute thetoeali'lttractlon at
C,
AS S.40'E 320'00'
Be S. 29'48' E 330'12'
Solution:
CD N. 66'41' E 246'41'
DE N. 3'15' E 183'15'
EF N,3"02'W 148'58'
FG S.76'03'W 76'03'
GA S. 45'19' W 45'19'
AB S,40' E 320'00'

B
S-62

COMPASS SURVEYING

Solution:
D
TN
'MN
B
,
,,
,
0'32'

B
A

LINES CORRECTED LOCAL


BEARING ATTRACTION

c
AB S.68'19'E A =0'41' E
BC N. 39'41' E B=1'19'W CD True beanng of AB:
OJ N.S1'OO'W C=09'W Tn/e bearing ofAB =48'45' +
0'52'
DA S. 63'30' N D=O True bearing of AB = N49'37' E

Check: ® Length of AD:


Since the triangle is
equilateral, it is also
48'11' + 108' + 83'19' + 120'30' =360'00' eqUiangular.

CD Leal attraction at A: B
Lcal attraction at A= 69' - 68'19'
Leal attraction at A = 0'41' E
® Local attraction at B:
Local attraction at B = 68'19' - 61'
Local attraction at B = 1"19' W
@ Local attraction at C:
A
[Dcal attraction at C= 39'50' - 39'41'
Local attraction at C = 09' W

c
AB=BC= CA
Area = (AB)(AC)
2 S'In 60'
The side A~ of an equilafenilfleld' ABC with' 69280 _ (AB)2 Sin 60'
an ~rea of 692:80 ~q",ri>hasamag1leti:C 2
bearing of N 48:45' Fin>1930 wheil the AB=40m.
magn~lic declination WB$O'52' E. A$sumeB
and C is on. the north eastsidji, . . .. . 1
A1 = 3" (692.80)
CD FInd the true bearing of A6.·••••. '. . A1 =230.93
® .Find the length of AD with pOint Don the A 40 (x) Sin 60'
line Be and makillg the area of thetl'iangle
1 2
ABD one third of the Whole area. . x= 13.3 m.
@ Compute the bearing of line AD. (AD)2 = (40)2 + (13.3)2.2(40)
(13.3) Cos 60'
(AD)2 = 1245 .
AD= 36.3m.
S-63

COMPASS SURVEYING

@ Bearing of line AD: @ Bearing of line 8E:


Sin f1I Sin 50' =90' • 53'0748"
13.3'=36:3 =N 36'52'12" W
f1I = 20'08'
Bearing of AD =49'37' +20'08' @ Bearing of line DA:
Bearing of AD = N 69'45' E = 79'41'44" - 26'33'56"
= S 53'07'48" W

A triangUlar lot has for \Jne of its boundaries a.


In the defiectionaogie
trClverse wilh atraO$il
nne 1500 rn, long Which runs due East «pm A- survey data below. Assume
deflection T, T2
The eastern boundary is 900 m. long and the
T3 and bearing Tl T2 is
correct.
western boundClry 1200 m. long.. Astraight li~e .:.
cuts the western· bqundaiyal the iniddle point
o and meets Ihe easterly boundary E, 6{)O tit
from the Sf. comerR· .
CD Find the bearing af line ED.
@ Find the bearing of line BE
@ Find the bearing of line DA.

Solution:
CD Bearing of line ED:

(1) Find the bearing af line


T2 • Ta,
@ Find the beClring of line
T3• T4.
@ Find the bearing of line
T4 • Tl .
Angle ACB is a right angle having the ratio
of its side as 3:4:5. Solution:
. 900
Sin A = 1500
A = 36'52'12"
B =90' - 36'52'12" = 53'OT48"
300
CotE= 600
E = 63'26'04"
0= 90' - 63'26'04" = 26'33'56"
DE Sin 63'26'04 = 600
DE=670.83
Bearing of line ED
=180' - (36'52'12" + 63'26'04")
=S 79'41'44" W
S-64

COMP'SS SURVEYING

I Def. < S to the right IDef. <S to the left


R 96'42' IL = 69'16'
R 176'33'
R 156'00'
429'15'
LR=429'15'
LL = 69'16'
359'59' Error 01' too small

Correction is applied only at T-4 =156'01'

156'01 '
Solution:

Line Azimuth Back Bearing Distances


Azimuth
1- 2 225'25' 42'25' N.42'25' E 118.38
2-3 38'58' 218'58' S. 38'58' IA 83.22
3-4 329'42' 149'42' S. 30'18' E 83.44
4-1 125'43' 305'43' N. 54'17' .... 85.26
1-2 222'25' 42'25' N.42'25' E

CD Bearing of line T2 - T3:


=S.38'58'W Interior Ls:
~ Bearing of line T3 - h LB =55'45' +58'40'
= 114'25'
= S. 30'18'E LC =180 + 14'30' -
58'30' = 136'08'

:;v Bearing of line T4 - T{


LD =180 -14'00' -
77'10' = 88'50'
=N,54'17'w LE =40'20' + 77'10'
= 111'30'
LA =180 -40'15'
-55'30' = 84'15'

541'00'
S-65

COMPASS SURVEYING

CD Error ofmisclosure:
Error ofmisclosure =541' - 540'
Errorofmisclosure =1'00'

® Adjusted interior angle at station C:


Correction per interior angle
= roo' =12'
5

Corrected interior Ls:


LB =114'25' - 0'12' = 114'13'
LC = 136'08' - 0'12' = 135'56'
LD = 88'50' - 0'12' = 88'38'
LE = 117'30' - 0'12' =117'18'
LA =84'15' - 0'12' = 84'03'

Angle at station C = 135'56'


Solution:
@ Adjusted forward bearing ofline CD:

a = 180 - 77'10' - 88'38'


a= 14'12'

Bearing ofline CD = S 14'12' E CD Error of deflection angle:


IR =55'30' + 99'30' + 44'00' + 92'00'
+68'55'
LR=359'55'
LL=O
LR- IL =359'55'
LR- IL=360'-

Error = OS' (to be added)

Distribute the error equally at


each station
=01'
5-66

COMPASS SURVnlNG

STATION CORRECTED Arithmetical sum


ofdepartures
1 55'31' R = 1096 +
1088.84
2 99'31' R = 2185.67
3 44'01' R Correction in
latitude:
4 92'01'R ~_ 64:13
5 68'56' R 15.97 -1870.97
C1 = 0.00854
(640.13) = 5.47
~ = 0.00854
(299.05) = 2.55
~ =
0.00854(281.98) = 2.41
C4 = 0.00854
(362.44). = 3.10
Cs = 0.00854
(287.37) = 2.44

, 15.97
Correction in
departure:
--.fL =J 12.87
7.99 2185.67
C1 = 0.00366
(112.87) = 0.41
~ = 0.00366
(843.56) = 3.09
~ = 0.00366
(140.40) = 0.51
LINES BEARING AZIMUTH C4 = 0.00366
(796.41) = 2.91
1·2 N 10' E 190'00' Cs = 0.00854
(292.43) = 1.07
2-3 S70'20' E 289'31'
7.99
3-4 S26'28' E 333'32'

(uncorrected) (corrected)
4-5 S65'32'W 65'32'
5-1 N45'30'W 134'30'
Lines LIn
DEP LAT DEP
+5.47
- 0.41
'1-2 +640.13
+112.87 +645.60 +112.46
LINES Distance LAT DEP
- 2.55
- 3.09
1-2 650 +640.13 +112.87
2-3 - 239.05
+843.56 - 296.50 +840.47
2-3 895 - 299.05 +843.56
- 2.41
- 0.51
3-4 315 - 281.98 +140.40
3-4 - 281.98
+140.40 - 279.57 +139.89
4-5 872 - 362.44 ·796.41
- 3.10
+2.91
5-1 410 +287.37 - 292.43
4-5 - 362.44 -
786.41 - 359.34 - 799.32
+927.50 +1096.83
+2.44
+1.07
- 943.47 -1088.84
5-1 +287.37 -
292.43 +289.81 - 293.50
• 15.97 + 7.99
@ Linear enor of closure: _ LINE LAT
DMD DOUBLE

AREA
Linear error of closure =.yr-(1--'5.'-97-)2-+-(7-.9-9i
1- 2 +645.60
+112.46 +7260418
Linear error of closure = 17,86 - 296.50
2-3
+1065.39 - 315888.14
3-4 - 279.57
+2054:75 - 57193033
@ Area by DMD method:
Balance the traverse using transit rule. 4-5 -359.34
+1386.32 -49816023
Arithmetical sum of latitudes 5-1 +289.81
+293.50 +8505924
=972.50 +343.47
2A -- 1228315.28
;, 1870.97
A =614157.64 m2
5·67

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

2. Lower plate:
a. Outer plate
b. Lower clamp
c. Outer spindle
Transit - it is an instrument of designed 3. Leveling plate group:
primarily for measuring horizontal and . a. Lower clamp and
tangent screw
vertical angle. b. Leveling screws
c. Leveling head
d. Foot plate
Line of collimation - a line
segment joining
the intersection of the
cross hairs and the
optical center of the
objective~ens when in
1. Engineer's transit - a transit provided proper adjustment.
with vertical circle and a long level tube on
Line of sight- the line
joining the intersection
its telescope.
of the cross hairs and
the optical center of
2. Plain transit: a transit without a vertical the objective lens,
regardless of whether it
circle and telescope level. is in adjustment or not.
When in
adjustment, the line of
sight and the line of
3. City transit - a transit without a compass
collimation can be
termed either of the
and having a U-shaped one piece
other.
standard.
Focusing - consists in the
adjustment of the
4. Mining transit - a transit provided with an
eyepiece and the
objective so that the
auxiliary telescope, a reflector for
cross hairs and the
image can be seen
illuminating the cross hairs and a diagonal
clearly at the same
time.
prismatic eyepiece for upward sighting, 60'
above the horizon.
5. Theodolite - a transit designed for
surveying of high precision.
6. Geodimeter - a transit which can measure 1. The adjustment of the
plate bubble
distances using the principles of the speed 2. The adjustment of the
vertical cross h'air
of light. 3. The adjustment of the
line of sight
4. The adjustment of the
standards
5. The adjustment of the
telescope bubble
Three principal subsidivions of a 6. The adjustment of the
vertical vernier
transit and parts under each
subd ivision:
Four adjustments of the
transit
which is not ordinarii
performed:
1. Upper plate:
a. Telescope and telescope level 7. To make the line of sight
as defined by the
b. Telescope standard horizontal hair coincide
with the optical
c. Telescope clamp and tangent screw
axis.
d. Vertical circle and vertical vernier 8. To make the axis of the
objective slide
e. Plate levels, compass box, upper perpendicular to the.
horizontal axis.
tangent screw 9 .To center the eyepiece
slide.
f. Vernier and inner spindle 10. To make the axis of the
striding level
parallel to the horizontal
axis.
8-68

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

1. Adjustment of the Plate Bubble:


Correction: If the point
appears to depart from
Object: To make the axis of the plate level the cross hair,
loosen the two
lie in a plane perpendicular to the adjacent capstan
screws and rotate
vertical axis. the cross hair ring
in the telescope
tube until the point
traverses the
Test: Rotate the instrument about the
enUre length of the
hair. Tighten the
vertical axis until each level tube is
same screws.
parallel to a pair of opposite
leveling screws. Center the
bubbles fly means of the leveling
screws. Rotate the transit end for
end about the vertical axis. If the
bubble remains on the center, then
the axis of the plate level tube is
perpendicular to the vertical axis.
Correction: I.f the bubbles become displaced,
bnng them halfway back by means
of the adjusting screws. Level the
instrument again and repeat the test
to verify the results.

Point sighted
1sf position

3. Adjustment of the line of


sight:

Object: To make the line of


sight
perpendicular to the
horizontal axis.

Test: Level the instrument.


Sight on the
2. Adjustment of the vertical cross hair:
point A about 150 m.
away, with the
Object: To make the vertical cross hair in a telescope on the
normal position.
plane perpendicular to the With both horizontal
motions of the
horizontal axis. instrument clamped,
plunge the
telescope and set
another point B
Test: Slight the vertical cross hair on a
on the line of sight
and about the
well defined point not less than 60
same distance away on
the
m. away. With both horizontal
opposite side of the
transit.
mo~ions of the instrument clamped,
Unclamp the upper
motion, rotate
sWing the telescope through a
the instrument about
the vertical
small vertical angle, so that the
axis, and again sight
at A with the
point traverses the length of the
telescope inverted,
Clamp the
vertical cross hair. If the point
upper motion. Plunge
the telescope
appears to move continuously on
as before, if B is on
the line of sight,
the hair, then the cross hair is in
adjustment the desired relation
exist.
S-69

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

Correction: If the line of sight does not fall on


B set a point C on the line of sight
beside B. Marked a point D, 1/4 of
the distance from Cto B, and adjust
the cross hair ring by means of the
two opposite horizontal screws
until the line of sight passes
through D. The point sighted
should be at the same elevation as
the station occupied by the transit.

Correction: If the line of


sight does not fall on
B, set a point C, on
the line of sight
beside B. A point D,
halfway
between Band C, will
lie in the
same vertical plane
with the height
point A. Sight on D,
elevate the
telescope until the
line of sight is
beside A, loosen the
crews of the
bearing cap, and
raise or lower the
adjustable end of
the horizontal
axis until the line
of sight is in the
same vertical plane
with A.

4. Adjustment of standards: 5. Adjustment of the telescope


bubble:

Object: To make the horizontal axis Object: To make the axis of


the telescope
perpendicular to t he vertical axis. level parallel to
the line of sight.

Test: Set up the transit near a building or


other object on which is some well-
defined point A at a certain vertical
angle. Level the instrument very
carefully thus making the vertical
axis truly vertical. Sight at the high
point A and with the horizontal
motions clamped depress the
telescope and set a point B on the
ground below A. Plunge the
telescope, rotate the instrument end
for end about the vertical axis, and
r
d
--------.----,~_-Ih_

again sight on A. Depress the


telescope as before, it the line of
sight falls on B, then the desired
relation exist.
S-70

DRDRS IN TRANSIT WORK

Test & Correction: Use the two-Peg Test Test: Level the instrument
first by means
method. Select two point A and B of the plate levels and
then by
say, 60 m. apart. Set up the transit means of the telescope
bubble,
close to A so that when the rod is center the telescope
bubble
held upon it, the eyepiece will be carefully and observe
if the vernier
about a quarter of an inch from the reads zero. If not
proceed as
rod. Look through the telescope follows.
with the wrong end - to at the rod
and find the rod reading at the cross Correction: Slightly loosen the
capstan
hair if visible. If not take the screws holding the
vernier and shift
reading by means of a pencil point the vernier lightly by
tapping lightly
opposite the center of field of view. with a pencil until the
zeros
Tum the telescope toward Band coincide.
take a rod reading on it. Subtract
one reading from the other to secure
the apparent difference in elevation
betWeen the two pegs. The transit
is then taken to B and the operation
is repeated. The mean of the two
apparent difference in elevation is
the true difference in elevation
between the two pegs. The rod
reading on A with the instrument
1. Non-adjustment, eccentricity of
circle, and
still at B, is then computed. With errors of graduation.
the computed value for the rod 2. Changes due to temperature and
wind.
reading at A known, the end of the
telescope bubble tube is raised or 3. Uneven setting of tripod
lowered by means of the adjusting 4. Poor focusing (parallax) ,
screws until the telescope bubble
5. Inaccurate setting over a point
is centered.
6. Irregular refraction of
atmosphere
6. Adjustment of the vertical circle and
vernier.
Object: To make the vernier read zero when
the telescope bubble is centered.
1. Reading in the wrong direction
from the
index in a double vemier.
W:'mier 2. Reading the vernier opposite
the one
which was set.
3. Reading the circle wrongly that
is reading
59' to 60'.

Vernier
5-71

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORI

2. Line of sight deflected


to the left of
collimation.
Angle measurement
clockwise.
A) Error of line of sight: Line of sight not
perpendicular to the horizontal axis.

x Cos h Sin E = X Sin e


Sin E = Sin e
Cosh
Sin E = Sin 2 Sec h
For small angle, Sin E = E
oJ"
Sin e =e /'"
Line ofcollimation
..
E =e Sec h
Line of sight ' .....

M- E2 =T - E1
T:: M- E2 +E1
T:: M- (E2 - E1)
T = M- E (sec h2- sec
h1)
T=M-E'

1) When h1 = h2,there is no
error.

2) When one angle is


depression and the
other is angle of
elevation having
1. Line of sight deflected to the right of line of numerically equal values,
there is no error.
collimation. (clockwise)

B) Error of traverse axis of


the telescope is
. . . <." not horizontal or
horizontal axis not
Line of collimation perpendicular to the
vertical axis.
Line ofsight

~
:
clan
e Une of
sight
:clan h
Line ofcolIimorion .
... /... y
Line ofsighl

T = true horizontal angle


T- E2 =M- E1
T=M +Er E1 Tan E = X tan htan e
T = M + (e sec h2- e sec h1) Tan E = tan h tan e
T = M + E (sec h2 - sec h1)
E=etanh
T= M + E'
For small angles,
whereE' = e (sec h2 - sec h1)
tan E =E
tane=e
5-72

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

1) left end of transverese axis higher. Angle


measurement clocwise.

1
To
measure an angle by repetition means
Line of sighl to measure
it several times, allowing the
Line ofcoUimatiofl vernier to
remain clamped at each time at the
previous
reading instead of setting it back at
zero when
sighting at the backsight.

The
first measurement is made in exactly
the same
manner as that described for a single
angle.
Then, do not touch the upper clamp or
Line of sjg~t upper
tangent screw, but loosen the lower
clamp turn
the telescope back to the first
object and
set exactly on it by means of the
T- E2 = M- E1 lower clamp
and tangent screw. The circle
T= M + Er E1 now reads,
not 0', but the first single angle.
T = M+ (e sec hr tan hI) Next loosen
the upper clamp, turn the
Tan = M + E' telescope to
the second object and set exactly
E' = E2 - E1 on it by the
use of the upper clamp and its
tangent
screw. The index of the vernier now
points to
the double angle on the horizontal
2) Right end of transverse axis higher. circle. Half
the angle now read is the improved
value of the
required angle. If the process is
repeated and
a third angle is mechanically
\
added to the
last reading, the circle reading is
\
\
\
divided by
three and still more exact values of
\ I
\. .t.--- Line oj collimufion the angle is
obtained. Six readings are
usually the
greatest number of times taken
with the
telescope in one position.

Laying Off
An Angle By Repetition:

To
layoff an angle of 18'30'20" with a
Line ofcollimation transit to
the nearest min. first layoff an angle
of 18'30' by
a single setting and establish a
temporary
stake. Measure this angle that has
just been
laid off by repetition. Assume that
repetition
determines 18'29'40" as the value of
the angle to
the temporary stake. A new stake
must then be
set a short perpendicular
distance
called an offset from the temporary
stake, by
40".
S-73

ERRORS IN TRUSIT WORK

Consequently if the temporary stake is


600 m. from the transit it would be necessary
to set the final stake.
600(0.0003)(40) - 012 f h
60 -. m. rom t e The transit is set up at
B, with the
temporary stake. telescope in normal position
and a backsight
at A was taken. Assume that
the true position
of the line of sight (line of
collimation) is
deflected by an amount "e" as
shown. When
the telescope was plunged and
point C was
sighted, the line of sight is
now deflected by
an amount equal to 2e from the
prolongation of
line AB. The telescope is then
rotated at 180'
about its vertical axis and
point A is again
sighted but this time the
telescope is in
inverted position.
ANGLES BY REPETITION
Tnu position 0/
f{OfPronrg/ Axis

A -'=~~.

(As applied to the Adjustment of Bubble Tube)

Let us say that there is an error of the axis The telescope is again
plunged and point
of the bubble tube fro its position by an amount D is established on the
ground. Point 0 is
"e". If the telescope is rotated at 180', the erroneous by an amount 2e from
the
position of the axis of the bubble tube is now prolongation of line AB. The
line of sight is
doubled as shown in the figure, with reference adjusted' by an amount e.
backwards that is
to its original, position in order to adjust the determine first the location
of E, that is
bubble just move it at half this value. DE = 1/4 CD.

Total error from first to second position is


2e. Therefore to place the axis of the bubble
tube to its true position. move by an amount
A
"e",'

Liue of coli/marion
5-74

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

t@$ln!
~letllr@t.vefui~rbftnElhbfifOIl~I<:irA~
A vernier is a device for measuring the
fractional part of one of the smallest divisions :~ • ~~~ffa~~~~I~~~d~~t~.am.~ •
•19·4q'·
of a graduated scale more accurately than can
be estimated by eye. The amount by which. ® ·.Wh~t~lbesJJl~II
¢§~diYi$jPn.qfth~Ci~!e? •.
the smallest division on the vemier differs from ®Ho~ • • rnanY • diVi$iprl$ • •
iltElthere.·.bn!b~··
the smallest division on the vemier differs from YEirl1iE!
t? . ..
the smallest division on graduated scale
determines the least count of the vemier. Solution:
CD Number ofdivisions on the
vernier:
Nv = number of divisions on
the vernier
Least Count: Ns =number of divisions' of
the scale
Lv =least count of vemier
S Ls = least reading of circle
L=-
N
L = length of vemier
where L = least count
S = smallest division on scale For retrograde vernier,
N = Number of divisions on the vemier Nv= Ns-1

For direct vernier,


Nv=Ns+1
L =19'40' =1180'
1
LV=20"=-
3
1. Direct vernier • is one in which the
smallest division on the vernier is shorter Equation CD
than the smallest division on the scale. L=NsLs
1180 = Ns Ls
2. Retrograde vernier - the division in the
vernier is longer than the division of the Equation ®
scale.
Ls
Lv=-
3. Folded vernier· is a direct vernier' it is Nv
used where a double vemier would b~ too Ls=-
Nv
long as to make it impracticable. 3

From Equation ®
Ls=Ns+1
3

From Equation CD
Ls = 1180
Ns
S-75

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORI

Solving Equations CD &®


Ns+1_1180
3 - Ns

lia,.
Ns2 + Ns = 3540
Ns- -1 ±...j'(1-?-.4-(-.3540-)
- 2
Ns = 59 divisions
Nv= Ns + 1
Nv=59+1 Solution:
Nv = 60 divisions on the vernier

VERNIER

® Least reading of circle: 10 9 3 7 6


5 4 3 2 1 0'

Nv IIIIIIIIII~III'IIJ~
Ls--
- 3 I I Ii 1
Co<nad""",
1ST 156' ISS'
60
CIRCLE
LS="3
Ls = 20' smallest division of the circle L=30"
5=60=20'
3
S
L=N
30=20 (60)
N
pesigr.a1q~i!ernjei.bi • ~~ • ~mWilft~.~@t N = 40 divisions on the
vernier which is
readinQofaO'(m.th~sCl:lI~ .••.. lll~§t®El~·~lrlg··
of1Q()'3Z30"; '..'. .... .. equivalent to 39
divisions on the
scale.
Solution: Since there are 7 spaces
on the vernier,
only 6 spaces on the
circle will give us the
r-15Spaces,
coincide reading. Coincide
reading on the
scale:: 155'40'
10

II
I.. 5
95,1 ,
96
C""ad",,,
100
0
'I' 5

fj i i '
10
Itlll~ Itl tltI~' tltltltI" ,)tltI 6 (20):: 157'40'.

LI4Spaces

5
L=N
O~n.a~rogradevemi~rf(ll'li •
VernWrh~v(OQ
30 =20(60) ale$tteadiOS.Qf.• gQ.~%,aM.~
•. I~ast • ~~(flryg • in
N the .Circle.of • 3Q•• inln••••
lfldicale.a.·re~9hl$ • 9f
N =40 spaces in the vernier 150'34'20...
(3lVelher~lngofm~·C()irCi~.jr1
N- 1 =39 spaces in the scale the stelle. > ..'
14 spaces = 14 (20) = 280'
=4'40' Solution:

VERNIER
Reading on scale coincide is
10<Y20' -4'40' = 95'40'

Folded vernier with a reading of 100'32'30"


S-76

ERRORS IN TRANSrr WORK

S
L=-N
20 = 30(60)
N
N = 90 spaces on the vemier which is
·.tJe~igQa·f()@ed.v~rni~r.fClr~d~~Wlth.~ • I~~
equivalent to 91 spaces on the scale. r$adln9pf2{)'~q • U'l£!••~~ .••
·.1ll~~tr~t~.?.r~Mi~9
flf1()
()'~Zillcl()t:kWi$edjr~Glltln.<> . ....
There are 13 spaces on the vernier,
therefore 14 spaoes on the scale must be Solution:
laid out to determine the coincide.
VERNIER
Therefore the reading on scale
= 150'30' - l' = 143'30'
, 14 spaces = T.
; 1 spaces =30 min.

~c.io'
99" 98- 9r 9~'· 95'
l.----14
spaccs~
SCALE

L=§.
N

IJifiiJlli1i
Solution:
30 =20 (60)
N
N = 40 division in the vemier
N- 1 = 39 spaces in the scale
VERNIER
30 15 0 15 30 Oiff. in reading =100'32'30" •
100'20"
Oiff. in reading = 12'30".
12'30"·25 spaces in the vemier,

Start counting from A to S, then


from C to
S D. From A to 0 in the vernier
there are 15
L=-N
spaces, therefore it is
equivalent to 14
_l' (60) spaces in the scale.
L- 12
L=5'
Number of divisions on the SCALE Therefore the reading in the
scale for the
Scale or circle is 12 - 1 = 11 division location of the coincidence
Vernier coincidence = 100'20'·4'40' =95'40'.
= ~ = 9 division marks on the vemier 14 spaces on the scale =4'40',

Start counting from A to S, then proceed


from C, the coincidence is at 0 which is 3
divisions from C. Scale coincidence is
112"· 2(1) = 110',
S-77

ERRORS IN TRANSrr WORK

Divide the
corrected 3rd reading by 6
142'01'30" -
23'40'15"
6
-
Sta. Sta. Tel. Repetitions Vernier Mean
O~, O~. W ~
Since the 2nd
reading is 83'40' add
BAD 0 0-00 180'01' 00-00-30"
C D 1 83'40' mUltiple of
60', 120', 180',240'
C R 6 142'02' 3;12'03' 142'02'30'
A R 6 0'01' 180'02' 00'01'30" True horizontal
angle = 60' +23'40'15"
True horizontal
angle =83'40'15"

Determine the true value of angle ABC.

Solution:

Mean
values :'::«::::/:::}?/<~:
,:<::·:·}"<:\::i·.:)U.?·)])::-:::C) ?J.::::::
. . 00-00 + 00-01 Check on the
adjustment of the Instrument
First readmg = 2
reveals the following
errors. The line of sight
First reading =00'30" with the telescope on
the normal position is
Third reading = 142'02'30" deflected 30" to
the .left of its correct position
FOl1lth reading = 00-01'-30" and the
horizonlaLaxiS (fight end lower) maKeS
an angle of 15' with
the true horizontal. ..
Take the mean of the first and fourth
reading: Compute the
correction due to line of sight
(j)
OO..()()..30
not perpendicular
to the hanzontalaxlS~ .
00-01-30' ® Compute the
correction due to the
horizontal axis no!
perpendiCUlar to the
OO-OZ-OO
vertical aXis.
..
Mean = 00-01' (too big) @ Compute the
corrected horizontal angle
between Aand B.
Correction of third reading
= 142'02'30" - 00'01'00"
= 142'01'30"
S-78

ERRORS III TRANSIT WORK

Solution:
CD Correction due to line ofsight:

ActyiF~ng@~ard$W.~!
todElt~rmltleth$
lltimlJ1~ • (;)fl~Ae;.··Witl1.~ •
fransit.at.st<lti()!'lA,.
LUte 0/ ~e.sjQht~ • pqlnt••
¢.Wfll1:tl;i~.on.the • leff.pO~itfpll.

ofpPlnteandnl~$Yt~dayem9alatlgl$atg
collimation

to·.·~ • • 45'.•••·••·He••
·ttiE#l•• tum$ • th~ • • jnslru@l~t • In.
c'o"q~$e • qlta#lQqarl9$lghlat••
pgjmtv·.··lm=;
Une ofcollimation

rn~iJlj~redlW~~PnW~Q~I~.·RAf:li~~~·~O'<lIl~ •
·the.V~rt~I • .a.nglr·.·!
l@di~~·.at.·.a • l'.la;$·•.90.·.•·.··The.
E = e (sec ~ - sec h1) li~~9f.$jghl.\*Jlt,ti •
mel~e~cope9nlhe.nOrm~l.
E =30 (sec 60' - sec 45') PO$tti()fljsdetfficlE!
<tQ3\lothElrigl'ltQfjt~
CCirr~tpO~ll/< ".
....
E =20 (2 -1.414)
E =30 (0.586)
E'= 17.58" CD ·R6inpqlalt1~~@r.qu~ •
IO••.li;lle•• of~19ht.Mt

p~rpen~iptJt4rt9th~hBtiz9~lalal(is .•. • ;.; •.•. •. . •. •.•


@ Correction due to the horizontal axis: ® Cl)ruPllte.th~·.C#11'~ed .•
h6riiont'd.angle
E = e (tan h2 -tan hl )
E: =15 (tan 60' -tan 45')
E' =15 (1.932 -1.0)
@. ···.~e~~El~~~j~~b~ • line •
~c.iS ~~.o.·$6,1·;
comR\-
ffi:lth~aZltUuthPflloeAB.·

•• ...'.....
E' =10.98"
SOlution:
@ Corrected horizontal angle: CD Error due to line of sight not
perpendicular
Line 0/ sight to the horizontal axis:
Line of

collimation

E =e (sec h2' sec h1)


E = 03' (sec 60' - sec 45')
T- El = M- E2 E= 1.758'
T= M- (E2 + El )
T= M- (Er El )
T=M-E' ® Corrected horizontal angle:
T- E2 =M- El T=M+E
T= M+ Er E1 T=43'30' + 1.758'
T=M+E T=43'31.76'
T =43'31'46"
Correctedhorizontal angle
=80'10'10' -17.58" + 10.98" ® Azimuth of AB:
.=80'10'3.4"
Azimuth of AB = 210'30' +
43'31'46"
Azimuth of AB =254'01'46"
5-79

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

® Angular error in segment


CD:
8=30+30
Maladjustment of the. transit is such that the 8 =60"
Hne. of sight with the t~lescope In normal 8 =01'
position. is deflected '~ensec,onds to the leftaf.
its correct position ofnol perpendicular to the ® Offset distance:
horizontal axis•. This causesanerrorof8}9~'
in the measured horizontal angle when the Offset distance =X1 + x2
vertical angle to the firSt point Is 45' and thatpf Offset distance = 50 Sin
30" + 50 Sin 60"
the second point is W.... Offset distance =0.218 m.

of
(j) What is the value "e" in seconds, ..
® If this transit is used to
layout a straight
line by prolonging a line. AS by setting up·
the transit at siJcceedingpolnts A BandC
and plunging the telescope.lftl'le

'Alhat.~ltorwould.~.intro<luce~nthe.m~s~r~~
procedure were such that each. backsighl
Mri4ontal.~ggle.lfthr<lllgl1non,adjustm~m ••• th~
were taken with .tha telescope at normal
hl)r.izgnl~taxlswer~h'rClinedO~rWlmtM:
position, what would be the angular error in hblitClhlal.
the segment CD, ... ....
@ What is the offset diStance from the true
prolongation of lirl!! AS. from point () .• if
AB=BC",CD= 50m. . .

Solution:
A B Solution:
CD Error with one sight at
the same elevation:
E =e (tan h:1- tan h1)
E=0.05 (tan 45' - tan 0')
E= 05'
A B
® Error with both sights are
45',
E=e (tan h2 - tan h1)
E=05 (tan 45' - tan 45')
E=O
D
@ Error with one sight is
+45' and the other
is-45':
CD Value of "e": E =05 [tan 45' - tan (-
45))
E =e (sec h2 - sec h1) E= 05(1 + 1)
8.79" = e (sec 60' - sec 45') E= 10'
e" == 15"
S-80

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

.~~1$~f:~zd~r~\~~I~.~~~;~~~~.~ffi~P:~~~.
of.elevatiol1.pfll1e~rst.poim·js.4f·~.0'\Yll'[~fh~t.

In•• Pr(ll<lngil1ga•• straigntnl1~lhetraO$ills$et.at

~, • a•~ck$jgm.~.tat<etl.a~A.··~Mt~et~lesg~w,·

.i$'plun~~d.t9 • P,•• 3O(l·I1'l;ir.·~ctv!lr.Cl:I.of.8 . ••. 1fW~


·~~~i:!t~1o~$e~Wd1~'6fWo~i~~~~~~dw~i.·
·V~iB?'a.Xhr.W~fejl1cll~~d.·p·Withth~.tr:Ue

yert~!.jn.a vElrticalplan~ • makirlg9W•• WiW.1he


prbba[)l~ln911n~flOn9n~tr~n$VE!r$~~ls;Jt
·~jrectien.of.fhe.fine•• what.y.'0ullL@•• the•• lihe?f
Wa$fouM9Yt~~erm~AAuremel1tl'wme
l!rrQl'inthelocaledposltionofQ. . ...
instl'l.lrnent•• h~s .• an • Elrr()fjnltle • •line••. ()f.• ~i~ht.·
WhiChls•• defleqted • tQ•• t~~.~gtrt.9fthe • • llne.pf
ill Wb,•• and • Bareat•• th~ • same•• ~evafion, • but
Cplnrnation••by•. an·~mQ9~t .• I3q~<ll • ftl.15·,<.lnt~t;l.
thf:l.vel1~al.anglefr°rTl •.~• ~Q9js+1AW . • • .·•• ·•·
·.l?~er .c~se, • sttidingleY$I • v&~.H~.~ • • t(') • • C~~k.
®.. ffA,·.B.~ndC • are.alli'l.ttb~$<lll1e.eleVatl<lnf···

.~ •.• ·li.lhe••Vertlcal.an91.~*9fIl·B.t9·.A..~M.frorn6
~~~~dcJ~~~~6~Wg~eJ@r~~~~~1oa;j~
toCis+1S'? . ..
~n~ottfJ~ltiln$Yer$~~XI$jnJerm$?f
Solution:
• ~~idt;jons' .• • TMMQ[Jl<lrY~IIJ~o/rm~~i"i§19ri
c

®•• Cornpute•• lhe.·err()f~lIe •.~ • •line • ofsl9ht


.•.•. deflecled.t<lmeOgtit•• ><••.• • • • .• • • • .•.• • • •.• • • • • <•• • • •
• • • •.
®C()rTlPlJle the~rrp@1.!~!w~AJnsv~r~a)(ls
Wllh.left~ndhighep«.· • • • • • >i<•• • • i•• • •. • • • • .• •. • .• •.
•. .

® CornPule.the • • .s9(f~¢f • • hoH~om.~laJl~le


~el.YJeenlhelW<lp()lr\t$; .. .
.

Solution:
B
CD Error due to line ofsight deflected to the
right:
CD Linear error if A and B are at the same

elevation:
E1 = e (sec h2 - sec h1)

E= etan h
E1 =15" (sec 63'58' - sec 42'30')
E=01tan15'
E, = 13.83"
E= 0.268'

x
@ Eror due to transverse axis with left end
tan E= 300
higher:
x = 300 tan 0.268'
E2 =e (tan h2 -tan h,)
Note: tan l' = 0.0003
e =2 (10)
x = 0.024 m. linear offset
e =20"
® Linear error if A, Band C are all at the
E2 =20 (tan 63'58' - tan 42'30')
same elevation:
E2 =22.62"
= There is no error

@ COlTected horizontal angle:

@ Linear error if the vertical angle from e to A

and from B to cis +15':


T=M+ E1 +E2
The error is doubled
T= 150'20'20" + 13.83" + 22.62"
E = 0.268 (2) = 0.536'
T'" 150'20'56.45"
x = 300 tan 0.536'

x = 300 (0.0003)(0.536)

x= 0.048 m
S-8!

ERRORS IN TRANSn WORK

®
Error in the transverse axis:
E2
=e (tan h2 - tan h,)
E2
=20" (tan 63'58'· tan 42'30')
T~~ • • boritontal/~ngle/.peiw~~~twqpQifl~.
E2
= 22,62" (is added if the left end is
mea$wedCIO~KWISfij$17$'20'2o",Jl)~~ngl~

higher than the right end)


Of.i'lI~ttoIl9ff~e~n·tP9iflt~.42'Aq'whili'ltMt
·.of.• the.$ecqI'l9•• i$6a·~a'· • • TfuJ.II"l~tmment·w~$
th~rt • t$$tedWrerr0r5.ptqollirn<ltjon•• atidf()b111e @
Horizontal angle:
pr9bable.lnplill~llon.of •.~ • tran.sver%~axl$ .•••••!g
H =179'20'20" + E1 + E2
lpe•• fgnn~r • ~ase • • ttWmsplacem~ht •.• ()t•• t~e
H = 179'20'20" + 14.27" +22.62"
~eSOIl9.B6inf.es!abli~he<l.on. thefnre¥l~@ • ~ide
H = 179'20'56,89"
ofthetr!J~$itl$3cm·totnerigbtotth~mrsl
polllkT~e5epqjntsare1{)qm,fr()fl1lhetrary~t
sta~on-ln}h~latter@$!:!~slrldlngleYeIW~s
\)$eci•• t9.p~eCl<·theJnQlim~ti()n.ot • thetran$¥etse·
a~i~~1l9v.'~sfClul'ldJClWJrthanll1ete~~of
.lhetrMsYer$e}lXl$•• • in .• Jerm$•• Qf••·f.·~IYISlQn$ .•
seC()l'• • ~flg~ICit
Thi'l• ldS. . • • V~lue..• • 9f•. • 9~e •..•tllXiSi(ln•. • • j§ ••. 10·

TM@jCl~In9.fuea$~tement • • were • • taker • ·tQ

9heCktl1epl~rP!tldiclllafity.ofa.t~p~ril19faBt°lY
CD C(jmputethE!err6f()fc~1Ilfl1atl® .•·
chil1'ln~Y • • Qf • cirOUI~rCrOS$cseOIi9n, • • pplm•• ~·
®. C9mpUle.th~.el'tQrm.l/1elranSV~r$e.;1l.Xi~, . .•.•.
Vias~~ta!)1j~h~~()r1We • • Qf()llnd.. ~9(ll.lt·4R·.·rn;
@. CPrrlPlltEl.·thl:l•• hortzClntal.ansle•• !lEl.tvI~n • Jh~
frQll1W~.b~s~6fth~l:hilllll~Y • ~lldth~~Mrf~~t
fWOPOil'l!S. ..
dlrnensIQ~tq • Itle··~se.me~$wep.carety11y~n~

fQ~l1<l •. tQ.be.~5·996rrl. • • 'fhe.WsfWrnentVl<lsset


Solution:
up~t.~ • ~ryd • $ight~dso~~tQ.bi~eClthet(ip9f
CD Error of collimation:
fh~Fhimney;.m~ • tele:>C()pe.wa5lhenloW~~ed
and~
• l1Oiot.8~lon • .ll;ie.;¢irC!lmfereOMalthe
!)aSe
,'Nhlchwa$JW~JWnhlhetel~%?lm~
c
ThejnstrorT)entVia:s.r~yersed •.• ~ndth~si~l1tina

repel.lted,ahdll1ejnSlrj,lm~l'It~~if;f~ln
A B
adjU$lrn~n~ •••• tfJ~ • •lil'lfl • ()f~i~ht .•. a~ain • WIl~t.~·
With
• lh~ • (ral1~lt.atNI~!:! • anQlel't'as.rnea$lJr~q

from.~to.aIIO~ • t?n~(lnftO • the.·right••~.~e.()f.th~

chitllney.~tth~b~s~.~ndfouhdbYrep~ijti~nfp

be.2'1~2Q·.$jmil~rty;~nglewa5measUrEld
f ro
m·.A8fo.lhee)(trt!ll1El·left5ide offheChil'Tln~y
0.03/4
~ndfoundtobe2·$8'40". . ..
tane=1OQ
e =15.47" (j) •
• lNhatls.theradlgsofthechjfl1ney? . .•. . . .
®
···l'iow•• m\JC~.iStfl;l8hlmney.out.()(pl~trIb~t
Error of collimation:
ttle.top.inadlrectiQ~.atrightangles.~.~? •
@
HowfarjSthe qenter of chimney ITomthe
E1 = e (sec h2 - sec h1)
pointofQbse~tion. . . .
E1 = 15.47 (sec 63'58' - sec 42'30')
E1 = 14,27" (is added if the fine of sight is
to the right of the line of collimation)
5-82

ERRORS IN TRANsn WORK

Solution:
.(1) Radius of the chimney:

Mean value offhe angle


2'58'40" +2'12'20"
= 2
=2'35'30"

Angle AOS' = 2'35'30" • 2'12'20"


Angle AOB' = 0'23'10"

Sin 2'35'30" = 45.0~ + R


Solution:
R
0.04522 = 45.096+ R
45.096 (0.04522)+ (0.04522) R = R
0.95478 R =45.096 (0.04522)
R= 2.136

® Direction at rightangles to AB:


OB'= (45.096 +2.136) Sin 0'23'10"
OB' =0.318 m.

@ Distance of the center of chimney from the


point of observation:
(1) Elevation of the H.I. of
the instrument atA:
AO =46.096 + R
AO = 46.096 +2.136
=261.60 +5
AO =48.232 m.
=266.60
@ Elevation of the H.I. of
the instrument at C:
=261.60 +5+2.8
=269.4
5-83

ERRORS IN TRANSrr WORK

@ Elevation of 8: Solution:
tan 24'25' =2.8 <D Emor in horizontal angle:
x
E = e (tan h2 -Ian h1)
x=6.17m.
200 - x =193.83 m. E =04' [tan 50' • tan (-3D')]
DB 193.83 E= 7'4,6"
Sin 155'35' =Sin 7'56'
DB =580.52 fl. @ Angular error ofline:
h = 580.52 Stin 16'29'
h= 164.71 m.
c
Elevation of B = 261.60 t 5 t 164.71
Elevation of B = 431,21 m. A

<!51
B
I

1
x=4(0.145)
x= 0.03625
CD The horizontal axis of a· transit was
inclined at 4'wilhthehOlMihilildueto Sin e = tan e =0.03625
250
nOIl"adjuslmeill.. The first5lgh.t.bada
vertical angle Of 50', lhenext had;;' 30'; e =30"
Oetermine the error in themeasur~d
horizontal angle. .
Angular error =2(30'}
@ Atransitis set upatB ;:Inda backsightat Angular error = 60"
A. By daublaraversal twopoiills Cand I)
~.t a distanceequill to 0.145hi,were
established. IfBe =250 m. and BD = 150 @ Magnifying power:
m. (app.), how much is the aiigtilarerrorof 5'15'
the line of sight from true position: . .. . M.P. = 09'

@ In testing fofiM magnifyln9powet ota MP = 315


.. 9
level telescope, a transit is sst up and the
angle between two very far points which MP =35 diameters
are very near each other has been found to
be 5'15'. The level telescope whose,
magnifying power is desired is placed in
front of the transit telescope with its
objective close 10 the objective end of the
transit telescope. Again the same angle is
measured thru the two telescope a.nd found
to be 09', What is the magnifying power of
the level telescope?
5-84

TRIANGUIiTiON

Triangulation - a method for extending


horizontal control for topographic and
similar surveys which require observations
of triangular figures whose angles are
measured and whose sides are determined
by trigonometric computations.

Four common geometric figures used in


triangulation:
Solution:
1. Chain of single and independent triangles . CD Angle CAD:
2. Chain of quadrilaterals formed with
overlapping triangles. A
3. Chain of polygons or central-point figures.
4. Chain of polygons each with an extra
diagonal.

Approximate method of adjusting the angles


and sides of triangulation systems.
c
D

1. Station Adjustment
2. Figure Adjustment Angle CAD = 180' - 49'30' -
33' - 34'30'
Angle CAD = 63'

Two methods of adjustment of Quadrilateral @ Angle BAD:


Consider triangle BCD:
. 1. Angle Condition Equations
2. Side Condition Equations

C~...l-_------'-..hD·

Assume CD = 1
BC 1
1. Sum of angles about a station = 360'
Sin 72' = Sin 75'
2. Sum of three angles in each triangle = 180'
BC= 0.985
BD 1
Sin 33' =Sin 75'
BD= 0.564
5-85

TRIANGUlaTION

Consider triangle AOC: @ Angle ABC:

C'b-.l.--------L..-"'oD

AC __ 1_ 0.636 0.749
Sin 34'30' - Sin 63' Sin B =Sin 49'30'
AC =0.636 B=40'13'
Angle ABC = 40'13'
Consider triangle ABC:
A

Using Cosine Law:


(AB)2 = (0.636)2 + (0.985)2
- 2 (0.636)(0.985) Cos 49'30'
AB =0.749

Consider triangle ABO:


A

Solution:
CD Distance BC:

84'30'
Using Sine Law:
0.564 0.749 A ~...J...----:;::::-----'-""""'B
Sin A =Sin 37'30'
A = 27'17' BC 500
Angle BAD =27'17' Sin 79'30' Sin 47'30'
BC =666.81 m.
5-86

RIANGUlATION

@ Distance BD: AD 1
BD 500 Sin 80' =Sin 40'
Sin 28'30' =Sin 67' AD = 1.532
·BD = 259.18m.
AB 1
@ Distance CD: Sin 50' =Sin 50'
(CDf =(8<12 + (BDf AB= 1.0
•2(BC)(BD) Cos 31'30'
(CO)2 =(666.81'f +(259.18)2
·2(666.81 )(259.18) Cos 31'30' (BD)2 =(AB)2 + (AD)2 • 2(AB)(AD) Cos
20'
CD = 465.94 m.
(BD)2 = (1)2 + (1.532)2·2(1)(1.532)
Cos 20'
BD=0.684
AD BD
Sin (50 + 0) =Sin 20'
1.532 _ 0.684
Sin (50 + 8) - Sin 20'
50 + 8= 130'
8 = 80' (angle CBD)

@ Angle BOA.'

11_lllllil~'llli!jii;
Solution:
CD Angle CBD: BOA = 180 - (20 + 130)
BOA =30'
A

@ Ang/eBDC:

Assume AC = 1.0 C~~---,---...JD


_1__ ~
Sin 50' - Sin 80'
BDC = 180· (30 +80)
BC= 1.2856
CD 1 BDC= 70'
Sin 60' = Sin 40'
CD =1.3473
5-87

TRIANGlllATlON

<D Distance BC:

~
Two stations A and l:lare 540 in. apart. From
the following triangulation staflansCand Don
opposite sicies of AB, lhe fol19Wing angles
were observet!. " ' . .. '.' . ., '.
..,.
.',' ',.,'._ ,',., ,',
A 540m
B
AngleACD=54'12' .'
M9le ace
~ 4fZ4' '. a ~ 180' • 54'12'·49'18'
An9leADg=49'18' ...' .
a~ 76'30'
Angle BOC:: 47'12'
~~ 180' ·41'24'·47'12'
~ ~91'24'
0~54'12'+41'24'
o ~95'36'

Solution: Using Cosine Law


Considering triangle ABC:
(AB)2 :: (BC}2 + (AC)2 •2(BC)
(AC) Cos 95'36'
(540)2 = (BCf + (1.062 BC)2
• 2(BCX1.062 BC)
Cos 95'36'
BC = 353.38 m.

@ Distance CD:
Using Sine Law
Considering triangle AOC:
CD _ AC
Sin 76'30' - Sin 49'18'
CO= 1283AC
c c
Considering triangle COB:
CD _ BC
sin 91'24' - Sin 47'12'
CD = 1.362 BC
CO = 1.362 (353.38)
CD = 481.30 m.

@ Distance AC:
1.283 AC =1.362 BC
AC= 1.062 BC
AC = 1.062 (353.38)
AC = 375.38 m.
8-88

TRIANGUlaTION

® AngleDAC:
Angle DAC
+ 42' + 30' + 78' : 180
Angle DAC
: 30'

lIi&il;.~~i~1 ® Angle
DAB:
Angle
DAB: 42' + 30'
Angle
DAB: 72'
Allies

OM.. >
cao>
• .~• • • PqmMt~~M~l~.~; • • •i• • • • • • • • • • ·•• • • .• > .
T~~.q~~~ljn~ • • AI? • ()f.a.lri@941~I!M • $Y$IMtis
~~lijl_~6~1IJ··< egY~to4()Q
• nl·.~~g· • • • §taliptlS.G~r~ • R·~r~

Qthllr.p()inf~.pfth~triMgglation • $Y5@JJ.• • • T~e


al1gles••
ob§erV~dfr<lrtiA.~nd • •~ • ~r~.~sfollAW~.
Solution: Angle.
[)/l$.*2r3Q\~ngleGA13·#.78'30·,.an9r~
CD Angle BOA: CBA=:
$2'~H~~qgl~1:$C:#~:~Q'.>· .
c

Solution:.
CD Distance
CB:
B A

Assume BC: 1.0


~_-1:L
Sin 79' - Sin 42'
AC: 1.467
CD 1
Sin 49' : Sin 52'
CD: 0.958
Using Cosine Law:
(AD)2 : (0.958)2 + (1.467)2
'. (0.958)(1.467) Cos 20'
AD:0.655m. A
B

78'30' 82'30'
Using Sine Law:
AC _~ 400
CB
Sin (52 +8) - Sin 20' Sin
49'30' =Sin 78'30'
1.467 0.655 CB:
515.47 m.
Sin (52 +6) : Sin 20'
® Distance
DB:
52 + e: 50' or 130' DB
400
52 +8: 130' Sin2T30'
=Sin 70'
8: 78' DB:
196.55 m.
Angle BOA: 78'
5-89

TRIANGULAnON

@ Distance DC: <D Distance AD:


(DCP = (515.47)2 + (196.SSj2 Consider
triangleCDA:
- 2(515.47X196.55) Cos 30'30' AD 180
DC = 360,21 m. Sin SO' =Sin 41'
AD =210.18 m.

A:·,I.d.B.are.tw(}.polnt$·IOcaledQll~acn~t1k
ofa.riy~r·13lld.n~rtl1~abut1nElntsllf(ipmp~d
brldg~· • Wd~tflrrnirflltsdi$l?nC~,~~~$~lirfl
CO 180.m.•• 10llQ.W<lSE:lS@bli$l)ed·onp0E:l9~®-.
of\herjVet13r@tl'leJrl3nsltwa$~~II.lPat c
statjl)qs•• C.··iln~·Oandtti~.aZiJ11Utb • w¢rff·.t~kElii··
asfollOws: .. .. . .... .

@ Distance BD:
Considering
triangle COB:
Using Sine Law
180 BD
Sin 25' =Sin 80'
BD = 419.45 m,

@ Distance AB:
Consider triangle
ABO:
Using Cosine Law
Solution:
(ABf =(210.18j2 +
(419.45)2
N
- 2 (210.18)
(419.45) Cos 14'
AB =221.43m.

tn a topographic
survey, three triangulatiOn
stations A, Band Care
sighted from a point P.
The distance between
the stations are
AS =500 m., Be =3SO m.
and CA =450m.AI
P, the angle
sublending AC is 4S'while for Be
is 30'. AC is due
North.
5-90

TRIANGUlaTION

Solution: Taking triangle ABC:


CD Distance CD: a=3S0 b=450 c=500
c
Using Cosine Law:
(3S0}2 = (45W + (SOO}2 - 2(450)(SOO} Cos A
A=42.8'

From triangle ACD:


From the triangle ABO: B =42.8' - 3D'
B = 12.8'
~-~.
Sin 45' - Sin 105' Using Cosine Law:
AD = 500 Sin 45' (CD}2 =(450}2 + (366f
Sin 105' - 2(450)(366} Cos 12.8'
AD'=366 m. CD = 123.65 m.
@ Distance PA:
BD 500 c
Sin 30' =Sin 75'
BD =500 Sin 30'
Sin 75'
BD=2S9 m.
c

123.65_ 366
Sin 12.8' - Sin a
. _366 Sin 12.8'
A,&-..I...---~B SIn a - 123.65
c=500
a=41'
S-91

TRIANGUlaTION

450 PA
Solution:
Sin 45' =Sin 41'
CD Distance CO:
PA =450 Sin 41'
Sin 45'
D

~
PA =417.55 mm

30' B
@ Azimuth of PA:

A C
N

u_~--p

~-----~p

Azimuth of AP = 274'
Azimuth ofPA =274' -180'
Azimuth of PA = 94'

Construct a circle passing through A, B

andP.
>-•. .
. Considering triangle ABO:
.'.

. ." Using Sine Law


,
~.~ .
'

AD 300

....
.,.
Sin.15' = Sin 135'
.
.

AD = 109.81 m.

Considering triangle ACB:

Using Cosine Law


c c
(400)2 = (600f +(300)2·2(600)(300) Cos "

360000 COS" =(600)2 +(300)2 - (400)2

,,= 36.34'

" =36'20'
B
AL-.__.----,7 Aftt!:.~~;:--7~
Considering triangle ACD:
,,
,, ,,
, ,,
\

Using Cosine Law:


,, ,,,
,
I
,, I
,

,,
I
,

\lY.30 e
, ,
\
(CO)2 = (600)2 + (109.81)2
'.....,...,'
- 2 (600)(109.81) Cos 6.34'
" , "
.I"
\~I
P
- p _.' ."
CO = 491.01 m.
5-92

TRIANGUlAnOI

® Distance AP:
c

Using Sine Law


Sin f!, Sin 6.34'
109.81 = 491.01
II = 1.42'
II :: 1'25'
Considering triangle ACP:
Using Sine Law
~_ AP
Sine 15' - Sine 1'25'
AP= 57,45m,
@ Azimuth of BP:

Solution:
CD Angle of intersection FEC:
Angle FEC = 77'10'
p

Considering triangle ABP: ® Distance BC:


Sin B Sin 45'
(BC)2 = (376)2 + (417)2
57.45 =300
B=T47 - 2(376)(417) Cos 138'29'
A = 180' - 45' ·7'47 (BC)2 = 137500 + 16900 + 236000
A = 127'13' BC= 737 m.
BP 300
Sin.e 127'13' =Sin 45'
BP = 337.85 m.
5-
93

TRIANGUlATION

@ Distance EC: Solution:


CD Distance BD:

~
B

Be ~ 737m C

Sin" _ sin 138'29' A


.-;1] - 737
. - 417 Sin 41'31'
SIn" - 737
,,= 21'36'
a +" + 138'29' =180;
a =19'55'
BE 737 A

Sin 53'22' = Sin 102'50' c


BE = 737 Sin 35'22'
Sin 77'10' Consfden'ng tdangle ADC:
BE=435 m. Using Sine Law
CE _ 737 Sin A Sin 140'
Sin 41'48' - Sin 102'50' 1000 = 2355.45
= 737 Sin 41'48' A= 15'50'
CE C = 180' - 140' - 15'50'
Sin 77'10'
CE=505m. C= 24'10'

Considering ABC:
Using Sine Law
AB 2355.45
Sin 30' = Sin 125'
AS = 1437.74 m.
Be 2355.45
Sin 25' = Sin 125'
BC:;; 1215.23m.

Considering triangle ABO:


" = 25' -15'50'
,,= 9'10'
Using Cosine Law
(BD)2 = (150W + (1437.74)2
- 2(1500)(1437.74) Cos 9'10'
BO:;; 242.90 m.
8-94

TRIANGUlAnON

@ Distance AP: Consider triangle APC:


Sin ACP Sin 55'
2829.86 =2355.45
Angle ACP= 79'47
Angle CAP = 180' - 55' • 79'47'
A
Angle CAP = 45'43'

Using Sine Law:


B PC 2355.45
Sin 45'43' = Sin 55'
PC= 2058.66m.
D

A
11_.it
p
lIilllliill:
Using Sine Law
Sin B Sin 9'10'
1500 = 242.90
I:E4i."lli~l,
·@·.·PPttiP@:i~M~~g~······"'······
B =70'47'
Using Cosine Law Solution:
(ACf =(1500f + (1ooW CD Angle ACB:
- 2(1500)(1000) Cos 140'
AC =2355.45 m. B

Consider triangle ABP:


Using Sine Law
AP 1437.74
Sin 79'47' =Sin 30'
AP = 2829.86 m.
@ Distance PC:

c
c

Angle CPB = 360' - 71'30' • 10'30'


p
Angle CPB = 178'
5-95

TRIANGULATION

Using Sine Law: Solution:


7.46 17560 CD Distance AB:
Sin 0 = Sin 110'30'

B
0=01'22"

7.46 24614
Sin a. = Sin 178'
a = 00' 2.18"
{I, = 180'- 110'30' - 01 '22" 216'43'20"
= 69'31' 22"
{I,

B
0= 180' -178' -0'2.18"
o = 1'59' 57.82" A

Angle ACB =69'31'22" + 1'59' 57.82"


Angle ACB = 71'31' 19,82"
58'12'30" Ecc.A

@ Distance AP:
AP 17560
Sin 69'31' 22" = Sin 110'30' Using Cosine Law:
(AB)2 = (4.50)2 +(18642)2
AP = 17562,61 m.
.- 2(4.50)(18642)Cos
58'12' 30"
AB = 18639.63 m,
@ Distance PB:
PB 24614 @ Angle BA Ecc. A:
Sin 1'59' 57.82" = Sin 178'

B
PB = 24606.55 m.

InatriansUlati06~Il~@ttl§SfatlOJ'\(~cc;Al
IsoCCllpi¢~jl1st~~~()fll)l!tM~~tatj96A;
ObserVationsar~ thenmade·lo • tffie·.staliori.A
amt lostatiooB, T@otJsaNatl<>llareas
f\:flloWs:i> . . ..

Ecc.A
AZIMQTHOlSIAN.GS
158~3mS(l" .4.50fu,<
Using Sine Law:
216'43'20" 18642,OOm;
18642 18639.63
Sin e = Sin 158'12' 30"
<D Find the distance AB. ...
~ Find thEl angle BA Ecc. A . e =121'46'47.6"
@ Compute the aZimuth of AB.
S-96

TRIAIGUlAnOI

® Azimuth AB: Using Cosine Law:


B (AC)2 = (1017)2 + (800.63)2
- 2(1017.22)(800.63) Cos
74'44' 50"
AC = 1116.80 m.

Using Sine Law:


800.63 1116.80.
Sin 8 = Sin 74'44' 50"
e =43'45' 47.25"

Ecc.A

Azimuth AB = 180' + 36'44' 2.32"


Azjmuth AB = 216·44' 2.32" A

Angle BCA = 180' - 43'45' 37.5"


- 74'44' 50"
Angle BAC =61'29'32.5"
x + 118'25' 40" + 158'13' 50" +
Y
+43'45' 37.5" = 360
x + y =39'34' 52.5"
AP 1017.22
Sin x = Sin 118'25' 40"
p.p = 1156.70 Sin x
AP 116.80
Solution: Sin y = Sin 158'13' 50"
CD Angle PCA: AP =3011.28 Sin y
1156.70 Sin x =3011.28 Sin y
Sin x = 2.603 Sin y
x = 39'34' 52.5" - Y
Sin (39'34' 52.5" - y)= 2.603 Sin
y
Sin 39'34' 52.5" Cos Y- Sin y Cos
39'34' 52.5"
= 2.603 Sin y
0.63717 Cos Y- 0.77072 Sin y
=2.603 Sin y
c
0.63717 Cos Y= 3.37372 Sin y
5-97

TRIANGULATION

0.63717 Solution:
tan y =3.37372 CD Angle ABP:
y= 10'41'42.23"
Angle peA = 10'41' 42.23"
B

® Azimuth of BP:

e + (J + 257'15' +- 26'35'
+44'15' =360'
x + y =39'34' 52.5"
x = 39'34' 52.5" ·10'41' 42.23" e + (J = 31'55'
x =28'53'10.27"
Using Sine Law:
Angle BAP = 180'·28'53' 10.27" ·118'25' 40"
AP _ 6600
Angle BAP = 32'41' 9.73"
Azimuth ofBP = 225'20' 10" + 105'15' 10" Sin e - Sin 26'35'
+45'51' 39.73" AP= 1474.64 Sin e
Azimuth ofBP = 376'26' 59.7"
Azimuth of BP = 16'26' 59.7" Sin AP 6800
Sin r.. =Sin 44'15'
@ Distance BP: AP =9745.05 Sin t:\
'BP 1017.22 .1474.64 Sin e = 9745.05 Sin 8
Sin 32'41' 9.73" = Sin 118'25' 40"
BP =624.66 m. Sin e =0.6607 Sin 8
e = 31'55' • 8
Sin (31'55' • 8) = 0.6607 Sin (J
Sin 31'55' Cos 8· Cos 31'55' Sin
(J
= 0.6607 Sin 8
1.50952 Sin (l, = 0.52869 Cos 8
(J=19'18'
e = 31'55' ·19'18'
e =12'37'
Angle ABP =12'37'

@ Angle ACP:
Angle ACP = 8
Angle ACP =19'18'
S-98

TRIANGULATION

® Distance BP: Angle BCA = 180' • 80'27'


35.8" - 54'14' 37.8"
B Angle BCA =45'17' 46.4"
Using Sine Law:
895.86 _ Be
Sin 45'17' 46.4" Sin 80'27'
35.8"
BC = 1243.01 m.

® Distance AC:

TN
p

Angle B4P= 180' ·12'37·26'35'


Angle BAP = 140'48'
BP _ 6600 TN
Sin 140'48' - Sin 26'35'
BP = 9321.57 m.

["05'54.2"

.~~~W.$I~~6~S.~Wl~~0~.· • ~~~i6le.~~~~~~~tr~.1
cO(:@nMt~$9t¢QttWA • M~OQtlP.N9rthlOg$ •
~M4QP~Q·§Mlil1Q~,]Q~#~Ii#1AA~@ c
~flWJtb<t@l'iQ¢tthQf·lhe.·.IJ~eAtQ·a.are.
l$~;$§ • m,.<l#d?$$'?Q~ • ~~~ • t~@~¢lw~M"~$· Using Sine Law:
m~~$ijt~~hM~6m~I~MI~$.~f~ah9lW AC
895.86
.. ••
U~#~r:I·'~]i~D'ji ~?·$" • ,~r9i ~?Q.I~ . Sin 54'14' 37.8" =Sin
45'17' 46.4"
AC =1022.86 m.
mq®lP~t~IM~i#lal1¢ij~¢)
®Pl:ll'li,@~~~~~i$l(l~A(;·> ® Coordinates of comer C:
··~ • • • ~r~~'~~~j"cp6rd't@~~Qt¢QrMt • 9••bY·· STA. LINE BEARING
DISTANCE
A AB N. 55'20'32"
E 895.86
Solution:
CD Distance BC:
B BC S.
1'05'54.2" W. 1243.01
TN

STA. LAT
DEP
A 20000.00
20000.00
~
~
B 20736.90
20509.45
~
- 1242.7~
C 20713.07
19266.67

c Coordinates ofC =20713.07 N.,


19266.67 E.
(20000. 200(0)
5·99

TRIANGUlaTION

AB Sin L2 CD Sin LS
Sin L7 Sin L8
CD =.:...A=B-=S.::.,:in-=L:..:.1-
=S.::.,:in-=L::.:3
A. Angle condition equations.
Sin L4 Sin L6
AB Sin L2 AB Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5
Sin L7 Sin L4 Sin L8 Sin L6
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin LS Sin L7
=1
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
A"-..I.::.---------.:..L-:.~D Strength of Figure:

1. L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 = 180' In a triangulation system,. to be able


to
adopt the best shaped triangulation network
it
2. L3 + L4+ L5 +L6= 180' is necessary to apply a criterion of strength
to
3. L1 +L2+L7+L8=180' the different figures that maybe formed such
an
4. L5 + L6 + L7 + L8 = 180' index or criterion is known as the strength
of
figure and is given in the equation:
5. L1 +L2+L3+L4
+L5 + L6 + L7 + L8 = 180' D-C
R=O I(di +dA~B+di)
6. L1 + L2 = L5 + L6
D-C
7. L3 + L4 =L7 + L8 F=o
B. Side Consition equations. where
R = relative strength of figure
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L7 o= number of directions observed (forward
=1
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8 and backward) not including the fixed
or known side of agiven figure.
~=~ C =number of geometric conditions to be
Sin L4 Sin L1
satisfied in a given figure.
ABSin L1 F =a factor for computing the strength of
BC-
SinL4 D-C
figure and is equal to 0
-BC (1J
--- -
Sin L6 Sin L3 dA , dB =tabular difference for 1
second,
expressed in units of the 6th decimal
CO Sin L6 place corresponding to the distance
BC
SinL3 angles A and B of a triangle.
AB Sin L1 CO Sin L6 I (dA 2 + !:lA ~B + ~B2) =summation of
values for particular chain of
triangles
Sin L4 - Sin L3 through which computation is carried
-AB--- AD- from the known line to the line
Sin L7 Sin L2 required.
AB Sin L2 C =(n' - s' + 1) + (n - 2s + 3)
Ao---- n' = number of lines observed in both
Sin L7 directions, including the known side
of
AD
- - - -(1J- the given figure.
Sin LS Sin.L8 s' =number of occupied stations
n = total number of lines in the figure
CO Sin L5
AD including known line.
SinL8 s =total number of stations
S-IOO

TRIANGULATION

Station B:
Angle 2 = 59'10'05"
Angle 4 = 60'29'10"
Angle 11 = 240'21'00"
360'00'15"
15"
Error=- =05"
3
Adjusted angle 2 = 59'10'00"
Adjusted angle 4 = 60'29'05"
Adjusted angle 11 = 240'20'55"
360'00'00"
Station C:
Angle 3 = 62'25'10"
Angle 5 = 59'25'10"
Angle 8 = 63'10'08"
Angle 14 =174'59'24"
o 359'59'52"
Error = OS"
08'
Correction =- = 02"
4
Adjusted angle 3 = 62'25'12"
Adjusted angle 5 = 59'25'12"
Adjusted angle 8 = 63'10'10"
Adjusted angle 14 =174'59'26"
360'00'00"
Station 0:

11111lIIi181;';';
Angle 6 = 60'05'10"
Angle 7 = 71'40'20"
Angle 12 =22S'14'52"
360'QO'03"
Solution: Error = 03"
CD Corrected value of angle 3: 03"
Correction =3 =01"
Station Adjustment:
Station A:
Adjusted angle 6 = 60'05'09"
58'25'15" + 301'34'49" =360'00'04"
Adjusted angle 7 = 71'40'01"
Error =04'
Adjusted angle 12 =22S'14'50"
04'
Correction ="2 =02' 360'00'00"
Station E:
Adjusted angle: Angle 9 = 45'10'20"
Angle 1 = 58'25'15" - 02" = 58'25'13" Angle 13 =314'49'42"
Angle 10 = 301'34'49" - 02" = 301'34'47" 360'00'02"
360'00'00" Error = 02"
S-101

TRIANGUlATION

02"
Correction =- =01 "
2
Adjusted angle 9= 45'10'19"
Adjusted angle 13 = 314'49'41" FrOl1lthegivencjl1Clgril~teral.~f!
$mTh99s~~re
360'00'00" OC()UPie~• i:l@.. .all.•. Ii~~~ .•
~f~.ql:j~~t¥~~i",·.~~m
qi~tk>ij~t: . , ·
":-:<::::;:</:::;:;::.::',:::.>\
Figure Adjustment
Considering triangle ABC
Angle 1 = 58'25'13"
Angle 2 = 59'10'00"
Angle 3 = 62'25'12"
180'00'25"
Error =25"
Adjusted Angle 1 =58'25'05" - 08" =58'25'05"
Adjusted Angle 2 =59'10'00" - 08" =59'09'52"
Adjusted Angle 3 =62'25'12" - 09" = ~

AI::::..-...i:...------:-::-....l~
180'QO'00" Baseline
= 1420 m
Corrected value ofangle 3 = 62'25'03"

111.ti'(lli'~~
® Corrected value of angle 6:
Considering triangle BCD
Angle 4 = 60'29'05"
Angle 5 = 59'25'12"
Angle 6 = 60'05'09" Solution:
179'59'26" CD Constant F:
Error = 34" O-C
Constant F = 0
Adjusted angle 4 = 60'29'05" + 12" = 60'29'17" o = 10 (no. of directions
observed forward
Adjusted angle 5 =59'25'12" + 11" = 59'25'23" and backward not
including Ab)
Adjusted angle 6 =60'05'09" + 11" = ~ C= (n' - s' + 1) + (n - 25 +
3)
180'00'00" n' = no. of lines observed
in both
Corrected angle 6 =60'05'20" directions.
n'=6
@ Corrected value of angle 9: s' = no. of occupied
stations
Considering triangle COE: s'=4
Angle 7 = 71'40'01" n = total no. of lines in
the figure including
Angle 8 = 63'10'10" known lines
Angle 9 = 45'10'19" n=6
180'00'30" s = total no. of stations
Error =30" 5=4
C= (6 -4 + 1) +[6 - 2(4) +3)
. =3
CorrectIOn 30" =10" C=3+1
C=4
Adjusted angle 7 = 71'39'51" D-C
Adjusted angle 8 = 63'10'00" F=O
Adjusted angle 9 = 45'10'09" F= 10-4
180'00'00" 10
F= 0.60
Corrected angle 9 =45'10'09"
S-102

TRIUGUIlTION

@ Strength of figure which gives the


strongest route:
R = (0 hc) L (Ai + AA I.'>.a +
I.'>.l)
Consider triangle ABC dand ACD with AC R =0.60(31.979)
as common side. R = 19.19
-AL_~
Sin 42' - Sin 60' Consider triangle ABO and ACD:
with AD
AC - AB Sin 42' as common sides.
- Sin 60' AD AB
CD AC Sin 90' = Sin 53'
Sin 41' =Sin 35' =AB Sin 90'
AD Sin 53'
CD=ACSin41'
S;n35' CD AD
CD = AS Sin 42' Sin 41' Sin 40' = Sin 104'
Sin 60' Sin 35' CD =AD Sin 40'
Sin 104'
Distance angles are 42' and 60' for triangle = AB Sin 90' Sin 40'
ABC CD
Sin 53' Sin 104'
log Sine 42'00'00" 9.825510895
Distance angles are 53' and 90'
for ABO
log Sine 42'00'00" 9.825513234
2339 log Sin 53'00'00" = 9.902348617
AA =2.339 log Sin 53'00'01" = 9.902350203
1586
log Sine 60'00'00" 9.937530632
AA =1.586
log Sine 60'00'01" 9,937531847
1215 log Sin 90'00'00" = 0
Aa = 1.215 log Sin 90'00'01" =0
Aa=O
(Ai + AA Aa + Art) (Ai + AA Aa + Ai) = (1.586)2 + 0
+ 0
=(2.339f + 2.339(1.215) + (1.215)2 (I.'>.i + AA Aa + Ai) = 2.51
+
(6} + AA Aa Art) =9.789
Distance angles are 41' and 104'
for
Distance angles for triangle ACD are 41' triangle ACD
and 35'
log Sin 41'00'00" = 9.816942917
log Sin 41'00'00" = 9.816942917 log Sin 41'00'01" = 9.816945339
log Sin 41'00'01" = ~~ 2422
2422 AA = 2.422
log Sin 35'00'00" = 9.758591301 log Sin 104'00'00" = 9.986904119
log Sin 35'00'01" = 9.758594308 log Sin 104'00'01" = 9.986903594
3007 525
I.'>.a = 0.525
AA = 2.422
Aa = 3.007
(Ai + I.'>.A I.'>.a + I.'>.il
(Ai + AA Aa + Ai) =(2.422)2 + 2.422(0.525) +
(0.525)2
=(2.422)2 + (2.422)(3.007) + (3.007)2 (Ai + AA I.'>.a + Ail = 7.41
(Ai + AA Aa + Ai) =22.19
L (Ai + AA Aa + Ai) =9.789 + 22.19 L (Ai + I.'>.A Aa + I.'>.i)
=2.51 + 7.41
L (~i + AA Aa + Ai) :a: 31.979 L (Ai + AA I.'>.a + Ai) = 9.92
S-103

TRIANGULATION

D-C)
R= ( C
2 2
L(~A +~A~B+~B) R = (0 ~.~ L (Ill + ~A t1B+ Ili)
R = 0.60(9.92) R =0.60(5.96)
R= 5.952 R=3.58

Considering triangle ABC and BCD with BC Consider triangles ABO and BCD with
BD
as common side: as common side.
~-~ BD AB
Jin 78' - Sin 60' Sin 37' = Sin 53'
= AB Sin 78' BD =AB Sin 37'
BC
Sin 60' Sin 53'
CD BC CD BD
Sin 48' = Sin 88' Sin 48' = Sin 44'

- BC Sin 48'
CD - Sin 88'
eo
CD _ Sin 48'
- Sin 44'
= AB Sin 78' Sin 48' =AB Sin 37' Sin 48'
CD CD
Sin 60' Sin 88' Sin 53' Sin 54'

The distance angles are 60' and 78' for Distance angles of triangle ABO are
37'
triangle ABC and 48' and 88' (or BCD and 53' and for triangle BCD are 44'
and
48'
log Sin 60'00'00" = 9.937530632
log Sin60'OO'01" = 9.937531847 log Sin 37'00'00" = 9.779463025
1215 log Sin 37'00'01" = 9.779465819
~A = 1.215 2794
log Sin 78'00'00" = 9.990404394
log Sin 78'00'01" = 9.990404842 IlA = 2.794
448 log Sin 53'00'00" = 9.902348617
Il B = 0.448 log Sin 53'00'01" = 9.902350203
(Ili + ~A ~B + Ili) 1586
= (1.215)2 +(1.215)(0.448) + (O.44W
~B=1.586
(Ili + IlA IlB + Ili) = 2.22
log Sin 48'00'00" = 9.871073458 (Ill +IlA ~B + Ili)
log Sin 48'00'01" = 9;871075354 =(2.794)2 + (2.794)(1.586) +
(1.586)2
1896 (Ill + IlA IlB + ~i) = 14.75
IlA = 1.896
log Sin 44'00'00"::: 9.841771273
log Sin 88'00'00" = 9.999735359 log Sin 44'00'01" = 9.841773454
log Sin 88'00'01" = 9.999735432 2181
073
Il B = 0.073 IlA =2.181
(Ill + IlA IlB + Ili)
=(t.896)2 + (1.896)(0.073) + (0.073)2 log Sin 48'00'00· = 9.871073458
log Sin 48'00'01" = 9.871075354·
(t1l + IlA Il B+Ili) =3.74
1896
L (Ill + IlA IlB + Ili) = 2.22 + 3.74
Il B=:.896
L (Il/ + IlA IlB +Ili) = 5.96
5-104

TRIANGUlaTION

(di + dA dB + di) Solution:


=(2.181f + (2.181)(1.896) + (1.896)2 CD Adjusted value of angle 4:
(di + dA dB + di) = 12.49 ADJUST A ADJUST 8
ADJUSTC
L (di + dA dB + di) =14.75 + 12.49 L 1= 23'44' 38" 23'44'
37" 23'44'35"
L (di + dA dB + di) = 27.24 L 2 = 42'19' 09"
42'19' 08" 42'19' 06"
Z. 3 = 44'52' 01" 44
'52' 00" 44'52'00"
R= ( c0- C) L(di+dAdB+di) L 4 = 69'04' 21"
69'04' 20" 69'04' 19"
R =0.60(27.24) L 5 = 39'37' 48"
39'37' 47" 39'37' 49"
R= 16.34
L 6 = 26'25' 51"
26'25' 50" 26'25' 52"
Relative strength of the quadrilateral R L 7 = 75'12' 14"
75'12' 13" 75'12' 13"
= 3,58 (smallest value)
L 8 = 38'44' 06"
38'44' 05" 3.8'44' 06"
@ Length of check base CD: Sum = 360'00' 08"
360'00' 00" 360'00'00
CO =AS Sin 78' Sin 48'
Sin 60' sin SS' Error =8"
CO = 1420 Sin 78' Sin 48'
Sin 60' Sin 88' Correction =§.
CO = 1192.61 m, 8
Correction = 1" (sub)
L1+L2=L5+L6

23'44' 37" 39'37'


47"
42'19' 08"
26'25'50"
66'03' 45" 66'03'
37"
• rfit~~ • foIIOWJdg"•• qM~drllatfjtal • ·.Wlth a Error = 45·37
¢or~~l;ljng·ClnSle~.·.~®lated.~h()wn. Error = 8"
c
Correction =§.
4
Correction = 2" (subtract
from L1 and L2
and add
to L5 and L6)

L3+ L4 = L7 + L8
44'52' 00" 75'12'
13"
A O'-u....- .-.L.~B
69'04' 20" 38'44'
05"
113'56' 20" 113'56'
18"
d) Compute the adjusted value of angle 4 by
appIyihg the artgleconditioll only. Error = 20 - 18 =2"
® Compute the adjusted value of angle 7 by Correction = Add 1" to La
and subtract 1"
. applying the angleconditlon only. from L4
@ Compute the strength of figure factor.
5-105

TRlAliGUlADON

Check:
L1 23'44' 35" L8 38'44' 06"
L8 38'44' 06" L.7 75'12' 13"

Gtv~nthe~uCidrilateral.shownYJfjichh~~·qeerl
L2 42'19' 06" L.6 26'25' 22" adjU$t~d •
u~lng·.IJrgle.C9ndi~()~, • • • ltl$rMUire~
L7 75'12'13" L.8 . 39'37' 49" 1(l.a<lj\l!lI.tl)e••
l3rtglElslJ$ing·tb¢$j~ClQMitil>O, .
180'00'00" 180'00'00"
ZD99mPutelheadju$te~~~glCl-
~' ...i
L1 23'44' 35" L.3 44'52' 00"
®i.9omp\lte.ttmadjU!;ted.arl~Ie-.~ .• • • •. ·.· · · · .
@PQmp\.ltetf)eadjllsted.al1gl~6.
.
L2 42'19' 06' L4 69'04'19"
L3 44 '52' 00" L.5 39'37' 49"
L.4 69'04'19" L.6 26'25; 52" L.1 =39'3749"
180'00' 00" 180'00'00" L.2 = 26'25' 52"

Angle 4 = 69'04'19"
L3 = 75'12' 13"
L4 = 38'44' 06"
@ Angle 7 = 75'12'13"
L5 =23'44' 35"
@ Strength of figure factor. L6 = 42'19' 06"
D=10 L7 = 44'52' 00"
n'=6
L8 =69'04' 19"
n=6
Sum = 360'00' 00"
s=4
s'=4
C =(n' - s +4) +(n - 2s +3)
C = (6 - 4 + 4) + (6 - 8 + 3)
C=4
F=D-C
o
F= 10 -4
10
F =0,60 (Strength offigure factor) Aif'-o"........................-
..........- -.........:.J..:.~B

Solution:
CD Adjusted angle 3: .
Sin L.2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
~~-'-------=
1
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L.7

log Sin 26'25' 52" =


9.64847855
log Sin 38'44' 06" =
9.796379535
log Sin 42'19' 06" =
9.82817581
log Sin 69'04'19" =
9.970360677

9.243394570
5-106

TRIANGUlATION

Diff. in 1" Add 2" to all angles in


the numerator:
log Sin 26'25' 52" = 9.64847855 4.2 (smaller)
log Sin 26'25' 53" = 9.648482785 Subtract 2" to all angles
in the denominator:
log Sin 38'44' 06" = 9.796379535 2.62 (bigger)
log Sin 38'44' 07" = 9.79638216
log Sin 42'19' 06" = 9.82817581 2.31 - L1 = 39'37' 49"
• 02" 39'37' 47"
fog Sin 42'19' 07" = 9.828178122
26'25'54"
+L2 26'25' 52"
+02"
log Sin 69'04'19" = 9.970360677 0.81
log Sin 69'04' 20" = 9.970361483 __ - L3 = .75'12'13"
• 02" 75'12' 11"
9.94 +L4 = 38'44'06i,
+ 02" 38'44'08"
- L5 = 23'44' 35"
- 02" 23'44'33"
log Sin 39'37' 49" = 9.804705675 +L6 = 42'19' 06"
+ 02" 42'19'08"
log Sin 75'12' 13" = 9.985354379 - L7 = 44'52' 00"
- 02" 44'51' 58"
log Sin 23'44' 35" = 9.604912331 +L8 = 69'04' 19"
+ 02" 69'04' 21"
log Sin 44'52' 00" = 9.848471997
360'00' - 00"
9.243444381
Adjusted angle 3
=75'12' 11'~
Diff. in 1"
log Sin 39'37' 49" = 9.804705675 2.54 @ Adjusted angle 5 =
23'44' 33"
log Sin 39'37' 50" = 9.804708217
log Sin 75'12' 13" = 9.985354379 0.56 @ Adjusted angle 8
=69'04' 21"
log Sin 75'12' 14" = 9,985354935
log Sin 23'44' 35" = 9.604912331 4.79
-----/
log Sin 23'44' 36" = 9.604917117
log Sin 44'52' 00" = 9.848471997 2.12
log Sin 44'52' 01" = 9.848474112 _ _
10.01 ,c
"II1thE!figwe•• ~hpw§ •
.~,.qy~drla~~r~IWl!htheit

J ••••
~9q~$Pon(jin9,
deSignated.
"....,' ... .. ., ."•.• ','•, m~#$l)r~m~nls
• • • •
t*ngUItl.r• .'..'. ,', . . , '
Subtract: 9.243394570 - smaller
9.243444381' bigger
0.000049811

Add: 9.94 + 10.01 = 19.95

Difference =49.81
49.81 '
0=-8-
0=6.23
(J = 19.95
8 (j) WhiCh. of
InemilOWing equation dOes not
(J = 2.49 ®ltsfy the figure
shown.
. 6.23 a) L2 + L3 =L7 + L6
Correcllon =2,49
b) .L1 + L8 =L4 +
L5
Correction = 2.5" say 2" c) L1 + L2 + L3 +
L4 = 180'
d) L1 + L8 + L6 +
L7 = 180'
5·107

TRIANGUlATION

n = total number of
lines in figure, including
the known side
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L.7 n=6
~ =0
Sin L8 Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
~ =1
Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L7 Sin L1
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L1
c}
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L1 Sin L3
d} , = ---=--....:..:...--=.
Sin L6 Sin L8 Sin L5 Sin L7
C----~::---~~~D
@ .·WMt.Will • ~th~#~~Qr..• (.....F)l".~lvihg
. slt~ngtI'l9fflgur~.<
• me
..... . .
Values ofn
a} 0.80 c) 0.90
n' =no. of lines
observed in both directions
b} 0.60 d} 0040
including the
known side
F=D-C n'=6
o
o= no. of direcfions observed (forward and
backwards) not including the fixed or
unknown side of a given figure.
C = no. of geometric conditions to be
satisfied in a given figure.
C= (n' - s' +1) + (n - 2s +3)
n' = no. of lines observed in both
directions, including the fixed or
known side of a given figure.
n = total number of lines in the figure
including fixed or known line.
Values of n'
s = total number of stations
No. of directions observed (forward and $ = total no. of
stations
backwards) not including the known $=4
side of C=(n'-s!+1} +'(n-
2s+3)
0=10 ~ =(6 - 4 + 1) + ,[6
- 2(4) + 3]
C=3+1
. luded in computarion of D
normc, B C=4

F=D-C
. 0
F=10-4
10
F= 0.60

Answer:
G) c
@ b
Values of D @ b
S-108

TRIANGUlATION

@ Fraction F:
F=O-C
o
o =no. of directions
observed(forward and
backward) not including
the known
D side.
0=24
F0- -C- -24- 9
-
E - 0 - 24
F= 0.625
@ Strength of figure R:
R= F(!::>} + ~A ~B + ~i)
R = 0.625(5.02)
R= 3.14

Solution:
CD Value of C: CD Compute the adjU$tedvalue of
angle Aby
n' =no. of lines observed in both directions diWibuting lhespherical
excess and the
including known side remalning error equally.
.
n'= 13 @ Compute the adjusted value of
angle B by
n =total no. of lines in figure unciuding distributing the spherical
excess and the
known side remaining error equally. .
n =13 @ Compute the adjusted value of
angle Cby
s' =no. of occupied stations distributing the spherical
excess and the
s' =7 remaining error equally.
s =total no. of stations
s=7 Solution:
A
C =(n' - s' + 1) + (n - 2s + 3) e=R2 Sin01"
C=(13-7+1) + [13-2(7)+3] A =be Sin A
C=7+2 2
C=9 b 35965.47
Sin 56'10'30" = Sin
62'04'11"
b =33814.89
5-109

SPHERICAl EXCESS

A = be Sin A
2
33814.89 (35965.47) Sin 61'45'20"
A= 2
The interior angles in
triangle ABC are
A = 53568365b.2 m2 A "'. 57'30' 29", B :::
65'17'27" • and
" A C =57'12' 16". The distance
from A to B is
e = R2 Sin 01" equal'to 180,420 m, ASsuming
fh~ average
.' 535683650.2 radius Qf curvature is 6400
km. ',
e"= (6372000)2 Sin 01"
[."=2.72" CD Compute the area of fhe
triangl~;
@ Compute the second term of
the spherical
61'45'20" excess.
, '
56'10'30" @ Compute Ihe total spherical
eXcess,
62'04'11"
Solution:
180'-00'01" G) Area of triangle:
180'-00'02.72" B
Error =1.72"

1.72
1st Carr. = -3-
1st Corr. =0.573 (added)
A
2.72
2nd Corr. =-3-
2nd Corr. =0.907 (to be subtracted) ~--
~ .... c
Using Sine Law:
61'45'20" + 0.573" - 0.907 = 61'45' 19.676" b
180420
56'10'30" t 0.573" ·0.907 = 56'10' 29.676" Sin 65'17' 27" = Sin
57'12' 16"
62'04'11" t 0.573" - 0.907 = 62'04' 10.676" b =194978.94 m.
180'00' 00" A bcSin A
rea=-Z-
B A 194978.94
(180420) Sin 57'30' 29"
rea 2
6
Area = 14836 x 10 rrf

® Second term of the


spherical excess:
A
When the sides ofthe
triangle are over 100
miles (160,000 m.) use
the accurate
formula for spherical
excess.
......... c

c2]
~-_

Area [ a2t
b2t
e" =R2 Sin 01" 1 t 24
R2
el) Adjusted value of angle A = 61'45'19.676"
The second term is
c;" Adjusted value of angle B =56'10'29.676"
Adjusted value of angle C =62'04'10.676"
Area
2 2
(a + b t
c2)
(;'t R2 Sin 01" 24 R2
S-J10

SPIIIBICIl EXCESS

a
=
180420 (j)()omPOle • the.adjlJ~tedvalue •
ofMgle.A.PY
Sin 57'30' 29" Sin 57'12' 16" 91~WputingmemmericaL~X(\
{Jssandthe
a =181033.49 m. ~i:lrnlng:e@tequ~:"IY,>
·®·.Cp!l'lp~t~ • •
the.9djl.lste9Wlue•• ofan~le~ • W•
Second tent . . . . .•··.·.4iS1riblJti/lg •
lhe.spherj"al•• til)(ee$$~l'ld • • m~·
a2 =32773 x 1tl6 ••.•..•..• @l)airyins~tI"QreqUEln}"
'. .
b2 =38017 x 106 • ~• • • Gompute••
t/)e.adJustedv~J~~Qf.~r~J~Cby .
••.•.•.•. •. . g~trll?~ljlls • . th~
• $P~~ig~I.·~~e;;san~ • the
c?- =32551 x 106 tElll'lafl'ling error
eqU(lny. '. .. ..... .'
W- =40960000 x 106
Area = 14836 x 106 Solution:
B
Area
2nd term = R2 Sin 01" .24W-
(a2
+ ~ + c?-)

14836 x 106
2nd term =40960000x1 06 Sin 01"
A
(32773+38017+32551)106]
[ 24(4096‫סס‬OO)106
·~-_
....... c
, ( 103341 )
2nd tenn = 74.7106" 24(40900000)
C 5260
2nd term = 0.00785" =
Sin 52'03'17" Sin 88'33'05"
C = 4149.3$ m.
® Total spherical excess: log m = 1.40658 ·10
m = 2.55023 x10-9
Area [ a2+~+c2] e"=mbc Sin A
e" =W- Sin 01" 1 + 24 W-
e' = 2.55023 x 10,9 (5260)(4149.35)
Sin 39'23'40
e" =74.7106 + 0.OD7e5 e"= 0.035"
d' =74.71845" A = 39'23'40"
B = 88'33'05"
C = 52'03'17"
180'· 00'02"
180',00,00.035"
Error= 1.965
First Correction: 1,~5 ::;
0.655"
Second Correction:
0,~35 =0,012
39'23'40" • 0.655" • 0,012" =
39'23' 39.333"
88'33'05"·0.655"·0.012" = 88'33'
4.333'.'
52'03'17"·0.655·0,012" = 52'03'
16,333"

180'00' 00"
CD Adjusted value of angle A ::;
39'23'39,333"
@ Adjusted value of angle B
=88'33' 4,333"
@ Adjusted value of angle C
=52'03'16.333"
S·lJl

SPHERICAl EXCESS

m = 2.536 x 10.9
log m =1.40415·10
_b c_
Sin B - Sin C
b 3012
Sin 63'44'59" = Sin
79'59'57"
b = 2743.05 m.
o e" = 2 A
R Sin 01"
.I'fR'IS
known.

@ e" = m bc Sin A if no
radius is given
1
m- 2 R NArc 1"
" 1t
Arc 1 = 180(3600)
N = 6376032 m.
CD Compute the adjusted value of aogle Eby
.' ," 'distnbutingthe spherical excess and the At a given latitude
remaining error equally. ,, e"=mbcSinA
@ ,Compute ,the adjusted value of angle Nby
e" =2.536 x 10.9 (2743.05)(3012)
Sin 36'15'07"
, distributing the spherical excess and the e"= 0.012" (spherical
excess)
remaining ~rror equally. , ' ,'. ,
® Cbmputeth,e adjusted value of angle L by 79'59'27"
distributing the spherical excess and the 63'44'59"
remaining error equally. 36'15'07"
180',00'- 03"
Solution: 180'- 00'· 0 012"
N
Error = 2.988" (error of
spherical triangle)
Correction for each angle
2.988
=-3-
= 0.966" (First
Correction)
L

Second Correction
~--""""-E 0.012
=-3-
A = 0.004" (spherical
excess,subtracted
e"= R2 Sin 01" from each
angle)
Arc 1" =180 ~600) 79'59'57" ' 0.996" • 0.004"
=79'59'56"
bcSin A , 63'44'59",0.996" - 0.004"
=63'44'58"
A = - 2 - (area oftnangle) 36'15'07"·0.995",0.004" =~

180'00' 00"
e =m bcSin A
1
m= 2RNArc1" CD Adjusted value of angle E =
79'59'56"
1 ® Adjusted value ofangle N =
63'44'58"
m= 1t
2(6378160)(6376032) 180(3600) @ Adjusted value of angle L
=36'15'06"
5-112

AREA Of ClOSED TIIAIERSE

AREA OF CLOSED
TRAVERSE
In any closed traversed,
there is always an
error. No survey is geometrically
perfect, until
proper adjustment are made. For a
closed
traversed, the sum of the north
and south
latitudes should always be zero.

BALANCING A SURVEY
Latitude of any line - is the projection on a
north and south lines. It may be called as 1. Compass rule - the correction
to be
north or positive latitude and south or applied to the latitude or
departure of any
negative latitude. course is to the total
correction in latitude
or departure as the length of
the course is
Departure of any line - is the projection on to the length of the traverse.
the east and west line. West departure is
sometimes called negative departure and 2. Transit rule - the correction
to be applied
East departure is sometimes called to the latitude or departure of
any course is
positive departure. to the total correction in
latitude or
departure as the latitude or
departure of that
coUrse is to the arithmetical
sum of all the
C DEPARTURE B latitudes or departures in the
traverse
without regards to sign.

Error of closure = ."j LL2 +


L02
RIf Error
of closure
eaIve error = Perimeter of
all courses

LL =error in latitude
LO =error in departure
A

Line AB has its latitude AC and departure BC.


The angle 0 is the bearing of the line AB.
BC =AB.Sin 0 .
1 Area by Triangle Method 0
Departure = Distance x Sin Bearing
AC =AB Cos 0

Latitude = Oistance x Cos Bearing

Dist = Latitud~ .
Cos Bearrng
O' t _ Departure
IS - Sin Bearing
5-113

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

A=A1+A2+A3 or
d1d2 Sin a
A1 = 2
·A - d3d4Sin {!,
2- 2
- dsd s Sin l2I
A3 - 2
4 Area by Double Meridian
Distance
2 Area by Rule of Thumb Method Double Meridian Distance
of line BC is the
sum of meridian distances
of the two
2A = [Y1 (X1 - X2) + Y2 (X1 - X3) + Y3 (X2 - ~) extremeties.
+ Y4 (X3 - Xs) + Ys(~ - X1)]

3 Area by coordinates

Area ABCDE =Area BCEF + Area CDIF


- Area EDIH • Area AEGH •Area ABGE

~ .'...x j....A~· c
D.M.D. of BC = EB + FC
H······:':$·f,····
Latitude of BC = EF

, !""I('»,. Area of BCFE:


_ (EB + FC) EF
A- 2
- (X2 + x 3) (Y2 - Y3) + (X3 + X4) (Y3 - Y4) 2A = (EB + FC) EF
A- 2 2 2A = (D.M.D.)tatitude
(X4 + xs) (Ys • Y4) (xs + X1) (Y1 - Ys) Double Area = Double
Meridian Distance
2 - 2 x
Latitude
(1'1 + X2) (Y2 • Y1)
2

Simplifying 'this relation:

CD 2A = • [Y1 (xs - X2) + Y2(X1 - X3) 1. D.M.D. of the first


course is equal to
+Y3 (X2 • X4) + Y4 (X4 - Xs) + Ys (~ • X1)] the departure of that
course.
2. D.MD. of any other
course is equal to
or the DMD of the preceding
course, plus
the departure of the
preceding course
@ 2A = Yt X1+ Y3Y2 + X4Y3 + XSY4 + X1YS plus the departure of
the course itself:
• XtY2 • X2Y3 - Y3Y4 . X4YS· XSY1 3. D.M.D. of the last
course IS
numerically equal to the
departure of
the last course but
opposite in sign.
5-114

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

Computing Area by D.M.D. Method: Example:

1. Compute the latitudes and departures


of all courses. Area by Double Meridian
Distance
2. Compute the error of closure in
latitudes and departures. Lines LAT. DEP. DMD
Double

Area
3. Balance the latitudes and departures
by applying either transit rule or 1-2 +60 -30 -30
·30160\ =-1800
compass rule. 2-3 -20 +20 -40
·401- 20) =+800
4. Compute for the D.M.D. of all courses. 3-4 -80 +60 +40
+40(. 80\ =-3200
4-1 +40 -SO +SO
+SOI4O\- +2000
5. Compute the double areas by
mUltiplying each D.M.D. by the
2A =- 2200
corresponding latitude.
A=-1100m2
6. Determine the algebraic sum of the
double areas.
Area by Double Parallel
Distance
7. Divide the algebraic sum of the double
area to obtain the area of the whole
tract. Lines LAT. DEP. DPD
Double

Area
Double Area =D.M.D. x Latitude 1-2 +60 - 30 +60 601-
30\ =- 1800
2-3 -20 +20 +100
100120\ = +2000
3-4 - 80 +60 0
d(6Q) = 0
5 Area by: Double Parallel Distance 4-1 +40 -SO -40 -401-
SO\ = +2000

2A 2200 =-

A=1100m 2

1. D.P.D. of the first course is equal to


the latitude of that course.
2. D.P.D. of any other course is equal to
the D.P.D. of the preceding course,
plus the latitude of the preceding
course, pius the latitude of the course
itself.
•..••••..<•• • 4OQ·,OQitJ.·.·>···
3. D.P.D. of the last course is
.·llOll,OOffi)
numerically equal to the latitude of the
700.00fft·· ..
last course but opposite in sign.
600.00trl.
Double Area =Double Parallel Distance
x Departure CD Compute the correction
<i1latitudeotlline
CO using transit rule, ...• ..
...
@ Compute the linear error of
closure.
® Compute the relative error or
precision. .
S-115

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

Solution:
Solution:
Lines Bearina Distances LAT DEP CD
Error of closure:
AB Due North 400.00m !+400. 0
BC N45' E 800.00m +565. +565.69
Distances LAT DEP
Lines
Bearinll
CD 860' E 700.00m 3SO. +606.22
AB
N.53'3TE. 59.82m +35.62 +48.06 '
DE S2Q'W 600.00m 563.8 -205.21
BC
S.66'54'E. 70.38 m - 27.61 +64.74
EA S86'S9'W 966.34m - SO.86 -965.00
-37.30
CD
S.29'Oaw. 76.62m. -66.93
Penmeter -- 3466.34 +1.01 +1.7
DA
N.S2'OOW. 9S.75m +58.95 - 7S.45
400 + 565.69 +3S0 + 563.82 + SO.86 = 1930.37

302.57 +94.S7 +112.aO


ill Correction of latitude on line CD using
- 94.54 - 112.75
transit rule:
+0.03 +O.OS
fm_ 3SO.00
1.01 - 1930.37
Ceo =0.18
Error ofclosure = -V (0.03)2 +(0.05)2

error of closure = 0.0583


@ Linear error ofclosure:
LEG = -V (1.01~ +(1.7)2 ®
Precesion of linear measurement:
LEG = 1.97740

.. 0.0583

PrecIsion =302.S7
@ Relative error or precision:
• 1.97740
1
Relative error =3466.34
Precision =5190
. 1
Precision = 1:5190
RelatIVe error = 1753

@
Area in acres:
LAT
DEP DIv1D DOUBLE

AREA

•~~i~I.~~;t$h:~d~~~~~~~ijjjti~.lf~~~.
!ljid$s.$reshOW!l: '. >.•• • • • • •.• • .•.
... . . . •. . . . •••.. •. •••••• ~

+3S.61
-
27.61
-
66.94

+48.0S

+64.73

- 37.31

+48.0S

+160.83

+188.25

+1711.06

-4440.46

-12601.46

+58.94 - 75.47 +75,47 +4448.20


o
0 2A --10882.72

A =5441.36 m2

Note: 1acre = 4047 sq.m.

, . 5441.36 .

Area = 4047
ill ~:~S~~h~~:err9r.·Of• • cIO$~re • • • fOt•• • ~e.
Area = 1.34 acres
® What is the" pre<:e~Jon cif linear
measurement of this tl'averse. '. . .
What is the lotal area'locliJdedwlthlJi the
traverse inacfes.
S-1I6

AREA OF ClOSED TRaVERSE

Corrected Latitude:

..f-_ 249.40

0.68 -1868.94

'~liiiii~1

C=O.09

Corrected lat =249.40 •0.09

Corrected lat = 249.31

• H•HW?~;~r:W~M~P<!~~&§;~pg;p~@]jjn~
• ·••·•• ·.t~~.¢~tt~~J~m~p~ll.h~9~rmrt~@9f~.
·.·.bYAAmM~~rn@>····

@AgW@ij#~yijr~$1lj~~llj~@I~W4M<
.• • •·•• • •i$t.lI~W>·.·i·...···.//·>.·./ •. H: • · •·•·• • • •.•.• • .•. . . .

;!lll:t~'Jl'
•·• • • • •~~'~il~l~eEl~.~ll~0te
Solution: \'\-1"1,
CD Correction of latitude and departure AB:
Corrected Latitude:
_C__ 483.52
(+) 0.44 - 2915.80
C=+0.07
Solution:
Corrected lat =326.87 +0.07
CD Corrected latitude of DE by comp~ss rule:
Corrected lat =326.94
-.L._ 518.40 .... .. . .

/0.56 - 2628.5
Corrected Departure:
"",

E = +0.11
C 483.53
ll-?t
0.37 =2915.80
C=O.06
Corrected latitude of DE =259.2 + 0.11
Corrected dep = 356.30 +0.06
Corrected latitude of DE =259.31
Corrected dep = 356.36

® Correctedlatitude of DE by transit rule:


® Correction of departure and latitude BC:
E 259.2
Corrected Departure:
.. ;KJ.56 = 1726.8
C 364.20
E=+0.08
- 0.42 =1842.64
C=-O.08
Corrected latitude of DE =259.2 + 0.08.
Corrected dep =364.20·0.08
Corrected latitude of DE =259.28
90rrected dep =364.12
S-l17

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

@ Corrected departure of DE by compass (j) Relative


error:
rule:
~_518.4 Error of
closure =--J (1.01)2 + (1.7)2
- 0.34 - 2628.5 Error of
closure =1.977
E=- 0.07 .
1.977
RelatIVe
error =3466.34
Corrected departure =448.9 - 0.07
Corrected departure =448.83 Relative
error = 175~.33
® Adjusted
distance of EA using
'f: Transit Rule:
For A- B:
(latitude)
..fL_~
F"9t1)fhe1ieldnOtesOfa\cl~sed{trav~r~e< . t1.01 -
1930.37
sh~mtleIoW,<ldjlJl3~.m~.tr<av~rs~.lIl3il'lg
.... C1 = 0.00052
(400)
C1 =0.21 ." "
.
Q!¢()fuP~W·l!J~r~~pv~~rr8rOf.pl()~re. • • /\•• •·••.•·
"-f\1
®.····Cw.nput~ • th~··~4jll~t~~Ai~t~I'l~()t .• litl~eA
lJ~it'9Trcllisit~~lEl, Total
distance =3466.34
@qomputethei~dJlJ§ted~a.ringOfliIW)CO
using Compa$$Rllle:< ... . . ..
LINES
CORRECTION FOR LATITUDE
A-B C1 =
0.000523 (400) =+0.21
STA. STA. Bearings Distances B-C ~ =
0.000523 (565.69) =W·30
OCC. OBS. CoD CJ
0.000523 (350.00) =\0.18
A B Due North 400.00m. D-E C4 =
0.000523 (563.82) =>\{).29
B C N45' E 800.00m. E-A C5 =
0.000523 (50.86) =J{).Q3
C D S60' E lOO.OOm.
S20'W
1.01
0 E 600.00m.
E A S86'59'W 9OO.34m. Correction
for Departure:
For line A -
B:
Solution:
..fL __0_
Line Bearinas Distance LAT DEP 1.70 -
2342.12
A-S Due North 400.00 +400.00 0 C1 =
0.0007258 (0)
S-C N45'E 800.00 +565.69 +565.69 C1 =0
(., \.•...•.... J

CoD 860' E 700.00 ·350.00 +606.22


D-E 820'W 600.00 - 563.82 - 205.21 LINES
CORRECTION FOR DEPARTURE
E-A S86'59'W 966.34 -50.86 -965.00 A-S C1
0.0007258 (0) = 0
965.69 1171.91 +965.69 +1171.91 S-C ~ =
0.0007258 (565.69) = 0.41
~ 11lQ2.1 ~ :..11ZQ21 CoD ~ =
0.0007258 (606.22) = 0.44
1930.37 2342.12 + 1.01 + 1.70 D-E C4
0.0007258 (205.21) = 0.15
;~(:t~~ E-A C5 =
0.0007258 (965) = 0.70
Total distance = 3466.34
Error in latitude = 1.01
1.70
Error in departure = 1.70
S-118

AREA OF ClOSED TUVERSE

ADJUSTED LATITUDES AND DEPARTURE Correction for


departure:
(uncorrected) (corrected) LineA -B:
.ft_~
Lines LAT DEP LAT DEP 1.7 - 3466.34
GO.21 C1 =0.00049043 (400)
.., C1 =0.20
~·B '1'400 I ·
A-B +400.00 0 +399.79 0
LINES CORRECTION FOR
DEPARTURE
-0.30 - 0.41 A- B C1 = 0.00049043
(400) = 0.20
B-C +565.69 +565.69 +565.39 +565.28 B-C C:1 = 0.00049043
(800) = 0.40
-0.18 -0.44 C-D ~ = 0.00049043
(700) = 0.34
CoD - 350.00 +606.22 - 350.18 +605.78 D- E C4 = 0.00049043
(600) = 0.29
-0.29 +0.15 E-A Cs = 0.00049043
(966.34) = 0.47
D-E - 563.82 - 205.21 - 564.11 -205.36

1.70
-0.03 +0.70
E-A ~ 50.86 -965.00 -50.89 -965.70 ADJUSTED LATITUDES AND
DEPARTURE
o o (uncorrected)
(corrected)

Adjusted bearing ofEA: Lines LAT DEP


LAT DEP

tan bearing =q;; )


A-B - 0.12
+400.00

-0.20
0
+399.88 -0.20
· - 965.70 -0.24
-0.40
tan beanng = _50.89 B-C +565.69
+565.69 +565.45 +565.29
Bearing =S. 86'59' W. -0.20
-0.34
CoD - 350.00
+606.22 -350.20 +605.88
Adjusted distance of EA: - -1'0.17
+0.29
D-E - 563.82 -
205.21 -563.99 - 205.50
·t
DIS 965.70
ance =Sin 86'59' - lO.28 +0.47
Distance =967,04 m. E-A -50.86 -965.00
- 51.14 - 965.47

o 0
® Adjusted bearing of CD using . 605.88
Compass Rule: tan beanng = 350.20
Correction for latitude: Bearing = S. 59'58'
E
LIneA -B:
~-~
f 1.01 - 3466.34
C1 =0.000291374 (400)
C1 =0.12

LINES CORRECTION FOR LATITUDE


A- B C1 = 0.000291374 (400) = 0.12
B - C C:1 = 0.000291374 (800) = 0.24
C- D ~ = 0.000291374 (700) = 0.20
D-E C4 = 0.000291374(600) = 0.17
E-A Cs = 0.000291374(966.34) =~ (j) compute the be~ of
line 2- 3... •
1.01 @ Compute the dls~nce
ofline 4 , 1.
® Determine the area of the
lot using DMD.
5-119

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

Solution: For line 3-4:


. 800
Since the property line intersect each other, tan Beanng :: 800
then we could only apply DMD, if we divide it
Bearing:: N4S' E
into areas where no property lines will
intersect. Distance :: S~S'
Line~ LAT DEP Bearing Distance Distance = 1131.37
1- 2 -1200 +400 S 18'26' E
1265.02
2-3 +200 -400 N63'2f>W 447.23 For line 4 -1:
3-4 +800 +800 N4S'E 1131.37 . 800
tan Beanng :: 200
4·1 +200 -800 N7S'58'W 824.63
Bearing:: N7S'58' N
CD Bearing ofline 2 • 3: ·t
DIS 800
ance - Sin 7S'S8
Distance:: 824,03

@ Area by DMD:'''<i
Using Sine
Law:~ ,: ,.,
X 824.63
Sin S7'32' = Sin
63'26'
X= 777.88
Y 824.63
Sin 59'02':: Sin
63'26'
Y=790.56
.f:. 'Y)
a= 1265.02 - 790.56
a=474.46
b=1131.37-777.88
~ ("7"
Farline 1- 2: b::: 353.49
J/
r'
· 400 (,

tan Beanng:: 1200


Far Lot A:
Bearing:: S 18'26' E
400 ' Lines Bearina
DEP
Distance:: Sin 18'26'·
Distance LAT
1-4 S7S'58' E
824.63 -200 +800
Distance:: 1265.02 4-S S4S'W
777.88 -S5O -550
5-1 N18'66'W
790.56 +750 -2S0
For line 2- 3:
. 400
tan Beanng:: 200 LINES DMD
DOUBLE AREA
Bearing:: N 63'26' W 1· 4 +800
-160000
4-5 +1050
·577500
. '; 5·1 +250
+187500
@ Distance of line 4- 1....
D' tance:: Sin400
2A:: 550000
63'26~
IS

A = 275000 m2
Distance:: 447.23
5-120

ARU OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

For Lot B: To compute


the DMD:
Linel Bearina Distance LAT DEP Lines
DMD Double
5-2 S18'26' E 474.46 -450 +150
Area
2-3 N63'26'W 447.23 +200 -400' 1-2
-11.77 +219.275
3-5 N45'E 353.49 -250 +250 2-3 -11.77-
11.77-5.96= -29.50 -236.885
3-4 - 29.50 -
5.96 -1.36 = -36.82 -1n.104
LINES DMD DOUBLE AREA 4-1 -36.82-1.36-
19.09= +19.09 -110.531
5-2 +150 ·67500
2-3 -100 -20000 To compute
for double area =DMD xlatitude
3-5 -250 62500
2A= 150000 Lines
Double Area
A=75000 m2 1-2 -11.77
(-18.63) = 219.275
2-3 - 29.50
(8.03) = -236.885
Total area = 275000 +75000 3-4 - 36.82
(4.81) = -1n.104
Total area = 350000 m2 4-1 -19.09
(5.79) = -110.531

Negative
double areas
=236.885
+1n.104 + 110.531
= 524.520
sq.m.

Positive
double area = 219.275

524.5b - 219.275
Area=
2
Area =
152.622 sq.m.

@ DPD offine 3
- 4:

Line's LAT
DEP DPD Double

Area
G) flndthea~ea()Nhelqtby.DMt>rnf!lhod,······ 1-2 -18.63
-11.77 -18.63 +219.275
@)findtMPAt>9ffi®3,A. iii.· . 2-3 8.03
-5.96 -29.23 +174.211
@ Finq.thearea.ofk:llbyDpo·rnethgd.•
3-4 4.81
-1.36 -16.39 +22.290
Solution: 4-1 5.79
+19.09 -5.79 +110.531
(!) Area by DMD method:
Departure = distance x sin bearing DPD offine 3
- 4 =-16.39
Latitude = distance x cos bearing
u ';, <'~ . .",
@ Area by DPD
method:
Line BearinQs Dist LAT DEP DMD Double Area
=219.275 + 174.211

+ 22.290 - 110.531
1- 2 S32'17W 22.04 -18.63 -11.77 -17.77
Double area
= 305.245
2-3 N36'25W 10.00 +8.03 -5.96 -29.50
Area -
305.245
3-4 N15'47W 5.00 +4.81 -1.36 -36.82 - 2
4·1 N73'07'E 19.95 +5.79 -19.09 +19.0E Area =
152.622 sq.m.
S-120-A

IREA Of ClOSED TRAVERSE

Line BC:
Latitude
Departure
From the given technical description of a lot. .£L_ 30.98
.£L_ 591.19
20.5 -1357.44
3.93 - 2126.25
LINES BEARINGS DISTANCES C2 = 0.47
C2 = 1.09
AB N.48'20'E. 529.60 m.
BC N.87"OO'E. 592.00 m.
CD S.7'59'E. 563.60 m. Line CD:
DE S.80'OO'W. 753.40 m. Latitude
Departure
EA N.48'12'W. 428.20 m. ~_ 558.14
~_ 78.28
20.5 -1357.44
3.93 - 2126.25
CD Find thE! corrected bearing of line BC using C3 =8.42
C3 =0.15
transit rule.
@ Find the corrected bearing of line DE using
transit rule. Line DE:
@ Find the corrected distance of line EA Latitude
Departure
using transit rule. ~_ 130.83
~_ 74.95
20.5 -1357.44
3.93 - 2126.25
C4 = 1.98
C4 = 1.37
Solution:
CD Corrected bearing of line BC using transit
rule: Line EA:
Latitude
Departure
Lines Bearina Distance LAT DEP ~_ 285.41
~_ 319.21
AB N.48'20'E. 529.60 +352.08 +395.62 20.5 -1357.44
3.93 - 2126.25
BC N.8TOO'E. 592.00 +30.98 +591.19 Cs = 4.31
Cs = 0.59
CD S.7'59'E. 563.60 -558.14 +78.28
DE S.80'OO'W 753.40 -130.83 -741.95
EA N.48'12'W. 428.20 +285.41 -319.21 LINES
CORRECTED LATITUDES
+668.47 +1065.09 AS \
352.08 + 5.32 = + 357.40
-688.97 -1061.16 BC r 30.98
+ 0.47 = + 31.45
Error = ('20.5 +.3.93 CD .-
558.1#-8.42 =- 549.72
DE
130.83+1.98 = -128.85
i-f" 668.47 1065.09;\,<· /I"",
EA T
285.41 + 4.31 = + 289,72
688.97 .1Q2.1.12
1357.44 2126.25
o
LINES
CORRECTED DEPARTURES
Corrections using transit rule: AB I.
395.62 - 0.73 = + 394.89

LineAB: BC .j.,
591.19 -1.09 = + 590.10

Latitude Departure CD
78.28 - 0.15 = + 78.13
DE
-741.95~1.37 =- 743.32
-fL _ 352.08 ~_ 395.62
20.5 -1357.44 3.93 - 2126.25 EA ..
319.21 f 0.59 = - 319.80
C1 = 5.32 C1 =0,73

o
5-120-B

AREI OF CLOSED lUVERSE

Corrected bearing of line BC:

tan bearing = Dep.


Lat. Using the given data in the traverse
shown:
. BC 590.10
ta n beanng = 31.45 POINTS NORTHINGS
EASTINGS
A 75m. . 250
m.
Corrected Bearing BC = N. 86'57' E
B 425m. 150
m.
C 675m.
450m.
@ Corrected bearing of line DE: 0 675m. 675
m.
E 425m. 700
m.
tan bearing = Dep. F 175m.
550m.
Lat.
t be' DE - 743.32 CD Compute the bearing of line BC.
an anng =_128.85 @ Compute the distance of line FA.
@ Compute the area enclosed by the
straight
Corrected bearing DE = S. 80'10' W.
line bounded by the points ABCDEFA.

@ Corrected distance ofline EA: Solution:


· Dep. CD Bearing ofline BC:
ta n beanng =
Lat.
LINES LATITUDES DEPARTURE
t be' EA - 319.80
an anng =+ 289.72 AB 425 - 75 = +350 150 - 250
=-100
BC 675 - 425 = +250 450 -150 =
+300
Corrected bearing EA= N. 4T50'W.
CD 675 - 675 =0 675 - 450
= +225
DE 425 - 675 =-250 700 - 675
= +25
D' t - Dep. EF 175 - 425 =-250 550 - 700
=-150
IS ance - Sin bearing FA 75-175=-100 250 - 550
=-300
r'\" 319.80
ulstance = Sin 47'50' Bearing of line BC:
Distance =431.52 m. · Den.
tan beanng =-=
Lat.
. +300
Check: tan beanng =+250
Distance =..J (Latf+ (Dep~ Bearing BC = N. 50'12' E.

Distance =..J (289.72)2 + (319.80~


Distance = 431.52 m. @ Distance offine FA:
FA = ..J (Dep)2 + (Lat)2

FA=..J (- 30W + (-10W


FA =316.23 m.
S-120-C

AREA OF ClOSED 'IIVERSE

@ Area bounded the straight lines:


)( \,\ 107.28
131.70
Lines LAT. DEP D~D Double Area JM.5.3.
lli..ZQ
AB +350 -100 -100 -100(350) = -35000 211.81
273.40
BC +250 +300 +100 100250 = + 25000
CD 0 +225 +625 625 0) = O.
DE -250 +25 +875 8751-250 = -21875( Corrections using
transit rule:
EF -250 -150 +750 7501 -250 = -18750(
LineAB:
FA -100 -300 +300 300 -100) =-30000
2A= -446250 Latitude
Departure
.n f' _<.f, ~ It~
, A=223125.r ~_ 36.13
~_ 25.77
2.75 - 211.81
10 - 273.40
C1 = 0.47
C1 =0.94

Line BC:
In the traverse table below shows the Latitude
Departure
Latitudes and Departures of the closed
traverse. ~_ 74.56
f2. _115.93
2.75 - 211.81
10 - 273.40
LINES LAT. DEP. C2 = 0.97
C2 =4.24
AB - 36.13 -25.77
BC + 74.56 -115.93
CD + 12.82 +0.39 Line CD:
DE + 19.90 +61.74 LatitUde
Departure
EA - 68.40 +69.57 ~_ 12.82
f.a. _ 0.39
2.75 - 211.81
10 - 273.40
CD Compute the corrected bearing of line BC
using transit rule. C3 = 0.16
C3 = 0.01
@ Comp.ute the corrected distance of line EA
using transit rule. . Line DE:
@ Compute the area of the traverse by
balancing the traverse by transit rule. Latitude
Departure
~_ 19.90
~_ 61.74
Solution: 2.75 - 211.81
10 - 273.40
CD Corrected bearing of line Be using transit C4 =0.26
C4 = 2.26
rule:
LINES LAT. DEP.
-36.13 . Line EA:
AB - 25.77
BC + 74.56 -115.93 Latitude
Departure
CD + 12.82 + 0.39 ~_ 68.40
~_ 69.57
DE + 19.90 +61.74 2.75 - 211.81
10 - 273.40
EA - 68.40 +69.57 Cs = 0.89
Cs =2.55
+ 107.28 + 131.70
~ -141.70
+ 2.75 -10.00
S-120-D

.IEI OF ClOSED TIAVElSE

LINES CORRECTED LATITUDES CORRECTEO DEPARTURES


AB - 36.13 + 0.47 =- 36.6 - 25.77 - 0.94 =- 24.83
.BC + 74.56 - 0.97 = + 73.59 -115.~3 - 4.24 =-111.69
c

CD + 12.82 - 0.16= + 12.66 +0.39 +0.01 = + 0.40


DE + 19.90 - 0.26 = +.19,.64' +61.74 +2.26 = +64.00
. EA .- 68.40 + 0.89 =- 69.29 + 69.57 +'2.55 = + 72.12

Corrected beanng of BC:


. .Qep.
tan be anng = Lat.

. BC - 111.69
tan beanng = + 73.59
.. ~ '-'

Bearing BC = NS6'37' W

,
@ . Corrected distance Qf line EA:

. AE'= 4(Dep)2 + (Latf


AE =...j (72.12)2 + (- 69.29)2
AE = 100.01 m.

@ Area of the traverse:

LINES LATITUDE DEPARTURE DMD DOUSLEAREA


AS - 36.6 - 24.83 - 24.83 - 24.83(- 36.6) =
+ 908.78
BC + 73.59 - 111.69 - 161.35 -161.35(73.59) =
-11873.75
CD + 12.66 + 0.40 - 272.64 - 272.64(12.66) =-
3451.62
DE + 19.64 + 64.00 - 208.24 - 208.24(19.64) =-
4089.83
EA - 69.29 + 72.12 - 72.12 - 72.12(- 69.29) =
+ 4997.19
2A =-
13509.23
A=
6754.62 m2
S-120-E
AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

Correction for
Departure:
C1 368.76
13.35 ;.; 2075
From the given data of aclosed traverse 13.35
C1 = 2075
(368.76) = 2.37
LINES DISTANCE BEARING
13.35
AB 368.76 m. N.15'18'E. C2 = 2075
(645.38) =4.15
BC 645.38 m. S.85'46'E.
CD 467.86 m. S.18'30W 13.35
C3 = 2075
(467.86) = 3.01
DA 593.00 m. N.7T35W
13.35
Using compass rule of balancing atraverse. C4 = 2075 (593)
= 3.82

13.35
(j) Determine the corrected bearing of BC.
@ Determine the corrected bearing of CD. LINES
Corrected La!. Corrected Dep.
@ Determine the adjusted distance of BC.
I +1.441
1-2.37]
AB +355.69
+97,31
Solution:
(j) Corrected bearing of BC: =
+357.13 = +94,94
LINE BEARING DISTANCE LAT. DEP.
AB N:15·18'E. 368.76 m +355.69 +97.31
1-2.531
1-4.151
-47.64
BC -47.64
+643.62
BC S.85·46'E. 645.38 m. +643.62
CD S.18·30'W 467.86 m. -443.68 -148.45 =-45.11
=+639.47
DA N.7T35'W 59300 m. +127.51 -579.13
1-1.831
1+3.011
207500 +483.20 +740.93
CD -443.68
-148.45
-491.32 -727.58
Error = -8.12 +13.35 =-441.85
=-151.46

Total distance = 2075.00 m. 1+2.321


1+3.821
DA +127.51
-579.13
=
+129,83 =-582.95
Using compass rule of balancing: =0
=0
.Correction for Latitude: Corrected bearing
of line BC:
· Dep.
+ 63947
C1 368.76 tan beanng = La!.
=--=45.1T'
8.12 =2575 Bearing
=S.SS'SS'E.
C1 = ~O~~ (368.76) = 1.44
@ Corrected bearing
of CD:
t b' Dep,
-151.46
an eanng = La!.
= - 441.85
812
C2 = 2675 (645.38) = 2.53 Bearing =
S.1S'SSW

812 @ Adjusted distance


of BC:
C3 = 2075 (467.86) = 1.83 S' b ' - Dep.
In eanng - Dis!.

8.12 0' t - Dep,


639.47
C4 = 2075 (593) = 232 IS - Sin bearing
= Sin 8558'
8.12 Dist =641.06 m.
S~120-F

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

tAT
DEP

AB 843.58
A closed ·traverse has the following data: ~=~
-=--
15.73 1870.57
7.79 2184.89
AB =299(0.0084092)
AB =843.58(0.0035654)
LINES DISTANCE BEARING
AB =-2:51 (to be subtracted
AB =3.01 (to be subtracted)
AB 895 S. 70'29' E.
BC S. 26'28' E. BC =281.99(0.0084092) .
BC = 140.39(0.0035654)
315
CD 875 S. 65'33' W. BC =-2.37 (subtracted)
BC =0.50 (subtracted)
DE 410 N.45'31' W. CD =362.16(0.0084092)
CD =796.53(0.0035654)
EA 650 N. 10'00' E. CD =-3.05 (subtracted)
CD =2.84 (added)
DE =287.29(0.0084092)
DE =292.52(0.0035654)
<D Find the· corrected bearing of line BC by DE =+2.42 (added)
DE = 1.04 (added)
using Transit Rule. EA =640.13(0.0084092)
EA:: 112.87(0.0035654)
® Find the corrected bearing of line CD by EA =+5.38 (added)
EA =0.40 (subtracted)
using Transit Rule. 15.73
7.79
@ Find the corrected bearing of line EA by
using Transit Rule.

Corrected bearing for


line BC:
Solution:
tan bearing = dep
<D Corrected bearing of line BC using Transit lat
Rule:
· + 139.89
tan beanng= - - -
- 279.62
LINES BEARING DISTANCE Bearing = S. 26' 34'
42" Eo
AB S. 70'29' E. 895
BC S. 26'28' E. 315
CD S. 65'33' W. 875 ® Corrected bearing for
line CD:
DE N. 45'31' W. 410 ta be . - - 799.37
EA N.10'OO' E. n anng - _359.11
650
Bearing = S. 65' 48'
30" W.

CORRECTED
Lines LAT DEP LAT DEP @ Corrected bearing for
line EA:
AB - 299 +843.58 -296.49 +840.57 ta be' +112.47
BC -281.99 +140.39 -279.62 +13989 n anng = + 645.51
CD -362.16 -796.53 -359.11 -799.37
Bearing = N. 9' 53'
01" E
DE +287.29 -292.52 +289.71 -293.56
EA +640.13 +112.87 +645.51 +112.47
-943.15 -1089.05
+927.42 +1096.84
1870.57 2184.89 Sum of lat & dep.
: 15.73 +7.79 Error
S-12]

ABU OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

@ Area
enclosed by the traverse:

i$Cpmputelhe b~arinsqfline4.t.
·~· •. ··.ColTlPu~ .•thE!.dlstal'l~9f •~l®.4 ••• 1.••••
tID9Wl1PW
t$vetse.e ·the51t~~WWI(l~~9l)}'
... . ... . fhe B

Solution:

A'
The sketch shows that the traverse lines 1 - 2
and 3 - 4 crossed each other, hence we could From Plane
Trigonometry: 74.85
not adopt the DMD method of determining its
area. Area of
triangle ABC =~ a c sin B

Lines Bearina Distance LAT DEP Using the


Law of Sine:
1-2 N48'30'W 81.00 +53.70 -60.70 _c
a_
2-3 N77'00' E 66.00 +14.85 +64.30 Sin C-SinA
3-4 S55'OO'W 94.00 - 53.90 -77.00 a Sin C
+14.65 -73.40
c= Sin A
4-1
~
(a) (a) Sin CSin B
(j) Bearing ofline 4 - 1: Area =
Sin A
.~ - a2
Sin BSin C
tan beanng = lat Area -
2 Sin A
. 73.40
tan beanng = 14.65 Considering
triangle 230:
Bearing = S 78'42' E A _(66)2 Sin
22' Sin 54'30'
1- 2
Sin 103'20'
Al = 683
sq.m.
@ Distance of side 4 - 1:
. _ Departure Considering
triangle 014:
Distance - Sin bearing A - (74.85)2
Sin 46'18' Sin 30'12'
. 73.40 2-
2 Sin 103'30'
Distance = Sin 78'42' A2 =1046
sq.m.
Distance (4 -1) = 74.85 m. Total area
=Al +A2
A=683 + 1046
A = 1729
sq.m,
S-122

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

G
r. . .

~
Ind 5 ". 2
B

LINES BEARING DISTANCES


1-2 S 10'00' E 485.00
.4
c
2-3 N 56'00' E 780.00
3-4 N63'OOW 975.00
4-5 ........ ........
. ( )
622.59
5-1 S33'OO'W 890.00 tan Beanng 4 - 5
=345.24
Bearing (4 - 5) =N
60'59' E
Solution:
@ Distance of line 4 - 5:
. .
622.59
D/stance (4 - 5) =Sin
60'59'
Distance (4 - 5)
=711,90 m.

@ Area enclosed by the


line 3 - 4, 4 - 5 and
5" 1:
A = bc Sin A
2
2 c b
Sin C~ Sin B
CD Bearing of line 4 - 5:
bSin C
c= Sin B
Lines Bearina Distances LAT DEP
5-1 S33'W 890 - 746.42 - 484.73 A _ b2 Sin A Sin C
1- 2 S 10' E 485 - 477.63 +84.22 2 Sin B
2-3 N56' E 780 +436.17 +646.65
3-4 N63'W 575 +442.64 - 868.73 Area of shaded section
+345.84 +622.59 =(711.90}2 Sin
56'01' Sin 27' 59
+878.81 +730.87 A
2 Sin
96'
- 1224.05 - 1353.46
A =99169.28 m2
- 345.24 - 622.59
5-123

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

@ Distance of line 5 - 1:

53.51
Distance (5 - 1) Sin
54'20'
A Civil Engineer, in his haste, forgot to record Distance (5 -1):: 65,86
m,
the data of the closing line of his traverse, the
field noles of which reflects the following @ Area enclosed by the
traverse:
record. A _ (65.86)2 Sin 16'
Sin 80:40'
1- 2Sin
83'20'
A1 :: 593.91 sq.m.
Using Sine Law:

5
(j) Compute the bearing of line 5- 1.
@ Compute the distance oHine 5 -1. .
@ Compute the area enclosed by the
traverse.
Solution:
Sketch the traverse and nnd out if the lines do
not intersect each other, if so, then application
of DMD in determining the area will not suffice.

5
x _ 65.86
Sin 80'40' - Sin 83'20'
4 x:: 65.43
y 65.86
Sin 16' :: Sin 83'20'
Y:: 18.28 m.

3
Distance 4 to 0::
108.64 - 18.28
Distance 4to 0:: 90.36
I (j) Bearing of line 5 - 1: Distance 2 to 0::
140.25 - 65.43
Distance 2 to 0:: 74.82
Lines Bearinq Distance LAT DEP
- 90.36 (74.82)
Sin 83'20'
1- 2 S 30'20' E 140.25 -110.02 +86.99 Ar 2
2-3 S51'57' W 77.52 -47.78 - 61.04 A2 :: 3357.49 sq.m.
3-4 N49'10'W 65.10 +42.57 -~.26 - 65.10(77.52)Sio
101'07'
4-5 N45'00' E 108.64 +76.82 +76.82 A3- 2
5-1 +38.41 53.51 A3 =2475.90 sq.m.
53.51 Total A:: A1 + A2 + A3
tan bearing (5 -1):: 38.41
A:: 593.91 +3357.49 +
2475.90
Bearing (5 -1):: N 54'20' W A :: 6427.30 sq.m.
8-124

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

Solution:
cD Location of the point of intersection of the
overlapping areas from corner 4 of lot
PSU-171211:
AC 33.86
Sin 87'18' =Sin 53'30'
AC=42.08
The point of intersection from comer 4
= 56.65 ·42.08
= 14.57

® •Location of the point of intersection of the


overlapping areas from corner 5 of lot
PStJ-187773:
BC 33.86
Sin 39'12':;: Sin 53'30'
BC= 26.62
Point of intersection from comer 5
= 37.74·26.62
= 11.12

® Area of the overlapping portion:


A =33.86 (42.08) Sin 39'12'
2
A =450.20 sq.m.

B
li.lilill1ll
~CteS.···· ».. .
1

('
S-12~

AREA OF CLOSED TRf"VERSE

Solution:
CD DMD afline 3 - 4:

LINES DEP DMD


1-2 - 40.12 - 40.12
2-3 - 36.82 -117.06
3-4 + 50.42 -103.46
4-5 + 30.36 - 22.68
5-6 - 52.34 - 44.66
6-1 +48.50 ·48.50

DMD afline 3 - 4 = • 103.46

@ DPDafline4- 5:

LINES LAT DPO


1-2 + 80.16 +80.16
2-3 - 40.13 + 120.19
3-4 + 70.18 + 150.24
4-5 - 30.14 + 190.28 Solution:
5-6 +60.20 +220.34 CD BeiJring ofline FA:
6-1 -140.27 +140.27
Lines Bearina Distance LAT.
DEP.
DPD ofline 4 - 5 = + 1190.28 AB N. 20' E. 17.42 +16.37
+5.96
Be N.68' E. 18.46 +6.92
+17.12
@ Area of Jot: CD S. 22' E. 22.40 -20.n +8.39
DE S.40·W. 12.60 - 9.65
-8.10
LINES LAT OM) DOUBLE AREA
EF S.62'W. 10.20 -4:79 -
9.01
(LATxDMD)
1-2 +80.16 - 40.12 - 3216.02
FA - - +11.92
-14.36
2·3' -40.13 -117.06 +4697.62
3-4
4-5
+70.18
-30.14
-103.46
- 22.68
- 7260.82
+683.58
tan bearing = f!i
5-6 +60.20 - 44.66 - 2688.53 · 14.36
tan beanng = 11.92
6-1 -140.27 -48.50 +6803.10
- 13165.37 Bearing FA = NSO'18' W
+ 12184.30
2A =-981.07
@ Distance FA:
A= 490.54
A= 490.54 O' t - Dep
IS ance - Sin bearing
4047
A= 0.121 acres 'D' t 14.36
Isance::: Sin 50'18'
Distance::: 18.66 m.
S-126

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

® Area of closed traverse: . 10.79


tangent beanng =53.47
Lines LAT. DEP. D\1D Double
Area tangent bearing = S. 11'24' W
AB +16.37 +5.96 +5.96 +97.51
BC +6.92 +17.12 +29.04 +200.96 ® Distance DA:
CD -20.n +8.39 +54.55 -1133.00 .t 10.79
DE -9.65 -8.10 +54.84 - 529.21 DIS ance =Sin 11'24'
EF -4.79 - 9.01 +37.73 -180.73 Distance =54.55 m.
FA +11.92 -14.36 +14.36 +171.17
=-
2A 373.24 @ Area:
A = 186.62
_ 3745.01 m2
A = 186.62 Area - 4047
4047
A=0.046 acres Area = 0.925 acres

Solution:
I!rll.ill~
CD Bearing DA: Solution:
CD Bearing of line 4. - 1:
LINES BEARING DISTANCES
AB S.8'S1'W. 126.90 m. Line: LAT DEP
O'v1D Double
BC N.1S'S1'W. 90.20 m.
Area
CD N. 32'27' E. 110.80 m. 1-2 +104.1( +60.10
+60.10 3760102.4
DA - - 2-3 + 18.75 +88.23
+208.43 +3908.06
3-4 - 74.97 +46.84
+343.5 -25752.20
Line LAT DEP lJv1D 2A
4 -1 -47.88 -195.17
+195.17 - 9344.74
AB -125.3£ -19.52 -19.52 +2447.61
2A = 3728913.53
BC +8S.36 - 29.14 - 68.18 - 5819.84
CD +93.50 - 59.45 - 37.87 - 3540.85 ' 195.17
DE - 53.47 -10.79 +10.79 - 576.94 tangentbeanng = 47.88
2A = 7490.02 tangent bearing =S. 76'13' W
A = 3745.01 m2
5-127

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

@ Distance 4 - 1: @ Area oflot in acres:


195.17 Area = 4800 m2 .
=
Sin 76'13' 4800
= 200,96 Area =4047
Area = 1.186 acres
@ DMD ofline 3-4 =+ 3434,5

® Area = 1,864,456.77
Area = 186.45 hectares

fr9mth~~Wem~~#9fl~ry9<h~ymSIM
fplloWil'lgr.lB1a ,C()fJ1Pule'fhejfq1IriWing(> ..

tiNES l. tAl1WP/l'· DI1J'Af\r~


... ,
o.;;}\ <90<· ······>+50 .
CD 09Ublemeridtandist~~{)fllheC8' .
® j)oup~par<llfeldist~%~.oflillElGP' .
@ Ateaoftracl()flan¢il'la¢res. ... .. Solution:
CD Bearing of CD:
Solution: Double area = Lat x
DMD
CD DMD ofline CD: - 8108.71 = Y(189.50)
y=-42.79
LAT DEP DMD 2A Lat. CD =- 42.79
+40 -80 - 80 - 3200 Dep. CD = +13.36
+80
- 30
-40
+70
-200
-170
-16000
+ 5100
tan bearing =f!i
-90 +50 -50 + 4500 t b . 13.36
2A = - 9600 an eanng = 42.79
A= 4800ml Bearing = S 17'20' E
DMD of/ine CD =. 170
® OMD of/ine DE:
@ DPD ofline CD: + 16.03
+72.04
LAT DEP DPD + 13.36
+40 - 80 +40 +101.43
+80 -40 +160 - 48.18
- 30 +70 +210
- 53.25
- 90 +50 +90 Dep. ofDE =. 53.25
OPO ofline CD = + 210
5-128

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

® Area of the 5 sided lot in acres. Solution:


CD Bearing ofline 3 - 4:
Lines LAT DEP. ()\1() Double LAT(DMD) = Double area
Area Lat (186) =- 5580
AB +57.81 + 16.03 + 16.03 +926.69 Lat=- 30
Be - 9.63 +72.04 +104.10 -1002.48
OJ - 42.79 + 13.36 +189.50 - 8108.71 tan bearing =~
DE - 18.75 - 53.25 +149.61 - 2805.19
·
EA + 13.36 - 48.18 +48.18 +643.68 tan beanng =_1430
2A = 10346.01 Bearing = S 25'01' E
A =5173.005 m2
® DMD ofline 4-5:
I+LAT I-LAT
+57.81 -42.79 Course La! OeD
()\1()
+ 13.36 -18.75 1- 2 +60 +16
+16
+ 71.17 -61.54 2-3 -14 +70
+102
3-4 - 30 +14
+186
x = 71.17 - 61.54 4-5 -28 -54
+146
x=-9.63 5-1 +12 -46
+46
A = 5173.005 m2
Latof2-3:
A = 5173.005
4047 60 +12-30-28= 14
A =1.278 acres Depof4-5:
16 + 70 + 14 - 46 =54
DMD ofline 4 -5 =+146

® Area oflot:

Lines LAT DEP DMD


Double

Area
1- 2 +60 +16 +16
+960
2-3 -14 +70 +102
-1428
3-4 -30 +14 +186
-5580
4-5 -28 -54 +146
-4088
5-1 +12 -46 +46
+552

2A =9584

A =4792 m2
4792
Area =4047
Area = 1.184 acres
5-129

.AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

® Area of whole lot:


LINES LAT DMD
DOUBLE
We.fOIlO\'ii.,~ • • cl<ita9f.~.relq~tionsurveyof

AREA
QOn•• Marian().E.sClJtIElr().i~Jo~·.rec()nstl\lot~; AB - 310.95
+469.84 -146096.75
Be - 640.21
+1052.55 -673853.04
CD +28.80
+65.8 +1895.04
IUne: I I ~ ~'. . Double DE +576.94
-1055.68 - 609064.02
.... .hea
AS .31().95+469J~4·. <.:.:.: I··· < •.....
EA +345.42 -
538.77 -186101.93

2A =1613220.70
BG-':':;' • • ·+112,87 1"+':·l!)7~1p.93

A = 806610.35 m2
··a)"·~·'··109M2 +es.a0+1895;04
DE +576.94 >\-_.: .
EN +345.42+538>77>

An englnee; sets upa lTaJiSil


at apoint inside a
triangular lot and observes'
the bearinfjS and
distances of the corners A,
Band C ofthelbt
Solution: as follows:
CD Bearing of line CD:
. CORNERS BEARING
Double area = Lat xDMD
1895.04 = Lat (65.80)
Lat= +28.80

tan bearing =~ ill Compute the area of the


triangUlar lot.
@) .Compute the perimeter of
the lot.
. -1099.62 ® • If the bearing from C to
thepolnl instdethe
tan beanng = +28.80
. . trian.gular lot is due
north. compute lhe
bearing = N. 88'30' W beanng of CB.
...
Solution:
® DMD of line DE: CD Area of the triangular
lot:

LINES DEP DMD A

AB +469.84 +469.84
B
Be +112.87 +1052.55
CD -1099.62 +65.8
DE - 21.86 -1055.68
EA +538.77 - 538.77

DMD ofline DE =• 1055.68

c
5-130

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

- 17(22) Sin 105'


A1- 2
A, =180.63
- 22(32) Sin 110'
A2- 2
A2=330.77
- 32(17) Sin 145'
Ar 2
A3 =156.01

A=A, +A 2 +A 3
A =667.41 m2

CV Perimeter of the lot:


CD¢omPOI~tI'\ebMtltl9()tlioeDE.
(AB)2 = (17)2 +(22)2 - 2(17)(22) Cos 105' @QQflJ@l~tt1El~@MOfllne
EA·
@CarnpLJiEnft$ar~()fthel()t
AB = 31.09 m.
(BCf =(22)2 + (32)2 - 2(22)(32) Cos 110' Solution:
BC=44.60m. Line~BearinQ Distance LAT DEP
(AC)2 =(17)2 + (32)2 - 2(17)(32) Cos 145' AB S 35'30'W 44.37 - 36.12 -25.77
BC N5T15'W 137.84 +74.57 -115.93
AC=46.95 m. CD N 1'45' E 12.83 +1282 +0.39
DE .. --- --- - 51.27 +14131
~

Perimeter = 31.09 + 44.60 +46.95


E
Perimeter =122.64 m.

@ Bearing of CB:
22 44.60
Sin 8 =Sin 110'
c
8 =27'37'
B

Bearing of CB = N. 27'37' E.

D
5-131

MISSING DATA

CD Bearing of line DE:


Bearing and distance of line DA:
. 141.31
tan beanng = 51.27
Bearing (DA) = S 70'04' E.
141.31
Distance (DA) =Sin 70'04' =150.31 m.

Considering triangle DCA:


Using Cosine Law:
(64.86)2 = (106.72f + (150.31)2
·2(150.31)(106.72) Cos .,
., =21'52"
<D Compute the bearing of
Hne BC.
Using Sine Law: ® Compute the distance of
line DE..
Sin B Sin 21'52 ® Compute the area of the
lot. .
106.72 - 64.86
B=37'48' Solution:
Sin 21'52' _ Sin a Line~
Bearina Distance LAT
DEP
64.86 - 150.31 OE S 8'51' W 126.9
125.39 -19.52
Ct =120'20' EA N 18'51' W 90.2
+85.42 - 28.96
AB N 32'21E 110.8 +93.50
+59.45
?earing ofline DE = N, 72'08' E. BO -
53.53 -10.97
® Bearing of line EA: Note: OE is equal and
parallel to CD, likewise
Bearing ofline EA =70'04' - 21'52' CO is equal and parallel
to line DE.
Bearing of line EA =S. 48'12' E.

@ Area of the lot:


A

Line~ Bearina Distance LAT DI;:P


AB S 35'30'W 44.36 - 36.13 -25.77
BC N 57'15'W 137.84 +74.56 115.93
CD N 1'45' E 12.83 +12.82 +0.39
DE N 72'08' E 64.86 +19.90 +61.74
EA S. 48'12' E 106.72 - 71.15 +79.57 E

Bearing and distance of


line (BO)
Lines DIv1D 2A . 10.97
tan beanng =53.53
AB - 25.77 + 931.07
BC -167.47 - 12486.56 Bearing of (BO) =S 11
'35' W
CD - 283.01 - 3628.19 ·
DIstance (BO) 10.97
= Sin 1-
1' 35'
DE -220.88 ·4395.51
Distance (BO) =54.65 m.
EA ·79.57 + 5661.41
B
2A = 13917.78
A = 6958.89

Area of the lot = 6958.89


o~----:;;L.~C
5-132

MISSING DATA

Consider the triangle BOC


Angle BOC = 73'31' - 11'35'
Angle BOC = 61'56'
Sin '" Sin 61'56'
54.65 = 83.6
'" = 35'14'

CD Bearing ofline BC:

<D
G®JpqtElth~fJil§singsi(jEl~P
~QomPllt<ltherllis$l@sideQA
.. ",., ,,'•• ',.,
~ • • C®@t~.tfIe.~r~a.of.tfIe
• (()~itlMre$ .•,

B =180 - 61'56' - 35'14' Solution:


B =180 - 90'10' CD SideBC:
B=82'5O'
B
Bearing of line BC = S 71'15' E

~ DIstance of line DE:


OC _ 83.6
Sin 62'50' - Sin 61'56'
OC= 94.00 m.
OC=DE
Distance of line DE =94,00 m.

@ Area of the lot: BC 73.2


Sin 60' = Sin 45
Line~Bearinq Distance LAT DEP BC= 89.65m.
AB N32'2TE 110.8 +93.50 +59.45
BC S 71'15' E 83.60 ·26.87 +79.16 ® SideCA:
CD S8'51'W 126.90 125.39 -19.52 CA 73.2
DE S 73'31'W 94.00 -26.66 - 90.13 Sin 75' = Sin 45'
EA N 18'44'W 90.20 +85.42 - 28.96 CA = 99.99m.

Lines LAT Drv'ID 2A @ Area ofABC:


AB +93.50 +59.45 +5558.58 A = (73.2)(99.99) Sin 60'
BC - 26.87 +198.06 - 5321.87 2
CD -125.39 +257.70 -32313.00 A = 3169.34 m2
DE - 26.66 +148.05 - 3947.01 A = 3169.34
+28.96 4047
EA +85.42 +2473.76
A = 0.783 acres
2A = 33549.54
A = 16774.77
Note: 4047 m2 =1 acre
Area of the lot =16774.77 sq.m.
S-l32-A
MISSING DATA

Using Cosine
Law:
(64.86)2 =
(150;32)2 +(107.72)2
-
2(150.32)(1()7.72) Cos e
The technical description of a closed traverse
is as follows. e = 22' 09'
LINE DISTANCE(m) BEARING 107.72 = 64.86
1-2 64.86 ?
Sin B Sin 22'
09'
2-3 107.72 ?
B = 38' 47' .
3-4 44.37 S. 35' 30'W.
4-5 137.84 N. 57' 15' W. AzilTl.uth of
line 1 to 3 = 360' - 70' 03'
12.83 N. l' 45' E. Azimuth of line
1 to 3 = 289' 57'
5- 1
Find the bearing of line 1- 2.
(j) Azimuth of line
1- 2 = 289'57' - 38'47'
® Find the bearing of line 2- 3. Azimuth of line
1- 2 = 251' 10'
@ Find the area of the closed traverse. Bearing of line
1- 2 =N. 71'10' E.

Solution: ® Bearing of line 2 -


3:
(j) Bearing of line 1 - 2: Azimuth of line
2 - 3 = 289' 57' - 22' 09'
Azimuth of line
2 - 3 = 312' 06'
Bearing of line
2 - 3 =S 47~ 54' E.

@ Area of closed
traverse:

Line Bearina
Dist LAT
1-2
N.71'10'E 64.86 +20.94
2-3
S.47'54'E 107.72 - 72.21
3-4
S.35·30'W 44.37 - 36.12
4-5 N.5T15'W
137.84 +74.57
5-1
N.1'45'E 12.83 +12.82
4
+108.33

-108.33
Lines Bearin!l Distance LAT DEP
3-4 S.35·30'W 44.37 -36.12 -25.77
4·5 N.57'15'W 137.84 +74.57 -115.93
5 -1 +12.82 Line DEP
DMD Double
N."45'E 12.83 +0.39
1-5 -51.27 +141.31

Area
1-2 +61.39
+61.39 +1285.51
Bearing afline 1-3: 2-3 +79.92
+202.70 -14636.97
3-4 - 25.77
+256.85 - 9277.42
· 141.31 -115.93
+8586.74
ta n beanng=-- 4-5
+115.15
51.27 5-1 + 0.39
-0.39 -'5.00
Bearing of line 1-3 =S. 70' 03' E. +141.70
2A=-14047.14
- 141.70
A=-7023.57

Distance = 141.31 Area = 7023.57


m2
Sin 70' 03'
Distance =150.32 m.
S-l32-B
MISSING DATA

A closed traversed shows tabulated values of


latitudes and departures. Given the following
descriptions of a four sided
lot.
LINES LATITUDE DEPARTURE
1- 2 + 84.60 --- LINE BEARING
DISTANCE
2-3 + 95.32 c 56.11 AB N 30'30'
E. 56.5m.
3-4 + 62.66 - 57.52 BC N75'30'W
46.5m.
4-5 ·48.16 - 31.40 CD S45'30'W
87.5 m.
5-6 -43.04 + 59.70 DA ...
---
6 -1 - -- +47.63
<D What is the length of
line DA?
<D Compute the DMD ofline 3 - 4. @ What is the bearing of
line DA?
@ Compute the length of line 6 to 1. @ Compute the area of the
enclosed
@ Compute the bearing of line 6 to 1. traverse.
Solution:
<D DMD of line 3 - 4. Solution:
Latitude of (6 - 1) <D Length of line DA:
~(Iatitude) = 0 LINE LAT
DEP
84.60 + 95.32 + 62.66 ·48.16 - 43.04 - Y= 0 AB +48.68
+ 28.68
y= -151.38 BC + 11.64
- 45.09
Departure of (1 - 2) CD . -61.33
- 62.41
L(departure) = 0 DA +
1.01 + 78.82
x- 56.11- 57.52 - 31.40+59.70+47.63 =0
x = 37.70
Distance DA =..J(+
1.01)2 + (78.82)2
LINES LATITUDE DEPARTURE DMD Distance DA = 78.83 m.
1- 2 +84.60 +37.70 37.70
2-3 +95.32 -56.11 19.29
3-4 +62.66 - 57.52 - 94.34 @ Bearing of line DA:
4-5 - 48.16 - 31.40 -183.26 78.82
5-6 - 43.04 +59.70 -154.96 tan 11 = "'1.ii1
6-1 -151.38 +47.63 - 47.63
11 = 78'02'
DMD of line 3 - 4 = • 94.34 Bearing ofDA =N 78'02'
E.
@ Length of line 6 to 1.
(Dislance)2 =(latitude)2 + (departuref
(0 6 _1)2 = (- 151.38)2 + (47.63)2 1.
@ Area of the enclosed
traverse:
0 6 _1 =158.70 m. w- - I
LINE tAT OEP OMO
POA
@ Bearing of line 6 10 1. AB + 48.68 + 28.68 +28.68
+1396.14
43.63 BC + 11.64 - 45.09 + 12.27
+ 142.82
tan e =151.38 ·151.38 CD - 61 .33 - 62.41 -
95.23 + 5840.46
8 = 11' 29' DA + 1.01 + 78.82
2A= 7299.81
:. Bearing is S 17" 29' E
A=3,649.91 m2
s
5-133

MISSING DATA

Using Sine Law:


30.17 24.22
Sin 95'13' - Sin f3
f3 =53'05'

Bearing CA =69'11' - 53'05'


Bearing CA =N 16'06' W

Using Sine Law:

0) FindlhedisfahooDAinmeters,
@ • • FilldthedistandeCtlinr1lefers:
@FiodtM<ilreM6sQ,m,
Solution:
CD Distance DA in meters,'
,,=180- (15'36' +69'11')
,,=95'13' c
Using Cosine Law,' DA _ 30,17
(AC)2 = (2422)2 + (15.92)2 Sin 74'04' - Sin 22'45'
- 2(24.22)(15.92) Cos 95'13' DA= 75.02m.
AC =30.17
® Distance CD in meters:
30.17 CD
Sin 22'45' =Sin 83'11'
CD= 77.47

@ Area in sq.m:

LINES BEARING
DISTANCES
AB S. 15'36' W.
24.22 m.
BC S. 69'11' E.
15.92 m.
CD N. 57'58' E.
77.47 m.
DA S. 80'43' W.
75.02 m.
A
Lines LAT DEP DMD
2A
AB - 23.33 -6.51 - 6.51
+151.88
BC - 5.66 +14.88 +1.86
- 10.53
CD +41.09 +65.67 +82.41
+3386.23
DA -12.10 -7404 +74.04 -
895.88
2A
- 2631.7
A
=1315.85 m2
c
S-134

MISSING DATA

0). Q()/1'\plJt~ffl¢loW~09!tll)tttiet~~;
@ .QptlJp~te:thei)~n1~thQflitj~.9A' • • • • "•• •
'• ".
@~llte:tl'w!!lreai:lftl'w!klOOllcre$. .
Solution:
<D Total length of traverse:
Solution:
N

(AC)2 = (1200)2 + (1400)2


- 2(1200)(1400) Cos 59'
<D Distance AB: AC = 1292.08 m.
AB 129.86
Sin 58' = Sin 60' Total length of traverse
AB = 127,16 m, = 1200 + 1400 +1292.08
=3892.08 m.
® Distance CD:
x 129.86 ® Azimuth of line CA:
Sin 62' =Sin 60' Sin 8 _ Sin 59'
x = 132.40rn. 1200 -1292.08
CD= 132AOm. e = 52'45'
Bearing =N. 66'45' W.
@ Area of lot:
Azimuth of CA =113'15'
A= t? - b,2
2 (Cot e + Cot ~) @ Area of lot:
A = (380.48)2 - (250.62)2 A 1200 (1400) Sin 59'
2 (Cot 62' + Cot 58') 2
A = 34084.72 A = 720020.53 m3
A = 34084.12 A =720020.53
4047 4047
A= 8,42 acres A =177.91 acres
S-BS

MISSING DATA

(j) • • • COlTll?ute.~.~te~.(lf.~k)tirlacre$·
~q()mput~th~mi$Sing~l$~np~9:tM~1.g.
@GqnlPu!$JhemlssiQ99~f1jnpe(1f1jnl'l4<t ®ql>l'fJPlJlE!
fh~affl~Qf:~MA9tj~SQQ~r~
Solution:
CD Area of the lot:
.®.. ¢Bi'le.IDe.djstahce.6flin~.~

• .• 3,•• • • • • • • ·•
@ . COll1putE!!tlE!~i$~o®mll~~3"4·

Solution:
CD Area of lot in square meters:

4
A 216.60(116.40) Sin 34'
rea = 2
216.60(174.40) Sin 24'
+ 2
4
Area = 14731.50 m2
A - 14731.50 - 142(260) Sin 36'
260(240) Sin 62'
rea - 4047 Area - 2 +
2
Area = 3.64 acres Area =38,398.48 sq.m.
".
® Distance 1 - 2:
(1 - 2)2 =(216.60)2 + (116.40)2 ® Distance 2 - 3:
·2(216.60)(116.40) Cos 34' (2 - 3)2 =(142)2 + (26W - 2(142)
(260) Cos 36'
Distance 1- 2 =136.60 m, Une (2 - 3) =167.41 m.

® Distance 4 - 1: ® Distance 3 - 4.
(4-'1)2 =(174.40)2 +(216.60)2 (3 - 4)2 = (260)2 +(24W - 2(260)
(240) Cos 62'
- 2(174.40)(216.60) Cos 24' Une (3 - 4) =258.09 m.
Distance 4 - 1 =91,17 m.
S-136

MISSING DATA

~~'eI!ijt~I~I~~tlS~b~!hiClbS0~
·1·.··.~I~:I·~~.a;I~~8.10t
.• • •. . .
Solution:
Solution: CD Area of closed traversed:
CD Area of lot:

- (120)(220) Sin 34' 220 (180) Sin 24'


Area- 2 + 2 Area = 1400(1800) Sin 57'
Area =15434.73 2
15434.73 Area = 1056724.92 m2
Area=400- - 1056724.92
Area - 4047
Area =3.81 acres
Area =261.11 acres
® Distance AB:
(AB)2 =(120)2 + (220)2 - 2(120)(220) Cos 34' ® Total perimeter of lot:
AB = 137.94 m. .;. = (1400)2 + (1800)2.2(1400)
(1800) Cos 57'
x = 1566.85 m.
@ Distance DA:
(DA)2 = (180}2 + (220f - 2(180)(220) Cos 24' Totalperimeter= 1400 + 1800
+ 1566.85
DA =91.91 m. Total perimeter =4766.85 m.
5-137

MISSING DATA

® Bearing of 3-1: ® Side AD:

B
1800 1566.85
Sin e = Sin 57' c

e = 74' 28'
11 = 180·45' • 74'28'
A
11 = 60'32'
Bearing of 3-1 is N 60'32' W

D
AD=BE
BE 100
Sin 77' =Sin
41'
BE = 148.52 m.
® Areaoflot:
_ (25Of·
(150)2
A - 2 (cot 77'
+ cot 62')
A =26,226.84
sq.m.

.(!).. . yM}put~fM~l$$m~$l~~~p .• • • • • • • • • • •·•· .


FfQlllfh~giYMJfl~h~'~~I~~~pt~~.Clf~@t.

•1••6~~ill1.i~~rl~~ldt6t~~·.··············· I..JNES>
·BSARIN~S<DISTANCE;S

.N4a'20·/E·.·.····. .·•·•·••·.·.S29,6QIrL..

. 592mOrtl/
Solution:
S63.60m.
CD Side BC:

Q) GClmpllte
thebeal"ihg (jfline DE..
®
ComputetIJ$beanr19oflineBC.
®
ComputelhearaaofthelOt
Solution:
Draw a line BO
parallel to CD at B:

BC 100
Sin 62' =Sin 41'
BC = 134.58 m.
E

Closing Line
S-138

MISSING DATA

CD Bearing ofline DE: @ Area of/of:

Line Bearinas Distances LAT DEP LINES BEARING


DISTANCES
EA N48'12'W 428.20 +285.41 - 319.21 AB N.48'20' E.
529.60
AB N48'20'E 529.60 +352.10 +395.60 BC N. 87'33' E.
592.00
BO S70'59' E 563.60 - 558.14 +78.24 a> S. 7'59' E.
563.60
- 79.37 -154.63 DE S.82'01'W.
753.40
EA N.48'12'W.
428.20
. (DE) 154.63
tan Beanng. = 79.37
Lines LAT DEP DMD
2A
Bearing (DE) =S 62'50' W AB +352.01 +395.60 +395.60
+139278.89
BC +25.31 +591.44 +1382.64
+34994.62
0 IS, tance (DE) = Sin-62'80'
154.63
+2052.36
- 1145524.73
CD - 558.1' +78.28
OE= 173.81 m. DE -104.64 - 746.12 +1384.52
-144876.17
AE +285.41 - 319.20 +319.20
+91102.87
2A =-
1025024.52
Consider triangle ODE: A=
512,512,26 m2

Using Cosine Law:


(592)2 = (193.81~ + (753.40~
- 2(173.81)(753.40) Cos '"
0=19'11'
Bearing (ED) =62'SO' +19'11'
cD Pl)rop@~tM~j:lian®6(;
.•.•. .•.
® C()lttplJt¢tbedi~~A13.<
Bearing (ED) =N82'01' E @ CotnputelheareabYOMOmelhod.
Bearing ofDE =S 82'01' W
Solution:
® Bearing of/ine BC:
Sin a _ Sin 19'11'
173.81 - 592.00
a =5'32'
Bearing DO =82'01' +5'32'
Bearing DO =S87'33' W
OO=BC
Bearing BC = N 87'33' E
S-139

MISSING DATA

CD Distance BC:
Using Cosine Law:
(AC)2 = (75~ + (77.45~ - 2(75)(77.45) Cos 22'45'
In.!he•• surveY•• ofl3..
()~$~d§t • willl·.flve.@dll$,
AC=30.16 m. ~M • f~lIE)wi~g •
~~til~r~.gliJe9.Wher~ • I(l•• all·•• m~
Sin" Sin 22'45'
~~ril1~.llf'ldAlstM~ciflillsjq~8"X'cllJ:l1th8"
T = 30.16 I~Q~~$
()f~~~s;4f§~n95+.t~.mnittecl· • • • • •·
" =74'05'
74'05' - 57'58' = 16'Or
l..lNSS> . ElEARlNG<
1)2 ···S73'21'E<
Bearing (AC)= S 16'07' E •·· · • ·••
S4l))1Q\E·.·•. • • ·
Angle B4C = 16'07' + 15'36' · · •
S2ef4ZW)·
Angle BAC =31'43' • ·•· • •
·N14'20~W)··
Angle BCA =69'11' -16'07'
Angle BCA =53'04'
ill ¢0mPute.tI'l~.qi$
¥tn®pfll~.e.4." • 1,
®
qolTIpQle.tI1~di~t~Il(;eQHllle4 • • ~.
Using Sine Law, @" ()ornplit~·tfu!
·l.li~~~otline$.· • 1•.
Considering triangle ABC:
30.16 BC
Sin 95'13' =Sin 31'43'
BC= 15,92m.

@ Distance AB:
30.16 AB
4
Sin 95'13' = Sin 53'04'
AB= 24.21 m. Solution:
CD Distance of line 4 . 1:
® Area by DMD method:
Linel Bearina
Distance LAT DEP
1-2 S 73'21' E
247.20 -70.83 +236.83
Line Bearinas Distances LAT DEP 2-3 S40'10' E
154.30 -117.91 +99.53
AB S 15'36'W 24.21 m -23.32 - 6.51 3-4 S26'42' W
611.90 -546.65 -274.94
BC S69'11' E 15.92 m ·5.66 +14.88
CD N57'58' E 75.45 m -41.07 +65.66
DA S80'43'W 75.00m -12.00 - 74.03 tan bearing =
o/J
. 61.42
Line~ LAT DEP DMD Double tan beanng= 735.39
Alea Bearing (4 -1) =N4'47'
W
AB -23.32 -6.51 -6.51 +151.81
Be - 5.66 +14.88 -1.86 -10.53 Distance (4 -1) =
Si~~47'
CD +41.07 +65.66 +82:40 +3384.17 ·t 61.42
DIS ance =Sin 4'47'
DA -12.09 -74.03 +74.03 -895.02
2A =630.43 Distance =746.53 m.
A=1315.22 rTf
5-140

MISSING DATA

@ Distance of line 4• 5:
Consider triangle 1- 4 - 5:

r~~
[
100

,,= 14'20' ·4'47 --"


,,=9'33'
a. = 12'20' +4'47
AC==:;;;==::jD
0.= 17'07
f!, =180·9'33' • 17'07
f!, =153'20'

Using Sine Law:


736.54 _ (4 - 5)
Sin 153'20' - Sin 17'07 Solution:·
CD Distance of CD:
Distance (4 - 5) = 483.02 m. CD =--J (100)2 +
(60)2
CD = 116.62 m.
@ Distance of line 5- 1:
. 736.54 _ J§.:1L @ Bearing of CD:
Sin 153'20' - Sin 9'33' 50'
tan 8 = 100
Distance (5 -1) = 272.88 m.
8=30'58'

Bearing CD = S.
30'58' E.

@ Floor area of the


builidng:

Atrapei4jd~lll*tabc~~astrefbH(lwiM
.~niqElld~p~fln~ho~~.be'9V1· • • A6~tBrey
cqncrele.~4I1diry9j$tq~~¢pn~tru!!Ie4Prl • fhe
·.slladedporli()f1.a$ • • shO/,ni•• • \¥h~rei~ •••••• th~
.9(Jlller$tQne··f".@n•• be'p~~~(j.~y • ~JI$Unng
•. 45.nt.ftpl'l1Clllo~gCI) • t~en.3p·m . .·frol1l..C[).
[hebliildlng?lIMHKfallsaJonglhe
$UPdlVl$io?lIn~.m~l.mVtd~$.Wfflr~p~oldal • tPt
.• into.tWb.• equal.afl!as..•• ·GKis·par~llel.toC[}.and
is5fu.#omit. .... . ....
Lf----_~
A - 8 0 -
- - - -..- - 0
5-141

MISSING DATA

LM=~mbi+nb12
m+n
LM= 1(80)2+1(20)2
1+1
LM=58.3Om.
x= 80- 58.30
x=21.70
x 60
y= 100
_ 100 (21.70)
y- 60
y=36.17

.
Triangle FGI is similar to MCD

Area ofshaded section:


A=(45.32 + 29.15) (26.96)
2
A =1003.86 sq.m.

Total floor area ofbuilding


=6(1003.86)
= 6023.16 sq.m.

25 _36.17
a -21.70
a=15m.
fi2 = (25f + (15)2
b = 29.15 m.

Triangle COP is similar to MED


5 36.17
e= 21.70
e=3m.
f 36.17
42 =42.18
f= 36.87 m.
b = 100·36.17
b =63.83 m. <J) • • qompule.the.• dl$lan~()tlihe • ~@ • •
FH =63.83 - 36.07 \IDqoIl1JluleWe<lreaofWE!lotin~qres'<
FH =26.96 m. ®pQmputethel~ngthoflhetliVkJim;rHM
26.96 ~ 36.17 W'hich • • js•• p<lr<l"el•• IQ • lir~ • •
t\~ • • ~llCh.ttl<lt • • it
d - 21.70 cliVides.th~ • lot•• jnt°tvm~ls •
havi,w.a.rali6
Of .t;2,.theblgger.lot.adjacent.lo.line.CD,
d = 16.17 m.
HK=45.32 m.
S-142

MISSING DATA

Solution: @ Length of dividing line:


G) Distance BC;

--V
x-
mp 12 +nbl
m+n

--V
x-
2{4(0)2 + (1)(200f
2+1
x=346.41 m.

DE=BC
BC 200
Sin 56' =Sin 60'
BC = 191.46 m,

@ Area:
Area =(PI + ~) h
2
h =191.46 Sin 64'
h =172.08 m. (j) ·Find.o~ijp®~ib@l¢fI9t1l.pt.~ .•••
@)' Andtlnepq~$lblEl)bearing.ofDS .•
A= (200 + 4ooX172.08) ~•.' 8@.,:)notnEl(P()~$ibl~.bllatlrtg • QfD,E.
2
A= 51625 sq.m. Solution:
CD .One possible length of EA:
A =51625
4047 Lines Bearing Distance LAT DEP
A= 12.76 acres AB S30'W 500 -433.01 '-250
Be S 5'04' E 720 - 717.19 +63.59
CD Due west 592 -
592.00
DA ~ .... - .. --- +1150.2 +778.41
5-143

MISSING DATA

First Possible
Position
.B

.,.::..__--,~-i',-...,c
,, "
,, ""
, ""
'\ "
\ " /
-fl.' ',t'
'b\, ! ;'
\ : ,If
, ' ,
\~/ Second Possible
,E Position
,,
I

. 778.41
tan beanng DA = 1150.2
tan bearing DA = N34'05' E
. 778.41
Distance DA = Sin 34'05'
Distance DA = 1389.03
Considering triangle AED:
Sin" Sin 14'05'
1389.03 = 800
" =25'
a = 180 - 14'05 - 25'
a= 140'55'
AE 800
Sin 140'55 =Sin 14'05 Comers 1 and 4 can be divided on
·tflElgr6und;
AE =2072.72 m. The engineer is to reset comers ~
alld3where
they were originally and determine
the titie
® One possible bearing of DE: bearings of all the courses.
Dalenf survey
2072.72 800 unknown. Upon runnhiS araJidom
line, the
~ = Sin 14'05' random line missed the !iue comer
by 1.5 m.
f!,= 39'05' The bearing from the end of the
random line to
Bearing DE =34 '05' +39'05' comer 4 was S62'30' E.
Bearing. DE =N. 73'10' E.
Compute the bearing of line. 4 -
1.
(j)
® Second possible bearing of DE @ Compute the distance ofline 4 •
1.
= S. 5' E. @ What was the magnetic
declination at the
time of the original survey?
5-144

MISSING DATA

Solution:

SUBDMSION OF AREAS

a) To cut off an area from a given


point.

let us say, that the


entire area of the
lot is 10,000 sq.m. It is
reqUired to divide
the lot into two equal parts
such that the
division line shall pass thru
comer one of
the lot concern. Bearings and
distances of
all courses are known.

CD Bearing ofline 4 - 1:

Lines BearinQ Distance lAT DEP


1- 2 N 16'30' E 105.30 +100.96 +29.91
2-3 N 15'15' E 33.50 +32.32 +8.80
3-4 NT10'W 15.20 +15.08 -1.90
4-1 ........... ....... - -148.36 - 36.82

36.82
tan bearing (4 - ~) = 148.36
Division line
Bearing (4 -1) =S 13'56' W
Since it is difficult to
approximate the
@ Distance of line 4· 1: actual position of the
subdivision line, it is
36.82 therefore advisable to solve
for the bearing
Distance (4 -1) =Sin 13'56
and distance of line 3 to 1.
Knowing the
Distance (4 -1) =152.91 m. bearing of the line 3-1 and 3-
4, '" could be
computed. let us say A1 =2000
sq.m.
@ Magnetic declination: only, so we still have 3000
sq.m. more to
f12 =(1.5)2 +(152.91 'f be added in order to obtain the
required
- 2(1.5)(152.91) Cos 103'34' area. A2 therefore would be
equal to
h = 153.27 m. 5000 - 2000 =3000 sq.m. Knowing
the
Sin 103'34' _ Sin '" distance "a" and the angle "',
we could
153.27 - 1.5 compute the distance "b" from
the relation.
'" =0'33'
abSin '"
Since the random line is supposed to be the A2 =-2-
true position of 1 - 4 based on true bearing, A, + A2 =5000 sq.m.
then the magnetic declination during the (the required area to be
cut off!
survey is 0'33' E.
5-145

SDlomSION
)
/
b) To cut off an area by a line whose
direction is given.

This requires a longer computation in


the sense that it would be difficult to
assume the position of the subdivision
line. Let us sayan area of 12,000 sq.m. is
to be segregated from the whole area, the
direction of hte dividing line known (see
sketch below). The total area of the lot is ~ :: h1 - d cot '" - d cot a
40,000 sq.m. and the area to be segregated
is adjacent to the line 2-3. ~ :: h1 - d (cot", + cot a)

2 3
Given values:

A1, h1, '" and a


_(h1 +~)d
A1- 2
r

A1 =[h 1 +h1 - d (cot", + cot


a)]

6 5 We could solve for the value of


"d"
d=ABSin '"
Thru the comer that seems likely to be
the nearest line cUlling the required area, a d
4c=--
trial. line AD is drawn whose direction is Sin a
given. Distances AD and A2 could be
computed by using trigonometric d
AB=-.-
principles. Considering lines A2, 2-3, 3-4 Sin '"
and 4-A to be closed polygon, its area 2B=2A-AB
could be determined by using D.M.D.
method. Let us say the area of lines A 234 3C=3-4-4C
A is 20,000 sq.m., so there is an excess
area A1 :: 20,000 - 12,000 :: 8,000 sq.m.
Points Band C is now the tru\!
position of
The values of '" and a could be the dividing line.
determined cause the bearings of lines A2,
3-4 and 4-A is known, length of line 4-A is
known.
5-146

SUBDIVISION

@ Bearing of
dividing line:

c.

~lfh~.~ra~l~a~lj~Q~.~j $esr~~iea • •
541.71 714.68
(j).·..·.•m~~I~iA~e~t~~aio~th~h~@1¢~··· Sin e = Sin
60'
fu~~~~~q.> e =41'02'

®....••~tj• t~0 ~~~jS ~~j ~lM'dl:~IT· • li~~.·
• Gf•• • Bearing of
diving line BD = S. 78'58' E
@ ·PomI'MElth~t~f\9tfjPfthEl~jViqifflJlil'l~W··············

Solution:
(1) Distance CD:
c ,
4.let~b@lIge~b~3~ttfMsht$m~sri~rn~y,

Aa,'N;4S·~,169m,IQng,~q~mt9~M9Qm.

il$!;lilli.

APEisIObe2l~oMhelotal~rfta9flh~~r
Thet6titf!
3r~of@l/(Jfi$.11,~~,&~nW.··· ... ..

$·~~¥ml~~lhe~i~~rGElffqmg@A.Y • •.•·•

@q9ImW~lt\~beactr~pO!O~AP'
~
¢Ol'YlPllt&thedjs1anceOE. . . ..

A Solution:
CD Distance OA:
A= 81g x Sin.60'
190000 180 ~n 60' x
x= 541.71 m.

® Length of dividing line:


(BO)2 =(541.71)2 +(81of
- 2 (541.71)(810) Cos 60'
BO = 741.68 m.

c
S-147

SUBDIVISION

100 (DA) Sin e _2 (160)(190) Sin e b 2_b}


A = ~---_._--
2 -5 2 2 (cot e + cot (3)
DA= 121.60 _ (3aW· (200)2
A - 2 (cot 70' + cot 58)
® Bearing of/ine AD:
A == 25,282.16 sq.m.
160 (190) Sin e
A= 2 ® Length of dividing line:
A =11,643.88 mb 12 +0d.
e = SO' x= m+n
Bearing ofAD = S. 85' E.
.L~~CJQi
x= 1 +2
@ Distance DE:
(DE)2 = (10W +(121.6)2 - 2(100)(121.6) Cos SO' x= 254.95m.
DE= 95.68 m. ® Distance AE:
a'" 300 - 254.95
a=45.05
~~_ 45.05_
Sin 58' - Sin 52'
AE==48A8 m.

A lot is bounded by 3 straight


sides A, 8, C.
AS is N. 45' E. 95 m.long and
AC is due East,
88 m. long. From point D, 43
m. from A on
side AB, a dividing line runs
to E whiclt is on
cD•• Fihdthe area of the lot in m2 . side CA. The area ADE is to be
1/7 of the
i])FincUhe length ofthedivldlng line (EF) total area of the lot.
that is parallel to line OA which will divide (j) Determine the distance DE.
thelotinto two equal areas, .. i]) Determine the bearing of
side BC.
@i Oetermine the location of arieendof the @ Determine the distance AE.
dividingllne Efrom comer A along line AB.

Solution: Solution:
CD Area of/of: (j) Distance DE:
S-148

SUBDIVISION

Solution:
cD Area of AFE:
(AE)(43) Sin 45' = .!(95)(88) Sin 45'
272 A _--
-7-_...."
AE = 27.77 m.

Using Cosine law:


(DE)2 = (43)2+(27.77)2 - 2(43)(27.77) Cos45'
DE= 30,52m.

® Bearing of line BC:


(BC)2 = (95)2 + (88)2 - 2(95)(88) Cos 45'
Be = 70.33 m. G K
1

Using Sine Law: AC =~ 'J'2 (60)


~ = 70.33 AC=42.43m.
Sin () Sin 45' 1
Area of AGH= '2 (60)(60) =
A1
e = 72'46'
a':: 90' - 72' 46'
. A1 =1800 m2
Area of AEF - 60(60) -
1200
a= 17'14' - 2
Bearing of BC =S, 17'14' E, A2 = 1200trf
® Width of the road:
@ Distance AE: &_(AC)2
AE= 27,77 m. A2 - (AB)2
1800 _ (42.43? .
1200 - (AB)2
AB=34.64
BC =42.43 • 34.64
BC= 7.79m.
BO=2(7.79)
BO = 15.58 m. (width of
road)
A_-
_----.;.....:.:.;.;,:..."
.The centerline of apfoposed rOadbaving' a.
bearing eIN. 45' E.· passesttm.lug'h the
diagonal of a square lot AHIO having sIdes of'
60 rnx 60 m. !flhe area oCcupied by the
propoSed road Is equal to 1200 sq.l'li· .
CD Compute the area of section AFE, where
Eft IS parallel 10 the dragonal of Ihe square
lot. . ..
® . Compute the widthaf the road. .
@ Qompute Ihe total. perimeter of the
proposed road inside the lot.
k:..:1.~,,:,L--------II
S-149

SUBDIVISION

@ Total perimeter: x
(960.22) Sin 40' = 210000
E,c= GH- 7.79(2) 2
x= 680.47
EF =60 -{2 -15.58
EF=69.27m. ® Length of
dividing line:
(y)2 =
(680.47? '+ (960.22)2
p= 69.27 + 11.02 + 11.02 + 69.27 -
2(680.47)(960.22) Cos 40'
+ 11.02 + 11.02 y=
619.67m.
p= 182.62m.
® Bearing of
dividing line:
680.47 _
619.67
Sin 8 -
Sin 40'
8=44'54'
Bearing =
S. 84'54' W.
Azimuth =
84'54'

' .
G?tl1ElIO(i$t6@divideasuchlhaftM
M¢~.ottH~$()uthem®~lohW:Rul~be
•. • •· • • •·41q,QPQ.lll{.•·•• GQl'tlPlJtflJf1~P9~~i<l~.9fth~·
i')tb~r~tl~()N~l'ldIJtldit\gliri~jfth~Jine
·iltaHs~ICgm¢rapft@lol·t1<~r&$$the

;ig:..::1'l~w
·•~• • ~:8¥tl.~medf1he • div~,og •
·q}J<Pomp~~.tbl'l.~i1numQfthedividing.iine·
ljrie? • • .• •
ill

'O\lM®rth

QOmpytettle•• ril@;ing•• dlstance•• @C•• is•• the

ar~.Qf.tl1¢IQtls·43560$gm.
Solution: @
CQIllPEJtMMtli$@'l~qfCD.
CD Location ofx from corner 1: ®
@rnptJteihebeiilirigCO.
2
Solution:
CD Distance Be:
S-150

SUBDIVISION

200
tan =-
lil
300
lil = 33.69'
Ll = 45' . 33.69' .S4bdi\lide•• the.r()t•• ha'liri~
• • thEl9ivllrttecMiC<l1
Ll = 11.31' de~MPtjon>l/)t() . • MO·.~qW!I •
• llrt1JM.·.'oY • ~•. ·lir~·
paralleltQthe sideA6'
.... '.' ....''.' .
. =200
Sin 3369' x
x= 360.56 m.
_200(300}
A1- 2
A1 = 30,000
A2 = 43560 • 30000
A2 =13,560 m2
A2 = x (BC) Sin f3 .(1)
CO/llPu~the.area9fthe~hQleWtirl~C~$?
2 ~ • C()l'llPtJtTtn~.leJ'l9!
hpftbe ~lyi~#rig~h~ . • • • /.·.
13560 = 360.56 (Be) Sin 11.31' ®CoiJJPl.Jtelhem~jng$ideBCL«>
.
2
BC = 383,53 m.
Solution:
@ Distance of CD: (j) Area of whole lot:
(CD)2 =(360.56)2 + (383.53)2
- 2(360.56}(383.53) Cos 11.31'
CD= 76.80m

@ Beating of CD:
383.53. _ 76.80
Sina -Sin 11.31'
u = 78'21'
Bearing BD =45' + 11'19'
Bearing BD =56'19' ~ -.
Bearing BD =S.56'19' W.
Bearing DB = N. 56'19' E.

A~ --",B
b-}.b 2
A= 1
2 (cot e + cot ~)
_ (200)2 - (100)2
A - 2 (cot 62' + cot
70')
A = 16747.06 m2
4047
c
A=4.14 acres
Bearing CD =N. 45'20' W.
5-151

SUBDIVISION

® Length of dividing line: Solution:


CD Location of the
dividing line from comer 2 if
the dividing line
starts from comer 1:

10·

_ (1000)2 Sin 70'


Sin 80'

--V nb mb-}
x-
2
1 +
m+n
A- 2 Sin 30'
A= 925416.58 m2

--V 1(200f1 11(100f


x-
+
+
2
Al ='3 (925416.58)
x= 158.11 m. Al = 616944.39 m2
- 1000 (y) Sin
80'
@ SideBC: A1 - 2
\
BC 100
Sin 62' = Sin 48' 616944.39 = Sin
80'J1000) y
BC = 118.81 m.
y= 1252.92m.

® Length of the
dividing line:
.;. = (1000)2 +
(1252.92)2
·2 (1000)
(1252.92) Cos 80'
x =1461.05 m.

@ Bearing of the
dividing line from comer 1:
-L=_x_
Sin II Sin 80'
1252.92 1461.05
Sfn II = Sin 80'
II =57'37
\D qomputetH~16catj§n • • ()ttM•• ~iVidWIUn~
·fr()lTIcorner2.jfthe~ividingline~tarls.fr0f11 Bearing of dividing
line: (ll + 30')
comer 1. > =N 87'37' E from
corner 1
@ ColtlPute.th~.leryslh()fthedjyjdlpgljne ••••••••••••
@ CQl'l'lPtlt~.·We • b~rlng • Of•• the•• diViding•. nn¢
frorncotrlei't. .. .
5-152

SUBDIVISION

Using Sine Law:


4-1 150
Sin 64' = Sin 48'
4 -1 = 181.42 m.

® Area of the Jot:


2
A= b-/-b1
DISfllNOl;) 2 (cot e + cot 11)
· • •.·OOOrlk»··· _ (300f - (15Of
A - 2 (Cot 64' + Cot 68')
A = 37846.56 m2
A =37846.56
4047
A = 9,35 acres

@ Length of dividing line:

Solution:
CD Side 4 -1:

x-
_..y nb 2
1 + mt>i
m+n

x-
--V3(300}2 + 2(150)2
3+2
x= 251 m.

Anequilater~tl:1'iangufarlrack Of land has a


length of one '(jfits sides equal to 3600 m.
Iori9' ·111$ requited to dIVide the lot into 3
equal
.sharesoy aline parallel to one of Ihe 3sides.

CD COmpulethe whole area of Ihe lot jfl-£lCf8S.


® Compute the iength {If lhedivlding line on
the portion near the vertex. .
@ Compute the length of the dividing line on
the se<:ond lot.
5-153

SUBDIVISION

Solution: Solution:
G) Area of whole Jof: G) Distance of dividing line
from comer B:

3600

A :;: (3600)2 Sin 60'


2
A:;: 5611844.62
4047
A:;: 1386.67

c
G) Length of DE:
A :;: ~ (5611844.62) 000 (xl Sin SO' :;: 200000
2
A:;: 1870614.87 x:;: 530.18 m.
2
1840614.87 :;: x s~n 60'
® Length of dividing line:
x:;: 2078.46 m. (AD)2 :;: (900j2 +(580.18)2
·2(900)(580.18) Cos
SO'
® Length of dividing line y:
AD :;: 672. 70 m.
A :;: ~ (5611844.62)
® Bearing of dividing line:
~ (5611844.62) :;: t s~n 60'
N
y:;: 2939.39 m.

¢-+----~D
An area of 200()OO rnZ ls to be $egregatedfr~m
the northern portion of triangUlar 101 ABC. fr~m
camerA bearing and distancieot AS is
N. 50' E., 900 m., Be is due South and CA Is
N.42'E. . 580.18 672.70
ill Compute Ihe distance of the dividing line Sin e :;: Sin SO'
from comer 8 along~ne BC. .. e:;: 41'21'
@ Compute the length of the dMdingljne~ SO' + 41'21':;: 91'21'
® Compute the bearing of the dividing line Bearing:;: S, 88'39' E.
from comer A.
S-154

SUBDIVISION

;.. <:>:::,:":":::::::::>::::::

UNks{ ··AZ1MUlH ..• . D,S1'ANCE


. . 1 · 2 ' 187'00'27.90 m.
2·~
••.•. .• .. 268'4T<34;12m, W __ ~j...----4

.... 3~4 .·>.358'33' 21.72m.


. 4; 1 aa~57' . 38:.21m.

G>ComPlltetl1~ .Ienglh: Oflhe dividing'line;


is
® HoW far the lntefSe<;ti6opolntof the·
. diViding line on the northempart of the lot
from 2? comer . .
800 =(27.90 +0.003 h) h +
27.90 h
® How far is the inlersectidnpoint of the
dividing line on the southern part of the lot 800 =55.80 h +0.003 rf
. from comer 1 of the boundary. rf + 18600'h - 266666.67 =0
h = -18600 + 18628.65
Solution: 2
CD Length of dividing line: h= 14.33 m.
A =bh + 27.90h b = 27.90 + 0.003 (14.33)
"1 2 2 b = 27.94 m. (length of
diViding line)
400 = bh + 27.90 h
2 . 2 @ Distance of Afrom comer 2:
800 = bh + 27.90 h
Sin 81'47' = ~
A-2
tan 81'4T =!.!
y 14.33
y= 0.1444 h A- 2 = Sin 81'47'
A- 2 = 14.48 m.
tan 8'03' =~
h
x=0.1414h ® Distance of B from comer 1:
Cos 8'03' = _h_
b=27.90-x+y B-1
b = 27.90·0.1414 h + 0.1444 h 14.33
b := 27.90 + 0.003 h B-1 = Cos 8'03'
B-1 = 14.47 m.
5-155

SUBDIVISION

@ Ama on the eastem part:


- 32.61 (27.67) Sin
31'33'
A2 - 2
A parcel of land has a technical description as A2 = 236.07 m2
shown in the tabulated data. - 17.06 (27,72) Sin
90'14'
A,- 2
LINES .. Bf:ARING . . DISTANCE. A, = 236.45 m2
1-2 5.01'27£,·· 27.72m.
2-3 . S. BB+S7'W. 38.21m····· Total ama =A1 + A2
3·4 N.OrOO'E. 27.90m.. Total ama = 236.45 +
236,07
4-1 . N.88'4TE. 34;12m. Total ama =472.52 m2

The area of the lotis moreor lessHlOO sq.m; @ Distance of other end of
dividing line from
If !he lot Is to be subdivided into two parts comer 2:
such thaUhedivldltig li/remuSlslM atthemld Using Sine Law:
point of line 4- 1 and must be parallel to line to a _ 32.61
1·2 oftheboundary. ... . Sin 31'33' - Sin 90'24'
a= 17,06m,
CD What is the diS1ance of the subdividing
line? . . ....
@ What is the area of the lot subdivided on
the eastern part? .
® What is the dIstance of the other end of the
dividing line from comer 2 of the lot? .

89'36'
Solution:
CD Distance of dividing line:
Using Cosine Law:
y2 =(17.06)2 + (27.72)2 • 2(17.06)(27.72)
Cos 90'14'
y= 32.61 m.

Using Sine Law:


17.06 32.61
Sin e - Sin 90'14'
e = 31'33'
(J. =89'36' • 31'33'

a =58'03'
fJ = 180' - 89'36'
fJ =90'24'
a = 180' - 90'24' - 58'03'
ct =31'33'

Using Sine Law:


3261 AB
Sin 90'24' =Sin 58'03'
AB =27.67 m.
5-156

SUBDIVISION
---------------------_....
~,;;~ ,

.li.~ill~ii~8~~4,e~
Length of dividing line
Using Cosine Law:
(abj2 =(32.61}2 + (26.28)2
- 2(32.61 }(26.28) Cos
58'03'23"
W<¢rw@~~et~~I~gmpttl}¢~q~l~~IM@~J ab= 29,11 m.

[~~.II'J
® Bearing of dividing line from
mid· point of
line 2 - 3:

Solution:
CD Length of dividing line:

89'36'

89'36'
4

32.61 _ 29.11
Sin a - Sin 58'03'23"
a= 71'55'
- 17.06 (27.72) Sin 90'14'
A1- 2 AZimuth of ba:: 268'57'
A1 :: 236.45 m2 ~
Az :: 600 - 236.45 AZimuth of ba:: 19T02'
A2 :: 363.55 m2
Bearing ab :: S 7'02' W
Using Cosine Law:
(4· a}2 :: (17.06)2 + (27.72)2 @ Bearing and distance from T -
1 to comer
• 2(17.06)(27.72) Cos 90'14' "b":
, 4 - a :: 32.61 m.
LINES BEARING
DISTANCE
Using Sine Law: 1 NTOO'E
27,89
17.06 _ 32.61
Sin e - Sin 90'14' 2
e == 31'32'37" 2 N88'47' E
34.12
3
- 32.61 (x) Sin 58'03'23" 3 S 1'27' E
27.72
A2 - 2 4
4 S88'57'W
38.22
363.55 :: x (32.61) s~n 58'03'23"
1
x== 26.28 m.
S-157

SUBDIVISION

LINES NorthinCls Eastinas


1 21412.63 17424.86
.:t....2L2a :!:-.MQ
2 21440.32 19428.26
2 ±...Jill .±....M..1.1
3 21441.04 19462.37
3 =-.2Z.Z1. ±-.Q.lQ
4 21413.33 19463.07
4 .:.-QJQ ~
1 21412.63 19424.86

LINES BEARING DISTANCE


T -1 N66'27E 18.60

LINES
T -1
3

NorthinCls
21433.61
LIM
EastinQS
19445.32
~
itilA.Vi
SU~~IVii~6~I~ilnj~~(2)~U~l~~rts;
3 21441.04 19462.37 pmvtel~d!.flj~t• ~.$qpdiYjding.·!
l9~·.rnu$t.Staff·<lt
th~cMWlj/'l~9n!@~M()1Mu®~rYljn~;
.....
Coordinates ofb:

4 21413.33 19463.07
~ ~
b 21412.85 19436.79 Solution:
CD Distance of the subdividing
line:

T -1 21433.65 19445.32
21412.85 ~
b - 20.76 - 8.53
. 8.53
tan beanng = 20.76
Bearing (T - 1to b) = S. 22'20' W.

Distance =Sin82;~20' =22.45 m.


Bearing and distance from T· 1 to dividing e = 88'4.7 + 1"27'
point on the southern portion is e =90'14'
S. 22'20' w.. 22.45 m. f3 =180' - 88'47' + T
f3 =98'13'
8-158

SUBDIVISION

Distance of subdividing line AB: BEARING


DISTANCE
Cor. 3 S. 01'27' E.
13.86

Northinas
Eastinas
Cor. 3 42935.27
34584.29
~ ~
A 42921.41
34584.64

Bearing and distance from 2 to A:


- 34.12 (13.86) Sin 90'14' Cor. 2 42934.55
34550.18
A1- 2
A 42921.41 ~
A, = 236.45 m2 . • 13.14
+ 34.46
A2 = 500·236.45
A2 =263.55 m2 . 34.46
tan beanng= 13.14
Bearing =S. 69'08' E.
BEARING DISTANCE
BBM#1 S.37'33'W. 237.32 .t 34.46
DIS ance = Sin 69'08'
1 Distance =36.88 m.
1 N. 07'00' E. 27.89
2
2 N. 88'4r E. 34.12
3
3 S. 01'27' E. 27.72
4
4 S.88'57'W. 38.22
1

Northinas Eastinas
BBM#1 43095.02 34691.42
~ - 144.64 IJ =69'08' +7'
1 42906.87 34546.78 IJ =76'08'
1 :t....2L.§.8. LMQ - (x)(36.88) Sin 76'Q8'
Ar 2
2 42934.55 34550.18
2 .:t......D..ZZ .t...M..11 263.55 = x (36.88);in 76'08'
3 42935.27 34584.29
3 :JJ..J..Q .t.-QlQ x= 14.72 m.
4 42907.57 34584.99
4 =--.Q1Q - 38.21 Using Cosine Law:
1 42906.87 34546.78 (AB}2 = (14. 72f + (36.88)2
- 2(14.72)(36.88) Cos
76'08'
AB= 36.28 m.
5-159

SUBDIVISION

@ Bearing of subdividing line: Solution:


Using Sine Law: CD Distance ofsubdividrrg
line:
36.28 _36.88
3 S1 '2TE
Sin 76'08' - Sin a
N88'47' E -y..l'l

e -;;,
a =80'43' 2

--.._------- @ . ""

.'"
S07'OO~
36.88------

or
-;;,

<X
Bearing of subdividing line
~
B
N 88'47' E
=80'43' +7'
4

=N.8T43'E
I

® Distance to be laid out from comer 2 of the


boundary to subdividing line: e = 88'47' +
1'27'
= 14.72m. e= 90'14'

BEARING DISTANCE
BBM#20
S. 37'33' W. 237.32

···l~~~~I.o~~.I#I~~i.~~~P\iM m.lqt • 1

2
2

N, 07'00' E.

N. 88'47' E.
27.89

34.12
···a~IN~·.··.·.· 3
'N:Q7'QQ\~,> 3
S. 01'27' E. 27.72
·······N:ea~4nlS'·· 4
4
S,88'57' W. 38.22
"'S,Q1T2ne:
1
.1.· . j.:

Northinos Eastinqs
BBM#20
43095,02 34691.42

~ ~
1
42906.87 34546.78
1
42906.87 34546.78
2
.:!:-.2ZM ±.-..MQ
2
42934.55 34550.18
3
:t......Q.ll :!:...M..11
3
42935.27 34584.29
4
:....11J!1 2:..-JUQ
4
42907.57 34584.99
1
=-...QlQ ::..-Ja21

42906.87 34546.78
5-160

SUBDIVISION

BEARING DISTANCE ® A1aa oflot to be subdivided on the


northem
Cor. 3 S. 01'27' E. 13.86 part.
_(34.12)(13.86) Sin 90'14'
A1- ·2
A
A1 =2:36.45~
Northings EastinQs ~ =(36.88)(36.18) Sin 22'05'
Cor. 3 42935.27 34584.29 2
~=250.82m2
~ .~
A 42921.41 34584.64
Total area = 236.45 + 250.82
Total area = 487. 27 rrI
Bearing and distance from 2to A
@ Coordinates of the subdiViding
point on the
Cor. 2 42934.55 34550.18 Eastern part:
A ~ 34584. 64 Coordinates ofA = 42921.41 N"
34584,64 E.
- 13.14 + 34.46

. 34.46
tan beanng =13.14
Bearing = S. 69'08' E.

~a.!·n~.: I·.:'~.ti.•·f~•..~
t.\.:.'.I.;.~.ilil
·t
DI§ 34.46
ance =Sin 69'08
Distance = 36.88 m.
•. .. .• . I.•
,.l.•·.:.·.&.·.•.•.••.
p•..!.i:
r.•.. o o . ·

.l}'iA,iI. .
::(>:::::::::::::::::
fJ =69'OS' + 7'

1~I!JtBII'I11
fJ = 76'08'

:@•• • P~rmiil~:~l'lEl • at~~ • ()f.t!


J~ .• @ilpiry9••n~~t.w.
m~$i~l:!qP@lt!$~lijg.¢iWPff~YtM

@0(jinglil'l@<········································· .

LINES
BEARINGS DISTANCES
AS
Due north 20.00 m.
Be
N61'E 114.30m.
Q)
Due south 75.30 m.
DA
Due west 98.00 m.
AB 36.88
Sin 76'08' =Sin 81'47'
AB= 36.18m.
S-161

SUBDmSIOI

Solution: (20 + 55.09) (98 • Yi _(55.09 +


75.3) Y
CD Length of this dividing line: 2 - 2
130.39y = 75.09 (98) • 75.09y
205.48y =7358.82
y= 35.81 m.
h=58·y
h= 58·35.81
h= 22.19

A, =A2 Area ofbuilding cut offnear the


line AB
n=m = 10(22.19)
n=1
m=1 = 221.90m2
_.... /nbl + mb12
x- 'I m+n ® Area ofbUilding cut offnear CD:
A = 10 (33·22.19)
_
1(75.3)2 + 1(20)2
x- 1+ 1 A = 10B.10m2
\ X=55.09m.

@ Area ofbuilding cut offnear the line AB

98-]--1----,

·piVenbe,()wl$.fb~tecnni()aLde$
¢@fi~nofa
m•
IBh·.~aVi~g • •~l'l· • • an~a • •
·6~Q·~?$9m< • J li$
f~q4ir~tQ~p~qiVipethl~1?tiht()lVm~qH~
1
20 are~s.siJcbthat·.th~Y·?"ill~~veElql!
~lf'B~I~gEl
l. -4-0--+\-3.... ~1(l1l~lMUr~q,P'@lph~jQ~$~~~~{.<
!-I 3 ---f.........-4~
IJNES·· .. l:lEARINGi .
• • N7~·2~'g,·········
·$39'$1'1:'
I
I
·S4$T4e'W/
I
• • • ·N3~r52W
~;'j:l;]ll~ I}o
I ' I
N1&~50'W····

I I I
(j) Compute the distance of the
ofher end(jf
~-hl
58-------001
I the dividing line from COtner B..
® Compute the distance of the
<lMdll1g line.
® Compute the bearing of the dividing
Hne.
- (20 + x)(98 - y)
A,-. 2
- (x + 75.3) Y
Ar 2
A1 =A2
5-162

SUBDMSION

Solution: ® Distance of dividing line:


<D Distance of the end of dividing line from B: Using Cosine Law:
(FG)2 = (25.36~ + (22.63)2
·2(25.36)(22.63) Cos
53'2T
FG= 21.72m.
@ Bearing of diViding line:
Using Sine Law:
JJJ"V·fN7J·V'X)
E

E
- 19.625 (9.21) Sin 00'43'
A1- 2
A1 =89.75 m2
A2 = ~.56 • 89.75
22.63 21.72
A2 = 230.53 m3 Sin a =Sin 53'2T
a= 56'49'
(BG)2 = (9.625}2 + (9.21}2
·2(19.625)(9.21) Cos 00'43' Azimuth of FG = 253'23' +
56'49'
BG =22.63 m. Azimuth of FG = 310'12'

Using Sine Law: Bearing of FG = S. 49'48' E.

19.625 22.63
Sin e =Sin 96'43'
8 =59'2T
/!, = 112'54'·59'27
/!, =53'2T
A - {FB) (22.63) Sin 53'2T
2- 2 <D Compute the area at thetdt. ",
',.
230.53 = (FB) (22.63J Sin 53'2T @ In, the same lot; a dividing
line is drawn
from comer 5 to the midpOint
of line 2 • 3.
FB= 25,36m. Rnd lheazitnuthof the
divk:iing line.
@ Find the distance of the
diViding line.
5-163

SUBDIVISION

Solution:· ® Azimuth of dividing line:


CD Area oflot: For/ot 1

Comer LAT DEP


Northines Eastinas
2-3
19955.95 20081.7
-43.20 +23.23 -
43.20 +23.2
1
19912.75 20104.9
49.045
BLLM 1 20000.00
20000.00
Line Bearine Distance LAT DEP 1 19912.75
20104.95
1-1 S52'14 E 198.66 -121.67 +157.04 2 19955.95
20081.72
1-2 S4T49'W 30.48 -20.47 - 22.59 3 19961.33
20110.31
2-3 N28'16'W 111.37 +98.09 - 52.73 4 19934.64
20163.69
3-4 N79'21'E 29.09 +5.38 +28.59 1 19912.75
20104.95
4-5 S63'26' E 56.68 -26.69 +53.38
5-1 S6'44'W 56.70 - 56.31 -6.65 Comer LAT DMO
DEP DOUBLE

AREA
Comers LAT DEP COORDINATES 1-2 +43.20 -23.23 -
23.23 -1003.54
BLLM 1 121.67 +157~ 20000.00 20000.00 2-3 +5.38 -17.87
-28.59 - 96.14
-121.67 +157.04 3-4 - 26.69 +64.10
+53.38 -1710.83
1 19878.33 20157.04 4-1 -21.89 +58.74 -
58.74 -1285.82
- 20.47 - 22.59 -20.47 - 22.59
2A =4096.33
2 19857.86 20134.45
A=2048.17m2
+98.09 - 52.73 +98.09 - 52.73
3 19955.95 20081.72 CORNERS BEARING
DISTANCE
+5.38 +23.59 +5.38 +28.59 1-2 . N28'16'W
49.05 m.
4 19961.33 20110.31 2-3 N79'21' E
29.09 m.
-26.69 +53.38 - 26.69 +53.38 3-4 S63'26' E
59.68 m.
5 19934.64 20163.69 4-1 S69'34'W
62.69 m.
+56.31 -6.65 ·56.31 ·6.65
1 19878.33 20157.04
Line 4 - 1 (Dividing line)
. 58.74
LINE LAT DMD DEP DOUBLE tan beanng= 21.89
AREA
bearing = S69'34' W
1- 2 -20.47 - 22.59 - 22.59 +462.42 azimuth = 69'34'
2-3 +98.09 - 97.91 - 52.73 - 9603.99
3-4 +5.38 -122.05 +28.59 - 656.63 @ Distance of dividing line:
4-5 - 26.69 - 40.08 +53.38 +1069.74 D· t 58.74
5-1 - 56.31 +6.65 -6.65 - 374.46 IS ance = Sin
69'34'
-
2A -9102.92 Distance =62.69 m.
A =4551.46 m2
S-164

SUBDIVISION

Lines
LAT DEP DMD DOUBLE

AREA
AB
+57.81 +16.03 +16.03 +926.09
BC
-9.63 +72.04 -104.10 -1002.48
m
- 42.79 +13.36 -189.50 - 8108.71
DE
-18.75 - 53.25 +149.61 ·2805.19
EA
+13.36 -48.18 +48.18 +643.68

2A = 10346.01

A =5173.005 m2
A _
5173.005
c.~. 6O:00fu.N1S'$'E .
2
A =
2586.50 sq.m.
JBC7 >··.·.···.. ·72~tl9@<·.····
••·.<.·Sa2~23r·E • • • · · ·
..... 44.$3m: ... ·······S1TW·e.··
. nJ; @
Distance of dividing line:

Considering triangle ABF:


·•• • S(tOOfu,>.·.··.··· • • • • • • N.V4tatrW·•• ·• •·

mfJn911'l~C1l~9f~chl<lh A -
60(25)

1- 2
. ~..•..Fln~tIl~ •. ~j~I~~pfm~d!@llnQ.ljn~,·······
@. ·Fi~~@!ltl~~ijg.tJfthEl.djyiding.line.· A,
= 750 sq.m.
A2
=2586.50 - 750
A2
=1836.50 sq.m.
Solution:
60
G) Area ofeach lot: tan
0=-

25

0=67'23'
LINES BEARING DISTANCES AF=
FB cos 0
AS N 15'30' E 60.00
25 .
BC S82'23' E 72.69 FB
= cos 67'23'
m S 1T20'E 44.83 FB
= 65.01 m.
DE S70'36'W 56.45
Considering triangle BFG:
EA N74'30'W 50.00
Bearing of FB: NTOT W

- 65.01 (BG) Sin 75'16'


A2
- 2

__.1l!?36.50)
BG
- 65.01 Sin 75'16'
BG
=58.42 m.
5-165

SUBDIVISION

Using Cosine Law: ill Compute the Iengthofthe


centerline of the
(FG't =(65.01}2 + (58.42)2 road that traverses along
the lot. .
- 2(65.01)(58.42) Cos 75'16' @ How far is the other end
of the center Une
FG = 75,55 m. (distance of dividing line) "" :::~irJgtheproperty
boundary from
® Bearing of dividing line: \Wlf the property is located
at·Barangay Puflla.
Using Sine Law: Princesa;whete .cost of
land is P2000:QO
Sin a. Sin 75'16' per square Meter. eSUmate
thecostoHhe '
BG= FG property to be expropriated
for the service
road,
.
.S' - 58.42 Sin 75'16'
In a. - 75.55
Soltition:
a. =48'24' CD Length of the center line:
Bearing ofdividing line FG = N 41"17' E

A proposed 10 m.~ervice road crosses the


property. Of JFN Holdings whose technical
descriptions are as follows.

lll'ilESA21MUTH .··QISTANCI;
••••••••••. •· • • • •··zn:r •> Using Cosine Law:
>? = (9.55)2 + (14.02}2
- 2(9.55)(14.02) Cos
71'40'
x= 14.27 m.
The centerline of the' proposed service roM
cro~es at 9.55 m. from corner 4 along the line Using Sine Law:
3·4 and runs in adirection afN3'45' E. 14.02 14.27
Sin", =Sin 71'40'
1 0=68'5"
f3 = 180' - 71'40'·68'51'
f!,=39'29'
AB 14.27
Sin 50'31' = Sin 88'06'
AB::: 11.02m.

@ Distance of other end of


center line of
proposed road from comer
1;
AB B-1
Sin 50'31' = Sin 41'23'
S7J'Ji'W
B-1 =11.02 Sin 41'23'
Sin 50'31'
B-1=9.44m.
S-166

SUBDIVISIOI

@ Cost ofproperly to be expropriated:


tan 88'00' =~
X2
X2 =0.17
5
X1 = tan 88'06'
X1 = 0.17
tan 20'14' =~
X4 = 1.84 m.
Xs = 1.84 m.
CD =AB- x2 + X4
Line! Bearinas Distance LAT DEP
CD = 11.02 - 0.17 + 1.84
1- 2 N61'57' E 74.18 +34.88 +65.47
CD=12.69
........ --_ .. - ........

2-3 .......
EF = 11.02 -1.84 +0.17

3·4 S9'03'W 54.13 ·53.46 -8.51


EF=9.35

4-5 N68'21'W 55.43 +20.45 - 51.52


A =A 1 +A2
5-1 N13'56'W 58.85 +57.12 -14.17
A1 = (12.69 +211.02) 5 = 59.275 m2
+112.45 +65.47

::.lli2 :.l!2.Q
A = (11.02 ; 9.35) 5 = 50.925
+58.99 - 8.73
2
A = 59.275 + 50925

CD Length of (he boundary of the proposed


A = 110.20 m2
road on the sou/hem portion of the lot:
Total Cost =110.2 (2000)
Fortine 2- 3:
Total Cost = P220400,OO

tangent bearing =~

. 8.73

tangent beanng =58.99

bearing = S 8'25' E
h,!•• Vi~W • •9t•• lh~~@ffi • ·%.tll~9PY~mm@lJp
D' t dep

IS ance = Sin bearing


relleyepet~~riial~ht¢ulararyqp~e~W~I1·
·.ttiif1ipcRmi~~ti(1~pf:a.city,a.dead.endrqligl~·
. 8.73
.to•• b¢•• eXf~nded • arid·.coQ~tfUeted • .\Vl.th.~rroM
Distance = Sin 8'25'
r1ghtqfw~YClf:2qgL • whi9h.iOter~s • ~.eYe~.1
Distance = 59.64 m.
Pl'jvat~IY • ()Wf\~dprpP~rtlM ..•• Qoe.• of·.ltieSe··lot
ha$tMfQlIOWI09f1e.I~Mttl~k
.:-:.:-:-:-:'.-:'"-:.:.', .•
'.-.-.-.:-:.'.:.»:.'.",'.','.'.' .....:.:.:.:-,.:-:",-- ....

Complete Field Notes


LINES·· SEARING
.·····blStANCS···
/. N6flm.s
lA

LINES BEARING DISTANCE

1- 2 N61'57' E 74.18 m.

2-3 SS'25' E 59.64 m.

3-4 S9'03'W 54.13 m.

4-5 N68'2fW 55.43 m.

5-1 N13'56'W 58.85 m.


S-167

SUBDIVISION

X 68.50
2 Sin 0'45' = Sin 104'07'
X=0.92m.
y 68.50
Sin 75'08' =Sin 104'Or
Y=68.27
h1 =0.92 Sin 75'53'
h1 =0.89m.
~ =10- 0.89
~=9.11 m.

tan 52'54' =!!.l


a
0.89
a=tan 52'54'
4
a=0.67m.
Line~Bearinqs Distance LAT DE? tan 52'54' = &
d
3-4 S9'03'W 54.13 -53.46 - 8.51 d 9.11
4-5 N68'21' W 55.43 +20.45 - 51.52 =tan 52'54'
5··1 . -... ........ .... - .. .. ......
d=6.89m.
- 33.01 - 60.03
tan 75'53' = 10
e
e= 2.51 m.
tan 70'2Z = 10
f
f= 3.57 m.

Distance ofline F - 5:

4
' 60.03
tangentb eanng =33.01
F - 5 =68.27· 0.67 +0.22
Bearing =N61'1 Z E F- 5 =67.82 m.
. . 60.03
Distance =Sin 61'12' Distance DE:
Distance = 68.50 m. DE =67.82 - 7.86·6.89
DE=53.07
5-168

SUBDIVISION

@ Lenght ofthe boundary ofhte proposal road


on the northern portion of the lot:
Distance AB:
arotlljjrsABlldBare~Q'lhef:jtare.
$idjjl1tiali()t
Whl~6·~h~II• • ~•
dl~ed~llaIlY.lh~area • • ao~
A~_--n~

.m~
lEl~liI\l'l.·~tl~,.Jt9~l~~.9butti99··~ • Nl1lipn<:ll
R()~ll;~~~QWl:l ••
·.·.AS.·Plilt·AAIl!~gQtd@:lIlCl!'·Il.·.
Wi9¢Ji.ing·ClfrP~6JdghlQt~~yqf6 •.
meter§
·~M~9rl··.P9lb·.$i(l~\If~I~~ •
i$.·.fElq~ir~~, • • ·l.J!liog·
DMP~(·(·············
.

68.27

sCl------,g
5Z054'

"L.----jE
D
Proposed Road Right
of ffily

AB =68.27 - 2.51 + 3.57


ill • • PQlllP#t~m~ • beadog •
a@dl$tatlCept.lir~
AB= 69.33m.
~G'(})
@ .·G9mMtelffi.at~Mll.ff~rr9M.WldE!
lli@}fdr •.
@ Area of the proposed road to be each Ofthebrothef.
expropriated from the property: @·.CQrtipijt~.~ •
q~rillga@di~l8.rlge()f.~tl~
A - (69.33 + 68.2D (10)
·
¢Qmri:i6$idJ~sqM6thlotS{· ... .....'.' . .
1- 2
A1 =688 sq.m. Solution:
- (68.27 +67.82) (0.89)
Ar 2
A2 =60.56 sq.m.
- (67.82 + 53.07) (9.11)
A3- 2
A3 =550.65 sq.m.

A=A1 +A2 +A 3
A=688 +60.56 + 550.65
A =1299.21 sq.m.
A
5·169

SUBDIVISION

CD Bearing and distance ofEC:


BF =31.91 - 28.52
LINES BEARING DISTANCE BF=3.39 m.
AB N 30E. 48m. . (FE'f =(28.52)2
+(21.63)2
BC ......... ---- - 2(28.52)
(21.63) Cos 101'36'
Due South 12m. FE=39.11 m.
CD
DA Due West 36m. Sin a. Sin 101'36'
21.63 = 39.11
Lines LAT DEP D\1D Double a. = 32'48'
Area
AB +41.57 +24 +24 +997.68 Bearing ofFE =32'48'
- 22'05'
BC - 29.57 +12 +60 -1174.20 . BearingofFE=S
10'43'W.
CD -12.00 0 +72 -864.00
DA 0 -36 +36 . 0
-
2A -1640.52
A = 820.26
ForlineBC:
. -~
tan beanng - Latitude
12
tan bearing =29.57 x = 6.93 Cos 60'
Bearing = S22'05' E. x= 3.47 m.
12 y= 6.11 Cos 79'17'
Distance =Sin 22'05' y= 1.14m.
Distance = 31.91 m. ME= 18 - 3.47
ME= 14.53 m.
Bearing and distance ofEC:
GH =14.53 + 1.14
Bearing = S 22'05' E.
GH= 15.67 m.
Distance =31,91 m,
HL =18 +14.53 -15.67
HL = 16.86m.
@ Areas for each brother after widening:
BG=48-6.93
18 BG=41.07m.
tan l!l = 12
FH =39.11 - 6.11
l!l =56'19' FH=33m.
820.26 CL=6m.
Area required =-2- =410.13 sq.m.
- 18 (12)
A1- 2
Aj =108 sq.m.
A2 =410.13 -108.00
A2 =302.13 sq.m.
.y
EC = (18)2 + (12)2
EC=21.63 m.
_(FC) (Ee) Sin 101'36'
Ar 2
(Fe) (21.63) Sin 101'36'
302.13 = 2
FC=28.52m.
, 5-170

SUBOIVISIOI

LOTA:

LINES BEARING DISTANCE


HG DueWesl 15.67
N30' E. 41.07
.frolll•• • t~e •
giveht~c/1nisal •.• de$cription·.ltis
GB
3.39
·re91lIt¢<l • • l().•
de~~tmin~ the•• • l09~ti91'101 • • tt)e
EF S 22'05' E. ~iviqil'lg!
if1~that'/fUllnt~rseytJh~line$r§q
FH S 10'43'W. 33.00 And,pA·~Wha~yt~atJ~ •
WiUe~%~.1htP~h •

p()irlt()d~~jifetMk)k~hichi~9~e~~tot
Lines LAT DEP DMO Double
comerAandadistance'.Pf.703,80ro·i.··.·.Tnl$
Plea .•~jYidlng.H~·.~n'
• .·dj\lidefhe·.Wl1()!¢•• '(it.·jnto.. tW.o••
-15.67 -15.67 0 ~QJ¥II~~~,/",
'. .'. ."
HG 0
GB +35.56 +20.54 -10.80 -384.05 lINES> .....
13l:ARING
EF - 3.14 +1.27 +11.01 - 34.57
FH - 32.42 -6.14' +6.14 -199.06
2A = 617.68

···········1.492A71'tl(.···
A =308.84m2

S9-Mtltl..
LOTB:

LINES BEARING DISTANCE


LH Due West 16.86
HF N 10'43' E. 33.00
FC S 22'05 E. 28.52
CL Due South 6.00

Line LAT DEP DMD Double


Plea
LH 0 -16.86 -16.86 0
HF 32.42 +6.14 -27.58 - 894.14
FC - 26.42 +10.72 -10.72 +283.22
D
a. -6.00 0 0 0
2A = 610.92 CD Compute the area of
the whole lot.
A =305.46 m2 ® Compute the location
of diViding line from'
C()rtlerA alOOg the
line AD. . .... . '.
Areas for each brother after Widening: ® Compute the location
of lhedividinglihe
from coiner Balong
line Be.
Al = 308.84 m2
Solution:
A2 = 305.46 m2
ill Area of whole lot:
Lines LAT
DEP DMD

Double
@ Bearing and distance of common sides of
both lots (line FE):
Area
A-B +699.4~ +1068.26
+1068.26 +747237.19
Bearing =S 10'43' W. B-C - 1428.1 -433.45
+1703.07 -2432222.3f
Distance =33.00 m. CoD - 164.7t - 634.81
+634.81 ·104591.30
D-A +893.41 0
0 0

2A =1789596.50

A =894788.25
5-171

SUBDIVISION

@ Location of dividing line from comer A: Area offriangle ABG:


Using Sine Law: - 1276.90 Y
AG 1276.90 Ar 2
Sin 39'54' = Sin 106'53' - 1276.00 (468.9)
AG = 855.96 A2- 2
OG = 855.96 - 703.90 A2 = 299369.21
OG = 152.16
Area of triangle OFG:
1 - 152.16 x
Area ofABFE ="2 (894788.25) A3- 2
Area ofABFE = 447394.125 x = FG Sin 73'07'
FG 152.16
Area oftriangJe AOE: Sin", = Sin 13
IJ = 180 - ('" + 106'531
IJ =73'07· '"
FG _ 152.16
Sin", - Sin (73'07' - "')
FG = 152.16 Sin '"
Sin 73'07' COS" - Sin",
Cos 73'07'
152.16 Sin", Sin
73'07'
x =Sin 73'07' COS" - Sin", Cos
73'07'
152.16 Sin 73'07'
x = Sin 73'07' Cot ~ - Cos 73'07'
145.60
x =0.96 cot ~. 0.29
A _152.16 (145.60)
3 - 2 (0.96 col", - 0.29)
11077.25
As = 0.96 cot '" - 0.29
A =A 1 + A2 -As
447394.125 =247667.22 tan"
+299369.21
11077.25
0.96 col '" -
0.29
148024.92 =247676.22 tan '"
11077.25
0.96 cot", -
0.29
142103.92 cot '" - 42927.23
= 237760.53· 71823.49 tan"
-11077.25
142103.92 cot" + 71823.49 Ian ,,=
269610.51
703.80 (h) 1.98 cot", + tan" - 3.75 = 0
A, = 2 tan2 '" - 3.75 Ian"+ 1.98 = 0
h tan" = 3.75 + ~ (3.75)2.4 (1. 982
tan ~ =703.80 2
703.80 (703.80) Ian '" t 3.75 + 2.48
A, = 2 an", = 2
A, =247667.22 tan '" '" = 32'25'
y= 855.96 Sin 33'13' h =703.80 tan 32'25'
y=468.90 h= 446.93 m.
5-172

SUBDIVISION

® Location of dividing line from B:

STRAIGHTENING ABOUNDARY

The figure below shows an


irregular
boundary ABeD and is to be
replaced by a
single line AE. The general
procedure is to
solve for the choosing line AD and
compute for
the values of AI and A2. When AI
is greater
than A2 move the new property line
towards
the bigger area at A1 but if A2 is
greater than
A1, move the property line towards
A2.
A

o
FG 152.16
Sin 32'25' ::: Sin 40'41
FG::: 125.09 m.
BG 855.96 p
Sin 33'13'::: Sin 39'54'
BG::: 731.00 D

BF =731 -125.09
BF= 605.91
Since A2 is greater than A1 move
the new·
The dividing line is 446.93 m. from corner property line to A2.
A along the line AD and 605.91 m. from
corner B along the line Be. A

I
E 1
A:::Ar A1
~
Z A::: ab Sin 0
2
D
5-173

STRAlGHnllNG OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

When Al is greater than A2• move towards AI' @ . . Pjndlhe••


dislan(;~.~I1(~long·Web()\JM;irY
....fF)•• such•• tb<ltth~ •
• $!r<'iljg~t • • line.t\I+.Vtin
A
A

pmYjMtfle$am.e.~ipt~~propert~ •.?f·
><MLPetez anqMr.
$i#I~za~~st~case
• • • • ••• V!
ljelllh~.~9~ndary.~·%'rve·
®•·••
qomtM~ttjEl~~glhmfll1iJ.AH··.
@
COll'lPlItelhElMaringoflineAH.
Solution:
c G) Distance BH:
Al =a + c+e
A1 = 3040 + 2384 +68
D a Al =5492 sq.m.
A2 = b+d
A2 = 926 + 1592
A2 = 2518 sq.m.

A =A I -A2
A =5492 - 2518
A = 2974 sq.m.

Therefore, the
dividing line should be
moved towards the
property of Mr. Perez..

F
Mr. Parezano Suarez own pieces of land
Whlchareadjacentlo each other. The curve
·Iirie in the figure fE':!pi'esentsastreamforming a·
•boundary between the two· pieces of propertY.·
It is proposed to place this stream in a storm
dtaiilandto straigtiteri the boundary. Starling
at poihl A, iti'andonfline AS was run and the
area "a", "~"/'d" and '!e" were detelTllinedfrwn c
E
offset measurements using SImpson's RUletd
be 3040, 926, 2384, 15B2 and 68 sq.m, " = 77'40' - 15'30'
resPl¥tively. .. . . . . . . ,,= 62'10'
AS =<375 m: and has a bearing of S. 77'4fY E. A _ 375 (x) Sin 62'10'
CO:::EF . . ... - 2
Bearing of CO '" N.15'30' W. _2(2974)
X - 375 Sin 62'10'
D F X= 17.93m.
® Length of line AH:

Sin 62'10' = 1~~3


H/= 15.86 m.
B/ = 17.93 Cos 62'10'
c S 77"40' E E B/= 8.37 m.
5-174

STRAIGHTENING OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

N Solution:
G) Distance EB:
Solve for the
line EB:

LINES
LAT
BC
100.27 Cos 13'10' = +97.86
B CD
91.26 Cos 0'11' = +91.26
DE
112.48 Cos 27'39' = +97.59

+28.71
.AI = 375 - 8.37
AI=366,63
15.86 LINES
DEP
tan a = 366.63
BC
100,27 Sin 13'10' = - 22.84
0.=2'29' CD
91.26 Sin 0'11' = -0.25
366.63 DE
112,48 Sin 27'39' = +52.20
AH = Cos2'2fJ
AH = 366,97 m,
25.07

@ Bearing of line AH:


Bearing AH =77'40' +2'2fJ F
Bearing AH= S 80'09' E
BI= 8.37 m.

c
T~~ • foll()wm~I$.~ • • $ef9f.n()t~$l}fahl%®9~(
l>9Ql1dary.of.apl~·.9f.IaM ..·.··lt•• ls~e$~ • lQ••
str<ti9ht~n • • jhi$ • crBglMI•• • bp~nd~ry>II~~ • • ~Y • A
~~~~~Mlqsa.$tralght.llr)~l"\jnhil19ft@l~·.t9tfl~
. .lihe/:F. . .•.

E
n<f}
<D Find the distanceEB. .
® Find the distance along EF frompo!ntE to
the point where the new Une cuts EF, .. .

ti>,

@ Fin9 the bearing of the new boundary line


BX .
5-175

STRAIGHTENING OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

@ Bearing ofBX:
. 29.07
tan beanng (EB) = 286.71 Using Cosine Law:
Bearing (EB) =S 5'55' W (BX)2 = (6322)2 + (288.25)2
• 2(63.22)(288.25)
Cos 102'
286.71 (BX? = 3996.77 + 83088.06 +
7577.56
Distance (EB) = Cos 5'55'
(BX)2 = 94662.39
Distance (EB) = 288.25 m.
BX=307.67

Using Sine Law:


® Distance along EF from point E to the point
where the new line cuts EF:

From Plane Trigonometry:


A - c?- Sin A Sin B
- 2 Sin C
- (100.2D 2 Sin 7'15' Sin 166'39'
A1 - 2 Sin 6'06'
B
A, = 1378.42 sq.m.

(112.48)2 Sin 21'44' Sin 152'10'


A2 2 Sin 6'06' 307.67 _63.22
Sin 102' -Sin Il
A2= 10291.43 s~.m.
. - 63.22 Sin 78'
SIn Il - 307.67
A=A 2 -A 1· Il = 11'36'
A= 1D291.43 - 1378.42
A = 8913.01 sq.m. Bearing ofBX = 11'36'·5'55'
=5'41'
A = (EX) 288.25 Sin 102' Bearing of BX = N5'41' W
2

EX = 17826.02 esc 102'


288.25
EX= 63.22m.
5-176

ARUS OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

b) Simpson's One Third Rule:


(Applicable
only to even inteNals or
odd offsets)

hs
Methods of computlnq Areas of IrreqUli1r
Boundaries at Re ular Intervals
A d d B
d d C
a} Trapezoidal Rule

d = common interval
h1 =first offset
hn = last offset

d d d d

A =A, +A2 +A3 + ~


d
. A = 2[(h 1 +h2) + (h2 +h3) + (h3 +h4) + (h4 +h,J]
d
A = 2(h, +2h 2 +2h3 +2h4 + hnl

h1 + hn ]
A = d [ 2 + h2 +h3 +h4 For the next two inteNal
d
A2 =3[h 3 +hs +4h 41
A=d [h hn +I,h]
1
;
hs = last offset
h1 = first offset
I,h=h2 +h3 +h 4 h2 and h4 = even offset
h3 = odd offset
I,h = sum of intermediate offsets.
d
A = 3 [(h , +hn) +2I,h odd
+4 I,h even]
5-177

AREAS Of IRREGUW BOUNDARIES

@ Trapezoidal Rule:

A =d [h 1 ; hn + h2 + h3 +
h4 + hs + h6]
A series of perpendicular offsets were taken
.ftom a lralls~ ijne 10 a curved bOUllldaryline. d=9m .
These offsets were taken 9 meters apart and h1 =2m.
were taken .In the folQ.Wlng order: 2m., 3;2 m.,
hn = 7 m.
4 m., 15 m.,S in.4.5m~, 6 m., 7m,Deleml.ine
the area included between theJransilline and
the curved uSIng: ... . . ..
A = 9 [(2 ; 7) + 3.2 + 4 +
3.5 + 5 + 4.5 + 6]
A =9(30.7)
A = 276.3 sq.m.

@ Difference between
Simpson's One Third
Rule and Trapezoidal Rule:
=276.3 - 270.9
= 504m 2

Solution: Shown 1n the accompanying


sketch are the
CD Simpson's One Third Rule: measured offsets from a
traverse line AB 10 an
.d irregular boundary and the
spacing .between
A1 ="3 [h 1 + hn + 2 LfJcxJd + 4 LfJevenl
the offsets. Determine the area
boUnded by the
d=9m. traverse line, the irregular
boundary and the
h1 =2m. end offsets using:
.
hn =6 m.
LfJOdd = 4 + 5
LfJodd= 9 m.
"Lheven =3.2 + 3.5 + 4.5
LfJeven = 11.2 m.

A1 = ~ [2 + 6 + 2(9) + 4(11.2)]
A1 "3(70.8) CD Trapezoidal RUle.
A1 "212.40 sq.m. Simpson's One· Third RUle.
A2 = (6; 7)9 Compute the difference
between
Trapezoidal Rule and
Simpson's One·
A2 = 58.8 sq.m. Third Rule.

Total area':: 212.40 + 58.5


Area =270,90 sq.m.
S-178

AREAS OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

Solution: Solution:
<D Trapezoidal Rule: <D Trapezoidal Rule:

2 Lh]
A=d [h 2 + h +

d=20
h1 = 12.22
hn = 10.35
Lh =11.32 + 8.82 +6.52 +
16.38
d Lh=43.04
A = 2" (h 1 + hn + 2 LhinlJ
6
A= 2" [5.60 + 2.70 + 2 (6.40 + 7.90 + 6.20 A= 20 [C 2.22 ; 10.35) +
43.04]
+ 7.50 + 9.50 + 12.30 + 10.80)1 A = 1086.50 sq.m.
A = 388.50m2
@ Simpson's One Third Rule:
@ Simpson's One-Third Rule:
(Treat the last area as
trapezoid)
d
A = 3" (h 1 +hn + 2 Lhodd +4 Lheven) d
A1 = 3" [(h1 + hn) +2 Lhodd
+4 Lhevenl
6
A =3" [5.60 + 2.70 + 2(7.90 + 7.50 + 12.30) h1 = 12.22
+ 4(6.40 + 6.20 + 9.50 + 10.80)] hn = 16.38 .
A = 390.60m2 d=20
Lhood=8.82
® Difference between Trapezoidal Rule and Lheven =11.32 + 6.52 =17.84
Simpson's One-Third Rule:
Difference in area = 390.60· 388.50 20
Difference in area = 2.1 m2 A1 =3" [12.22 + 16.38 +
2(8.82) + 4(17.84)] .
A1 = 784 sq.m.
(16.38 + 10.35) (20)
Ar . 2
A2 = 267.30 sq.m.

A =A 1 +A 2
A =784 + 267.30
A = 1051.30 sq.m.

® Difference in area:
Difference in area = 1086.50
• 1051.30
Difference in area = 35.20 m2
5-179

PLANE TABLE

Five Methods of Orienting the Plane Table:

1. By the lise of magnetic compass.


2. By backsighting.
3. By solving the three-point problem
a) Trial Method (Lehman's Method)
b) Bessel's Method
4. By solving the two-point problem
5. By using the Baldwin Solar Chart

A. TRIAL METHOD (LEHMAN'S METHOD)

The 3 points A. Band C plotted on the


tracing paper with any convenient scale.
The tracing paper is then placed on top of
the plane table and the plane table is set
up over the station whose position is to be
determined and is oriented either by
compass or by estimation. Resection
lines from the three stations A, Band Care
drawn through the corresponding plotted B. BESSEL'S METHOD
points "a", "b" and "c". These lines will
not intersect at a common point unless the
trial orientation happens to be correct.
Usually, a small triangle called· the
"triangle or error" is formed by the three
lines. Let us say, the vertices of this
triangle is ab, bc and ac as shown and
point P is called .the point sought, the
position of which is to be determined as
follows:

a) Draw a circle passing through points


"a'\ "b" and "ab".
b) Draw a circle passing through points
"b", lie" and "bc".
c) Draw another circle passing through
points "a", "c" and "ac".
d) The three circles will intersect at point
"P", the point sought.
S-180

PlANE TABLE

Points a, band c are the plotted points The location of points A


and B are plotted
of A, Band C on the ground. With the on the plane table sheet at
"a" and "b" as
straight edge of the alidade placed along shown in the figure. These
points must be
line "ab", tum the table until a backsight at plotted using convenient
scale. The plane
A is taken as shown in the figure 1, with table is then set up over
point C on the ground
point "a" towards point "A" on the ground. which points A and Sare
visible. The board is
Clamp the table, then take a foresight to then oriented by either
compass or by
point C and draw a line passing through estimation. Point "c"
corresponding to C on
"b". Reset the straight edge of the alidade the ground is plotted by.
estimation on the
at line "ab", tum the table and backsight at plane table sheet. Point D is
also established
point "S' with "b" towards point "B" as on the ground with the
distance C to D
shown on figure 2. Clamp the table and estimated. With the table at
"c", foresights are
take a foresight towards point C and draw taken on A, Sand Dand lines
are drawn on the
a line passing through point "a". The two sheet. The corresponding
position of D is
lines drawn intersects at point "e". Set the plotted on the sheet as "d".
The table is then
straight edge along the line "ec" and take a transformed to station D and
is oriented
backsight at C. Clamped the table. Then tentatively by backsighting
at C. Foresights
draw resection lines through "a" and "b", are taken on points A and B
and lines are
these two lines will intersect each other at drawn intersecting the
previous lines drawn
point "P", then point sought. before, say at points e' and
f. The line joining
e' and f is parallel to the
AB. With the straight
edge of the alidade placed
along line ef, a
point Eat some distance from
the table is set
on the line of sight. The
alidade is then moved
to the line ab and the board
is turned until the
same point E is sighted. The
plane table is
now properly oriented. Sy
section through a
and b, the correct position
of the plane table is
plotted at P.

A 8
~\------7
'\ /'
\ /
\" ,/
S·lSl

PlANE TABLE

SOURCES OF ERRORS IN
PLANE
TABLE WORK:

1. Setting over a point.


2. Drawing rays.
E 3. Instability of the
table.

RADIA.TION WITH PlANE TABLE

1. Relatively few points


need be located
because the map is
drawn as the survey
proceeds.
2. Contours and irregular
objects can be
presented accurately
because the terrain is
in view as the outlines
are plotted.
3. As numerical values of
angles are not
observed, the
consequent errors and
mistakes in reading and
recording are
avoided.
o 4. As plotting is done in
the field, omissions
,"' ..... in the field data are
avoided.

-- ' -- A, 5. The useful principles


of intersection and

\\ "#..<~~~><:~}~;~~:,!
resection are made
convenient.
6. Checks on the location
of plotted points
[ZJ....
,'
~

a-----'
iNTERSEcnON
e
a
wrrn PLANE TABLE
are obtained readily.
7. The amount of office
work is relatively
small.

1.!?~j)'\~./
1. Plane table is very
cumbersome and
several accessories
must be carried.
.... ..- 2. Considerable time is
required for the
topographer to gain
J::roficiency.
E
3. The time required in
the field is relatively
GRAPI-DCAl TRJAN(iIJl..ATlON large.
4. The usefulness of the
method is limited to
relatively open
country.
5-182

PlaNE TABlE

ADJUSTMENTS OF THE PLANE 4. (For alidade on Tube-in


Sleeve Type).
TABLE ALiDADE: To make the axis of the
Striding Level
parallel to the axis of the
telescope
1. To make the axis of each Plate Level Sleeve, and parallel to the
Line of
Parallel to the Plate: Sight.

Place the striding


level on the
Center the bubble of the plate level telescope and center the
bubble. Remove
when manipulating the board. On the the level, tum it end for
end, and replace it
plane table sheet, mark a gUide line alone on the telestope tube. If
the bubble if off
one edge of the straightedge. Tum the center, bring it back
halfway by means of
alidade end for end, and again plane the the adjustment screw at one
end of the
straight edge along the guide line. If the level tube. Again center the
bubble and
bubble is off center, bring it back halfway repeat the test.
by means of the adjusting screws. Again
center the bubble by manipulation the
board and repeat the test. 5. (For alidade of Fixed tube
Type). To
make the axis of the
telescope level
parallel to the Line of
Sight.
2. To make the Vertical Cross-hair lie in a
Plane Perpendicular to the Horizontal This adjustment is the
same as the
Axis. two-peg adjustment of the
dumpy level.

Sight the vertical cross-hair on a well 6. (For Alidade having a Fixed


Vertical
defined point about 100 m. away and Vernier). .To make the
vertical vernier
swing the telescope through a small angle read zero when the Line of
Sight is
(vertical). If the point appears to depart horizontal.
from the vertical cross-hair loosen two
adjacent screws of the cross-hair ring, and With the board level,
center the bubble
rotate the ring in the telescope tube until by of the telescope level. If
the vertical
further trial the point sighted traverses the vernier does not read zero,
loosen it and
entire length of the hair. move it until it will read
zero.

3. (For alidade of Tube in Sleeve Type). 7. (For Alidade hav~ng a


movable Vertical
Vernier with Control Level).
To make
To make the line of sight coincide with
the axis of the Telescope Sleeve. the axis of the Vernier
Control Level
parallel to the axis of the
Telescope
Sight the intersection of the cross- when the Vernier reads zero.
hairs on some well define point. Rotate Center the bubble of
the telescope
the telescope in the sleeve through 180'. If level, and move the vernier
by means of its
the cross-hairs have apparently moved tangent screw until it reads
zero, if it is off
away from the point bring each hair center move it to the center
by means of
halfway back to its origin position by the capstan screws at the
end of the
means of the capstan screws, holding the control level tube.
. cross-hair ring. The adjustment is made
by manipulating opposite screws, bringing
8. (For Alidade having Tangent
first one cross-hair and then the other to its
movement to Vertical Vernier
Arm).
estimated correct position. Again sight on
This type of vernier needs
no
the point and repeat the test.
adjustment.
S-I83

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

Contour interval - on a
given map,
successive contour lines
represents
elevations which differs
by a fixed vertical
distance called contour
interval.

Hachures . artificial shade


lines drawn in the
Topographic Survey· is a survey made in direct of steepest slope
for the purpose of
order to secure important data from which a representing a relief.
topographic map could be made.
Saddle - a dip at the
junction of two ridges.
Scheme of work of a Topo raphic Survey: Thalwegs - are the lines
where the two sides
of a valley meet.
1. Establishment of a horizontal control by
measuring angular and linear
measurements of a center point.
2. Establishment of the vertical control by CHARACTERISTICS OR
PROPERTIES
determining the elevation of control points OF CONTOURS
by leveling or using plane table.
3. Determining the elevations and location of 1. All points on the same
contour have the
some important features as many deem same elevation.
necessary for the preparation of the
topographic map.
4. Computations of elevations, distances and
angles as obtained from the previ0us field
work undertaken.
5. Preparation of the topographic map, which
is actually a representation of the terrestrial
relief.

Refief - configuration of earth's surface.

Methods of representing relief: 2. Every contour closes upon


itself either
within or outside the
limits of the map.
1. Relief models
2. Shading
3. Hachure lines
. 4. Form lines
5. Contour lines

Contour· an imaginary line of constant


elevation on the ground surface.
Contour fine - a line on the map joining points
of the same elevation.
5-184

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

3. On unifonn slopes, the contour lines are 6. As contour lines represents


level lines,
spaced unifonnly. they are perpendicular to
the line of
steepest slope. They are
perpendicular to
ridge and valley lines where
they cross
such lines.

4. A single contour can not lie between two


contour lines of higher or lower elevation. 7. On steep slopes contours are
closely
spaced and on gentle slopes,
contours are
spaced far apart.

5. Along plane surfaces (such as those of


railroad cuts and fills) the contour lines are 8. As contour lines represent
contours of
straight and parallel to one another. different elevation on the
ground, they not
merge or cross one another
on the map,
except in cases where there
is an
overhanging cliff or cave,
or bridge
abultments.
TOPOGUPHIC SURln

9. A closed contour indicate either a summit FIVE MOST COMMON TYPES OF


or depression. A hachured, dosed contour GROUND FORMATION
line indicates a depression.

Hachure Lines 1. Depression

. 10. A contour never splits.

3. End of a Ridge

11. No two contours can run into one.

4. End of a Valley
S-186

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

1. Cross-sections and profiles


from contour
maps.
2. Earthwork for grading areas.
3. Earthwork for roadway.
5. Saddle 4. Reservoir areas and volume.
5. Route location.
Four Systems of Ground Points
for locating Contours:
Three General Methods
Employed in
1. Control point system: Undertaking a Topographic
Survey:
The ground points form an irregular
system along ridge and valley lines and at 1. Transit and Level Method
other critical features of the terrain. The
ground points are located in plan by 2. Stadia Method
radiation or intersection with transit or 3. Plane Table Method
plane table and their elevations determined
by trigonometric leveling or sometimes by
direct leveling.

2. Cross Profile System:


The ground points are on relatively
short lines transverse to the main traverse.
The distances from traverse to ground
points are measured with the tape and the A level rectangular field of
1800 sq.m. has for
elevation of the ground points are its sides in the ratio of 2: 1.
Three poles of
detenmined by direct leveling. equal heights are located at
three consecutive'
corners. To measure the heights
of the poles,
3. Trace Contour System: a CMI Engineer set a transit
(H.I. =15 m.) at a
in this system, the contours are traced point within the lot and took
the angles of
out on the ground. The various contour elevation of the top of the
poles. The angles of
points occupied by the rod are located by elevation of the top of the
three poles taken are
radiation using a transit or aplane table. 25', 25' and 30'.

4. Checker Board System: CD Compute the height of each


pole.
This is used in areas whose @ Compute the distance of the
transit from
topography is smooth. The tract is then the nearest comer. .
divided into squared or rectangles with @ Compute the distance of the
transit from
stakes set at the comers. The elevation of the farthest comer.
the ground is determined at these comers
and at intermediate critical points where
changes in slope occurs, usually by direct
leveling.
S-187'

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

Solution:
G) Height of each pole: 0.2171 t 48.91 = 0.571 - 69.36y + 2210.98
0.3531· 69.26y+ 2162.07 = 0
r - - - - 3 0 - -..... 1 -196.5 t 6124.8 = 0
Y = 196.5 ~ (196.5j2· 4(6124.8)
2
196.5 ± 118.8
y= 2
y= 38.85 m.
~:: 0.2171 t 48.91

~ =0.217(38.85)2 t 48.91
~xI2-LxI2- h= 19.40 m.

~
Height of each pole =19.41 + 1.50
25"
Height of each pole = 20,90 m.
h cot 25'

~
. @ Distance of the transit from the
nearest
30' comer:
Distance of transit from nearest
comer
h cot 30'
= 19.40 cot 30'
= 33.60m.
3x2 = 1800
x2 =900
@ Distance of the transit from the
farthest
x =30 comer:
Distance of transit from farthest
comer
(1) (h cot 25')2 =1 + (15)2 = 19.40 cot 25'
4.6h2 = 1 + 225 = 41.60 m,

2) (h cot 30') = (60· y)2 t (15)2


1.73~ = 3600· 120y t I t 225

CD ~ = 0.2171 + 48.91
(2) h2 = 0.57; - 69.36y + 2210.98
5-188

ROUTE SURVEYING

3. Location;survey

a. Five survey teams go out in


the field.
1. Transit party - stakes
the location
Route Surveys - are surveys made for the of circular curves with
proper
p~rpose of locating any buildings, stationing.
highways. canals, power transmission
lines, pipe lines, and other utilities which 2. Level party - checks the
selected
are constructed for purposes of bench mark and executes
the
transportation or communications. profile work.
3. Cross-section party -
slope stakes
are set on the ground.
4. Land line party -
property lines and
other important details
are
indicated on the plan.
5. Special team - takes
care of the
1. Reconnaissance: special surveys for
structure.

a. General routes are selected and


horizontal and vertical controls are b. All surv~y works are
consolidated
established. with the following prepared:
1. Location map
b. Reconnaisance report is made
accompanying a reconnaissance map. 2. Location profile
3. Cross-sections

2. Preliminary survey: 4. Earthwork estimates


5. Right of way maps
a. There are survey parties that execute
this phase of work. 6. Structure maps and plans

1. Transit parly - runs the traverse.


2. Level party - sets bench marks 4. Construction survey:
and determines the profile.
3. Topographic party - runs the cross- a. Slope stakes for
construction works
sectioning work. are staked, spiral are laid
and lines
and grades for tract or
pavement are
b. A preliminary map is prepared for defined.
determination of possible cost of the
project. b. Final plans' are prepared,
profile
sections, as revised during
construction.
5-189

STADIA SURVEYING

By ratio and proportion:


f d
a) Horizontal Sights: f= SCos 0
f
d=~SCOS0
I
H =(f + c +d) COS"
f
H =~S Cos2" + (f+ c}Cos"
I

V= (d +f+ c) Sin"

V= [f S COS" + (H c)l
Sin"
f Sin 2 I2J •
V =i S -2-'- + (f + c) Sm
I2J
F = principal focus
f = focal length
o = optical center
i = distance between stadia hairs
c = distance from optical center to center of
instrument
1. Stadia interval factor not
that assumed.
By ratio and proportion: 2. Rod not of standard length
3. Incorrect stadia interval
! =s! 4. Rod not held plumb
i s 5. Unequal refraction
d =~S
I
D=d+f+c
f
D =i S + (f + c)

f= stadia interval factor 1. The telescope be of excellent


quality, with
good illumination.
f + c = stadia constant 2. The magnifying power should
be about 25
S = stadia interval or intercept to 30.
3. The stadia hairs should be
fixed and
b) Inclined Sights:
f
should be set accurately so
that ~ = 100.

I
tan m = 0.006
4. The transit should have a
good compass
m = 17' (too small and is negligible)
needle.
5. The transit should have a
complete
vertical circle.
5-190

STADIA SURVEYING

D, =K8, +R
fJ< =KS2 +R
fJ< . D1 =(KS2 + R) • (K81+ R)
K(~,S1}=fJ<-D1
n.. - D.
K=~
82 .81
200 - 60
K=
2.001 - 0.600
K = 99.93 (stadia inteNal
factor)

® Horizontal distances DE and DF:


Assume elevation of D = 100 m.
f
H=:SCOS 2 0 +(f+c}cos 0
I
H= 99.93(2.12) cos 2 4'22' +
(0.30) cos 4'22'
H=210.92m.
Horizontal distance DE = 210.92
m,

f
H=: S cos 2 0 + (f + c) cos 0
I
H=99.93 (3.56) cos2 3'1T + (0.30)
cos 3-,17'
H= 354.88 m.
Horizontal distance DF = 354,88
m,

@ Differences in elevation between


points D
and E and points D and F:
V=/f S-2-+
sin 20 .
(f+ c) Sin 0

V=99.93(2.12} sin ~'44' +(0.3)


sin 4'22'
Solution: V=16.11m.
CD Stadia inteNal factor: Elev. of E = 100 + HI + 16.11 -
HI
Elev. of E = 116.11
Difference in elevation between
D and E
--- ----- = 16.11 m.

f sin 20 .
I-=D:...;1:..-=..:...60=--_D=200_ _- - I V= /S-2-+(f+c}SIn 0
V= S9.93(3.56}Sin ~'34' +(0.30)
sin 3'17'
fS
D =--:- + (f+ c)
I V= 20.36 m.
K= f=stadia inteNal factor Elevation of F = 100 +HI- 20.36
- HI .
Elevation of F = 79.64 m.
= =
R (f + c) stadia constant Difference in elevation between
Dand F
(f+ c) = 0.30 =20.36m.
S-191

STADIA SURVEYING

@ Horizontal distance
between Band D:
H=tSCos2 0
+ (f+ c) Cos 0
I
(j) A transit with a stadia constant equal to H =98.69(2.42) CoS2 6.5'
+ 0.30 Cos 6.5'
0.30 is used to determine the horizontal
H= 236.07m.
distance be1ween points Band C, with a
stadia intercept reading of 1.85 m. the
distance BC Is equal to 182.87 m.
Compute the stadia interval faclor of the
instrument .

@ Using the same instrument, it was use~ to


determine the difference in elevation A Civil Engineer proceedeq to
do the stadia
between Band 0 having a stadia intercept survey work to determine
thEdopagraphy o~ a
reading of 2.42 m. at 0 at a vertical angle certain area. The transit was
set up at a poInt
of + 6'30'. Compute the difference in A, with the line of
sighthorizontal, took rod
elevation of Band D. readings from the ((}ds placed
at B a~d C
whiCh is 2QO m. and 60 m,from
Arespectively.
@ Compute also the horizontal distance
between 8 and O.
Stadia Intercept
Rod at B
2.001 m.
Solution: RCldatC
O.ro<lm.
(i) Stadia interval factor:
(j) Compute the stadia
interval factor. .
fI
D = S + (f+ c)
. @ Using the same instrument
this was .used
f for determining the
elevation of pomt D
182.87 =j(1.85) +0.30 With a stadia intercept
of 2.12 m. and a
vertical angle of +4'22'.
If the elevation of
t/ = 98.69 the point where the
instrument was set ~p
is 10Q m., compute the
elevation of pOInt
0, Stadia constant is
0,30 m.
® Ditt. in elevation between Band D: Compute the
horizonlaldistance from the
point where the
instrument was set up to
paintD.

Solution:
CD Stadia interval factor:
s
D =t + (f + c)
/

tI
200 = (2.001) + (f + c)
f
60 =~ (0.600) + f + C
f Sin 20 . I
V= i S-2- + (f+ c) Sin 0

Sin 13' +.
030 S·In.
65'
140 =(1.401) f
V= 98.69(2.42) -2-
V= 26.90m.
!/ =99.93 (stadia
interval factor)
5-192

STADIA SURVEYING

@ Elev.ofD: Solution:

f
f Sin2fil . :=99.5
I
V=iS-.-2-+(f+'C)Slnfil
f + c = 0
(interior focusing)
V= 99.93(2.12) Sin ~'44' + (0.30) Sin 4'22' .
V=16.11 CD Inclined stadia
distance:
Elev. D= 100 + H/+ 16.11- HI
Elev. D = 116.11 f
D=:SCOSfil+
(f+c)
I
@ Horizontal distance:
f
D=99.5(2.50)
cos 23'34' + 0
H=: Scos2 fil + (f + e) cos fil
I D= 228m,
H =99.93(2.12) cos2 4'21 + (0.30) cos 4'22'
H=210.92m.
® Difference in
elevation between the two
stations:
f Sin 2fil
.
V=jS-2-+ (f+
e) Sin fil

··@ij••~PM@MI9WM~I~~@trffi~gi6g~.9@ V=99.5(2.50)
~ sin (2 x 23'34') + 0

~;~IIII~~II~~~'i~~'\rtJI~
... at~~h~lt.Wi'h • •~lJ • lqt~t@lfP¢ijSlj@.t~I$¢Qp~.
. V= 91.16 m.
DEAB =2.25 +
91.16 - 1.45
@g~#Ylllg~~mg~@~W~lf@19fgf~~($, • 'M
~r~~~o1t6')t~~$~~I6~.r~~~~:~~.~g.*~:0~
th~y~ijl¢~IM91~9g11~ty~#i$h?~'~M,
•. . DEAB = 91.96
m.

.i1¢tettnj~¢tMJ(!II6Wl~~C·· @ Elevation of
station B:
Elev. at B =
155.54 - 91.96
0Yf@l%ed$lMiaglslariCe,>
®••.·.Oifferenceil'l•• elevatioil·belWeen.··the·two Elev. at B =
63.58 m..
~~9l)l)fl.)

··1··••••~~~~l~.1$1~~.~~~~eril1~~~~~.·
5-193

STADIA SURVOING

@ Difference in
elevation between points A
andB:
V=fS~sin 20
+ (f+c) sin 0

VA = 100.8 (0.31) ~
sin (2 x 15'35')
+ 0.381 sin
15'35'
VA =8.19 m.
i
Va = 100.8 (0.236) sin (2
x8'08') + 0.381 Sin 8l O8'
Va =3.39 m.
Diff. in elev.
between A and B
= 1.854 +
3.39 + 8.19 -1.175
= 12.259m.
@ Horizontal distance
frem the transit to the

: =::~~;Km beM."poinl' A
rod held at B:
Ha = 100.8 (0.236)
cos 2 8'08'
+ 0.381 cos
8'08'
@ Find the' horizontaHdtstance from the Ha= 23.69m.
lraHsit to !herod held at S, .'.."

Solution:
1330

1m 1 o~ ~.~.~: A survey party proceeded


to dothelrsmdill
y. " ' • •~ .sLirvey work as fdlows.
The Iransit was s~t

~'~~~:r'w~:~',)
up at A and wtlh the
line of sighftlotiibntal.
took rod readings at
poinls13 and C whiCh is
;300 m. and
80rruespectively, . ...> . . . . . •
... 1 7361 8~4
a
. Wtlh· rod' at
·the·stadlaloterveJw.a$
B -I recorded 10 be 3.001 m.
and withth~rod afC
the stadia interval
wastecOrded 10 be. o.aOorll.
SA = 1.330 -1.020 the distance from the
inslrumen'ttothe
SA = 0.31 principal ·foco.s was
recorded to be 0;30 m,
Sa = 1.972 -1.736 Then they went to survey
other points With
Sa = 0.236 some of the data
recorded as follows witnthe
transit at point Of the
two paints E aridf were
CD Length of line AB: sighted.
." ..
f
H = ~ S cos 2 13 + (f + e) cos '" Rod al E Stadia
interval :::: 225 m.
I
HA = 100.8 (1.330· 1.020) cos 2 15'35' Vertical
angle = +4'30'
+ 0.381 cos 15'35' Rod at F Stadia
interval = 3,56 m.
HA = 29.36 m. Vertical
angle = - 3'30' .
Ha = 100.8 (0.236) cos 2 8'08'
®•
+ 0.381 cos 8'08' ~ . Compute the stadia
jnlerval~ctot. •.
Ha = 23.69 m. Compute the
horizontal distance DE. .. .
HAa = 29.36 + 23.69 @ Compute the
difference in' elevatiOn
HAa = 53.05 between E and F
assuming elevation of
0= 350.42 m. above
sea level.
5-194

STADIA SURVEYING

Solution: f Sin 20 .
V =, S -2- + (f + c) Sin I2l
CD Stadia inteNal factor.
f
S = ~ S + (f+ c) V =99.95(2.25) Si; 9' +0.30 Sin
4'30'
I

fI
300 = (3.001) + (f + c) V= 17.61 m.

80 =,f (0.80)+ (f+ c) Elev. E = 350.42 + HI + 17.61 -


HI
f
220 = (2.201) Elev. E = 368.03 m.

fI = 99.95 (stadia inteNal


.
factor)
.-7J30-· ------1
~~~llmnm--"""'~'_"" ~
® Horizontal Distance DE:

H.I.

f Sin 20 .
V =, S --2- + (f + c) Sin"

V = 99.95(3.56) Si;E +(0.30) Sin


3'30'

f . V=21.70m.
{-., =~ S Cos2 0 + (f + c) Cos 0
I Elev. F = 350.42 + HI- V- HI
H= 99.95(2.25) Cos2 4'30' + (0.30) Cos 4'30' Elev. F = 350.42 - 21.70
H= 223.80m,
Elev. F = 328.72 m.

@ Diff. in elevation between E and F:


Ditt. in elev. between E and F
;: 368.03 - 328.72
=39.31 m.
S-195

HYDROGRAPHIC SURIEfI.NG

2. By means of range line


and an angle from
the shore.

Purpose of Hydrographic Surveying:

1. To determine shore lines of harbors, lakes


and rivers from which to draw an outline
map of the body of water. 3. By means of range line
and an angle from
the boat.
2. To determine by means of soundings, the
submerged relief of ocean bottoms.

3. To observe tidal conditions for the


establishedof standard datum.

4. To obtain data, in case of rivers, related to


the studies of flood control, power
development, water supply and storage.. 4. Two angles from the
shore.
5. To locate channel depths and obstruction
to navigators.

6. TO determine quantities of underwater


excavations.

7. To measure areas subject to scour or


silting.
5, Two angles taken
simultaneously at the
8. To indicate preferred locations of certain boat by using a
sextant, and three stations
engineering works by stream discharge on the shore,
measurement.

Methods of locating soundings:

1. By means of a boat towed at uniform


speed along a known range line at equal
intervals of time. 6. By transit and stadia.

\Rallge Lille

::',' ,;'\-t-\-l----~
\ Baal
'~l ...-"'--'''''.-'-.
6
\>'----o-J---.----
I I I 1
. \
.stadia all boat
: :
~----~----~---- - ~-- -~----~
II .
'-
~
-
.•~=:r---', .--0
t I I ~. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~----~----~----~ ~
,"
I
I
II
----~----~
. ---- .--- ,&"
I~
I ~
5-196

HYBROGRAPHICSURIEYING

7. By intersection of fixed ranges. Methods of Plotting


Soundings:

1. By using the Two Polar


Contractor
2. By using Two Tangent
Protractors
I
3. By the Tracin,!1 Cloth Method
4. By using the Three Arm
Protractor
5. By the use ofPlolting Charts
8. By a wire stretched along a river at known
distances.
Methods of Measuring
Velocity
in a Vertical Line:

1. Vertical-velocity-culVe method:
Measurements of horizontal
velocity
are made at 0.5 beneath the
surface and at
each tenth of the depth from
the surface to
as near the bed of stream as
the meter will
operate. If the stream is
relatively shallow,
measurements are taken at each
one fifth
of the depth. These measured
velocities
are plotted as abscissas and
the
Hydrographic maps - is similar to the respective'depths as ordinates.
A smooth
ordinary topographic map but it has its own curve drawn through the plotted
points
particular symbols. The amount and kind defines the velocity at each
point in the
of informations shown on the hydrographic vertical. The are under this
curve is equal
map varies with the use of the map. to the product of the mean
velocity and the
total depth in that vertical
line. This area
may be computed by using
aplanimeter or
A hydrographic map contains the by Simpson's One Third Rule.
The
following informations: vertical velocity curve method
gives us the
most precise method of
determining mean
1. Data used for elevation. velocity but requires only too
much time.
2. High and low water lines.
2. Two-tenths and Eight-tenths
Method:
3. Soundings usually in feet and tenths, with The current meter is
lowered
a decimal point occupying the exact downward at 0.2 and 0.8 of the
total depth
plolted location of the point. where observations are made.
The mean
4. Lines of equal depths, interpolated from of this two velocities is taken
as the mean
soundings. On navigation charts the horizontal velocity in that
vertical.
interval of line of equal depth is equal to
one fanthom or six feet. 3 Six-tenths Method:
5. Conventional signs for land features as in Only one observation is
made at a
topographic maps. distance below the water surface
equal to
0.6 the total depth of the
stream. The
6. Light houses, navigation lights, bouys, velocity obtained at that
particular depth is
etc., either shown by conventional signs or considered to be the mean
velocity of
leIters on the map. vertical.
8-197

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

4. Integration Method: The transitman at A


then clamps the lower
The cllrrent meter is lowere at a plate, turns the line of
sight to the signal
uniform rate down to the bed of the. tream station C and reads the
angle 0. The
and is raised also at the same rate up to transitman at Balso
follows the float, until the
the surface. The total time and the m mber transitman at A gives the
"get ready' signal
of revolution during this interval con itute and by means of the upper
tangent screw
a measurement. ~ angle B is measured the
moment the float
This method is based upon the th ry passes the section AC. The
time that the float.
that all horizontal velocities in the ve 'cal passes the section BO and
AC is also
have acted equally upon the meter w el recorded.
thereby giving the average as the mea~ 01'
all the velocity reading. I
The base line AB is
then measured
accurately and the
position C and 0 is then
5. Subsurface Method: plotted. The path of the
float is either scaled or
In this particular method. the current I
computed using
trigonometric principles. The
meter is held at just sufficient depth below distance divided by the
time gives the mean
the surface usually 150 10m to 200 10m to velocity of the float.
avoid surface disturbance. The mean
horizontal velocity is obtained by
multiplying the sub-surface velocity by a Three Distinct
Methods of
coefficient. This coefficient varies with Determining the Flow
Channels or in
the depth and velocity of stream. This . Open Channels or
Stream:
coefficient varies from 0.85 to 0.95.
1. Velocity-Area Method:
,
The velocities at
any vertical line is
observed by using a
current meter based
on the five different
method of velocity
measurement using
current meters. The
area of a certain
section is obtained by
sounding, or by
stretching a wire across
the stream and marking
the points where
observations were made
referred from an
initial zero point. The
depths at this
Float Method of Measuring Stream Velocity particular points are
also measured. The
area of the section
could then be computed
From the figure shown, a base line AB is by dividing the section
into triangles and
well selected and is established near the' bank trapezoids. The product
of the area and
of a river where no obstruction will interfere the the mean velocity gives
us the discharge
line of sight during the observation period. of flow of a certain
section. The sum of all
Points Cand 0 are established on the opposite the discharges at all
sections gives us the
side of the river such that the sections AC and total discharge or
flow.
BO are' perpendicular to the line AB, hence
they are parallel to each other. One transit is 2. Slope Method:
set up at A and the other at B. The transitman
at B with vernier at zero, follows the float The 'slope method
involves a
where it is being released at point E, at a detennination of the
following:
distance of 15 m. above section BO. As the aj Slope of water
surface.
float approaches section BO, the transitman at bj Mean area of channel
cross-section
A keeps the line of sight pointing at the float cj Mean hydraulic
radius
until the transitman at B shouts "shot" a the d) Character of stream
bed and the proper
float passes section AB. selection of
roughness coefficient
S-198 ,/
I
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING I
Mean Velocity is computed by
applying the Chezy Formula:
3..)"'_00,
~il A weir method is an
obstruction place
in a channel, over which water
must flow.
V=c{RS D' scharged of a stream using
this method
i valves the necessary
information.
where
V = mean velocity Depth of water flowing
over the crest
C = coefficient of roughness of stream of weir, H.
bed Length of crest, L for
rectangular or
R = hydraulic radius trapezoidal weir.
c) Angle of side slopes if
weir is
R=pA triangular or trapezoidal.
A :: cross-sectional area of stream d) Whether flat or sharp
crested.
P = wetted perimeter of stream e) Height of crest above
bottom of
approach channel, P.
~ Width and depth of
approach channel
Computing values of C by g) Velocity of approach
Kutter's Formula: h) Nature of end contractions

a) English:
41.65+ 0.00281 + 1.811
C= s n
1+ ..JR(41.65 + 0.0~281).

C = coefficient of roughness of stream


bed
n =retardation factor of the stream bed
R = hydraulic radius
s = slope of water surface
End Contracted
Weir
Q = 1.84 (L -
0.2H) H312
b) Metric:

23 +0.00155 +1
c= s n
1 + ~ (23 + 0.00155)
{R s

Computi~ values of C by
Manning's Formula:
Rl/6
C=-
n Suppressed
Weir
Q::: CLH3/2
Discharge = Area x Velocity
8-199

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

Three common types of


floats used
in measuring stream
velocity:

1. Surface floats - it is
designed to measure
surface velocities and
should be made
light in weight and of such
a shape as to
offer less resistance to
floating debris,
Triangular Weir wind, eddy currents and
other extraneous
Q = 1.4 H2.5 forces. The use of surface
float ;s the
quickest and the most
economical method
of measuring stream
velocity.

2. Sub-surface floats - this is


sometimes
called a double floats. It
consists of a
small surface float from
which is
suspended a second float
slightly heavier
than water. The submerged
float. is a
hollow cylinder, thus
offering the same
resistance in all
directions and the
minimum vertical
resistance to rising
Cipolletti Weir currents.
1.86 LH3I2
Q::;:
o 1
when tan-::;:- 3. Rod float - the rod float is
usually' a
2 4 cylindrical tube of thin,
copper or brass
25 mm to 50 mm in
diameter. The tube is
Q ::;: 1.84 LH3/2 (Francis Formula Neglecting sealed at the bottom and
in weighted with
Velocity of Approach) shot until it will float
in an upright position
Q::;: 1.84 L [(H + hv)3/2 • hv 3/2 ] (Considering with 50 mm to 150 mm,
projecting above
the surface of the water.
Velocity of Approach)

Instruments used for


measuring
difference in level of
water:

1. Hook gauge
2. 8taff gauge
Discharge measurements are made for the
3. Wire-Weight gauge
following purposes:
4. Float gauges
5. Automatic gauges
1. To determine a particular flow without
6. Piezometers
regard to stage of stream.
7. Plumb bob
2. To determine flows for several definite
gage readings throughout the range of
stage, in order to plot a rating curve for the
Instruments used for
measuring
station. From this curve the discharge for
the velocit of
flow:
any subsequent period is computed from
the curVe of water stage developed in the
recording gage. 1. Floats
a) surface float
3. To obtain a formula or coefficient of dams,
or rating flumes. b) sub-surface float
c) rod float
5-200

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

2. Current meters C. Wire drag or Sweep:


a) Those which the revolving element is This method is used
in harbor or a bay
cup-shaped, or of the anemometer type Where corral reefs and
pinnacle rocks are
and acts under differential pressure. likely to occur. This
consists of a wire of
Types of current meter: any length up to 120 m.
which may be set
at any desired depth.
Depths are
1. Price meter maintained by means of
bouys placed at
2. Ellis meter the wires and whose length
can be
3. Haskell meter adjusted. The drag is
pulled through the
4. Fteley meter water by means of a power
launches,
5. Ott meter steering diverging forces
to keep the drag
taut. When an obstruction
is met, the
bouys are shown with the
position of two
straight lines intersecting
at the
obstruction. These
intersection is located
by sextant observations to
reference
A. Measurement of dredged materials: points on the shore.
Soundings are taken
for the minimum depth.
Measurement in place:
Soundings of fixed section are D. Determination of stream
slope:
taken both before and after dredging To determine surface
slope, a gauge
and the change in the cross-sectional is installed on each side
of the. stream at
area is obtained by calculation or by the end of the section. The
zero's of the
using a planimeter. The volume of the gauge are connected to
permanent bench
material removed is computed by marcks on the shore. The
gauges are read
using the borrow pit method or by the simultenaously every ten to
fifteen minutes
end-area method. for six to eight hours. The
mean of these
2. Scow measurement: elevation at that point of
the stream. The
Each scow is numbered and the difference in elevation
between the ends of
capacity of each is carefully the section divided by the
distance is the
determined. When the scow is filled slope.
to the capacity the inspector records
the full measurements. Materials is
scow is sometimes measured by the Capacity of Existing
Lakes
amount displaced in loading. or Reserviors:

B. Measurements of Surlace Current: 1. Contour Method:


Certain engineering problems require A traverse is run from
a shore line and
important information about the direction the desired shore
topography are located
and velocity of currer)ts at all tidal stages. by stadia. Take sufficient
number of
This. is done by locating the path and soundings by any method
suited 'for the
computing the velocity of floats from points particular job and plot the
sub-ageous
whose locations are known and can be contour. The area inclosed
between
determined. Floats should be designed to contours are determined by
planimeter.
give minimum wave resistance and to The average area of two
consecutive
extend underwater to a sufficient depth to contours multiplied by the
contour interval
measure the current in question. The gives the partial volume.
The summation
direction of the current may be determined of the partial volumes
gives the total
by sextant angles from the boat between volume.
. known signals and the floats.
S-lO]

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

2. Cross-Section Method:
The outline of the water line is
obtained as in the contour method. The
water line is then plotted and divided into
approximate trapezoids and tri-angles.
Soundings are taken along the boundary
lines between each station and are plotted The' areas A1, A2, etc.
are determined
on cross section paper. A perpendicular by using a planimeter and h
represents t~e
distances between sections are then contours interval. Area below
A5 IS
obtained by the end area method. The neglected.
summation of these partial volumes gives
the total volume. b) prismoid,1 Formula:
L
V =6(A +4A", +A2)
. Two General Methods of Determining
the Capacity of a Lake or Reservoir:
In this case the midqle area
Am is the Area
1. Contour Method: A2 and ~ while L is equivalent
to 2h.
a) End-area method
b) Prismoidal formula
2. Parallel Cross-Section Method:
a) End-area method
b) Prismoidal formula

a) End-area method:

a) End-area method:

Parallel ranges are laid out


across the lake and
soundings are then taken along the
ranges.
From the observed sounding the
corresponding
cross-sections could be plotted
and its
corresponding areas would then be
computed.
5-202

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

F'rOll) • • the.culTent~~Wtlo~s •
take~8r • th~

R<:tsjgBIYtr,m~m~i6BpU~toftheh~9Un~
·~lll<,e, • • AlI.~~~lJr~m~I'l~l!
r~ll'lm~~~, • • · ·

Total Volume = VI + V2 +V3 + V4


+Vs +Vs

b) Pismoidal Formula:
The problem arises here in the
determination of Am. since the distances
between parallel sections are not equal, it
is therefore necessary to evaluate or
interpolate the values of Am.

Solution:
CD Total discharge:

V1 =!!J.
6 (A l +4Am + A2)

V2 =b2
6 (A2 +4Am + A3)
v = (0.32 + 0.22)
V3 =&
a 2
6 (A3 +4Am + At)
Va =0.27 m/sec
V4 =·~(At +4Am +As) l / _ (0.40 +0.24)
Vb - 2
Vs =b5.
6 (As +4Am + Ae,) Vb =0.32 m/sec
Vc = 0.21 m/sec
h
Vs =-W (~+4Am +A7)
Velocity:
- (0 +0.27)
V1- 2
V1 = 0.135
5-203

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

- (0.27 + 0.32)
Vr 2
V2 = 0.295
_(0.32 + 0.21)
V3- 2
V3 = 0.265
\I _ 0 + 0.21
V4 - 2
V4 = 0.105

.0;739
Discharge: Q =AV
0.720···
Q1 = 15 (0.135) = 2.03
~ = 43.5 (0.295) = 12.83
1243
OJ = 39.75 (0.265) = 10.53
0.852
C4 = 10 (0.105) = 1.05
0,524

.0.473
Total Q = 2.03 + 12.83 + 10.53 + 1.05
0.469
Total Q= 26.44 cu.m.lsec.
1 cU.m. = 1000 liters
Total Q = 26440 liters/sec (j) Compute the veloCity at distance
of 30 m.
from l.P.
.
@ Total area: ® . Compute the discharge in
~tersfsec.· .
- 12(2.5) @ .• Compute lliemean veloCity in
section. . ..
A1-
A1 = 15.00 Solution:
- (2.5 +3:3)(15) (j) Velocity at distance of 30 m.
from IP.
Ar 2
A2 =43.50
A (3.3 + 2)(15)
3- 2
A3 = 39.75

A4=~¥
A4 = 10.00 V= 0.739 + 0.720
2
Total area: V= 0.7295
A = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4
A = 15 +43.5 +39.75 + 10 @ Discharge in liters/sec:
A = 108.25 sq.m. Va =045
Vb =0.739; 0.720 =0.7295
® Mean velocity:
Q V =1.251 ; 1.243 = 1.2465
c
V=f1
Vd =0.852
v=}644 Va =0.524
108.25
V - 0.473-+ 0.469 0.471
V =O. 244 mlsec. f- 2
S-204

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

V1 = 0 + ~.45 =0.225

V2 = 0.45 +20.7295 = 0.5898


!
A~@~lllflo\l{rllM~Qfem~~tWe~Cp®99~.M
V 0.7295;1.2465 = 0.988 ~l'iYMB$ll'lg~¢
(lI'l'~tm~WWlmth¢
3

ll(lrr~(j119ioo.\f~IV@(lf.Ptl.~sWN~

• ~~m.·il~~ .•":pfl.•.•
V4 = 1.2465; 0.852 = 1.049
Th~fpll(lWl~9@·W.tb~.·9b$~~dJW~.·ta~M··
d@Mtl'tEl.@l~$9~M~l'lt$· • •
P~IYQ·gl'@l@d
V = 0.852 ; 0.524 = 0.688
s W~$U$l¥lirl;ob$~N<ltl()rlL •
• >}.·•• ·•·• •·• • ·• · • · ·•· · .
Vs = 0.524 ; 0.471 = 0.4975

V7 = 0.47~ + 0 =0.2355

A1 = 10.5~1.25}=6.5625

A = (1.25)
2
+p.7} 10 -14.75
A = (1.7 +;.3) 10 = 20 cD • • • GOrrlpu~.th
¢VeIOMy~la.~J$@H;~Qf···· • •16·
3 rn·frQ(l1\ME:'/
A4 = (2.3 +;85) 10 =25.75 @
Deternljn~the8iS@.~tge9~tffl~~et.
@ .. O~term1nEl.!
hel'llMIl·VEllocJtYl)lltlllll'i'l~

.•••••.•.
As = (2.85 +;.55) 10 = 22
Solution:
CD Velocity at distance of 16
m. from WE
As = (1.55 +20.9) 10 = 12.25

A7 = 8.35~0.90} =3.7575

Q=AV

Area Velocity. Discharge


A1 =6.5625 V=aN+ b
V, =0.225 0 1 =1.477
Ai = 14.75 V2 =0.5898 O2 = 8.700 V=0.232 (~~) + 0.022
A3 =20 V3 =0.988 0 3 = 19.760
~ = 25.75 V4 =1.049 <It = 27.012 V= 0.1782 m/s
As=22 Vs =0.688 0 5 =15.136
As = 12.25 Va =0.4975 Os = 6.094 @ Discharge of a certain
river:
6I~ V7 =0.2355 .Qz~ Va=O
A = 105.07 m2 V =aN +b (Straight line
equation for
0= 79.064 m3/sec current
l7)eters)
o= 79064 liters/sec
N_ revolution
@ Mean velociy: sec
Q=AV (1Ql
Vb =0.232 50 +0.022
79.064 = (105.07) V
V= 0.752m1s Vb =0.0684 m1s
5-205

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

Vc -- 0.232 @
55 + 0.022 0, =A 1V,
0, :: 3.2 (0.0342)
Vc :: 0.1148 mls
_ @§l 0, :: 0.10944
Vd - 0.232 52 + 0.022 ~ :: 8 (0.0916)

Vd :: 0.1782 mls ~ =0.7328


_ @l OJ:: A3 V3
Ve - 0.232 53 + 0.022 OJ =11.2 (0.1465)
Ve :: 0.1446 mls OJ:: 1.6408
V,:: 0 ~ ::A4 V4
~ =10.4 (0.1614)
V1::~
2
~ = 1.6786
Os:: 0.2892
_ (0 + 0.0684)
V1- 2
0::01+~+OJ+04+0S
V1 = 0.0342 mls
~
o=0.10944 + 0.7328 + 1.6408 + 1.6786
V2 :: 2 + 0.2892
V _ (0.0684 + 0.1148) 0:: 4.4508 m3/s
2- 2 o:: 4450.8 liters/sec
V2 :: 0.0916 mls
V _ (0.1148 + 0.1782) @ Mean velocity:
r 2 A:: A1 +A2 + A3 +A4 +As
V3 = 0.1465 mls A =3.2 + 8 + 11.2 + 10.4 + 4
V-~
4- 2
A = 36.8 sq.m.

V _ (0.1782 + 0.1446)
4- 2 V::.Q
A
V4 = 0.1614 mls
V= 4.4508
~ 36.8
Vs = 2
V:: 0.1209 mls
Vs = 0.0723 mls

A - 1.6 (4)
,- 2
A1 = 3.2
A - (1.6 + 2.4)(4)
2- 2 The areas bounded by the water line Of a
A2 =8 reservoir is determined by using a planimeter.
A _ (2.4 + 3.2) 4 The contour interval is 2m.· A, <z .20,400 sq.m.,
3- 2 A 2 " 18,600 sq.m., A3 ",. 14,300 sq,m.,
A3 = 11.2 A4 = 10,200 sq.m., As:: a,ODO sq.m. and
A _ (3.2 + 2)4 Ae '" 4,000 sq.m. Determine the following:
4- 2
G) Ehd area method.
A4 = 10.4
® Prismoidal formula.
As ::fHl @ What is the difference of capacity of the
2
As =4 ~~Sr:f~~ using End area aM by Prlsmoldal
5-206

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

Solution:
cD End area method:

2
V1 =2" (20400 + 18600) = 39000
2
V2 =2"(18600 + 14300) = 32900

V3 = ~ (14300 + 10200) = 24500


2
V4 =2"(10200 + 8000} :: 18200
2
Vs =2" (8000 + 4000) = 12000
126600 m3

@ Prismoidal formula:
V1 = ~ [20400 +4(18600} + 143001
V1 = 72733.33
V2 = ~ [14300 + 4(10200} + 80001
V2 :: 42066.67
2
V3 =2" (8000 + 4000)
V3 :: 12000
SECTION 2
Prismoidal Formula
=V1 +V2 +V3 •
= 72733.33 + 42066.67 + 12000
:: 126800 m3

@ Difference of capacity of the reservoir


using End area and by Prismoidal
Formula:
Diff. in volume = 126800 -126600
SECTION 3
Diff.1n volume:: 200 m3
S-207

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

- (315 +314) (30)


V3-
2
V3 =9435 cU.m.
V. _(A4 +As)h
4- 2

SECTION 4 1/ = (314 +0}(30)


V4 2'
Solution:
V4 = 4710 cU.m.
CD End area method:
V _(A l + A?) h
1- 2 Total volume = V, + V2 + V3 + V4
A,=O V= 2078 + 10456 +9435 +4710
A = 10 (4) + (4 + 6) (10) +(6 + 5) (12) V=26,679cu.m.
2 2 2 ' 2
+ (5 +4.2) (12) 8 (4.2) @ Prismpidal formula:
2 + 2
Note:. To solve for Am: compute
the
A2 = 20 + 50 +66 + 55.2 + 16.8 dimensions of Am using the
average
A2 =208 sq.m. values of the sections (1) and
(2).
- (0 + 208) (20)
V1-
2
V, =2080 cU.m.
V (A2 + A3 ) h
2- 2
A =~ ~ (8+10)(10)
32+ 2 + 2
FROMl&2Am
+ (10 + 7) (12) (7 +4) (10) rn
2 + 2 + 2
A3 = 12 +44 + 90 + 102 + 55 + 12 A =~+~(2.5+3)(6)
m 2 2 2
A3 = 315 sq.m.
+(2.5+ 2.1}(6) 4 (2.1)
-@§. + 315) (40) 2 + 2
Vr
2
Am = 5+ 12.5 + 16.5 + 13.8 +4.2
V2 = 10,460 cu.m.
Am =52sq.m.
V _(Aa +&)h
r 2
L
A = 6 (12) +(6 +10) (14) V, = 6(A 1 + ~ + A2)
4 2 2
(10 + 8)(14) 8(10) 20
Vj ="6 [0 +4(52) +208]
+ 2 + 2
A4 =36+ 112 + 126+40 V, = 20 (208 + 208)
6
A4 =314 sq.m.
V1 = 1386.67 cU.m.
5-208

HYDROGRAPHIC SOVEYI.I

From (2) to (3). Use average dimensions of


sections (2) and (3). \I _ 4 (A 3 + 4 Am + A3 )
h
vr 6

V3 = 3~ [315 + 4 (236.25) +
314]

V3 = 7870 Cu.m.

From (4) fa (5). Use average


dimensions of
sections (4) and (5).

Am

A - 9(3.5) (3.5 + D(9) (7 +7.5) (11)


m- 2 + '2 + 2
(7.5 +5.6) (12) (5.6 + 2) (9) £.@l
+ 2 + 2 + 2
Am = 15.75 + 47.25 + 79.75 + 78.6 + 34.2 +3
Am = 258.55 sq.m.
V - (A 2 + 4 Am + A3) h _;u§l (3 + 5) 7(S +4) (7)
iill
Am- 2 + 2 2
+ 2
r 6
Am = 9 + 28 +31.5 + 10
V = [208 +4 (25:.55) -;. 315] (40)
2 Am = 78.5 sq.m.
V2 = 10,381.33 cU.m.
\I _ (A 4 + 4 Am + As) h .
V4 - 6
From (3) and to (4). Use average
dimensions of sections (3) and (4). 30
V4 = 6 [314 +4 (78.5) +0]

V4 =5 (314 + 314)
V4 = 3140 cu.m.

Total volume = V1 + V2 + V3 +
V4
V= 1386.67 + 10381.33 + 7870
+3140
V= 22,778 cU.m.

@ Difference in capacity:
A =4.5(10) (4.5+9)(11) (9+9)(12)
m 2 + 2 + 2 Difference in capacity =26685
- 22778
+ (9 +3.5) (11) (3.5 +2) (5) £.@l Difference in capacity =3,907
cU.m.
2 + 2 + 2
Am = 22.5 + 74.25 + 54 + 68.75 + 13.75 + 3
Am = 236.25 sq.m.
5·209

THREE POINT PROBlEM

Considering triangle ACB:


:; 850 Sin l?J
O CB
Sin 41'30'

Considering triangle BC:


CB 760
A, Cand 0 are three tliangulationshoreslgnals @ Sin a - Sin 35'30'
whose positions were determined· by the 760 Sin a
angles W:; 150' and the sides AC ,,; flSO m. CB:; Sin 35'30'
and CO :; 760 m~ A sounding at B was taken
from a boat and the angle$ E '" 41'30' and the
angles E" 41'30' and F" 35:30' were measured o and@
simultaneously by two sextants from the boat 850 Sin l?J 760' Sin a
to the three shore signals from the shore, Si041'30':; Sin 35'30'
c
Sin l?J:; 1.02 Sin a

A
'" +a + 150' +41'30' +35'30':;
360
1Il+·a:;133'
a:; (133' -Ill)
Sin l?J:; 1.02 Sin (133' -l?J)
Sin III :; 1.02 (Sin 133' Cos III
- Cos 133' Sin Ill)
B
Sin III :; 0.746 Cos III +0.696
Sin III
0.304 Sin III :; 0.746 Cos III
tan Ill:; 2.454
l?J:; 67'50'
Solution:
a:; 133' - 67'50'
CD Distance AB:
c a:; 65'10'

A
850 _ AB
Sin 41'30' - Sin 70'40'
AB:; 1210.45 m.

® Distance BD:
B
C
BD 760
Sin 79'20' - Sin 35'30'
BD =1286.14 m.
A

'1' Distance CB:


CB 850
Sin 67'50' - Sin 41'30'
CB:; 1187.98 m.
B
5-210

THREE POINT PROBLEM

A hydrographic survey was conducted to Three· shore stations A. C and


Dare
·locate the· po.sition of soundlngs,Three triangulatron· points whose.
position a.s
statiOl'\sXYZwere. established on the observed· ·from B where soundings
are
seaShore andthesoundiogs Were observed at obserVed and the angles were
measured using
pdlnt A uSitiga small bqaC The fall. data were two· sextants from· the. boat ara
to the Wee
recorded in order to plot the position· of the shore signals, The following dala
were
sOUndings.·· ....•. recorded during the sounding
observation. .
·····.Djstaild~XY= 1200m.. ... Angle ACO :::: 150'
. DistanceYZ =1809 m. Angle ABC = 42'30'
.....•...•. An Ie XYZ= 140' .... Angle CSO = 35'30'
. An9g,eXAY'=40'
... ..... ••...
Angle CAB =u7'50'
•.. . . AngleZAY:: 36' Distance AC =850 m.
Angle YXA '" 68' Distance CD =760 m.

Solution: Solution:
CD Angle YlA: CD Angle CDA:
c

z
x

A B

e + 150' + 67'50' +42'30' +


35'30 = 360'
Angle YlA =180 - 68·36 e= 64'10'
Angle YlA = 76'
® Distance AB:
® Distance AX: ACB = 180' - 67'50' - 42'30'
AX 1200 ACB=69'40'
Sin 72"; = Sin 40' 850 AB
AX = 1775.50 m, Sin 42'30' =Sin 69'40'
AB = 1179.76 m.
@ Distance AY:
1200 AY @ Distance BD:
Sin 40' = Sin 68' 760 SD
. AY = 1730,93 m. Sin 35'30' = Sin 80'20'
BD = 1290.18 m.
S-211

THREE POINT PROBLEM

901.76 Sin 0 :: 925.12 Sin


(149'30' - 0)
901.76 Sin 0: 925.12 (Sin
149'20' Cos 0
- Sin 0
Cos 149'30')
Three shore stations C,O and E are 901.76 Sin 0:: 169.53 Cos 0
+ 797.11 Sin 0
triangulation observation points with CD .", 615
m. and DE ;;625 m.Angfe EOC is 125. A 104.65 Sin", :: 469.53 Cos
'"
at
hydrOgrapher point 0 wantectlo know his tan",:: 4.487
position With. respect to· the triangulation o :: 7T27' (angle DCB)
points, he measured angle ceo: 43' and
DBE : 42'30'. ® Angle COB:
{J:: 149'30' - 77'27'
CD Compute the angle DCB.
@) Compute the angle COB. Angle COB:: 180'~· 77'2T -
43'
@ Compute the distance BC. Angle COB:: 59'33'

@ Distance BC:
Solution: BC 615
CD Angle DCB:
Sin 59'33' Sin 43'
D BC:: 777.38 m,

E
In the accompanying figure, A,
Band C
are three known control stations
and P is
the position of a sounding
vessel which
is to be located. If b : ;:
6;925.50 m.,
e: 6,708.40 m, angle BAG:
112'45'25", angle
B alpha: 25'32'40", and angle
beta: 45'35'50",

(Cllfllf\l\ Station)
BD 615
B
Sin 0 ::Sin43'
:: 615 Sin 0
BD
Sin 43'
BD :: 901.76 Sin 0

80 625
Sin {J :: Sin 42'30'
BD:: 925.12 Sin {J

901.76 Sin 0:: 925.12 Sin {J


0+ fJ + 125' + 43' + 42'30': 360'
ill Compute the value of angle
x.
o + {J :: 149'30' ® Compute the value of angle y.
{J:: 149'30' - 0 @ Compute the length of line NJ.
5-212

THREE POINT PROBlEM

Solution:
CD Angle x:
B

AP _ 6708.40
Sin x- Sin 25'32'40" Solution:
AP = 15557.11 Sin x CD Length of AO:
AP _ 6925.50
Sin y - Sin 45'35'50"
AP = 9693.62 Sin y
9693.62 Sin y= 15557.11 Sin y
Sin y = 1.605 Sin x CD
x + (360 -112'45'25'') + Y
+ 45'35'50" + 25'32'40" = 360
y= 41'36'55" - x @

Sin (41'36'55" - x) = 1.605 Sin x


Sin 41'36'55" Cos x - Cos 41'36'55" Sin x a
= 1.605 Sin x
Sin 41'36'55" Cos x
(0 = 360 - (245'23'22" - 93)
= (1.605 + Cos 41'36'55") Sin x
Sin 41'36'55" (0 =207'36'38"
1.605 + Cos 41'36'55" = tan x AO 6671.50
x = 15'45'50.17" Sin a - Sin 20'05'53"
@ Angle y: AO = 19414.9 Sin (I.
Subt. to equation @ AO _ 12481.70
y = 41'36'55" - x Sin f!, - Sin 35'06'08"
y = 41'36'55" - 15'45'50.17"
Y= 25'51'04.83" AO =21705.91 Sin f!,
21705.91 Sin f!, =19414.9 Sin
(I.
@ Length of line AP:
Sin f!, = 0.894 Sin (I.
~i
AP = 15557.11 Sin x
AP = 15557.11 Sin 15'45'50.17" (X + fl) + 13 + 35'06'08" +
20'05'53" = 360
AP = 4226.47 m.
13 =97'11'21" - (1.
S-213

THREE POINT PROBLEM

Sin (97'11'21"· ex) = 0.894 Sin ex


Sin 97' 11 '21" Cos ex • Cos 97'11'21" Sin ex
=0.894 Sin ex Triangulation stations C, 0
andE are
Sin 97'11'21" Cos ex established by thePhils. Coast
and GeOdetic
Survey with observation points
rEJcorded as
= (0.894 + cos 97'11'211 Sin ex CO =615 m. and DE =625nt
Ahydrographer
Sin 97'11'21" at point 8 wanted to knoW his
position with
0.894 + Cos 97'11'21" = tan ex, respect to the triangulation
stations; he then
measuted angles cao ;; 43' and
DBE ';i: 42'30':
ex = 52'13'34.41" Angle EOC is 125'. Angle DCB
=77'26'.

(j) Compute the distancaBC,


AO = 19414.9 Sin 52'13'34.41" @ Compute the distance SO:
AO = 15346,22 m. @ Compute the dislanceBE.

® Angle ACO:
Solution:
CD Distance BC:
fJ = 97'11'21" • 52'13'34.41"
fJ =.44'57'46.59" D

@ Length of line OC:


AO = 21705.91 Sin 44'57'46.59"
E
AO = 15338.47 m c

= 15346.22 + 15338.47
Ave. AO 2
Ave. AO = 15342.32 m.
B
8 =180' - 20'05'53"·52'13'34.41"
8 = 107'40'32.5"
BC 615
OB 6671.50 Sin 59'34 =Sin 43'
Sin 107'40'32.5" Sin 20'05'53" BC =777.52 m,
OB =18498.33
@ Distance BD:
" =180·35'06'08"·44'57'46.59" BD 615
,,= 99'56'5.41" Sin 77'26' =Sin 43'
_ _O_C 12481.70 BD =880.16 m.
Sin 99'56'5.41" - Sin 35'06'08"
OC =21380.42 m. ;t Distance BE:
BE 625
Sin 65'26; =Sin 42'30'
BE =841.37 m.
5-214

MINE SURVEYING

® Angle between strike and


drift:
B

Vein . a relatively thin deposit of mineral


between definite boundaries. c
Strike· the line of· intersection of the vein with
B

a horizontal plane.
Dip· the vertical angle between the plane of
the vein and horizontal plane measured
perpendicular to tne strike.
Outcrop . the pornon of the vein exposed at
the ground surface.
Drift . an inclined passage driven in a
. particular direction. D

Sin fII = BC
AC
CD
tan43'40'=. BC
.A.~ttJba$.~.$t~kePf.N, • 10'1$fW.• Mda.dlp••hf BC = CD cot 43'40'
4a~4QjlN .• A~r1ffil'lI~~Yeil1M~ilg~pf~%. 2 aJ
100 = AC
• W·•• W~~ • ~.tt@>.*Mhg.A1.w~Y~m~I.PlaQe AC=50 CD
¢9.~PMi~Sm~dlp~)

Ij,.fr~fl~
Sin fII = BC
AC
. - CD cot 43'40'
SInfll- CD50
fII = 1'12'
Solution: @, Bearing of drift:
CD Bearing of dip: Bearing:: 10'15' + 1'1 'Z
Bearing = N. 11'27' W

A vein has a dip of 57' W. The


bearing of a
drift is N. 37'W, having a
grade of5% With the
c plane oUhe
vein. ..

CD Compute the honzontal angle


be.tween the
D Dr~ strike and the
verticalprojectlon of lhe drift,
® Compute the bearing afthe
strike.
Bearing =90' ·10'15' @ Compule the bearing of
the vertical plane
Bearing = S. 79'45' W. containing the dip.
5-215

MINE SURVEYING

Solution: @ Bearing ofstrike:


CD Horizontal angle between the strike and the Bearing = 31' - 1'52'
vertical projection of drift: Bearing::: N. 35'08' W
@ Bearing of the vertical plane
containing the
dip:
Bearing =90' - 35'08'
Bearing::: S. 54'52' W

The eente~ine of amine lu nnel


runs through A
and S, each 1575 m. in altitUde,
with a
distance between AS equal to 1585
m. The
D tunnel bears S.70' E. from A. On
the other
side of the hill, 1136 m., N. 77'
E. of A is a
point C at 2142 m. affitude. .
<D Determine the bearing of the
shortest
possible tunnel from eta AB.
® Determine the dip of the
shortest possible
tunnel from C to AB.
@ Determine' the length of the
shortest
.possible tunnel from eta AB.
Solution:
CD Bearing ofshortest tunnel from
C to AB:

Sin", =BC
AC
tan 51' = CD N
BC
BC= CD cot 51'
2.~CD
100 - AC
AC=20CD
Sin", =BC
AC
. . CDeot51'
SIn '" = 20 CD
B

,,::: 1"52'
5-216

MINE SURVEYING

8 = 180' - 77' - 70'


8=33'
Bearing = S, 20' W. Drill holes are bored through points
A, Band C
until It strikes the mineral ores,
Point A is 400
® Dip ofshortest tunnel from C to AB:
m. due south of Band point Cis 300
m, N.60'
E.ofB. ....

(j) • • Cornpute•• the.differe~ •


in•• elevl3.1ion.of. the
B
. $lJffaceofOreatAandC;···
.
® cOIllpUtetfiflbeatinggfstfike.
c @ COl1'lpufetheal1g!e ofJ@dip...

567 Solution:
CD Difference in elevation ofthe
surface of ore
A4:;..--------ID at Aand C.:
C
Elevation of mineral ores:
POINTS ELEVATION OF ORES
567 A' . 450 -165 = 285
m.
S' 470 -187
=283 m.
A 4;...---I.:...-------ID
C 485 -203 =
282 m.

Diff. of elevation (If the


surface of are at A .
CD = 2142 -1575 and C =285 -282
CD=567m. Diff. of elevation of the
surface of are at A
andC=3m.
(AD)2 = (1136)2 - (567)2
AD = 984.38 @ Bearing ofstrike:
DE= 984.38 Sin 33'
N
DE = 536.13 m.
567
tan IJ = 536.13
IJ = 46'36' (dip)
Shortest tunnel from C to AB: .
(EC)2 =(536.13)2 + (567)2
EC =780.37 m.
5-217

MINE SURVEYING

From point A at the opening of a


tunnel. a
surface traverse is run on the
side hill and an
underground traverse is run
through the tunnel,
Both traverse are oriented from
the same
meridian. Below are the computed
latitudes'
and departures. Consider the line
AF is a
400-x_! straight Une on the surface and
the slope AF is
3 -1 uniform upward. Also assume that
all points of
3x =400 + x the under ground traverse are on
the same
2x =400 elevation whBe point Fis 33 meters
above A
x=200
(C'D) =(200)2 + (300)2. 2(200)(300) Cos 60'
C' 0 = 264.58 m.

Using Sine Law:


Sin 13 _ Sin 60'
300 - 264.58
0=79'06'

Bearing ofstrike::: N, 79'06' W.

® Angle of the dip:

(j) Find the bearing of line AF.


® Find the distance of ~ne
AF.
@ Compute the shortest
distance of a shaft
from point 4 in the tunnel
of the surface
along line AF.

Solution:
CD Bearing of line AF:
Line AF:

'~ Lat. =31.2 -17.4 - 3.7 +


22.8 + 12.1
Lat. =+ 45.0
Dep. =40.5 + 34.6 + 66.0 +
39.9 + 55
B" 10639 E Dep. =+ 236.5

B" E =200 Sin 79'06' tan 13 =~


Lat.
B" E= 196.39 m 236.3
td' _ _ 1_
13 = 45.0
.an Ip - 19639 13 =79'13'

dip =0'17' Bearing =N. 79'13' E.


S-21S

MINE SURVEYING

® Distance AF:
N

A line from A elevation 17.13 m.


intersects the
F veln at 8, elevation 54 - 85 m.
The bearing
38m and slope distance of AS are N.
47'31' E. and
63}O m. respectively, Strike is
$,71'33' E.
Dip is 50' $W;
CD Compute !he direction of the
shortest level
cross cot from A to the vein.
. ..
@ Compute the length of the
shortest level
cross cut from A to the vein.
.. .
. _ Departure
@ Determine the shortest distance
from A t6
Distance AF - Sin 79'13'
·ihevein.
Distance AF = 240,55 meters

® Shortest distance of a shaft from point 4 in


the tunnel of the surface along line AF,
Line A - 4:
Lat. ="82.5 - 8.8 - 5.7
Lat. =-117.0
Dep. =25.0 + 50.4 +40.0 + 70.4
Dep. = 185.8
. A 4 185.8
tan beanng - = 117
tan bearing A - 4 = S 57'48' E.
. _ Departure
Distance A - 4 - Sin 57'48'
Distance A - 4 = 219.58 m.
" = 180' - (79'13' +57'48')
" =42'59'
A
AO = 219.58 Cos 42'59'
AO = 160.63 meters Solution:
h 33 CD Direction of the shortest level
cross cut
160.33 =240.55 from A to the vein:
h = 22.037 meters Direction Of the shortest level
=47'31' - 29'04'
Distance 04 = (A - 4) Sin 42'59' Direction ofthe shortest/evel
=N. 18'27' E.
Distance 04 = 219.58 Sin 42'59' ® Length of the shortest level
cross cut from
Distance 04 = 149.7 meters. A to the vein:
h ,--------
tan a= 0-4 AD = ."j (63.70)2 - (37.72)2
22.037 AD = 51.33 m.
(X = 149.7 AE = 51.33 Cos 29'04'
AE=44.87 m.
a = 8'22' 26" EF=37.72 Cot SO'
0-4 EF= 31.65 m.
d = Cos 8'22' 26" AF= 44.87 - 31.65
d = 151.32 meters. (shortest distance of AF =13.22 m. (shortest level
cross out
the shaft) from A to
the vem)
S~219

MINE SURVEYING

@ Shortest distance from A to the vein: @ Length of a + 1.5%


tunnel to meet the vein:
AH = AF Sin 50' CD 350
AH = 13.22 Sin SO' Sin 3D' =Sin 128'
AH= 10,13m, CD =222.08
CE 222.08
Sin 128' =Sin 51'08"
CE= 224.76ft.

A vein dips to the west at an angle of 52'. A @ Distance from the


outcrop to the bottom of
hill side assumed 10 be sloping uniformly has the shaft.
an angle of depression of 22'. tram the AE 203.03
outcrop of the vein, the sloP'! distance along Sin 112' =Sin 30'
the hillside to the top of the shaft and mouth of AE =376.49 m.
the tunnel are respectively 250 ft. and 35Q fl,lf
the tunnel is driven al right angles to the strike
and the shaft is sunk vert~lly.
CD Determine the height of the shaft
® Determine the length of a + 1:5% tunnel 10
meet the vein, . A point B at the bottom of a
winze has a
@ Detennlne the distance from the outcrop to vertical angle of • 65'23'
sighted with the top
the bottom of the shaft. telescope of a mining
transit. The slope
distance to a poinl B from
the inslrument at A
.is 295.87 ft The
eccentricity of the telescope
is 3 inches.

zD Compute the corrected


vertical angle.
® Compute the elevation of B
if A is al
elevation 500 ft. and the
H.l. is + 5.5 ft. and
H.PI. is· 3.3 ft.
@ Determine Ihehorizonlal
distance between
AloS.

Solution:
CD Corrected vertical angle:

Solution:
-:'1) Height of the shaft:
BE 250
Sin 30~ =Sin 38'
BE = 203.03 m.
S-220

MINE SURVEYING

ilri~I_~~I~.INII'~'lill
3/12
;111".'ki?;$i'~'!I~~
tan", =295.87
",=0'03'

Corrected vetfical angle = 65'23' - 03'


Corrected vertical angle = 65'20'

® Elevation ofB if A is at elevation 500 Fr.


and the H.I. is + 5.5 Fr. and H.PI. is - 3.3 Fr.
A B

~
h =295.87 Sin 65'20'
h=268.87
C

EI. ofB = 500+ 5.5- 268.87 +3.3


EI. ofB = 239.93 ft ~ c
Solution:
® Horizontal distance between A to B:
G) Direction of the line
of intersection of the
veins:
A"r--.-_ _.., IJ = 63'25' + 77'10'
IJ = 110'35'
In .1 ABC:
BC = AB tan 22'
In.1 BOD:
BC = Bo tan 35'
In.1 ABO:
AB= OB Sin f1J
In.1 aBO:

B
B

tan 65'20' =268.87


x

D
x= 123.48 ft
5-221

MINE SURVEYING

BD = OB Sin (fJ· Ill)


OB= ~B .
Sm III
OB- BD
- Sin (fJ - Ill)
AB _ BD
Sin", - Sin (fJ - "')
BC Cot 22' BCCot35'
Sin", = Sin (fJ - "')
Sin (fJ - "') _ Cot 35'
Sin", - Cot 22'
Sin ~IJ - "') =0.578
Sin '"
Sin 11 Cos", .; Sin '" Cos fJ - 57
Sin", -0. 8
Sin 110'35' Cos", - Sin", Cos 110'35'
Sin", =0.578
Cot", Sin 69'25' + Cos 69'25' =0.578 Solution:
- 0.578 - 0.352
Cot III - 0.93616
Cot III = 0.241
III = 76'27'
fJ· III = 34'08'
Bearing of the line of intersection
=76'27 - 63'25'
= N, 13'02' E.

@ Slope of the line intersection:

5
12
tan III = 153.27
III = 0'9'21"
5
12
tan a =224.82

tana=-
Be a =0'06'22"
08
H=83'42'-a+1Il
tan a = ~~ tan 22' Sin III
H =88'42' - 0'06'22" + 0'09'21"
tan a = tan 22' Sin 76'27' H = 88'44'59"
a = 21'27' (slope)
S-222

MINE SURVEYING

45000 + 2.x2 • 1800x + 270000


=0
2.x2 • 1800x + 315000 =0
x2 - 900x + 157500 = 0
900 ±..j81‫סס‬oo - 63‫סס‬oo
x= 2
900 ± ..J18OOOO
x= 2
900 ±424
x= 2
476
x=-
2
x=238
1323
x=T'
x = 612 > 300 (absurd)
Usex= 238
® Bevation of discovery post: .

Solution:
CD Location of discovery post from the
location post number 2:
o (150)2 + x2 = (h cot45'~
(150)2 + x2 = h2
@ (150)2 + (300· x)2 =(h rot 60'~
. If
(150)2 + (300· x)2 ="3
o&@ If =(150)2 +;
If . If =22500 + (238~
h2 - x2 ="3 -(300 - x~ h2 = 22500 + 56700
3h2 - 3; = h2 - 3 (90000 - 600x + x2) h= 281
31f - 3x2 = If - 270000 + 1800x - 3; Elev. of Discovery Post =400 •
281 - 1.5
e 21f - 1800x + 270000 = 0 Elev. of Discovery Post =117.5
meters
O&e
h2 =(150)2 + x2 @ Distance of discovery post
from cer. 1:
.2 [(150)2 + x2]-1800x +270000 =0 Distance = h cot 45'
2 (22500 +x2) - 1800x + 270000 = 0 Distance = 281 cot 45'
Distance = 281 m.
S-223

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

1. Vertical circles - are great


circles passing
from the zenith through the
star or sun.
ods of determining time: 2. Hour circle· are great
circles through the
poles.
3. Zenith ~ the point where the
vertical'
1. Time by transit of a star across the
produce upward, pierces the
celestial
meridian.
sphere.
2. TIme by transit of the sun. 4. Horizon· the great circle on
the celestial
3. Time by altitude ofthe sun. sphere cut by a plane
through the earth's
4. Time by measured altitude of the star. center at right angles to
the vertical.
5. TIme by transit of a star across the vertical 5. Equator· the great circle of
the celestial
circle through the Polaris. sphere cut by a plane
through the earth's
center perpendicular to'the
axis.
6. Time by two stars at equal altitude.
6. Meridian of an'obseNer· the
great circle
of the celestial sphere
which passes
through the poles and the
observer's
Methods of determining longitude: zenith.
7. Ecliptic· the great circle of
the celestial
sphere which the sun appear
to describe in
1. By time signals. its annual eastward motion
among 'the
2. By transportation of time piece. stars.
8. Equinoxes· the· point of
intersection of
the equator and the
ecliptic.
9. Autmunal equinox· the point
where the
Methods of determining latitudes:
sun crosses the equator in
September.
10. Declination· the angular
distance from the
1. By altitude of the sun at noon. equator measured on an hour
circle through
2. Bya circumpolar star at time of transit. the point.
3. By altitude of polaris at any hour angle. 11. Polar distance - is the
complement of the
declination.
4. By circum-meridian altitudes.
12. Altitude· the angUlar
distance below or
above the horizon measured
on a vertical
circle through the point.
Methods of determining azimuths: 13. Zenith distance - complement
of the
altitude.
14. Hour angle - the arc of the
equator
1. By an altitude of the sun.
measured from the meridian
westward to
2. By an altitude of the star. the hour circle through the
point.
3. By Polaris at greatest elongation. 15. Nadir· the point where the
plumb line of
4. By a circumpolar star at any hour angle. the transit when prolonged
downward.
16. Celestial sphere· is an
imaginary sphere
whose center is the center
of the earth and
whose radius is infinite.
5-224

PRACTICAL ASTROIOMY

(90- H) =a
C=S
sin p = sin Z sin (90 - La)
= sin Z cos L
Z· = p. secL
z

s
Note:
At westem elongation, subtract
Zfrom 180'
to obtain the azimuth of the
stilr, and at eastem
elongation. add Z to 180' to
obtain the true
Parallels azimuth of the star.
oflkclination

Determination of Azimuth by
Polaris
at Greatest Elongation:

Set the transit at one end of


the line to be
observed and level it carefully.
Find the star
Derivation of the Formula for Determining and sight the vertical hair on it.
As the star
the Azimuth of Polaris at Elongation: moves almost vertically (upward
for eastern
elongation and downward for
western
From the PZS Triangle, using the Napiers rule: elongation) it requires slow
motion of the
tangent screw to keep the vertical
hair on the
star. Follow it until it seems to
move'
vertically, which should be about
the time
given the table of Ephemires.
Lower the
telescope and set a mark in line
with the. cross
hair on the ground. Reverse the
telescope and
sight the star again and then set
another point
along the first side. The point
halfway
between these two should be the
point in the
vertical plane of the star at
elongation. With
sin b = cos (co - b) cos (co - c)
the values of declination and
latitude given,
sin z = sin Bsin c
silve for the value of Z, using
the relation that
. Z sin n
Sin =_:.L.. Z = P sec L. When the observation
is at
. cos L
westem elongation, just subtract
the value of Z
sin Z = sin p sec L from' to obtain the true azimuth
of the star, and
if it is observed to be on the
eastern
Let b = P elongation, just add the value of
Z to • thus
B=Z obtaining the true azimuth of the
star that
(90 - L).= c particular time of observation.
A=P
5-225

PilACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Determination of Azimuth by Polaris at


either Upper of Lower Culmination

The direction of the meridian may be


determined by observing with a transit at the
ins~ant when Polaris and some other stars are
in the same vertical plane and then waiting for
a certain lime until Polaris will be on the
meridian. At this instant Polaris is sighted and
its direction is then marked on the ground by
means of a stake. The observation to
determine when the two stars are in the same
vertical plane is done by the approximate
method by first pointing the vertical hair on
Polaris and then lower the telescope by Azimuth of AS = 180 + Z - H
pointing the star to be observed. At upper
culmination the Ursa Minor is exactly below
the Polaris and at lower culmination, the POLARIS AT WESTERN ELONGATION
Cassiopeia is also located directly below the
Polaris. This would be repeated until the
Polaris and the star other than Polaris, are
located on the same vertical hair. The
telescope now is pointing the true meridian,
and this is marked on the ground.

POLARIS AT EASTERN ELONGATION

Z"=P·secL
H = measured horizontal angle between star
and object.

Azimuth of AS = 180 - Z + H

Azimuth of AB = 180 + Z + H
Azimuth of AB = 180 - Z- H
5-226

PIICI.CllISTRONOMY

POLARIS AT UPPER CULMINATION

Azimuth AS = 180 - H

Azimuth AS =180 + H

1) Star between Zenith and Pole


N

NL.-_..L........;: ~

Azimuth AS = 180 - H
L=D-Z
L = latitude
POLARIS AT LOWER CULMINATION D = declination
Z=90-H
H =vertical angle

2) Star between the south and equator

N z

N'-----~-"""-_...... S
A

L=90-(H +D)
Azimuth AS = 180 + H L=Z-D
Z=90-H
S-227

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

3) Polaris at upper culmination (TANGENCY METHOD)


z SET I
Position of Position cf
Telescope Sun's Image

NL-_~::.L.:::iIC: .....J5
D
-P
L=H-P
P =90 - 0 (polar distance)
D
d-
L=D-Z
Z=90-H
R
~
4) Polaris at lower culmination
z
R
-b
SET II
Position of Position of
Telescope Sun's Image

1---1--1.4-:* ---15 R
-P
R
d-
L=H+P
P=90-D
D
~
Determination of AzilTluth by
D
-b
Solar Observation I
CENTER METHOD
Set up the transit at one end of the line
SET I
whose azimuth is to be determined. With the
telescope in the normal position, orient the Position of Position of
telescope due south, Sight the other end of the Telescope Sun's Image
fine and record the magnetic azimuth of such
line, Then rotate the instrument and point
approximateiy to the position of the sun.
D
-+
Taking precautions that observing the sun
directly through the telescopic eyepiece may
result injury to the eye. Good observations
can be made by bringing the sun's image to a
R
SET II
+
focus on a white card held several inches in Position of Position of
the rear of the telescope. Sight the sun in the Telescope Sun's Image
following order and recording each observation
the values of vertical angles, horizontal angle
and time. Using the tangent method, the cross
wires shall be made tangent to the left and
lower right as shown in the following sets of
R

0
+
-+
observations,
S-228

PRAcnClllSTRONOMY

Sight the other end of the line again and P+H+L


check whether the reading is still the same as S=-2-
that of the previous one. It must give the same P=corrected north Polar
distance
reading otherwise the instrument is disturbed. H=corrected altitude of sun
Take note that the interval of time between any L = latitude of place of
observation
two consecutive sighting shall not exceed 2
minutes, if it does, discard that observation.
The date of observation must also be recorded CONVERGENCY OF
MERIDIAN
since values of the North Polar Distance from
the table is obtained from this date. Convergency of Meridian = is
the meeting of
two tangents at each
point of different
longitude as they recede
to the north pole.
Solar Azimuth Formula:
Angular convergence in
seconds = diff.in
cot ~ =" sec S Sec (S • P) Sin (S • H) Sin (S - L) long in sec. x Sine middle
latitude.
A = azimuth of sun if observed in the afternoon.
360 - A =azimuth of sun if observed in the
moming.

S=P+~+L
P =corrected north polar distance

Correction applied = Diff. in hours from 8:00


A.M. or 2:00 P.M. multiplied by the
variation per hour, which is to be added
when observed between June 21 to Dec.
21, and to be subtracted when observed
between Dec. 21 to June 21. .

H = corrected altitude of sun, corrected for


parallax and refraction which is always
subtracted from the observed altitude.
o = angle of convergency
L =Latitude of place of observation.
f1 = latitude angle of AB
a =difference in longitUde
between A and B
Determination of Time from OB = R = radius of earth
approximately
Solar Observation 20,890,000 ft.
AB=O'Ba
Tan .1 = -V Sec (S - P) Sin (8 - H) AB
a=O'B
2 Cot~
2
Tan ~ =
Angle BOD = Angle BCO' = {J
& SSec (S - P) Sin (S - H) Csc (S - L)
BO'
12 - t = local apparent time (when observed in Sin J3 = BC
. the morning) BO'
t = local apparent time (when ob~erved in the BC= Sin B
afternoon)
S-229

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

With negligible error


AB=BCe
AB
0=BC
ButAB = BO' a
BO'
BC= Sin B
AB
0=BC
BO' a Sin B
0= BO'
e=aSinB
BO'=RCosB
AB
a=BO'

Let AB =d (distance between A and B)


d
a=RCosll
d Sin II
e=Rcosll
dtanll .
o =-R- (radIans)
o = 32.38 d tan B (seconds)
o =32.38 tan B(convergency correction)
For d = 1 kilometers
If d = kilometers,
R = in feet
o =3;~~:0~~ II 1~0 (3600)
o =32.38 tan f!,

To obtain azimuth based on base meridian,


subtract the covergency correction if the line is
on the east of base meridian.

To obtain azimuth based'on the base meridian, Parallax Correction:


add the convergency correction if the line is on
the west of base meridian. It is assumed that the
celestial sphere is of
infinite radius and that
vertical angle measured
from a station on the earth's
surface is the sam
eas that if it would be
measured from the
center of the earth. But for
stellar or solar
observations these angles are
not equal.
There is an error in this
observed vertical angle
due to the fact. that it is·
observed on the
surface and not on the cetner
of the earth. This
error is called parallax.
S·230

PRACTICAlISTRONOMY

Combined Correction due


to
Parallax and
Refraction

H =corrected altitude
HI =observed altitude
hr =refraction correction
._-------
CELESTIAL HORIZON
-- hp = parallax correction
hrp =combined parallax and
refraction
correction.

H=Hl- hr+h p
h = corrected altnude
H=H 1 - (hr - hp)
h1 = observed altitude
hp = parallax correction
h = h1 + hp (parallax correction is added)

Refraction Correction:

When a ray of light emanating from a CELESTIAL HORIZON


---------
celestial body passes through the atmosphere
of the earth, the ray is bent downward as
shown on the figure. Hence the sun or star
appears to be higher above the observer's
horizon than they actually are. The angle of
deviation of the ray from its direction on
entering ihe earth's atmosphere to its direction
at the surface of the earth is called the Combined correction due to
parallax and
refraction of the ray. refraction is always subtracted
to the observed
altitude.

h = corrected altitude
hI = observed altitude
hr = refraction correction
h = h1 - hr (refraction correction is
subtracted to the observed altitude)
5-231

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

ColTeCfed H= 35'16'15"
1-10"
H= 35'15'05"
P = 101'02'08"
L = 12'50'27"
28= 1S07-40
S= 77-33-50
P= 107-92-08
S-P= 29-28-18
S= 77-33-50
H= 35-15-Q5
S-H= 42-18-45
S= 77-33-50
L= 12-50-27
8 - L = 6443-23

Cot~A =...j Sec SSec (S- F') Sin


(S -H) Sin(S - L)
Time
o 8:32:00 Cot l A
2
=" Sec 71'33'50" Sec
29'28'18" Sin 42'18'45" Sin 64'43'23'
o 8:32:30
R 8:33:05 '12 A =29-01-45
R ~ A =58-03-30
Mean = 8:32:48
Azimuth ofsun = 360 - A
Oiff. in time =8:32:48 Azimuth ofsun =
301"56'30"
- a;Q.Q;QO
0-32:48

Oiff. in time = 0.5467 hrs.

Correction for NPO


= diff. in time x variation per hour
Correction for NPO =0.5467 (- 43.9) =-24"
Corrected NPD = 101'02'32"
24"
P = 107'02'08"

@ Azimuth ofsun:

Horizontal Vertical
Angle Angle.
o 158'22' 35'21'
o 159'04' 34'55' Azimuth T1 - i, c:
301'56'30"
R 159'10' 35'36' -
158'48'15,'
R ~ ~ Azimuth T1 - T2 =
143'08'15"
Mean = 158'48'15" Mean = 35'16'15"
5-232

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Altitude (H)

D 36-09

D ~2S

R 36-19

R ~

Mean = 35'54'00"

Corrected H = 35'54'00"

- 1'09"

Corrected H= 35'5Z51"

::::::;:;:: :::;:::':::::::::;
Diff. in time =3:45:45 - 2:00:00

.
:::::>:":::::::;:::::::;:;::;::;:::::;:;:;:: >{:~~r::~:};::::;:::::::::::-::""
.. .. ",' ••.••. '.' ....••..:.:.:<;:;:
t~tt~: }r~~~;t~

Diff. in time = 1:45:45 = 1,7625 hrs.


l,r!~W~I~~~~~P1:':
<;U<>~~~
·Q\Q..
. ~~T." .>/11·'·:::,:,:::.:•.!.• .'•. ..•..•.•
W_':~f",~·············:·········
..

!?j~~1cJ1;1~;~llli •· • •••
•.••• •.•

·:'.·i••

:·.t....••...

:.·

•..•••....••.•:•..••....•

·.: ••....• :1.· ....•....••. :•.•...,:'i.••..,•.•:.••.••..••.•.••••

.•. •:...•..•.•...•
Correction for North Polar Distance

= Diff. in hrs x Variation per hour

Con-ection for NPD 1.7625 (- 38,57") 1'OS" =

li.,illiti
Corrected NPD:

P = 70'36'24"

rOO"

p", 70'35'16"

r.
Ij.;r•.!..•:! f. .·.fu.~tl.·:.:.;{., .111
..:r.o:.-, _...

Solution:
.. ~:,~ ,v.~:'f
. :::-
:::-:..:<:</:::.:-:-..-.-..

P = 70'35'16"

H= 35'5Z51"

L= 14'53'25'

2S = 121'21'32"

S = 60'40'46"

P = 70'35'16"
CD Azimuth of sun:

S- P = 9'54'30"

S = 60'40'46"
. Horizontal Angle

H= 35'52'51"
D 102-59

S-H= 24'4755"
D 103-39

S = 60'40'46"
R 103-57

L = 14'53'23"
R ~
S-L= 45'1721"
Mean = 103'2S'30"

Time
Cot~A =~ Sec SSec (S- Pi Sin (S- H) Sin (S- L)
D 3:45:00

COl! A =-V Sec 60'40'46' Sec 9'54'30' Sin 24'47'55' Sin 45'17'21')
D 3:45:30
2
R 3:46:00
R ~

12 A= 51'42'39"
Mean = 3:45:45
A= 103'25'18"
5-233

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

. Solution:
CiJ Azimuth ofsun:
MNN
N

Note: Azimuth of sun = A if observation is H= 51'04'00"


in the aftemoon L = 10'22'00"
Azimuth of sun = 360 • Aif P = 103'23'23"
observation is in the morning 2S = 164'49'23"
S = 82'24'42"
e = 103'28'30" ·103'25'18" S· p= 20'58'41"
e = 03'12" S· H= 31'20'42"
S· L = 72'02'42"
Azimuth ofT, • T2 = 178'36'·03'12"
Azimuth of T, • T2 = 178'32'48" Col~= --.J Sec 8 Sec (8 -
p) Sin (S· L) Sin (8 - H)
@ Magnetic declination: Col ~ =~ Sec 82'24'42' Sec
20'58'41' Sin 72'02'42' Sin 31'20'42'
Magnetic declination = 03'12" ~ A
Col 2" =2,00

~= 26'31'37"
A =53'03'13"
Azimuth ofsun =
53'03'13"
T@•• J(rJI()Wiri9d~htwet~r~i;Qrded16r.an·
p@@@Qn()flti~.stl6.
..: . ;:::".
•· • ·> • .U.•,. ' < ' . ® True azimuth of AB:

CiJCornpule the tnteazirrillih bfStihi' > .


®. Corriput~the lrueazimuth tifiine Nt .... .
B
@ Is the walchloo slow or toofasfandby
how much? '., ..... •.
5-234

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

True azimuth of AB = 360' - 89'16'47" L =


41'20'
True azimuth of AB = 270'43'13" H=
46'48'
p=
82'02'
® Time of observation: 25 =
170'10'
S=
85'OS'
tan~= ~Cos SSec(S-p) Sin (S- H) Csc(S-L) S-p=
3'03'
S-H=
37'OS
lan i =" Cos 82'24'42" Sec 20'58'41" Sin 72'02'42" Sin 31'20'42"
2 S-L=
43'45'
!.2 =15'32'27"
t =31'04'55" cot~ = ~ Sec
SSec {S - P] Sin (S· L) Sin (S - H)
f = i'04 m2O' (time of observation) Col ~ =" Sec
85'05' Sec 3'03' Sin 43'45' Sin 37"05'
2:04:20 - 2:04:12 =8 sec,
A
Watch is too slow by 8 seconds, Cot 2"
=2.2072

~=
24'22'23"
2
A =
48'44'46"

Azimuth =
48'44'46" if obseNed in P,M.

•.
··~·~~I ;e~~Na~~~4,\~es6h~~~~~.·
.~s~Q!~~® . ~.·~~·~~~~·ltll.·~rr¢AtEl~.·No/tlJ ® Azimuth if
obseNed in the morning:
P.91at~l$tao¢EllS$2~Q2r~ ..

N
• .~• • • ¢6ii1Pllieitte.a#imulh~sHn.lfObsel¥~dill.

~_:lIt.'~I.~:
··®····~~~~~i~~I~~Grv~Wm.lfff.#~ •
Solution:
CD Azimuth ofsun if obseNed in the aftemoon:
N
Azimuth =
360 - A
Azimuth =
360·48'44'46"
Azimuth
=311'15'14" ifobseNed in A.M.

® Time of
obseNation:
tan ~ = ~ Cos 8
Sec (5· p) Sin (5 - Ii) ~sc (8 - L)

tan f= " Cos


85'05' Sec 3'03' Sin 37'05' Csc 43'45'
5-235

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

t Diff. in
time = 3:45:45 - 2:00:00
tan "2 =0.27357
Diff. in
time =1. 7625 hrs.
L
2- 15'18'
t =30'36' Correction
for NPD = variation per hour
t= 2h02m24s
x Difference in hours
Correction
=• 38.57 (1.7625)
Time = 12:00:00
.~
Correction
=• 67,98"
9:57:36 A.M. Correction
=·1' 08"

CorrectedNPD = 70'36'24"

• 00'01' 08"
Corrected
NPD = 70'35'16"

@ Declination
at the instant of observation:

MN TN

~ \

\
T-2
\

True azimuth "

\
" T-]

0'03'12" W

True azimuth ofT-l toT-2

=178'36'00"-0'03' 12"

=178'32'48"
Solution:
CD Corrected North polar Distance:
Note:
.Angle Ais on the west if
MN TN
observed on the' afternoon

~
e= 103'28'
30" - 103'25' 18"
\
\
e =
00'03'12" W. (declination)
\
\
I
\
\
A= 103 '25' 18""
\ ® True azimuth:
\

\ T-] True azimuth


of T-1 to T-2
= 178'36'
DO" - 0'03' 12"
= 178'32'
48"
5-236

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

@ Azimuth ofmark:
TN

e = 313'48' 45"· 300'13'19"


Solution: e = 13'35' 26"
CD Corrected altitude:
Azimuth ofmark = 360' ·13'35' 26"
Azimuth ofmark = 346'24' 34"
TN

Recorded altitude H = 36'49' 45"


Parallax &refraction 01' 07"
Corrected H 36'48' 38"

@ Azimuth of sun:
Azimuth ofsun = 360'·59'46' 41" ;

(j)1f the parallaX and refr.actlon


isO'58", what.
Azimuth ofsun = 300'13'19" .·is thecortecledvalu6 om
.
@. Compute the true beanng ofthesu!l.
@ Compute the azimuth ofBLlM#1 .to
·BLlM#2.
5-237

PRACTICAl, ASTRONOMY

Solution: Horizontal angle: 359{)2-OO


CD Corrected vertical angle H: 356-19-47
356-19-44
Note: H = 90' - zenith angle 359{)2·25
Hl =90' - 48'33' 48" = 41'26' 12" 1433'43' 56"
H2=OO'·48'49'50" = 41'10'10"
Ha =90'·48'09' 40" = 41'50'20" Ave. Horizontal angle =
1433'43'
56"
4
.
H4 = 90' - 48'34' 42" = 41'25' 18"
165'52' 00" Ave. Horizontal angle =358'25' 59"
8 = 104'23' 24" ·102'49' 33"
165'52' 00" 8=1'33'51"
AverageH= 4
Average H=41'28' 00" Azimuth ofBLLM #1 to BLLM # 2
Corrected H=41'28' 00"·0'58' =255'36' 26" + 1'33' 51"
Corrected H= 41'27' 02" = 257'10' 17"
® True bearing ofsun:

Azimuth of sun =360' ·104'23' 34"


Azimuth of sun =255'36' 26"
True bearing = N. 75'36' 26" E,

® Azimuth of BLLM #1 to BLLM #2:

CD Compute the azimuth of


sun. .'. . .
®compute lh@1fUeaZimulhof BlLM 1'40,110
.
8LLMNo.2,.. .'. . .
@ '. CompUte the probable error of
azimuth. .
S-238

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Solution:
Cot ~ =...J sec S Sec
(S·P) Sin (S·H) Sin (S-L)
2
N
Cot ~ = ...J
0.228140761

~2 =64'28'8.24"
A=128'56'16.4"
AZimuth ofsun =360' -
128'56'16.4"
Azimuth ofsun =
231'03'43.6"

Azimuth of BLLM1 to
BLLM2
= 231'03'43.6" -
101'49'29"
=129'14'14.6"
Set 1 N
Time Hor. Cirde Reading Vertical Angle
8:14:36 101 - 50 - 25 47 - 06 - 12
8: 15:09 101 - 48 - 33(.tA>.ISO') 47 - 01 - 11 (sub.360·)
8:14:52.5 101-49-29 47-03-41.5

corrected H =47'- 03'· 41.5'·59.39"


H =47'02'42'11"

Diff. in time = 8:14:52.5


8:00:00
14:52.5 =0.2479 hrs.

Correction for NPD = 0.2479 (09i

Sel2
Correction for NPO =2.23"
lime Hor.
Circle Vertical

Reading Angle
p= 51'13'46" -2.23"
8:15:12 101- 47 -
33 43'58'01"
p= 51'13'43.77" 8:15:51 101· 45 -
57 46'57'17"
H=47'02'42.11" 8:15:31.5 101-
46·45 45'27'39"
L = 17'16'4.80"
28 = 115'32'30.6" Oiff. in hrs.
=8:15:31.5 -8:00:00
S = 57'46'15.34" Diff. in hrs. =0.25875
Corr. =0.25875 (09'')
p = 51'13'43.77"
Corr. =2.33"
s· P= 6'32'31.57" P=51'13'4l)"
S= 57'46'15.34" 2.33"
H= 47'02'42.11" 51'13'43.67"
S - H = 10'43'33.23"
Correded H =
45'27'39"
S = 57'46'15.34"
59.39"
L = 17'16'4.80"
H=45'26'39.61"
S - L = 40'30'10.54" P=
51'13'43.67"
S-239

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

L % 17'16'4.80"
28 = 113'56'28.10'
8 = 56'58'14.09"
P = 51'13'43.67" F@n!~~gellf?
n~~~Qfasl)l~t9t>s~tyatitm
8 - P = 5'44'30.33" ~.~i@wi@.
·TwZth~~QM~;.IMfPlk1WtOg~$;W.
·areoll$61Ved.·.·.·····.···.>····
S = 56'58'14.09"
H =45'26'39.61"
8 - H= 11'31'34.4"
$t~.i~p~d.: ¥~l • • • • •
• • • ................;<>

• • • • • • • • • • • • . •. .. . . . . . .
8 = 56'58'14"
L = 17'16'4.80"
Blt~1~~i[4Ii~.m":)

I.~i.lil
8 - L = 39'42'9.2"

cot~ = ~ Sec SSec (8- P) Sin (S· H) Sin (S- L)


Cot ~ = {0.235359069 c~~~~~~t~~~~'o;~,~~~p~~\
~ =64'07'12.74" N

A =128'14'25.4"

Azimuth ofsun = 360' - 128'14'25.4"


Azimuth ofsun = 231'45'34.6"

CD True azimuth of sun:


231'-03'· 43.6" + 231'-45'·34.6"
=
2
True azimuth of sun = 231'24' 39"

@ Azimuth ofBLLM #1 to BLLM #2:


True azimuth of BLLM No. 1 to BLLM No.2
= 231'45'34.6".· 101'46'45"
= 129'58'49.6"
True azimuth ofBLLM NO.1 to BLLM NO.2
129'58'49.6" + 129'14'14.6"
=
2
= 129'36' 32.1"

@ Probable error ofazimuth:


Probable error ofazimuth
= 0.33725 x difference in azimuth
Difference in azimuth
= 129'58'49.6"· 129'14' 14.6"
Difference in azimuth =44' 35" =2675"
Probable error of azimuth = 0.33725(2675) CD Compute lhe¢orrected alt~udiHor
set t
Probable error ofazimuth = 902" @ • Compute thetrue aZimufhofT1to
Tz. .
Probable error of azimuth = 15' 02" ® Compute the probable errOr.
5-240

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Solution: 5=P+H+L
<D Corrected altitude for set I. 2
Note: Vertical angle =90' -zenith angle P= 69'39'10.17"
H= 41'27'7.25"
Position of Time Horizontal L =14'33'40.73"
Telescope Angle 2S =125'39'58.1"
o 8:32:07 359-02-00
o 8:32:31 358-17-47 5 =62'49'59"
R 8:33:09 358-19-44 5 - P= 6'49'11.17"
R 8:33:36 359-02-25 5 - H= 21'22' 51.75"
--
8:32:50.7 358-4().{J() S- L =48'16'18.27"

Position of
Telescope
Zenith
Angle
Vertical
Angle
Cot~= " Sec S Sec (S - P)
Sin (5 - H) Sin (S- L)
o <$-33-48 41-26-12 A
Cot =0.77469
o 48-49-59 41-10-01 2
R <$-09-17 41-50-43
R <$-34-43 41-25-17 ~=52'11'6.91"
41-2Pr0325 A=104'28'13.8"

Corrected altitude for set I =41'28'03.25" - 0'00'56" Azimuth ofsun =360'


-104'28'13.8"
Corrected altitude H = 41'27'07.25" Azimuth ofsun =255'31'
46.2"

® True azimuth ofTt to h True azimuth of T1 to T2


= 255'31' 46.2"

+ 1'20' 00"
True azimuth of T1 to T2
=256'51' 46.2"

SET II
Position of Time
Horizontal
Telescope
Angle
R 8:33:36
359-02-12
R 8:34:14
358-20-09
0 8:34:44
358-20-54
0 8:35:08
359-03-57
8:34:25.2 358-41-00

Position of Zenith
Vertical
Telescope Angle
Angle
Oiff. in time =8:32:50.7 - 8:00:00 R 47-5Pr58
42-01-02
Oiff. in time =32:50.7 R 48-25-57
41-34-03
Oiff. in time =0.5474166 hrs. 0 47-46-17
42-13-43
0 48-12-50
4147-10
Correc1ion for NPO = Variation per hour
41-53-59.5
x Diff. in hrs.
Correction for NPD =29.64 (0.5474166) Correc1ed H=41'53'59.5"
Correction for NPD =16.23" - 0'00' 55"
Correc1ed H =41'53'04.5"
Uncorrected NPO = 69'-39'-26.40"
Correction = 16.23" Oiff. in time =8:34:25.5
- 8:00:00
Corrected NPO = 69'-39'-10.17" Oiff. in time =34'25.5"
= 0.57375 hrs.
S-241.

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Correction for NPD =29.64" (0.57375)

!jlt~lllf
Correction for NPD = 17"
Corrected NPD (P) = 69'39'·26.40"
17"
P =69'39'9.40"
H = 41'53'9.40"
L = 14'33'40.73"
2S = 126'05'54.63"
S = 63'02'57.32"
S- P = 6'36'12.08" Solution:
S- H = 21'09'52.82" CD Azimuth ofsun:
S· L = 48'29'16.59" Diff. in hours = 1:45.20
Oiff. in hours = 1.756 hrs.
cot~=.ysecs Sec(S-p) Sin (S-H) Sin (S-L) Cotrection forNPO =-
38.24(1.756)
Correction for NPD =- 67.15"
=- 01'7.15"
cot~ =0.774925257
P = 103'24' 30.24"
~= 52'13' 37.17" - 01' 23.09"
A= 104'27' 14.3" P = 103'23' 23.09"
H = 51'05' 00"
Azimuth ofsun = 360' -104'27'14.3" 38.92"
Azimuth ofsun = 255'32' 45.7"
H= 51'04' 21.08"
Azimuth ofT1 to Tz = 255'32'45.7" L = 10'23' 5.29"
+ 1'19'00" p= 103'23'23.09"
Azimuth of T1 to Tz = 256'51' 45.7" 2S = 164'50' 49.4"
Average azimuth S = 82'25' 24.73"
. 256'51'46.2" + 256"51'45.7" P = 103'23' 23.09"
=
2 S- P = 20'57' 58.36"
Average azimuth = 256'51'46" S = 82'25' 24.73"
@ Probable error. H = 51'04' 21.08"
Ditt. in azimuth =256'51' 46.2" - 256'51' 45.7" S- H = 31'21' 3.65"
Oiff. in azimuth = 0.5" S = 82'25' 24.73"
Probable error = 0.33725 x Diff. in azimuth L = 10'23' 5.29"
Probable error = 0.33725 (0.5") S· L= 72'02' 19.44"
Probable error = 0,169"
5-242

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

cot~=.y Sec SSec (S-P) Sin (S-L) Sin (S-H)


A
Cot 2" = 2.0

~=26.51'
A = 53'01' WC()I11P(lt~lh~$fq~pt~?
N()tthP()lar
. >Qisfan~ ..
>.................................................................... .
@ Value oft: .~>>>'h!
itwillb~the)azirJ9lh.(>fth~$!Jl).
·@.wb~twm.~.·tne.
(gimutnpffhEl.mal'k.
tan ~:::.y Cos S Sec (S-P) Sin (S-ff) esc (S·L)
Solution:
~= 15.53' CD Corrected North Polar
Distance:
t = 31'03' 36" Horizontal Time
Vertical
Angle
Angle
358'40' 54.7" Ave:
8:32:58.75 48'47' 08" (Ave)
® Local mean time:
t = 31'03' 36" Oiff. in time =
8:32:58.75·8:00
t = 2h 04m 14.4s Oiff. in time:::
00 • 32:58.75
Oiff. in time =
0.5496 hrs.
Local mean time::: Zh 04m 14.45 - (- 14'15.8") Corrected for NPO
= 0.5496(26.64}
Local mean time'" 2h 18 n, 30.2s Corrected for NPO
=- 14.64"
Local mean time = 2:18:30,2 Corrected NPO:::
68'22' 42.4" ,·14.64"
P = 68'22' 27.76"

@) Standard time at 120th meridian: ® Azimuth of sun:


Oiff. In longitude::: 124'58' 42"-120'
Oiff. in longitude = 4'58' 42"
OI·ff.· I it d 4.978"
, In ong u e::: -15"

Oiff. in longitude ::: Oh 19m 54,8s


Standard time:: 2:18:30.2
• 19:54,8
Standard time::: 1:58:35,4

H::: 48'47'
08"
p::: 68'22'
27.76"
L::: 14'20'
13.6"
28::: 13129'
49.3"
8::: 65'44'
5465"
S·243

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

p = 68' 22' 27.76" Solution:


Sop = 2'3T 33.11" CD True bearing ofsun
from the North:
S = 65'44' 54.65"

+
H:;: 48'4708"
S-H:;: 16'5746.65"
S:;: 65'44' 54.65"
L= 51'24'41.05"
S-L:;: 51'24' 41.05"

Cos ~ = ...j Sec SSec (SOP) Sin (S-H) Sin (S-L) ,


Z=1OI'2T50"

~:;:53.30'
A = 106'35' 34.1"
Azimuth of Sun :;: 360' - 106'35' 34:1"
Azimuth of Sun =253'24' 25.9"
@ Azimuth of Marie
358'40' 54.7"
- 253'24' 25.9"
ex. = 105'16' 28.8" SinD
Cosl= Cos LCosh
·tanLtanh
B = 106'35' 34.1" -105'16' 28.8"
B:;: 1'19' 5.2"
Note:
B = 1'19' 5.2" l =true bearing
ofsun from the norlh
Azimuth of Mark =253'24' 25.9" NW if observed in
the afternoon
+ 1'19' 5.2" NE if observed in
the morning
Azimuth of Mark = 254'43' 31,2" 0= 20'52' 44"
L=42'29' 30"
h = 43'16' 48"
SinD
Cosl= Cos LCosh
-tanLtanh
Anobsetvati\lli W8sniadetodeterminethe Sin
20'52' 44"
aiimuth btthellne .Ai3. by observing the Cos l = Cos 42'29'
30" Cos 43'16' SO"
allilode ot sun in theaftemoon. The follOwing
Cosl=-0.19875
da~were~erve(t.< .' ... ' ,.' Z = 101'27' 50"
latitUde of place I)f QbservatlQl'l == 42'29' 30' N.
Longitude of place of observation' ''
::: 124'20' 30" E,• ' ' " .,.,,' , , ' ','.' @ True azimuth of the
sun:
'M~n Horizontal Angte from statian.B to the True azimuth of the
sun
sun =6S'54' 30" (clOCkwise) " • = 180'00' 00"
-101'27' 50"
Mean altitude of Sun (corrected) = 43',16' 46" True azimuth of the
sun = 78'32'10"
Declination of Sun'" 20'52' 44"
CD Compute the true bearing of sun from the @ True azimuth ofAB:
North. True azimuth of AB
=78'32' 10' - 68'54' 30"
@ Compulethettue azimuth ofsun, True azimuth of AB =
9'37' 40"
@ Compute the true aZimuth of AB.
5-244

PRACTICAl ImONOMY

Il1llilillli]
Solution:
<D Bearing ofstar from the north:
i:I.112
• • i·.~bs~~ijl)
(\""hrnR91~ri~a.ttalns.iISUpper
..H··.¢WrnltiatlQnWllhMaijitlldeQt~3'3T
.
•1ndex

~f:l'~pllQtli$~~g.~a@ffitioI11s1'01!'.
Solution:
<D Azimuth of Polaris measured from the
north.
H = 10'21' 30" + 10'22' ZO" = 10'21'
.55"
2
Z"=P'secL
P=1'15'40"
P" =3600 + 15(60) + 40
P" =4540
Z"=P'secL
SinD
CosZ=CosLCosH -tanLtanH Z' = 4540 sec 14'45'
Z=4695"
_ Sin (-10'57' 18") Z= 1"18' 15"
Cos Z- Cos 39'14'12" Cos 28'36'48"
® True azimuth of BLLM NO.1 to BLLM
No.2.
-tan 39'14'12" tan 28'36'48"
Z= 136'28'04" East ofNorth

® Azimuth of star:
Azimuth of star = 136'28' 04" + 180
Azimuth of star = 316'28' 04"

® Azimuth of AB:
Azimuth of/iB = 316'28' 04 - 85'20' 04"
Azimuth of AB = 231"08' 00"
5-245

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

True azimuth of BLLM No, 1to BLLM No, 2 Solution:


=180+l+H CD Bearing of Polaris
measured from norlh:
True azimuth = 180' + 1"18' 15" + 15'21' 55"

N
True azimuth = 191'40' 10"

P~~iS

..::,::
® Latitude of ObseNation: B

.I "

Z I"

lan Z = Sin t
Cos Llan D - Sin
LCos t
Ian Z - Sin
45'30'
Cos 42'20' tan
86'40' • Sin 42'20' Cos 45'30'
Z =3'20'25"
Altitude =43'3TOO" Bearing ofPolaris = N.
3'20' 25" E.
Index correction = + 00' 30"
@ True azimuth of Polaris:
Refraction correction = - 01' 01"
True azimuth ofPolaris =
183'20' 25"
CorrectedH =43'36'29"
® True azimuth ofAB:
True azimuth of AB = 183'20'
25" - 62'40'.00"
L=H-P
True azimuth ofAB =
120'40' 25"
P= 1'15'40"
L=43'36' 29" - 1'15' 40"
L = 42'20' 49"
TheCl~~~&edll1~ridi~o~ltitl#1i
• •pf•. ~• • M~tol1.·
,b;pril.•10,•• 1990.V/~s •
~~'g~\ • $tar.pe.lifi~g.S6yth, •
Refraction(;()rrecti911•• iS1!
1i?:•• ··The.·deeul1at~"

oflt1~st<lrffllli~tf~~9IW~s>~$~2!f?1~,<
Polaris is obsEl!V'ed· at a..certa1n hOur angle· <1?
QEltefTljjoeloeco~~CtedailiIW~k
equal to 45'$Q~ at a certail1place .whose @•• q~tElrll'lihe· •
tflEl.1BtjtOt!e()f•• lheplll~.·.of
latitude is 42"20' and a declination of 86"40',· A obsElliJafloo.•••••. <.• •
• • •.• .• .• • • • • • • «.. .. .
horizontal angle was meaS\.lred from the line ®
QelermineJhehoUrl:109IElofthestar,
AS clockwise towards pQlarls (EastQf North)
and was recorded to be 62'40'. . . . Solution:
CD Corrected altitude:
CD ;:~::he bealing of Polaris measured
@ Compule!he lrue azimuth of Polaris.
;;v C(}mpule the true aZimuth of AB,
5-246

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Observed altitude = 39'24' 00" Solution:


Refraction CotTection _. 1'11"
<fJ CotTected altitude
ofPolaris.
Altitude H = 39'22'49"
Obs. altitude =43'28' 30"
® Latitude of the place of observation. Index error =• 01'00"
H = 39'22' 49" Refraction Corr. =• 01'00"
D = 8'29' 21"
90· L = 47'S110" Cotrected altitude:
h =43'28' 30"·01'·01'
H + D =47'S2' 10"
90· L =47'S2'10" h = 43'26' 30"
L = 90 . 47'S2' 10"
L =42'09' 50" ® Hour angle in hours, minutes
and seconds.
® Hour angle of the star. Hourangte:
t = 51'20' 46.S"
B
= S1.3462S'
t
15'
t = 3h25' 23,1"

® Latitude of place
ofobservation.
p=90'·D.
Sin b Sin a
Sin B = Sin A P=90' ·89'04' 55.6"
Sin 98'29' 21" Sin SO'37' 11 " p= 55'04.6"
Sin 101'27' 50" = Sin A p=5S.08'
A =49'59' 21"
Hour angle t =49.989'
,_ 49.989' L = h - P Cos t + ~ Sin l'
p2 Sin2 t tan h
,- 1S'
t = 3h 19"' 585 L = latitude of place of
observation
h = corrected altitude of
polaris
t = hour angle in degrees,
minutes and
seconds
p = polar distance in
minutes
Anob$~~~i:I ~fUlUd~>(l{R6Iaris alan Mut
angle Of 51'20' 4Ek5" was reoordedto be
43'2&' 30".lndexertQrl$ + 01'00". Declination L = h • p Cos t + ~ Sin l'
p2 Sin2 t tan h
of Polaris at this instant is+ 89'04' 55,&'.
L ::: 43'26' 30" • 55.08 Cos
51'20' 46.5"
RefraCtioncorraction is 01'00";
+ ~ Sin l' (55.08)2 Sin 2
51'20' 46.5" tan 43'26'30"
<fJ Determinelhe corrected altitude of Polaris, •
® CompUte the hour angle in nours, minutes L::: 43'26' 30' • 34.40'
+0.25'
and seconds. L::: 43'26' 30"·34' 39"
® Determlrte the latitude of place of
observation. L::: 42'51' 51" N
S-247

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Greenwich apparent time

= Greenwich civil time + equation of time

4h 52m DOS = G.C.T. 5m 30S


Tfle~~$Ur~d111tlbJ(1eqflh~s4nslJp~~J@~
G,G,T. =4h 46m 30s
Wtl~~(m •. ttl~·.m@~I~n.at·.~·.ppiJ'\t.IQ . I~tl9!lU(j~
7:3.~WWa~4TIQ·QQ'':()I'JMW¢lJ11);2005.·
Greenwich civil lime = Greenwich standard time

i_i,llili!1

Greenwich standard time = 4h 4~ 305

•·· • • $tI6·:l•• $~Il'li.qil!ll1'lel!lr::;fI2;OO~·.·.·················· .


0JDetenllillel.)IDe••••latill.m~·<.6f.place
of Inptepa.t$~MfBt~110~~~~tionol1tli~$!ar

@ .•
ob~eNali()h<·i<
Oe~~nnll)~ • •~e . .• IO(;~d • • sidereaJtime••. if{he

.~~iij~.ffi~~~\t~~b~~&r~'j;e~ili~ffi~~6·
· · · · · • • hour.~rlgl.~0f • lhe••.slJf:l•. duJil1g.·9bserValiori
amtll~e9ftbe$tatjs1.T$~,13'.Tlle~~lcUla,ted
.• wa$ ••••• 32·1~··.·4?'; • t@jme.appare!Jtrlght
n~f(l1c;ij()gwrrectipnf()rffl~laltlt~(jElii~O~~O:J;</
.... · •. as~nsiorJ.()f.th~$yn.I$.5~.4W3t)S .••.•.• <i•• .·•· •
p~teli1lfne.!hE!9rren\'lICh$taHdai~tifne
• if

.$. What.allilugeWill.bemeaSllredwl1ell'lli~
@ •..••
.·tOOeql\tllionoftirneis5tn30(> ..
. ~rgcirrt~ifthe$e5jlbol~te~v~~e~

.@).. lft~e·.~e~matlor.·oflt1~ • staratthetfiOrnenl

Vlfit1il~;~.~.
Solution:
tj) Lalitude of place of obseNation:
L=90-H+D
ObseNed H = 47'10' 00"
@ •••. 9(Jfl1Pu~ th~llpllr.,¥,gl~l.of.
• .• the.staratthe

. ·lilSlaffl4fo~seJVatkm, . . ....
Index Correction = 02' 00"
Refraction and Parallax = - 0'18"
Solution:
Suns semi-diameler = + 12'06"
CD Allitude ofstar:
Corrected H = 47' 19' 48"
Calculated allilude = 17' 36.8'
o = +3'35'02"'
Refraction Corr. - - 03'

Corrected H = 1T33,8'
L=90-H+D
L=90'-47'19'48" + 3'35'02"
@ Bearing ofstar:

SinD
L = 46'15'14"
Cos Z =Cos L CosH - tan L (an H

Sin 12'25'
® Sidereal lime:
Cos Z = Cos 42'21' Cos 17'33.8'
Sidereal lime = hour angle +righl ascension
- tan42'21' tan 17'33.8'
Hour angle = - 32' 15' 45"
Z = 89'02' 44"
Hour angle =- 2h Ogm 03 s
Bearing ofslar = N. 89'02' 44" E.
Sidereal lime =-2h D9m D3s +5h 47m30 s
Sidereal time =3h 38m 275
(3) Hour angle ofIhe star:

Sin H
(3) Greenwich slandard lime:
Cos t =Cos D Cos L . tan 0 tan L
. . 73'00' 00"
. Sin 17'33.8'
Greenwich apparent lIme = 15'
Cos t =Cos 12'25' Cos 42'21'
Greenwich apparenllime = 4h 52m OOs
• tan 12'25' tan 42' 21'

I =77'26' 37"
5-248

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Solution:
Solution:
CD Azimuth of Polaris:
t Z Sin t
an - Cos Uan 0 • Sin L Cos t
t=2 h 42 m
t=4O' 30' ·&.-.
...... s
Sin 40'30'
Ian Z =Cos 48'16' tan 89'01' 56'. Sin 48'16' Cos 40' 30'
Z= 0'57'29" 41'3S'3O" (average
value)
01'00"
(refraction correction)
H = 41'34'30"
correction altitude
@ Sidereal time:
Sidereal time = Right ascension + hour angle P=90-D
Sidereal time = 1h 47 m 10.35 + 2h 42 m P == 90' - 62'14'29'
P== 27'4S'31"
Sidereal time =4h 29"' 10,:JS
L==H·P
L = 41'34'30' -
27'45'31"
. @ Greenwich apparent time: L = 13'48'59"
(latitude of BLLM No, 1)
. tongit.J
DI·ff.,In uue = 120'30'
--:;s-
Diff. in longitude = ah 02m

Greenwich apparent time Compute th~ latitude


of the place of
= local apparent time + diff. in longitude obSetvatiOnP·1 from
the following date.
Greenwich apparent time Altitude of Polaris on
Nov. 3,1967 was
= 4h SOm 205 + ah 02' 00" observed to be
15'50'08" at Upper Culmination:
Greenwich apparent time = 11' 52'" 2(jS Index error of
instrument::: 0
Correction for
parallax" 01'00"
Polar distance of
Polaris" O'OS'18"
S-249

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Solution:

.~·
¢iV.~hlJlij~~~~M.~9lffiQWtb~@'11l~9t
.fr§!~~9h~**ffl¢.m®.()!'#l
¢ly~l.~!t¥Wfll®
·~~·$
()ijmmll$~Mittl.anq.f®MJM@gW

L..._...L...L-..z._....,.._...Js
.~!I~~~!
JI~'I;~to~Ot~~.~~~~lgi~~~~·
pfm~riCIl~ij;p~~~~~W~ •
-•15·®·1~m~b~t!~.
me.I~~M:ltlijflll~wirlt1
L =latitude ofplace of obseNafion
L=H-P
H = 15'50'08" + parallax correction Solution:
H = 15'50' 08" + 01'
H= 15'51'18" z
L = 15'51'08" - 05'18"
L = 15'45'50"

Sun

NL.-_ _~~.....1._ _....J

it,,.,·I!."
lI!irlll'~lIpllii~lJi@
H =50'20'00"
D= ·15'30'15"
L =90'· (H+ D)
Corrected H= 50'20'00" - C,
C, = correction for refraction

'~deXftr()f¥+$p"/ Corrected H =50'20'00" -


00'00'46.5"
[)e¢lih@~~::=faa'44'3$" .....
CorrectedH =50'19'13.5"
Solution: L =90' • (50'19'13.5" +
15'30'15'')
L = 24'10'31.5" Latitude of the
place

N ........-....!-,I...,...;X- ..JS
H=43'3T lfj$nece$$ary•• t~{jet
¢rmine.the • latituq~(11.a·
Index Error =- 30" tr~\lers~ • ~\.!l"'J~Y •. ?IJ(j
• f()F1hi§•.• pyrpo~~.!llil.~I$r

9rsaM~J()t~~.~asribservedon.the.rneddlary.~n
Corrected H = 43'37'30" ~·.cetlabt(jcjI~F •
1J1ElJoIlQVlirlg.datawere.l;j~n;··
D = 88'43'35"
P= 90- D = 1'15'25" H =<41'36'(direct)
L= H-P H =41'3r{revetsed) . .
H=43'3T30"
p= 1'15'25" Correction fotrefraclkm ;:
1'36"
L = 42'22'05" (latitude of place of obseNation) Declimition of star;: 62'14'29"
5-250

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Solution:

N'L-_---l_.E.. ...JS
11.""111.
l8i~1'~~~t.~i.i!
Mean value of H =41'36'30" Solution:
CorroctedH =41'36'30" -1'36"
Corroded H =41'34'54"

Z=90-H
Z= 90 - 41'34'54"
Z =48'25'06"
L=O-Z
L =62'14'29" - 48'25'06"
L = 13'49'23" latitude of the place ObseNed altitude = 39'24'00"
Refraction Gorr. =1'11"
H =39'24'00" - 0'01'11"
H =39'22'49"
0= 8;29'21"
H + 0 =47'52'10"
90- (H+ 0) = L
Lat = 42'07'50" N

~n.Ob#~r@tkmWa$.• lriadepo•• th~.


$UI1 • at•• nd()n
,Solution: '.a'}9{h~I~(',
()rd~Qaltitudeisg4'~5'1a~.th~~lln

~~IMS9Wh()tth~eqllatQr·8~t~rJllinethe
l~tiNd~rRf,.ltre • p'lace••
()t.ob~ef'll~tiqn,.p~rall~x·

aDd·reJrapti(ln~92'!.s~mHiiarl1~ter.#.tl9'18"i
.declioaijoo·m$un.i$~23·02'30".

Solution:
NL..--...l-.L..-::E.. .....JS

H = 15'50'08" + Parallax correction


H= 15'51'08"
P= 05'18"
L=H-P
L = 15'51'08" - 05'18"
L = 15'45'50"
5-251

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Corrected altitude = H
Obs. altitude = 24'21'00"
Parallax and refraction = ·2'00"

.~'~;I.llil~;~'~~~;0~g~V:6
Semi-diameter =~
H = 24'35'18"
D = 23'02'30"

:ir.filB
H+D =47'3748"
L =90- (H+ D)
L = 90 - 41'3748"
L = 42'22'12"

Solution:

&ifI81111.'11
rM~9@nls.1·o1".lfm~.pql~di$«l~QHM
m~rll;tlh~jQ~tCl/*of.gM¢fVM9rW*9'55'2Q·.
'--_~_~
""'S

det¢tmlnelh¢.latilt.ideofplace.Qt.Q~$eWfl<!n.

Solution:

.z..
....JS
·
~
CD Latitude of the obseNer.:
Altitude = 90 - zenith distance
·~ .z._"';"_.....Js Altitude = 90' • 76'03'37"
Altitude = 13'56'23"
Corrected H = 13'56'23"
ObseNed altitude =43'3700" 3'40.4"
H= 13'52'42.6"
Index Correction = + 30"
43'37'30" L=H+P
L = 13'52'42.6" + 0'56'05.3"
Refraction Corr. =. 1'01 "
L = 14'48'47.9"
H =43'36'29"
L =H- P ® Latitude if it was obseNed on
Upper Culmination.
L=H-P
L = 43'36'29" - 0'55'20" L= 13'52'42.6"
L = 42'41'09" - 0'56'05.3"
L = 12'56'37.3"
5-252

SIMPLE CURVES

2. Inscribed angles having the


same or equal

.•@
intercepted arcs are equal.

B
RAILROAD AND HIGHWAY CURVES
In highway or railroad construction, the D e
curves most generally used presently' are C
circular curves although parabolic and other
curves are sometimes used. These types of LADB=LACB
curves are classified as Simple, Compound,
Reversed or Spiral curves. 3. An angle formed by a tangent
and a chord
is measured by one half its
intercepted arc.
A. Simple Curve:
A simple curve is a circular are, extending
from one tangent to the next. The point where
the curve leaves the first tangent is called the
"point of curvature" (P.C.) and the point where
the curve joins the second tangent is called
the "point of tangency" (P.T.). The P.C. and
P.T. are often called the tangent points. If the
tangent be produced, they will meet in a point
of intersection called the "vertex". The l'
distance from the vertex to the P.C. or P.T. is LBAC=- LADC
2
called the "tangent distance". The distance
from the vertex to the curve is called the 4. Tangents from an extemal
poiht a circle
"external distance" (measured towards the are equal.
center of curvature). While the line joining the
middle of the curve and the middle of the chord
line joining the P.C. and P.T. is called the
"middle ordinate".

Geometry of the Circular Curves:

In the study of curves, the following geometric AB=BC


principles should be emphasized:
1. An inscribed angle is measured by one 5. Angles whose sides are
perpendicular
half its intercepted arc. each to each are either equal
or
supplementary.
B~AC D F

LACB=~ ~AOB LABC=LFED


S-253

SIMPLE CURVES

Sharpness of the curve is expressed 2. Degree of Curve: .(Chord Basis)


in any of the three ways: Degree of curve is the
angle
subtended by a chord of 20
meters in
1. Degree of Curve: (Arc Basis) Metric System or 100 ft. in
English
System.
Degree of curve is the angle at the
center subtended by an arc of 20 m. is the a. Metrjc System:
Metric system or 100 ft. in the English
system. This is the method generally
used in Highway practice.

a. Metric System:

b. English System:
By ratio and proportion:
20 2nR
0= 360
D= 360(20)
2nR
- 1145.916 . D 50
D- R SIn-=-
2 R
50
b. English System: R=-
. D
Srn-
2

00
3. Radius = Length of radius is
stated
Elements of a simple curve:
P.C. = point of curvature
P.T. = point oftangency
P.I. = point of intersection
100 2nR
D= 360 R = radius of the curve
D = degree of the curve
D = 360(100)
T = tangent distance
2nR
I = -angle of intersection
D _ 1145.916(5)
- R E = external distance
M = middle ordinate
(5 times the metric system)
Lc = length of curve
D - 5729.58
- R C = long chord
C1 and C2 = sl,lb-chord
. d1 and d2 = sub-angle
5-254

SIMPLE CURVES

4. Length of Chord:
C
. I 2
Sln2'="R

C=2R S.1n2'I I
5. Length of Curve:
Lc

p.e R

o
o h_ 20
I -D
1. Tangent distance: 20 I ~ t ..\
I T Lc=O Imenc/
tan2'=R"
h_ 1OO
I I - D
T=Rtan2'
Lc = 1~ I (English)
2. External distance:
I R 6. Sub-arc: (Arc basis)
Cos 2'= OV

I
E=RSec2'-R
I
OV =R Sec 2'
E=OV-R

E=R(sec~-1)
9v
fJ._Q
d1 -D

d1 =CCD (i'degrees/.\
1

3. Middle Ordinate:
I AO
~2 =M
2C
(50) (minutes)
Cos 2=S
~ _C1 D(60) (metric system)
I 2 - 2(20)
AO = R Cos 2'
M=R-AO ~=1.5C1D
I ~_ C1 0(60)
M=.R-RCos2' 2 - 2(100)

M = R(1 - Cos ~) ~ =0.3 C, D (English system)


S-255

SIMPlE CURVES

7. Sub-chords: (Chord b, ;is)

R R

,,
Sjn~=~·
,,
2 2R

,,

Sin Q.=~
2 2R
:R

C ,"
2R=-
. 0
SIn-
2
'" ,

" '\. .
"', ,I
, "';-11
1I

18",: /

II I

. d C, Sin~ ex
X"',r/
....., »'t$
Sin~=-- 111 ) • -:.,":~.1,~
.A
'<:."I

2 C
Solution:
d C1 Sin~ . ill Distance from mid point of CUNe to P.I.:
Sin ~ =- - - (Metric l R- 1145.916
2 20 I' I
- 6
d C Sin~1 R= 190.99
Sin T=100 (English)
E=R(Sec~ -1)
20Sin~ E = 190.99 (Sec 18' -1)
C1 =- - - (Metric) E= 9.83 m.
. 0
S10-
2 ® Distance from mid point of CUNe to the mid
100 Sin~
point oflong chord:
C1 = - - -
. 0 M=R (1 -Cos ~)
S10:2
M= 190.99 (1- Cos 18')
M=9.35m.
8-256

SIMPlE CURVES

@ Stationing ofB: ® Stationing of D:


S=R8 S=R8
S = 190.99 (16) 1t S =286.48 (36) 1t
180 180
S= 5133m. S= 180 m.

Sta. of B= (10 + 020) + (53.33) Sta. of D= (20 + 130.46) + 180


Sta. ofB = 10 + 073.33 Sfa. ofD = 20 + 310.46

@ Distance DE:
Cos 36' =286.48
OE
OE=354.11 m.
DE =354.11 - 286.48
DE=67.63m.

·.rdTJtJI¥~.I~II-I~ii~fti~nt~:··


·.(1).••••. C9IllP~f~ • • t~~E!xlE?
rn~I.·9fsl<trce Qf.the
9J1'Y~.> •
•~• • C;oITlputetflttmj~¢I¢~dihaWfJf.thec;
(lo/~ .•·••.
(!)Cqrllpu!E!t~~~tatl(l6jn9PfJlqintAonme

\
• • • ~~,.~~~~,~~i~~~~&®.~f··ot6' • frQrn
w. \ Solution:
j""-
<Y-_, "-_
'"- R
CD External distance:
%n '-'''~- \
A _.
PoC R
2}i1:~o
20+130.46

Solution: .
\ .\
CD Long chord:
R= 1145.916
,

R=286.48 m.
4 "'-_ \ \
I
R
"'-- 12'~ \ /
!:= R"<:i .. 30"
2
RSin 25'
L = 2 (286.48) Sin 25'
, ffl
-~
L = 242.14m.
5-
257

SIMPLE CURVES

E=R(sec~-1) @ Area oftitlet ofa curve:

E =200 (sec 30' -1)


E=30.94m,

@ Middle ordinate:
M=R(1-COS~)
M=200 (1- cos 30') /
M= 26.79m. /
@ Stationing ofpoint A: }, ,/
S=Re '\.26.56 /
5313'/
S =200 (12}(n)
180
S=41.89
= TR (2) _nR2 to
Sta. A= (1 +200.00) +41.89 A
2 360'
Sta. A= 1 + 241,89
R= 1145.916
3
R=381.972
T = ~ (381.972)
T= 190.986
l~r~i11;1:~~~~~'~imP.I~@~~ A= 190.986 (381.972)(2)
2
n(381.972f (53.13')

I.I.I!~
360'
A = 5304,04 sq.m,

Solution:
CD Angle ofintersection:
1
T= Rtan '2

!R=Rtan 1
2 2
. 1 1
tan 2=2

~=26.56'
1=53,13'
@ Length ofcurve:
h_ 2O
I-D
- 20 (53.13)
Lc- 3
Lc = 354,20 m,
5-258

SIMPlE CURIES

Solution: c
<D Length of curve from P. C:

. ,\
''\, \' /
'\ \1'I
R'
,I' o
'\, \, /
a=90·24'4O'
'\~t/
'~' a = 65'20'
o 8 =110'50' - 65'20'
8=45'30'
R= 1145.916 229.18 = OCCos 24'40'
D OC =252.20 m.
= 1145.916 229.18 252.20
R 5' Sin 45'30' = Sin ~
R=229.18m. 0=128'17
fa 8 =105.27 l/l = 180' ·45'30' -128'17
n 229.18 l/l =6'13'
8=24'40' ro 229.18
LC1 =Re Sin 6'13' = Sin 45'30'
- 229.18 (24'40')1t CD=34.80m,
LCl - 180
@ Stationing of D:
LCl = 98.68 m.
® Distance CD:

\, 'I
'\, \' /
~'\ \\ /
'{P'~~, /.

'\ '\
'\ / '
'\V'
o Angle x = 24'40' + 6'13'
Angle x = 30'53'
5-259

SIMPLE CURVES

Rxn @ Length ofcurve from


PC. to A:
L~ = 180 S=R28
_229.18(30'531n S - 560.13 (27'391n
L02 - 180 - 18V
L~ = 148.24 m. S= 270.31 m.
Station ofD =(2 + 040) + (148.24) ® Length oflong chord:
Station of D = (2 + 188.24)

.Thij~mm@lfJij~f9~~WI~~tro.mpm~(1
.9Q~Mfflp!~~OON~19qi:)~<t®!M9~~M~n~
. a4..n1..·Jfthe;d;@l(L~·frO#lilheiP·C;itijQOllffie •. ,
,1 •
.~~~H~.ZOOfu{>··· . .
\
I ,I
.1• ·E~lr".~~.I~~·lrt!I~·.~~I~I··
®•• lqh~~~9J~9fli'lt~~Mli9fm~@W4~
. ·.•.• • • ·.·§4·f@miwt~m~'laogthml§ng~@ff9@.
eP.ri>p:tt)·· . . .. . .
\,
R\
\

'

'

! /

'/

\
34" /
Solution:
CD Radius of CUNe:
\V
L
S·In 34' = 2 (560.13)
L=928.74 m.

,
I,
!R
I,
\ ! /
\201 /
64
\V
lan8=-
260
8 = 13.83'
28 = 2T3g
R·64
Cos2T39'=-
R
R= 560.13m.
8-260

SIMPlE CURVES

Solution:
<D Length oflong chord:
c

\,
·11!i~"~I.~II,t~~;~41o'~.·
\R

r.JI
/U2
/ --- '-- \ ,
--" \
' ?~L__1
R=286.48
Solution:
<D Central angle:

® Distance AB:
c
,
\
""', \R
''"'- ""', \
'"'- ""', \ Lc 20
A ~5"~~~r~ ,=[j
- 1145.916
D-
/0+/40.26 R=286.48 '"'"
R
D= 1145.916
tan 25' = 2~~8 D=4'
286.48

AB = 133.59 m. 240 20
-/ ="4
@ Stationing of x: 1=48'
S=Re
® Distance from mid point of CUNe to
mid
S= 286.48 (32) 1t
point oflong chord:
180
S= 160m. M= R( 1 • cos f)
Sta. ofx =(10 + 140.26) + (160) M = 286.48 (1 - cos 24')
Sta. ofx= 10+300.26 M=24.76m.
8-261

SIMPlE CURVES

@ Area bounded by the tangents and outside ® External distance:


the central cUrve:
T=Rtan24' E=R(sec~-1)
T= 286.48 tan 24' E= 336.49 (sec 25' -1)
T= 127.55 E=34.79m.
A 1R (2) 'It R2 I
",.... - 2 - 360 @ Length of long chord:
A_ _ 127.55 (286.48)(2) 'It (286.48)2(48) ~=RSin25'
",...a- 2 - 360
L =2(336.49) Sin 25'
Alea = 2162.8 L = 284.41 In.

1.'.11 I_i.
1:lllilllBlijl
Solution:
111111
<D Degree ofcurve:

Solution:
<D Radius of CUNe:

,
/
/~
" ''\.,
,Ii'\.\ '

25' \ 25' /
'

7\7
'\. I,
A

'~
Sin 50' = 12~20
T= 156.91 m.
T=Rtan 25'
156.91 =Rtan25' S·In e = 21.03
2.79
R=336.49m. e=T3T
D= 1145.916
336.49 a= 90' -12'-8
D= 3'24' a=70'23'
5-262

SIMPLE CURVES

OB=R+E @ Area bounded by the CUNe and the tangent


OB = R+ R(sec~.1) lines:
=. RT(2L 1t ~ (24')
OB=R+R(SeC~.1) A
2 360'
OB= 1.0223 R T= Rtan 12'
T= 286.36 tan 12'
In /1 OPB T=60.87
A = 286.36 (60.87) _1t (2~:~2 (24)

A = 256.26m2

OB R
o
11lSillitillll;
.!lPOl'dill~t*19tg91OQN~IJ~.2<l1l)Q·pV'1W~polllt

·~ri~I~~~~.h~ ~9()r~i#t~~ .• §f.~Q~.~~ • ~•
Sin IJ =Sin a.
1.0223R R q)FjfJpth~di$tal1¥ofline~P')
5iii'"'8 =Sin 70'23' ~• • ®IY~J°rt'md~r~~Rfs.b!lple@f'I~tb~t
LJ = 105'39' . . . ·••
·,#icillliefangellt.lq.tfflj.thi'ee.lines.i\B,DI!Z
0=180-a.-1J AM~P·>
0= 3'58' @"p~lltlJisatM<itj(jn1t9S~.87tfetermilll'l
.··th¢sWIQl1ingofPT·< ' .
. 21.03 _ R
Sin 3'58' - Sin70'23'
Solution:
R= 286.36m..
CD Distance of line BD:
® Length of chord:

A
A
c

Sin 4'01' = 2 (2~.36)


x = 40.12 m.
8-263

SIMPlE CURVES

I}1'IIII'JlI:I!!ill!'I~

~~lr:~~~I~I~~~~~~"1
LINE
DE
LAT
13.45
DEP
+84.27 ~~P'1~ld~~fa~~~~~~~~¢~~~_1
. 84.27
•.,: .

:~:··:::P~~~.~~~::~~im~~~~~;i;:::::::;:::;:;:::;::.· ~::-:::.":,.:::: i:
:~:i:i;i;i~[:[ r~i~(;
tan beanng = 13.45
Bearing ofDE = S 80'56' E
·t
DIS ance
DE 84.27
=Sin 80'56'
~jllllili~li:
.~ Qet¢®IM.tffl.~Og!l{qt~llti,te.
. . .• .•....,.

{iii
Distance DE =85.34 m. Solution:
1= 180' - (85'30' +68'301 CD Radius:
1=26'
B=180'·26'
B=154'
a =80'56'·68'30'
a= 12'26'
e= 180' ·154' ·12'26' A A
C
e=13'34' '\
/
BD DE
Sin a =Sin B
~\
/~
'\
/
BD 85.34
Sin 12'26' = Sin 154'
\ /

'v'
BD=41.91m.
T= (4 + 360.2) • (4 +288.4)
@ Degree ofcurve: T= 71.8m.
T1 + T2 =DE
Rtan 6'47' +Rtan 6'13' =85.34 T= Rtan~
R=374.50 26
D= 1145.916 71.8 =Rtan"2
374.50 R";311m.
D=3'04'
@ External distance:
@ Stationing ofPT:
T1 = 374.5 tan 6'47'
E=R(seC~.1)
T1 =44.55m.
E=311 (sec~6.1)
Lc= 20 I
D. E= 8.18m.
_ 20 (26) @ Middle ordinate:
Lc- 3.06
Lc = 169.93- M=R(1.COS~)
Sta. at PT = sta. at point D. T1 + Lc
Sta. at PT =(1 + 052.87)·44.55 +169.93
M=311 (1.COS~)
Sta. at PT= (1 + 178.25) M=7.97m.
5-,264

SIMPlE CURVES

@ Chord distance: - 1145.916


R- D
C=2Rsin l
2 - 1145.916
26 R- 6
C=2(311) Sin 2"
R.=190.99
C= 139.92m.
E= R(sec 112· 1)
@ Length ofCUNe: E=190.99 (sec 30' -1)
1t
Lc =RI E=29,55m.
180
1t
Lc =(311) 26 180 ® Distance of mid point of CUNe to mid
point
oflong chord:
Lc = 141.13 m.
M= R(1- Cos 1!2)
M=190.99 (1 • Cos 30')
M=25.59m,

® Stationing ofB:

.li~'I~~I!~~~~~':~r:~i
@\!'1®~@6~af~t:qli~6AAf@ffl*~ij@#

m~ll6~m~~!M~~~lp!@~~gl~9f~)
Willilli~tM9¢l\tfbffi@IHfjElgp;<
S=Re
Solution: S =190.99 (16) 1t
CD Distance from mid point of CUNe to P.I.
180
$=53.33

Sta. ofB =10 + (020) + (53.33)


Sta. of B = 10 + 073.33

t~~ • tans~~ltrr(ll~ep.g .• h~$.a(jlte


¢ll«@ll~
n()rth•• and.the.ta~gerlt •
tht()U91'1•• th~ • ~rnt'l~s~.
b~rlng.()f.N,50· .•~, . . • lt.nll,
$a.ra,dl~~pf2QOffi; •
lJ~in$ • ·.·,;jrc • • b<!llis.·•••..·.
$tliltiQilitJ9•• • pl•• P.q,•• i§.
12.+060,
. .
8-265

SIMPlE CURVES

S=R8
- 200 (28) 1t
S - 180

-
(j)
Solution:
Tangent distance:
S=97.74m.

Sta. ofB =(12 +060) +(97.74)


Sta. ofB= 12+ 151,74

Solution:
(j) Middle ordinate:
T= Rtan 25'
T=200 tan 25'
T=93.26m.

® Long chord:
'Sin 25'=1:... p.e
2R
L =2(200) Sin 25'
L = 169,05m.

@ Stationing of B:

Lc 2)
T=o
210 20
- I =4"
1=42'
M= R(1- Cos 112)
. R= 11~.916 =286.48

M= 286.48 (1- Cos 21')


M= 19.03m.
5-266

SIMPLE CURVES

® Extemal distance: Solution:


E= R(Sec 1t2-1) <D Radius of the
CUNe:
E = 286.48 (Sec 21' - 1)
E=20.38m,

@ Area of fillet ofcurve:

p.e

T= Rlan 21'
T = 286.48 tan 21'
T= 109.97 m.

_ 7R(2) 1t Ff2 e
A- 2 • 360
'\ _ (109.97)(286.48)(2) 1t (286.48)2 (42)
r- 2 • 360 Sin 6' = 10
R
2
A = 1423.69 m say 1424 m2 R=95.67m.

® Angle
ofintersection:

\fi • ~~f!M®~·~ij!lI~~ • •()f•• lWl)i.@~t:mij~l~t~


::.~.R!t@~M.llie·¢~r¥.m~~~tireg,"@jlh~·
:.JjJglfut•.~~~i~Smm~gh.th~.P·C· • ~@··~."S'~~~·
12~1$;.rl!$pe¢1I.y~!~; • • • • • The • • Chord••·• ijllllll*~
·Pe~~nRatKI.$is?O"t • {St~nd~rd·iij.mettk;
$y~tf'!rn}.Wt:tlI¢.tMI609.cl1ordi$ •. WQm.ml:1!l!I'$· "
/'
··lQOO'························ .
".
/
R'
/ /R
··i•• ·.~~~I'e~ieQ~j~.tiori.Of.·tb~··
$.lmp~9WV~, . ..
"

, 1/2 112 '

~CQrnPllte1het8tlgentdiStaIlce..
S-267

SIMPlE CURVES

Sin l= 70 ® Degree of CUNe:


2 R T= Rtan 20'
S' 1 50 124.46 = Rtan 20'
In 2= 95.67 R=341.95
D= 1145.916
~ =31.5' 341.95
1=63' D=3.35'
@ Tangent distance: @ Stationing of8:
T= Rtan l S=RS
2 . S = 341.95 (16) 1t
T= 95.67 tan 31.5' 180
T= 58.63 nI. S=95.49
Sta. of 8 =(10 + 060) + (95.49)
Sta. of8= 10+ 155.49

Ift.ili
IIIIII
1:11;'111 1:11.""i~
Solution:
CD Tangent dsistance:
Solution:
CD Radius of CUNe:

1\

10+ .
\\'\
R\\
,I
" '\ I

R-60" \\
". ~ ~31~
80 = TSin 40'
T= 124.46
28.0~
8-268

SIMPLE CURVES

60 Solution:
tane=-
240 <D Deflection angle at the P.C.:
e =14.04'
2e =28.08'
R- 60 =R Cos 28.08'
0.11nR=60
R=509,70m.

® Tangent distance:
T=Rtan31'
T= 509.70 tan 31'
T=306.26m.

@ Stationing ofpainf x:
S=Re
S =509.70 (28.08) 1t
180
S=249.80 Cos 2e =219.18
229.18
2e= 16.988'
Sta. of x =(10 + 080) + (249.80)
Sta. ofx= 10+ 329,8 e= 8.49' (deflection angle)
@ Stationing at B:
S= R(2e)
S= 229.18 (16.988)' 1t
180
S=67.95m.

1111
Sta. of B=(10 + 120.60) +67.95
Sta. ofB= 10+ 188.55

@ Chord distance from P. C. to B:

Sin 8.49' = ~~
AB= 67.73 m.
5-269

..MPlE CDIEI

II~r.~kl~If.~I~I'~~I;it~.

1:1.'• •
Solution: ••
Ill• •JI.
CD Angle ofintersection:

Solution:
, CD Radius of CUNe:
/
I
"., jR
R"- I'
'-<-i
''J A

T=Rtan.!..
2
T=2Ttan .!..
2
I
tan 2=0.5

~=26.56' T1 + T2 = 300
Rtan 12'37.5' +R tan 30'54' =300
1=53.13'
1=53'08' R= 364.75

® Length of CUNe: ® Stationing of p.e. = (10 + 585) - T1


114 T1 = 364.75 tan 12'37.5'
R = 1;916 = 286.48 m.
T1 = 81.70 m.
bc._ 20
I - D Sta. of p.e. =(10 + 585) •(81.70)
L = 20(53.13) Sta. of p.e. = (10 + 503.3)
c 4
Lc = 265.65 m. @ Length of CUNe:
@ Area enclosed by the CUNe: S=R8
=53.13'1t (286.48)2 S = 364.75 (8T03J1t
A 180
360'
A = 380.54 rrf S= 554. 17m.
S-270

SIMPLE CURVES

Sin 10' =.1Q..


2 RlO
R10 =114.74 m.

I.'.
11• • .
.tqt1~A~··)<·······

Solution:
1. O'C= Re- RlO
O·C=191.07-114.74
CD Central angle of 10' center curve: O·C=76.33
OC=Re- Ra
OC =191.07 -143.37
OC=47.70
Using Sine Law:
47.70 76.33
. !.m. =Sin 136'
SIn 2

ful=25'44'
2
110 = 51'28'

@ Central angle of 6' end curves:


16 +~+ 136' =180'
16 + 25'44' + 136' =180'
16 = 18'16'

@ stationing of P. T.:
- 20/1
LCl- 0
1
_20(18'16')
Lcl- 6'
LCl =60.89 m.
OA=Ra _ 20/2
SinQ=~ Lc2- ~
2 2Ra
. 8' 10
- 20 (51'28')
S,n-=- LOL - 10'
2 Ra LOL =102.93 m.
Ra= 143.47 m.
'. 6' 10
SIn--- P. T. = (10 + 185.42) + 60.89 + 102.93
+ 60.89
2 - Re P. T. = (10 + 410,13)
R6 = 191.07 m.
5-271

SIMPLE eURVES

tan 55'04' = 70
x
x=48.89m.
I T
tan-=-
2 R
T=163.80 tan 27'32'
T=85.39 m.
7+812
~IIIIIIIIIIIIII~IIIII I Sta. ofpoint ofdeviation
(P. C.)
I

:7Om =(7 + 812) • (85.39


+48.89)
I
mounth of tunn~1 I
=7+ 677,72
I

® Stationing ofmouth of
tunnel:
b.c._ 20
I - D
_55'04' (20)
4- 7'

Il'lt.
Solution:
CD Stationing of the point of deviation: @
4= 157.33m.

Sta. ofmouth oftunnel = (7 +


677.72) + (157.33)
Sta. ofmouth oftunnel = 7
+ 835,05

Direction ofrailway in the


tunnel:
90' • 55'04' =34'56'
Direction is S. 34'56' E.

j
I ,

rt----...-.---,/.-------------....~. - .r.
al
~11I2,'
,"
/
, /
~ r;,''1/ ,/;=163.80
~

U
I

~y
,
~,,' r~ilway in
rhe runnel

Sin Q= 10
2 R
Sin 3.5' =~

(j)yompu~ • • th~ •
•f#ntral.lln~l~of lt(~ • • #~
... (;O~e.···
R=163.80m. ®..
9()~let!)El$diusPfIt¥fl~WWW~·.