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A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NURSING INTERVENTION ON

WEIGHT, HIP WAIST RATIO AND SELF ESTEEM AMONG OBESE EMPLOYEES
IN SELECTED IT COMPANY

BACKROUND OF THE STUDY:

Recent data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reports that the
prevalence of obesity among adults is 37.7%, with more women than men having obesity
(35.0% men vs 40.4% women) among IT employers. Diet, lifestyle, and genetics all play a
role in the increase of obesity. However, with the conversion of the Indian workforce from
predominately manual labor to desk jobs, this has placed more focus on the workplace as a
contributor to the growth of the obesity problem. This decline in manual labor has resulted in
a decrease in more than 100 calories in both men and women in their daily occupation-related
energy expenditure. Sitting time at work is associated with higher BMI.

Losing weight is one of the most difficult tasks. Obesity or excess weight can lead to many
health problems like heart-related diseases, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure etc. People
take up different methods and ways to lose weight like exercising, intermittent fasting and
following a healthy diet. But sometimes, even after making these many efforts, you still fail
to lose weight. Thus, lemon tea is an ultimate solution to lose weight. It helps to lose extra
body fat and burn calories at a faster pace. It even helps to boost the metabolism of the body
and lets you stay healthy.

NEED FOR THE STUDY

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in some states, more
than 35 percent of sedentary employees are obese. The World Health Organization (WHO)
explain that globally, obesity prevalence has almost doubled since 1980.

Obesity also increases the risk of other issues, such as diabetes and other metabolic
conditions. As obesity increases, so too do these related problems; therefore, it is also
important to find ways of minimizing their impact.

Reducing obesity (along with tobacco use and inactivity) is a priority for IT employers
seeking to lower the incidence and severity of chronic illness and the associated demand for
health services. Obesity also generates indirect costs for employers by increasing workers'
compensation claims and related lost workdays, absenteeism. Most employers do not
routinely measure presenteeism (a self-reported measure of diminished on-the-job work
performance due to health or life problems), although acceptance of it as a concept is
growing.
Health education about diet for
sedentary employees
Introduction:
Long hours at the office, mainly in front of a computer, do not comprise a physically active

workday. According to a 2010 report of the National Health Interview Survey, 33 percent of

Americans consider themselves physically inactive both at work and at home. Sedentary

workers are prone to being overweight or obese, not just because of their inactivity, but also

due to the not-so-healthful fare offered at office parties and breakfast meetings. Therefore,

the sedentary worker must eat healthy foods throughout the day to avoid unwanted bulge

Modern advances have certainly made our lives easier, but they have also led many of us to

adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. Moving less and sitting more has been linked to a number of

health conditions, and is believed to be a major cause of the obesity epidemic.

Food to include
The diet of people who are sedentary should incorporate 45% to 65% carbohydrate, 15%
protein, and 30% to 35 % fat. Obese people have to adjust their fat intake to 20% of the daily
allotted calories.

 People with a sedentary lifestyle should consume more carbohydrates as the main base of
their diets. Instead of simple, refined carbs, healthy, complex carbs such as fruits,
vegetables, whole grain, whole wheat products, whole cereals, whole pulses, beans,
legumes, etc. are recommended.
 Ensure to include good sources of protein such as eggs, low fat dairy products, poultry
without skin, lean meat, and fish in the daily diet.
 Good fat forms do not make you gain weight. Eat low fat dairy products such as yogurt,
cheese, and skim milk. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat forms are high in omega 3
fatty acids and are good options. Seeds, olive oil, and nuts are good sources of healthy fat
forms.
 Ensure to include all food groups daily to gain all vitamins and minerals in the diet.
 It is necessary to drink plenty of water. As per the recommendation of the Institute of
Medicine, men require 13 cups of beverages and women needs 9 cups of beverages daily.
Ensure to drink calorie free water most of the time.
Foods to avoid
Apart from following the diet for a sedentary lifestyle, it is necessary to avoid certain food
forms that make you gain weight.

 Sedentary people should avoid unhealthy fat forms such as trans fats. These fat forms also
increase LDL cholesterol level.
 Limit the intake of saturated fats.
 A person leading a sedentary lifestyle should avoid high-cholesterol foods.
 Avoid processed foods and junk foods.
 Avoid sugary drinks such as fruit juices, soda, sweetened tea, etc.
Physical activity is essential to improve overall health; try to increase physical activity as
much as possible to avoid a sedentary lifestyle.

10 DIET SECRETS FOR IT EMPLOYEES


Gaining weight when you are at a desk for endless hours is easy, losing it is not. Sitting at your
desk, shifting a computer mouse around burns calories, however they won’t compensate for the number we
consume in a day.

Sad but true. Studies reveal that desk-bound jobs are amongst the worst when it comes to packing on the
pounds no matter how dedicated we may be to lowering the calorie content of our meals and snacks.

Also, if you have long working hours late into the evening, or if you are on business travel, and end up
eating late dinner; or if you go for beer drinking sessions with colleagues/friends, late night supper, and
much more not have sufficient time to exercise, you are definitely going to be packing on the pounds.

In the majority of women they will be putting on fats around the hip, butt and thighs (a.k.a. saddle bags,
thunder thighs or bubble butts), and the fat on men is at the lower abdomen (a.k.a. love handles).
If you’re not going to have enough time to exercise frequently, it is important to watch your diet if you
don’t want to be packing on weight towards obesity.

What is important is the nutritional content of the meals and snacks rather than just the number of calories.
To keep your metabolism firing while you are sedentary depends on a diet that keeps it nourished and that
means eating more fats than you are probably used to consuming and a whole lot less starchy
carbohydrates than you might imagine.We have put together a list of 10 DIET SECRETS for Office
Workers below on tips for losing the weight, and burning fat just by dieting, specially for desk-bound
white collar office workers.
#1 – Limit Starch
Carbohydrates should always feature in a healthy meal or snack but the starchy ones (bread, pasta, rice and
other grains) need to be carefully monitored as they can all too quickly upset blood glucose levels,
prompting weight gain when we are sedentary for many hours. Get the bulk of your carbohydrates from
vegetables and limit your starches to one or two meals or snacks per day.

E.g. Eat Chicken Rice, with less rice. Or your favorite char kway teow, simply eat only half that portion.

The idea is to cut down on carbohydrates. Don’t eat more carbs than you can burn.

#2 – Focus on Fats
Fat provides the largest energy reserve in the body and because it is slowly digested in the stomach,
extends the amount of time that energy can be utilised.

Foods rich in Omega 3 fatty acids (oily fish – Salmon/Tuna, seeds and a few nuts) have been repeatedly
shown, through extensive study to increase endurance and encourage stored fat to be burned for energy.

You may also wish to consider a supplement to meet daily requirements of these fabulous fats.

#3 – Avoid Sugar Cravings


It’s all too easy to reach for a sugary snack when you are at the desk and need a little something to keep
you focused and energised for a while but the resulting surge of sugar in the bloodstream merely
encourages a greater need for more all too soon.

#4 – Bin the Fizz


Treat colas and other fizzy fruity drinks as the enemy no matter how low or zero cal or energy-enhancing
the manufacturers tell you they are! They are sugar, plain and simple or some chemical variation of sugar
which the body treats in the same way and benefits little from. That includes ‘bubble tea’ too, which
actually packs a lot of calories from the milk and sugar.

Drinks rich in caffeine (e.g. Coke, Pepsi) may help to keep you focused during a shift but a natural fruit
and vegetable smoothie offers a great deal more nourishment without the sugar and the waistline-
expanding properties.
The caffeine from these drinks – Kopi-O kosong (Black coffee without sugar) and Teh-O kosong (Black
tea without sugar) make perfect drinks for weight loss. Caffeine increases metabolism, and promotes
weight loss.

#5 – Consider MORE meals


You’ve probably heard the advice that eating small meals throughout the day is how you win the battle of
the bulge. Frequent snacking, as long as it’s healthy, keeps your metabolism humming, staves off hunger,
and controls blood sugar.
If you’re going to go the mini-meals route, your biggest danger is eating too much. Focus on keeping them
small – Quality, calories, and portion sizes ultimately make the difference.

#6 – Consider LESS meals


Many females find the habit of having two really good meals a day and leaving around five hours between
each works well for waistline management.

A filling breakfast and proper lunch rich in protein and good fats provides plenty of energy to get you
through the day. Unless you have a physically-demanding evening ahead, a light meal or snack in the
evening won’t see you heading to bed feeling overly stuffed and uncomfortable.

#7 – Pack your own lunch


Sticking to your diet at work can be difficult, especially in Singapore. Convenient hawker centres, coffee
shops situated nearby your office, easy for you to just indulge in a plate of comfort food like laksa, hokkien
mee, roti prata, etc.

Unfortunately, hawker food can also be unhealthy food. High in calories and sodium, these 18 hawker
foods can be the hurdle between you and your weight-loss-get-fit plan.

On average, a woman should be consuming approximately 1,200 kcal of food, and a man, 1,800 kcal of
food to either maintain or lose weight. (This value is dependent on the body weight of the individual).

The solution will actually require some discipline. At the start of each week, bring in a five-day supply of
cottage cheese, milk, fresh fruit and vegetables, deli meats and any other healthy perishable goods you can
snack on, and leave them in the office fridge.

A proper healthy lunch will greatly reduces the chance of a mid-afternoon energy dip.

#8 – Say YES to Snacks!


Stock up your desk drawer with snacks! Make your snacks protein-rich (jerky, a couple of rye crackers
with nut butter, a handful of almonds or sunflower seeds) to keep the sugar monster at bay. Alternatively,
high-fibre snacks (a piece of fruit, celery, cherry tomatoes, raisins or berries) works well too.

#9 – Consider Supplements
Dietary supplements that helps to blunt cravings: Fish Oil, Chromium, Lipoic Acid

Metabolism boosting supplements: Caffeine, Acai Berries, Green Tea Extract, Vitamin B-12

#10 – Try Not to Eat Late


After a long day and particularly if you are travelling and don’t get to your night stop until late, it is mighty
tempting to order a burger and fries or a club sandwich from room service or opening the mini fridge
heaved with fizzy drinks, salty snacks and milk chocolate goodies, finish off a few emails or watch a bit of
TV and then head to bed. Or even MORE tempting, in Singapore it is all so easy to head down to a nearby
24-hours eatery to have late night supper (PS – there’s even a 24-hours prata buffet restaurant – Don’t do
it if you are dieting) and there are also those eateries that open till late 4am (e.g. Upper Thomson road
stretch of eateries – Bak chor mee, Soya bean curd, etc.).

If you are trying to lose weight, these kinds of meals won’t help in any way. Better to stop off en route and
have dinner earlier or if a late meal is your only option, lose the burger bun and the fries and ask for more
salad or coerce the kitchen into making you an omelette.

Fixing a sedentary lifestyle may take some conscious effort at first, but the value of being
more physically active is worth it for the myriad benefits it brings. Whether you're stuck at a
desk all day or just struggling to get motivated for exercise, here are 11 ideas to help you get
moving.

Go for a Walk
Plenty of research has borne out the health benefits of a daily 30-minute walk. During its 26-
year follow-up, the Nurses’ Health Study found people who walked briskly or otherwise
achieved moderate-intensity exercise for at least 30 minutes every day had a lower risk of
sudden cardiac death.

Yet another study found as little as three five-minute walks throughout the workday can
reverse the harm caused to peripheral arteries in the legs by prolonged sitting.

There are several easy ways to start walking more, even if you're at the office. Try suggesting
walking meetings instead of sitting around a conference table. You can also try adding in
activity before or after work, such as walking your dog for longer stretches.

Take the Stairs


Studies have found stair climbing, which is considered a vigorous-intensity physical activity,
burns more calories per minute than jogging. Taking the stairs whenever possible can help
you to maintain a healthy weight as well as build and maintain strong bones, joints, and
muscles.

Stand Up
If your job requires you to sit for long periods, make it a point to stand up at least every 20
minutes. You may need to set a reminder using your calendar or phone, especially if you're
used to getting involved with a project and losing track of time.

If you're worried about interrupting your workflow, you don't necessarily have to stop your
task to take a quick standing or stretching break. You can easily take calls or review printed
files standing up.
Try taking brief breaks away from your desk to get some water or confer with a colleague at
their desk rather than sending an email.

Change Your Workstation


You might also consider getting a standing desk, a treadmill desk, or a fitness ball seat (which
promotes "active sitting," in which you engage your core). If you have a workstation that can
be adjusted to various heights, you can even do some of your daily computer work standing
up.

Standing workstations may even improve your posture, reduce back pain, and when done
properly, can be a better ergonomic fit. Some companies employ specialists to
assess workspace ergonomics and may be able to provide someone to evaluate your
workstation and help you get set up.

Do Your Chores
Instead of moving from table to couch, clean your kitchen after dinner. It's easy to forget that
tasks, like doing the dishes and wiping down countertops, do count as standing activities in
your day. Other chores like taking out the garbage, sweeping the floors, and vacuuming are
even more physically active.

if you're tempted to crash after a long day of work, keep your motivation up when you get
home. Not only will it help you address more housekeeping tasks during the week, thus
freeing up your time off for other activities, but timing activity after dinner also serves
another purpose: engaging in physical activity after eating helps lower blood sugar levels as
well as the risk of developing insulin resistance.

Stretch During Commercial Breaks


Watching your favorite television show or having a movie night at home with your family
doesn't have to be a prolonged sedentary activity. You can use commercial breaks as a chance
to move around. Need to refill the popcorn bowl? Pause the movie and give everyone a
chance to stretch while you replenish snacks.

You can even make a game of it. See who can do the most pushups or situps during a
commercial break. Or, if you still have some chores to take care of, you can multitask.
Folding laundry is one physical activity you can easily do while watching a movie.

Intentionally breaking up any kind of screen time, whether it be television, computer, tablet,
or phone, will help reduce the amount of time you spend sedentary each day.
Go for a Run
If the thought of going for a run intimidates you, remember that you don’t have to run a
marathon to enjoy the benefits of running.

A 2014 study found even going for a slow (less than 6 miles per hour), 5-10 minute run each
day was associated with significantly reduced risk for death from all causes, but specifically
from cardiovascular disease.

There are several options for running as well. Experiment and find which you prefer. You
might find you like running outdoors on trails or through your neighborhood best, or maybe
you'll like running on an indoor track or treadmill better.

Running can also be a social event if you want it to be. While many people prefer to run solo,
you can also join a running group.

Plant a Garden
Any gardener will tell you just how much physical effort is involved in every kind
of gardening activity. Gardening is not only mentally and spiritually stimulating but many
people find it to be an enjoyable way to stay active.

you can get started with a garden in your own backyard if you have space, but if not, there are other
ways to get your hands dirty. If you don't have a yard of your own, volunteer to help out at a
local community garden. Many cities, school districts, and nature centers rely on green-thumbed
volunteers for planting and maintenance.

Walk the Parking Lot


As long as you can do so safely, parking your car at the far end of the parking lot or down the
street from your destination is an easy way to add extra steps to your day.

In the same vein as taking the stairs instead of the elevator if you're able, if you have the time
and are physically able to walk a little farther, you'll get the benefits of additional activity.

Plus, walking across the parking lot or around the block from your office also gives you a
moment outside to soak up the sun or enjoy the change of seasons, which can be great for
your mental health as well.

Swap Your Car for a Bike


How we travel in the modern age has been found to be associated with rates of overweight and
obesity. Compared to more passive ways of getting around, the active modes, such as walking
or cycling, have many health benefits and greater potential to prevent obesity.

Even public transit seems to be associated with lower body mass index (BMI)when compared
to driving your own car to work. Having to stand on a subway platform or walk to a bus stop
requires steps you might not have to take if you're just going from your front door to your
garage.

However, if you live in a city where you have to park in a city lot or several blocks away
from where you live, you may be able to get in those added steps even if you do take your
own car.

Try a Fitness Tracker


A pedometer is a great way to track your steps, which can help you gauge your activity
throughout the day. Knowing how active you really are can alert you to patterns or habits that
lean toward an overly sedentary lifestyle. You can take action to combat the effects of sitting
too much by finding opportunities to move more throughout the day.

Sophisticated fitness trackers do more than tell you how many steps you're taking—you can
use them to track calories in and calories out, your day-to-day activity level, and set goals.
Some even track your heart rate and sleep.

Even if a wearable fitness tracker isn't your preference or within your budget, many
smartphone apps provide similar functions. Many options are free and may track your activity
passively, so you won't have to remember to log your activity.

Lemon tea description:

Lemon tea for weight loss: Sipping lemon tea daily helps to lose weight.

Lemon tea for weight loss: Losing weight is one of the most difficult tasks. Obesity or excess
weight can lead to many health problems like heart-related diseases, obesity, diabetes, high
blood pressure etc. People take up different methods and ways to lose weight like exercising,
intermittent fasting and following a healthy diet. But sometimes, even after making these
many efforts, you still fail to lose weight. Thus, lemon tea is an ultimate solution to lose
weight. It helps to lose extra body fat and burn calories at a faster pace. It even helps to boost
the metabolism of the body and lets you stay healthy. ( Lemon tea: What are the health
benefits of lemon tea)

Lemon tea for weight loss: How does lemon tea help to lose weight at a faster pace?

 Low in calorie count


 Reduces sugar consumption
 Declines overeating
 Helps to detox the body
 Low in calorie count
 Lemon tea has fewer calories in them. 1 tsp. of lemon juice contains only 3 calories
and 1/3 fat. Thus, if you drink a cup of lemon tea, you don't consume many calories
and burn more fat.
 Reduces sugar consumption
 Lemon has natural tartness, thus you can add lemon juice instead of sugar in the tea.
This makes you consume fewer calories and helps regulates body weight. This way,
lemon helps to reduce sugar consumption.
 Declines overeating