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CONTENTS

1. Unit information / Theme of the week 3

2. Subtheme information 4

2.1 Structure and administrative context. 4

2.2 Infrastructure, basic systems and services. 6

2.3 Organizational structure of schools according to public policies. 7

2.4 The educational system and school typology. 8


2.5 Teaching performance
9

3. Bibliography 11

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School organization and its dimensions.

1. Unit information
Theme of the week:

» Objective:
Understand the school organization and its main dimensions to analyze the
current situations of educational institutions.

» Theme:
Structure and administrative context

» Subthemes

1. Structure and administrative context.


2. Infrastructure, basic systems and services.
3. Organizational structure of schools according to public policies.
4. The educational system and school typology.
5. Teaching performance.

» Unit:

School organization and its dimensions.

» Duration of weekly hours


10 H
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School organization and its dimensions.

2. Subtheme information
In the fourth week, we dealt with some theoretical approaches of school organization
and gave examples of general school organization in Ecuador. This week we´re going to
analyze the structure, infrastructure, school organization, and administration of school,
as well as the teachers´ performance.

2.1 STRUCTURE AND ADMINISTRATIVE CONTEXT


Everything related to education is regularized by the Ministry of Education. There are
especially two important public policies: LOEI (Organic Law of Intercultural Education)
and LOES (Organic Law of Higher Education). But we are going to deal with the first one-
LOEI, because this law regularizes aspects concerning school structure, infrastructure,
organization, typologies, performance evaluation, among others.

In the First Title, Chapter I, of this law, the article 1 states that the Ministry of Education
as state organism guarantees the right to education, determines the general principles
and goals of the Ecuadorian education, establishes basic regulations for institutional
structures, level modalities, management model, financing, and the participation of the
national educational system actors among other things1 (p. 10).

This article adds that the universalization to education in its initial, basic and
baccalaureate levels is guaranteed, as well as, the physical infrastructure and necessary
equipment.

The fifth Chapter refers to the structure of the National System of Education (Sistema
Nacional de Educación- SNE). In article 37 is expressed that the SNE comprises
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educational types, levels, and modalities. It includes, as well, institutions, programs,


policies, resources, actors of the teaching-learning process, and their actions in initial,
basic, baccalaureate. At the same time is connected to the Higher Education System
(SES) (p. 44).

1
http://www.sipi.siteal.iipe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/sipi_normativa/ley-organica-educacion-
intercultural-ecuador_0.pdf

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School organization and its dimensions.

The Bilingual Intercultural Education System is the organism that rules for ancestral
communities and indigenous nationalities, which is considered a deconcentrated
instance.
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School organization and its dimensions.

2.2 INFRASTRUCTURE, BASIC SYSTEMS AND SERVICES


The article 347 of the Constitution of Ecuador establishes that it is an obligation of the
state to guarantee permanently the quality improvement, the expansion of coverage
(ampliación de cobertura), the physical infrastructure, and the necessary equipment for
educational institutions.

In the 25th transitional dispositions, it is stated that each school should be equipped with
the necessary infrastructure to satisfy the educational requirements for children,
teenagers, young and adult people with special needs. But the structure, infrastructure,
and school organization are aspects regulated by the National System of Education (SNE)
and they are established in its fundamental law -The Organic Law of Intercultural
Education (LOEI).
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School organization and its dimensions.

2.3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF SCHOOLS


ACCORDING TO PUBLIC POLICIES.
The way education is organized at national level is established in the fifth chapter of the
LOEI. In article 38 is explained that the SNE offers two types of education:

» Formal education (escolarizada) refers to standardized curricula determined by the


educative authorities in correspondence with the National Plan of Education through
the citizens´ development and formation within the different educational levels:

» Initial Education Level (Nivel de Educación Inicial)- It is addressed to the integral


development of children (from 3 to 5 years), which includes cognitive, affective,
psychomotor, social, identity (Art. 40).

» General Level of Basic Education (Nivel General de Educación Básica)- It is


composed of ten years of compulsory attendance from 5 years. The main goal is
to strengthen children and teenagers’ capacities, developing their physical,
emotional, thinking skills and competencies to prepare them for life and deepen
on knowledge during their future studies in baccalaureate (Art. 42).

» Baccalaureate (Bachillerato)- It contains three more years of compulsory


education. It has as one of its main aims to offer a general and interdisciplinary
formation which allows students to integrate them into society as responsible,
critic, and human beings with solidarity who are ready to work, to entrepreneur,
or to access to Higher Education. And as we have explained before they may be
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specialized in different areas (Art. 43).

» Non-formal education (no escolarizada) is the one given out of the National Plan of
Education, the main objective of this type of education is facilitate learning
opportunities to vulnerable groups, i.e. to enhance chances of learning for those who
don´t attend to schools (Art. 38).

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School organization and its dimensions.

2.4 THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND SCHOOL


TYPOLOGY
In the LOEI also the types of educational institutions are stipulated. They may be:

» Public institutions are free, that´s why they have a secular education. The
members of the community have rights to the responsible use of the school
installations and services for multiple activities to promote community
development (Art. 54). These institutions are:

» Fiscal: the government provides resources.

» Municipal: The Mayor provides resources, but there are just a few of them;
regularly these schools are specialized.

» Fiscomisional (public and private) schools are those which are partly fostered
by the government, and partly by parents, or an entity. They may be religious
or secular but are non-profit schools (Art. 55).

» Particular (private) schools are built and managed by natural and legal persons
of private law, who can teach for all levels. They are authorized, control, and
supervised by the SNE. Education may be secular or religious, but the studies are
paid (Art. 56).
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School organization and its dimensions.

2.5 TEACHING PERFORMANCE


According to article 68 of this law, the National Evaluation System Institute is in charge
of performing the integral (internal and external) evaluation of the National Education
System. The institute establishes the indicators of the quality of education. These
indicators were mentioned in the content of the previous lesson: educational
management of authorities, proficiency levels reached by students, principals and
teachers´ performance, school management, institutional performance, application of
the curriculum, among others.

The article 349 of the Constitution of the Republic, establishes that the state guarantees
to the teaching staff, at all levels and modalities: stability, updating, continuous training,
and pedagogical and academic improvement; a fair remuneration, in correspondence
with the professionalization, performance, and academic merits.

In Chapter II, the literal d states that the National Education Authority will define the
quality standards and indicators for evaluating performance, which must be carried out
by the National Institute of Educational Evaluation. According to it, the standards will be
at least about two types:

» Curricular - It refers to student academic performance and is aligned with the


mandatory national curriculum.

» Professionals – They involve the performance of the teachers and the


management of the educational establishment.
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MinEdu (2017) asks itself “What kind of educational leader does Ecuador need?” the
indicators selected to evaluate the progress in the performance of their principals, teachers,
the whole institutions, are the best answer to this question which seeks increasing quality in
educational institutions. 2

2
https://educacion.gob.ec/desempeno-directivo

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School organization and its dimensions.

A quality manager contributes to the improvement of leadership practices and


management in each Ecuadorian educational institution. When MinEdu indicates the
Principals´ Performance Standards (Estándares de Desempeño Directivo) refers to
different aspects such as leadership, pedagogical management, human talent,
resources, the organizational climate, and school coexistence; at the end, the main
purpose is to ensure the achievement of a quality learning process under their guide.

Teacher's performance concerns to the teacher, who is the person responsible to


provide learning opportunities to all students. Teachers also contribute, through their
training, to form students integrally. The teachers´ responsibility is to foster teaching in
the classroom that allows students to reach the learning results declared by the national
curriculum for Initial, Basic General Education and Baccalaureate.

In addition, the Teaching Professional Performance Standards (Estándares de


Desempeño Docente) establish the general and basic characteristics that teachers must
perform in order to develop a quality teaching-learning process.

The main characteristics of these standards in Ecuador are that they:

» Are based on the worldview or principles of Good Living.

» Respect the cultural diversity of peoples, ethnic groups and nationalities.

» Ensure the application of inclusive institutional processes and practices.

» Contribute to the improvement of the quality of the teaching-learning processes.

» Favor the professional development of all educational actors.

» Monitor compliance with the guidelines and provisions established by the


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Ministry of Education.

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School organization and its dimensions.

3. Bibliography

Links used:

» MinEdu. (2017). Ley Orgánica de Educación Intercultural (LOEI). Recuperado de


http://www.sipi.siteal.iipe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/sipi_normativa/ley-
organica-educacion-intercultural-ecuador_0.pdf

» MinEdu. Portal del Ministerio de educación, Desempeño Directos. Recuperado


de https://educacion.gob.ec/desempeno-directivo/

» MinEdu. Portal del Ministerio de educación, Desempeño Docentes. Recuperado


de https://educacion.gob.ec/desempeno-del-docente/

» MinEdu. (2017). Estándares de Gestión Escolar y Desempeño Profesional


Directivo y Docente. Recuperado de https://educacion.gob.ec/wp-
content/uploads/downloads/2017/12/2017-ESTANDARES-DE-GESTION-
ESCOLAR-Y-DESEMPENO-PROFESIONAL-DIRECTIVO-Y-DOCENTE.pdf

» MinEdu. (2017). Manual de Implementación de los estándares de Calidad en la


Educación. Recuperado de
http://www.forosecuador.ec/forum/ecuador/educación-y-ciencia/157721-
estándares-de-calidad-educativa-2019-ecuador-pdf-manual-de-
implementación
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