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Histology

BLOOD

Sujit Kumar Mandal


NAIHS
Introduction
• Fluid connective
• Softest tissue
• Derived from mesoderm
• pH: 7.4, artery>verin
• Volume: M=5-6 litres, F= 4-5 litres
• CaHCO3 is the main buffer of blood
Blood constituents
• Plasma
- 55%
- Water(90%)
- Solutes(10%): Plasma proteins(8%), ions, salts
• Blood cells
- RBC, WBC, Platelets
Plasma proteins
• Albumin, globulin, immunoglobulins, prothrombin, fibrinogen
• Albumin
➢Most abundant
➢Synthesized by liver
➢Maintains oncotic pressure and helps in osmoregulation
• A:G is 3:1
Origin of blood cells
Hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis
• In embryonic life: Yolk Sac
• In fetal life: Liver, spleen, Thymus, Lymph nodes, bone marrow
• Hemocytoblast give rise to mature blood cells
• Reticulocyte are immature RBCs
RBC( erythrocytes)
• Round, biconcave( due to spectrin) and non-nucleated
• Life span is 120 days
• Formation: erythropoiesis
• Vitamin B12 and folic acid required for maturation
• Contains respiratory pigment called hemoglobin
• Spleen is graveyard of RBC
Composition of hemoglobin
Haeme+ globulin
• Hemoglobin has 2 alpha and 2 beta chains
• Alpha chain : 141 amino acid, Beta chain: 146 AA
Types of Hb as per affinity
• Hb with O2:Oxyhemoglobin
• Hb with ferric: Methhemoglobin
• Hb with CO: Carboxyhemoglobion
• Hb+ Co2: carbaminohemoglobin
Normal hemoglobin levels
• Newborn: 20-22 gm/dl
• Adult male: 14-18 gm/dl
• Adult female: 12-16 gm/dl
RBC breakdown Biliverdin Bilirubin
• Erythropoietin is produced by kidney that stimulate erythropoiesis
• RBC contains fastest enzyme that is Carbonic anhydrase
• Energy source: anaerobic glycolysis
Types of Anemia
Types of anemia
Microcytic anemia Iron deficiency
Megaloblastic anemia Deficiency of folic acid and vit B12
Pernicious anemia Deficiency of Vit B12
Hemorrhagic anemia Hemolysis
Aplastic anemia Destruction of bone marrow
Nutritional anemia Inadequate supply of iron
Sickle cell anemia Gene mutation
Thalassemia Gene mutation
Some interesting facts on RBC
• Musk deer has smallest RBC
• Amphibians and proteus have largest RBCs
• RBC of frog is oval, biconvex and nucleated
• Camel is the vertebrate having oval and nucleated RBCs
Leucocytes ( WBC)
• Decreased WBC is leucopenia
• Increased WBC is Leukocytosis; seen in infection
Neutrophil
➢Most abundant and phagocytic
➢Most active
➢3-5 lobes
➢Increase in acute bacterial infection
➢First line defence
Eosinophils
➢Phagocytic
➢Bilobed
➢Increase in allergic and parasitic infection
Basophils
➢Non phagocytic
➢2-3 lobes
➢Produce Mast cells which produce histamine
➢Increase in allergic reaction
Lymphocytes
➢Smallest in size
➢T lymphocyte and B lymphocytes
➢Produce antibodies
➢Memory cells
Monocytes
➢Largest corpuscles
➢Produce macrophages
➢phagocytic
Types of macrophage
• Brain: Microglia
• Liver: Kuffer cells
• Bone: Osteoclast
• Cartilage: Chondroclast
• Connective tissue: Histiocytes
• Kidney: mesangial cells’
• Lungs: dust cells
• Skin: Dendritic/ Langerhans cells
• Spleen: Sinusoidal cells
Thrombocytes
Life span: 7-12 days
Forms thromboplastin that helps on coagulation
Thrombocytosis
thrombocytopenia
Coagulation
• Requirements
➢Vit K (phylloquinine)
➢Calcium
➢Clot is called thrombus
Anticoagulation
• Anticoagulant: heparin
• Blood banks: CPD( Citrate phosphate dextrose), ACD( acid citrate
dextrose), EDTA( Ethylene diamine Tetra acid acid)
• Blood storage is at 40 c
Blood clotting
• ABO and Rh grouping
ABO system
Based on glycoprotein antigens on RBC membrane
Discovered by Karl Landsteiner
• Universal donor: O –ve
• Universal recipient: AB +ve
• Peptic ulcer more common in O
• Ca stomach in A (POCA)
RH grouping
➢Based on Rh or D antigen
➢Only present in RBC
➢Erythroblastosis fetalis: Hemolysis in Rh +ve second child of Rh –ve
mother
Few terminologies
• Hematocrit
• Anemia
• Polycythemia
• Blast cells
1. Oxygen is transported by
a. Blood plasma b. RBCs
c. Leucocytes d. Thrombocytes
2. Rh factor is named after
a. Monkey b. Drosophila c. Rat d. Man
3. Antiserum contains
a. Antigens b. Leucocytes c. Antibodies d. None
4. Extracellular fluid is rich in the following except
a. Na+ b. HCO3- c. Ca++ d. K+
5. Which organ is called blood bank of the body
a. Liver b. Spleen c. Kidney d. Heart
6. Total number of oxygen molecules that can bind to a single
hemoglobin molecule under partial pressure
a. 8 b. 2 c. 6 d. 4
7. What is the function of platelets?
a. Carry hemoglobin b. Aid in coagulation
c. Ingest bacteria d. Transport CO2
8. Blood is red in color due to
a. Erythrocytes b. Thrombocytes
c. Hb d. Leucocytes